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1 Ten Chapter Principles of Economics TRUE/FALSE 1. Scarcity means that there is less of a good or resource available than people wish to have. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-0 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Scarcity MSC: Definitional 2. Economics is the study of how evenly goods and services are distributed within society. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-0 NAT: Analytic LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics TOP: Economics MSC: Definitional 3. Economics is the study of how society allocates its unlimited resources. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-0 NAT: Analytic LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics TOP: Economics MSC: Definitional 4. With careful planning, we can usually get something that we like without having to give up something else that we like. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Tradeoffs MSC: Interpretive 5. Choosing not to attend a concert so that you can study for your exam is an example of a tradeoff. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Tradeoffs MSC: Applicative 6. Efficiency means everyone in the economy should receive an equal share of the goods and services produced. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Efficiency and Equity TOP: Equality MSC: Definitional 7. Equality refers to how the pie is divided, and efficiency refers to the size of the economic pie. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Efficiency and Equity TOP: Equality | Efficiency MSC: Definitional 8. Government policies that improve equality usually increase efficiency at the same time. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Efficiency and Equity TOP: Efficiency | Equality MSC: Interpretive 9. An individual deciding how to allocate her limited time is dealing with both scarcity and trade-offs. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretative 10. The cost of an action is measured in terms of foregone opportunities. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 11. Tuition is the single-largest cost of attending college for most students. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 1 2 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 12. If wages for accountants rose, then accountants leisure time would have a lower opportunity cost. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 13. A marginal change is a small incremental adjustment to an existing plan of action. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes MSC: Definitional 14. An increase in the marginal cost of an activity necessarily means that people will no longer engage in any of that activity. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes MSC: Applicative 15. If the average cost of transporting a passenger on the train from Chicago to St. Louis is $75, it would be irrational for the railroad to allow any passenger to ride for less than $75. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes MSC: Applicative 16. The fact that people are willing to pay much more for a diamond, which is not needed for survival, than they are willing to pay for a cup of water, which is needed for survival, is an example of irrational behavior. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes MSC: Interpretive 17. A rational decisionmaker takes an action if and only if the marginal cost exceeds the marginal benefit. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes MSC: Interpretive 18. Suppose one county in Missouri decides it wants to reduce alcohol consumption, so the county passes a law that raises the price of a bottle of beer by $1. As a result, people drive to other counties to drink alcohol, which results in an increase in drunk driving. This illustrates the principle that people respond to incentives. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: The role of incentives TOP: Incentives MSC: Applicative 19. A tax on gasoline is an incentive that encourages people to drive smaller more fuel-efficient cars. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: The role of incentives TOP: Incentives MSC: Applicative 20. Trade allows each person to specialize in the activities he or she does best, thus increasing each individual's productivity. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade TOP: Trade | Productivity MSC: Interpretive 21. Trade with any nation can be mutually beneficial. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade TOP: Trade MSC: Interpretive 22. Trade can make everyone better off except in the case where one person is better at doing everything. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade TOP: Trade MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 3 23. The invisible hand ensures that economic prosperity is distributed equally. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: The invisible hand MSC: Definitional 24. A market economy cannot produce a socially desirable outcome because individuals are motivated by their own selfish interests. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 25. The government can potentially improve market outcomes if market inequalities or market failure exists. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities | The role of government TOP: Government | Market economy MSC: Interpretive 26. One way that governments can improve market outcomes is to ensure that individuals are able to own and exercise control over their scarce resources. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities | The role of government TOP: Property rights MSC: Interpretive 27. Market failure refers to a situation in which the market does not allocate resources efficiently. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Definitional 28. Market power and externalities are two possible causes of market failure. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Definitional 29. Productivity is defined as the quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity MSC: Definitional 30. Inflation is the primary determinant of a country's living standards. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Interpretive 31. Inflation increases the value of money. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and Inflation MSC: Interpretive TOP: Inflation 32. Inflation measures the increase in the quantity of goods and services produced from each hour of a workers time. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and Inflation TOP: Inflation | Productivity MSC: Definitional 33. In the long run the primary effect of increasing the quantity of money is higher prices. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and Inflation TOP: Inflation MSC: Interpretative 4 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 34. The business cycle refers to fluctuations in economic activity such as employment and production. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and Inflation TOP: The business cycle MSC: Definitional SHORT ANSWER 1. How does the study of economics depend upon the phenomenon of scarcity? ANS: Because economics is the study of how society allocates its scarce resources, if there were no scarcity, there would be no need for economics. Everyone could have all the goods and services they wanted. No one would have to make decisions based on tradeoffs, because there would be no opportunity cost associated with the decision. (It is difficult to conceive of a situation where time is not scarce, however). DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: MSC: Applicative 2. Economics | Scarcity One tradeoff society faces is between efficiency and equality. Define each term. If the U.S. government redistributes income from the rich to the poor, explain how this action affects equality as well as efficiency in the economy. ANS: Efficiency is the property of society getting the most it can from its scarce resources. Equality is defined as the property of distributing economic prosperity fairly among the members of society. Often, these two goals conflict. When the government redistributes income from the rich to the poor, it reduces the reward for working hard. Fewer goods and services are produced and the economic pie gets smaller. When the government tries to cut the economic pie into more equal slices, the pie gets smaller. Policies aimed at achieving a more equal distribution of economic well-being, such as the welfare system, try to help those members of society who are most in need. The individual income tax asks the financially successful to contribute more than others to support the government. DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost | Efficiency and Equity TOP: Tradeoffs | Efficiency | Equality MSC: Interpretive 3. Define opportunity cost. What is the opportunity cost to you of attending college? What was your opportunity cost of coming to class today? ANS: Whatever must be given up to obtain some item it its opportunity cost. Basically, this would be a person's second choice. The opportunity cost of a person attending college is the value of the best alternative use of that person's time, as well as the additional costs the person incurs by making the choice to attend college. For most students this would be the income the student gives up by not working plus the cost of tuition and books, and any other costs they incur by attending college that they would not incur if they chose not to attend college. A student's opportunity cost of coming to class was the value of the best opportunity the student gave up. (For most students, that seems to be sleep.) DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: MSC: Interpretive 4. Opportunity cost With the understanding that people respond to incentives, outline the possible outcome for teachers if the K-12 school year is extended to 11 months per year instead of the existing 9 months per year. ANS: The concept of working longer per year would be perceived by many teachers as a definite increase in the cost of teaching. Even with additional compensation, many teachers look at summers off as a major benefit of the education profession. If this benefit were eliminated or diminished, some teachers may perceive that the marginal cost of teaching would now be greater than the marginal benefit and would choose to leave teaching. DIF: 3 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 NAT: Analytic TOP: Incentives MSC: Analytical Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 5 5. Under what conditions might government intervention in a market economy improve the economys performance? ANS: If there is a market failure, such as an externality or monopoly, government regulation might improve the well-being of society by promoting efficiency. If the distribution of income or wealth is considered to be unfair by society, government intervention might achieve a more equal distribution of economic well-being. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities | The role of government TOP: Market economy | Government MSC: Applicative 6. Explain how an attempt by the government to lower inflation could cause unemployment to increase in the short-run. ANS: To lower inflation, the government may choose to reduce the money supply in the economy. When the money supply is reduced, prices don't adjust immediately. Lower spending, combined with prices that are too high, reduces sales and causes workers to be laid off. Hence, the lower price level is associated with higher unemployment. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and Inflation | Efficiency and Equity TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: Applicative Multiple Choice-Sec00 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The word that comes from the Greek word for "one who manages a household" is a. market. b. consumer. c. producer. d. economy. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Economy 2. The word economy comes from the Greek word oikonomos, which means a. environment. b. production. c. one who manages a household. d. one who makes decisions. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Economy 3. DIF: 1 REF: 1-0 LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics MSC: Definitional DIF: 1 REF: 1-0 LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics MSC: Definitional Resources are a. scarce for households but plentiful for economies. b. plentiful for households but scarce for economies. c. scarce for households and scarce for economies. d. plentiful for households and plentiful for economies. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-0 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Resources | Scarcity MSC: Interpretive 6 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 4. In considering how to allocate its scarce resources among its various members, a household considers a. each members abilities. b. each members efforts. c. each members desires. d. all of the above Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity 5. Economics deals primarily with the concept of a. scarcity. b. money. c. poverty. d. banking. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity 6. DIF: 2 REF: 1-0 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive The phenomenon of scarcity stems from the fact that a. most economies production methods are not very good. b. in most economies, wealthy people consume disproportionate quantities of goods and services. c. governments restrict production of too many goods and services. d. resources are limited. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity 9. DIF: 1 REF: 1-0 LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics MSC: Definitional The overriding reason as to why households and societies face many decisions is that a. resources are scarce. b. goods and services are not scarce. c. incomes fluctuate with business cycles. d. people, by nature, tend to disagree. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity 8. DIF: 1 REF: 1-0 LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics MSC: Definitional Which of the following is correct? a. The word economy comes from the Greek word for rational thinker. b. Economists study the management of scarce resources. c. Because economists believe that people pursue their best interests, they are not interested in how people interact. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Economics 7. DIF: 1 REF: 1-0 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-0 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Approximately what percentage of the world's economies experience scarcity? a. 25% b. 50% c. 75% d. 100% Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity DIF: 1 REF: 1-0 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 7 10. When a society cannot produce all the goods and services people wish to have, it is said that the economy is experiencing a. scarcity. b. surpluses. c. inefficiencies. d. inequalities. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity 11. Which of the following products would be considered scarce? a. golf clubs b. Picasso paintings c. apples d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Scarcity 12. DIF: 2 REF: 1-0 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-0 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Economics is the study of a. production methods. b. how society manages its scarce resources. c. how households decide who performs which tasks. d. the interaction of business and government. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-0 NAT: Analytic LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics TOP: Economies | Scarcity MSC: Definitional 13. In most societies, resources are allocated by a. a single central planner. b. a small number of central planners. c. those firms that use resources to provide goods and services. d. the combined actions of millions of households and firms. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-0 NAT: Analytic LOC: The Study of economics, and definitions in economics TOP: Resource allocation MSC: Interpretive Multiple Choice-Sec01-How People Make Decisions MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The adage, "There is no such thing as a free lunch," means a. even people on welfare have to pay for food. b. the cost of living is always increasing. c. people face tradeoffs. d. all costs are included in the price of a product. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 2. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Definitional The adage, "There is no such thing as a free lunch," is used to illustrate the principle that a. goods are scarce. b. people face tradeoffs. c. income must be earned. d. households face many decisions. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 8 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3. Which of the following statements best represents the principle represented by the adage, "There is no such thing as a free lunch"? a. Melissa can attend the concert only if she takes her sister with her. b. Greg is hungry and homeless. c. Brian must repair the tire on his bike before he can ride it to class. d. Kendra must decide between going to Colorado or Cancun for spring break. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 4. The principle that "people face tradeoffs" applies to a. individuals. b. families. c. societies. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 5. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Guns and butter are used to represent the classic societal tradeoff between spending on a. durable and nondurable goods. b. imports and exports. c. national defense and consumer goods. d. law enforcement and agriculture. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 8. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Mitch has $100 to spend and wants to buy either a new amplifier for his guitar or a new mp3 player to listen to music while working out. Both the amplifier and the mp3 player cost $100, so he can only buy one. This illustrates the basic concept that a. trade can make everyone better off. b. people face trade-offs c. rational people think at the margin. d. people respond to incentives. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 7. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Applicative Sophia is planning her activities for a hot summer day. She would like to go to the local swimming pool and see the latest blockbuster movie, but because she can only get tickets to the movie for the same time that the pool is open she can only choose one activity. This illustrates the basic principle that a. people respond to incentives. b. rational people think at the margin. c. people face tradeoffs. d. improvements in efficiency sometimes come at the expense of equality. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 6. DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Applicative DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive A tradeoff exists between a clean environment and a higher level of income in that a. studies show that individuals with higher levels of income pollute less than low-income individuals. b. efforts to reduce pollution typically are not completely successful. c. laws that reduce pollution raise costs of production and reduce incomes. d. employing individuals to clean up pollution causes increases in employment and income. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Applicative Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 9 9. When society requires that firms reduce pollution, there is a. a tradeoff because of reduced incomes to the firms' owners and workers. b. a tradeoff only if some firms are forced to close. c. no tradeoff, since the cost of reducing pollution falls only on the firms affected by the requirements. d. no tradeoff, since everyone benefits from reduced pollution. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Tradeoffs 10. Economists use the word equality to describe a situation in which a. each member of society has the same income. b. each member of society has access to abundant quantities of goods and services, regardless of his or her income. c. society is getting the maximum benefits from its scarce resources. d. society's resources are used efficiently. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 11. 1-1 TOP: Equality DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency The terms equality and efficiency are similar in that they both refer to benefits to society. However they are different in that a. equality refers to uniform distribution of those benefits and efficiency refers to maximizing benefits from scarce resources. b. equality refers to maximizing benefits from scarce resources and efficiency refers to uniform distribution of those benefits. c. equality refers to everyone facing identical tradeoffs and efficiency refers to the opportunity cost of the benefits. d. equality refers to the opportunity cost of the benefits and efficiency refers to everyone facing identical tradeoffs. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 13. DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity Efficiency means that a. society is conserving resources in order to save them for the future. b. society's goods and services are distributed equally among society's members. c. society's goods and services are distributed fairly, though not necessarily equally, among society's members. d. society is getting the maximum benefits from its scarce resources. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 12. DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost MSC: Applicative DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality Which of the following phrases best captures the notion of efficiency? a. absolute fairness b. equal distribution c. minimum waste d. equitable outcome Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency 10 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 14. Which of the following words and phrases best captures the notion of equality? a. minimum waste b. maximum benefit c. sameness d. efficiency Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 15. DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality DIF: 3 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality When the government redistributes income from the wealthy to the poor, a. efficiency is improved, but equality is not. b. both wealthy people and poor people benefit directly. c. people work less and produce fewer goods and services. d. the government collects less revenue in total. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 19. Equality As a result of a successful attempt by government to cut the economic pie into more equal slices, a. it is easier to cut the pie, and therefore the economy can produce a larger pie. b. those who earn more income pay less in taxes. c. the pie gets smaller, and there will be less pie overall. d. government will spend too much time cutting and it causes the economy to lose the ability to produce enough pie for everyone. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 18. TOP: Which of the following is true? a. Efficiency refers to the size of the economic pie; equality refers to how the pie is divided. b. Government policies usually improve upon both equality and efficiency. c. As long as the economic pie continually gets larger, no one will have to go hungry. d. Efficiency and equality can both be achieved if the economic pie is cut into equal pieces. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 17. 1-1 A typical society strives to get the most it can from its scarce resources. At the same time, the society attempts to distribute the benefits of those resources to the members of the society in a fair manner. In other words, the society faces a tradeoff between a. guns and butter. b. efficiency and equality. c. inflation and unemployment. d. work and leisure. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 16. DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality When the government attempts to improve equality in an economy the result is often a. an increase in overall output in the economy. b. additional government revenue since overall income will increase. c. a reduction in equality. d. a reduction in efficiency. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 11 20. When the government implements programs such as progressive income tax rates, which of the following is likely to occur? a. equality is increased and efficiency is increased. b. equality is increased and efficiency is decreased. c. equality is decreased and efficiency is increased. d. equality is decreased and efficiency is decreased. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 21. Efficiency | Equality DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality Senator Smith wants to increase taxes on people with high incomes and use the money to help the poor. Senator Jones argues that such a tax will discourage successful people from working and will therefore make society worse off. An economist would say that a. we should agree with Senator Smith. b. we should agree with Senator Jones. c. a good decision requires that we recognize both viewpoints. d. there are no tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 24. TOP: When government policies are enacted, a. equality can usually be enhanced without an efficiency loss, but efficiency can never be enhanced without a reduction in equality. b. efficiency can usually be enhanced without a reduction in equality, but equality can never be enhanced without an efficiency loss. c. it is always the case that either efficiency and equality are both enhanced, or efficiency and equality are both diminished. d. None of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 23. 1-1 A likely effect of government policies that redistribute income and wealth from the wealthy to the poor is that those policies a. enhance equality. b. reduce efficiency. c. reduce the reward for working hard. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 22. DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality Senator Smith argues that replacing the income tax with a national sales tax would increase the level of output. Senator Wells objects that this policy would benefit the rich at the expense of the poor. a. Both Senators arguments are primarily about equality. b. Both Senators arguments are primarily about efficiency. c. Senator Smiths argument is primarily about equality, while Senator Wells argument is primarily about efficiency. d. Senator Smiths argument is primarily about efficiency, while Senator Wells argument is primarily about equality. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretative DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Equality | Efficiency 12 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 25. Suppose the government taxes the wealthy at a higher rate than it taxes the poor and then develops programs to redistribute the tax revenue from the wealthy to the poor. This redistribution of wealth a. is more efficient and more equal for society. b. is more efficient but less equal for society. c. is more equal but less efficient for society. d. is less equal and less efficient for society. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 26. 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality The government has just passed a law requiring that all residents earn the same annual income regardless of work effort. This law is likely to a. increase efficiency and increase equality. b. increase efficiency but decrease equality. c. decrease efficiency but increase equality. d. decrease efficiency and decrease equality. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 27. DIF: 2 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-1 TOP: Efficiency | Equality The opportunity cost of an item is a. the number of hours needed to earn money to buy the item. b. what you give up to get that item. c. usually less than the dollar value of the item. d. the dollar value of the item. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Definitional 28. In economics, the cost of something is a. the dollar amount of obtaining it. b. always measured in units of time given up to get it. c. what you give up to get it. d. often impossible to quantify, even in principle. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Definitional 29. What you give up to obtain an item is called your a. opportunity cost. b. explicit cost. c. true cost. d. direct cost. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Definitional 30. Which of the following is correct concerning opportunity cost? a. Except to the extent that you pay more for them, opportunity costs should not include the cost of things you would have purchased anyway. b. To compute opportunity costs, you should subtract benefits from costs. c. Opportunity costs and the idea of trade-offs are not closely related. d. Rational people should compare various options without considering opportunity costs. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 13 31. High-school athletes who skip college to become professional athletes a. obviously do not understand the value of a college education. b. usually do so because they cannot get into college. c. understand that the opportunity cost of attending college is very high. d. are not making a rational decision since the marginal benefits of college outweigh the marginal costs of college for high-school athletes. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 32. When computing the opportunity cost of attending a concert you should include a. the price you pay for the ticket and the value of your time. b. the price you pay for the ticket, but not the value of your time. c. the value of your time, but not the price you pay for the ticket. d. neither the price of the ticket nor the value of your time. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 33. Mallory decides to spend three hours working overtime rather than watching a video with her friends. She earns $8 an hour. Her opportunity cost of working is a. the $24 she earns working. b. the $24 minus the enjoyment she would have received from watching the video. c. the enjoyment she would have received had she watched the video. d. nothing, since she would have received less than $24 of enjoyment from the video. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 34. Moira decides to spend two hours taking a nap rather than attending her classes. Her opportunity cost of napping is a. the value of the knowledge she would have received had she attended class. b. the $30 she could have earned if she had worked at her job for those two hours. c. the value of her nap less the value of attending class. d. nothing, since she would valued sleep more than attendance at class. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 35. Russell spends an hour studying instead of playing tennis. The opportunity cost to him of studying is a. the improvement in his grades from studying for the hour. b. the improvement in his grades from studying minus the enjoyment of playing tennis. c. the enjoyment and exercise he would have received had he played tennis. d. zero. Since Russell chose to study rather than to play tennis, the value of studying must have been greater than the value of playing tennis. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 36. For most students, the largest single cost of a college education is a. the wages given up to attend school. b. tuition, fees, and books. c. room and board. d. transportation, parking, and entertainment. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 14 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 37. The opportunity cost of going to college is a. the total spent on food, clothing, books, transportation, tuition, lodging, and other expenses. b. the value of the best opportunity a student gives up to attend college. c. zero for students who are fortunate enough to have all of their college expenses paid by someone else. d. zero, since a college education will allow a student to earn a larger income after graduation. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 38. For a college student who wishes to calculate the true costs of going to college, the costs of room and board a. should be counted in full, regardless of the costs of eating and sleeping elsewhere. b. should be counted only to the extent that they are more expensive at college than elsewhere. c. usually exceed the opportunity cost of going to college. d. plus the cost of tuition, equals the opportunity cost of going to college. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 39. Suppose after graduating from college you get a job working at a bank earning $30,000 per year. After two years of working at the bank earning the same salary, you have an opportunity to enroll in a one-year graduate program that would require you to quit your job at the bank. Which of the following should not be included in a calculation of your opportunity cost? a. the cost of tuition and books to attend the graduate program b. the $30,000 salary that you could have earned if you retained your job at the bank c. the $45,000 salary that you will be able to earn after having completed your graduate program d. the value of insurance coverage and other employee benefits you would have received if you retained your job at the bank. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 40. For which of the following individuals would the opportunity cost of going to college be highest? a. a promising young mathematician who will command a high salary once she earns her college degree b. a student with average grades who has never held a job c. a famous, highly-paid actor who wants to take time away from show business to finish college and earn a degree d. a student who is the best player on his college basketball team, but who lacks the skills necessary to play professional basketball Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 41. When you calculate your true costs of going to college, what portion of your room-and-board expenses should be included? a. Your full room-and-board expenses should always be included. b. None of your room-and-board expenses should ever be included. c. You should include only the amount by which your room-and-board expenses exceed the income you earn while attending college. d. You should include only the amount by which your room-and-board expenses exceed the expenses for rent and food if you were not in college. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 15 42. Samanthas college raises the cost of room and board per semester. This increase raises Samanthas opportunity cost of attending college a. even if the amount she would have to pay for room and board if she didnt attend college rose by the same amount. An increase in opportunity cost reduces Samanthas incentive to attend college. b. even if the amount she would have to pay for room and board if she didnt attend college rose by the same amount. An increase in opportunity cost increases Samanthas incentive to attend college. c. only if the amount she would have to pay for room and board if she didnt attend college rose by less than the increase in the amount her college charges. An increase in opportunity cost reduces Samanthas incentive to attend college. d. only if the amount she would have to pay for room and board if she didnt attend college rose by less than the increase in the amount her college charges. An increase in opportunity cost increases Samanthas incentive to attend college. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 43. When calculating the cost of college, which of the following should you probably not include? a. The cost of tuition b. The cost of books required for college classes c. The income you would have earned had you not gone to college d. The cost of rent for your off-campus apartment. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 44. When calculating the cost of college, which of the following should you probably include? a. The cost of your meal plan for the cafeteria. b. The cost of books required for college classes c. The income you earn at your part-time job. d. The cost of living in the dormitory. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 45. Suppose your college institutes a new policy requiring you to pay for a permit to park your car in a campus parking lot. a. The cost of the parking permit is not part of the opportunity cost of attending college if you would not have to pay for parking otherwise. b. The cost of the parking permit is part of the opportunity cost of attending college if you would not have to pay for parking otherwise. c. Only half of the cost of the parking permit is part of the opportunity cost of attending college. d. The cost of the parking permit is not part of the opportunity cost of attending college under any circumstances. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 46. You have driven 1,000 miles on a vacation and then you notice that you are only 50 miles from an attraction you hadnt known about, but would really like to see. In computing the opportunity cost of visiting this attraction you had not planned to visit, you should include a. both the cost of driving the first 1,000 and the next 50 miles. b. the cost of driving the first 1,000 miles, but not the cost of driving the next 50. c. the cost of driving the next 50 miles, but not the cost of driving the first 1,000. d. neither the cost of driving the first 1,000 miles nor the cost of driving the next 50 miles. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Analytical 16 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 47. Pete receives $50 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $50. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is a. the value to Pete of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available. b. the value to Pete of Options A, C and D combined. c. $50. d. $100. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Applicative 48. College-age athletes who drop out of college to play professional sports a. are not rational decision makers. b. are well aware that their opportunity cost of attending college is very high. c. are concerned more about present circumstances than their future. d. underestimate the value of a college education. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive 49. A rational decisionmaker a. ignores marginal changes and focuses instead on the big picture. b. ignores the likely effects of government policies when he or she makes choices. c. takes an action only if the marginal benefit of that action exceeds the marginal cost of that action. d. takes an action only if the combined benefits of that action and previous actions exceed the combined costs of that action and previous actions. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 50. Marginal changes DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes A rational decisionmaker takes an action if and only if a. the marginal benefit of the action exceeds the marginal cost of the action. b. the marginal cost of the action exceeds the marginal benefit of the action. c. the marginal cost of the action is zero. d. the opportunity cost of the action is zero. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 52. TOP: A rational decision maker takes an action only if the a. marginal benefit is less than the marginal cost. b. marginal benefit is greater than the marginal cost. c. average benefit is greater than the average cost. d. marginal benefit is greater than both the average cost and the marginal cost. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 51. DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes TOP: Marginal changes Rational people make decisions at the margin by a. following marginal traditions. b. behaving in a random fashion. c. thinking in black-and-white terms. d. comparing marginal costs and marginal benefits. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 17 53. Making rational decisions "at the margin" means that people a. make those decisions that do not impose a marginal cost. b. evaluate how easily a decision can be reversed if problems arise. c. compare the marginal costs and marginal benefits of each decision. d. always calculate the marginal dollar costs for each decision. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 54. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes It costs a company $40,000 to produce 4000 basketballs. The companys cost will be $40,009 if it produces an additional basketball. If the company produces 4,000 basketballs then a. its average cost is greater than its marginal cost. b. its average cost and its marginal cost are equal. c. its average cost is less than its marginal cost. d. there is insufficient information to compute average and marginal costs.. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 57. Marginal changes People are willing to pay more for a diamond than for a bottle of water because a. the marginal cost of producing an extra diamond far exceeds the marginal cost of producing an extra bottle of water. b. the marginal benefit of an extra diamond far exceeds the marginal benefit of an extra bottle of water. c. producers of diamonds have a much greater ability to manipulate diamond prices than producers of water have to manipulate water prices. d. water prices are held artificially low by governments, since water is necessary for life. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 56. TOP: A marginal change is a a. change that involves little, if anything, that is important. b. large, significant adjustment. c. change for the worse, and so it is usually a short-term change. d. small, incremental adjustment. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 55. DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal cost The marginal benefit John gets from eating a fourth cheeseburger at a picnic is a. the total benefit John gets from eating four cheeseburgers minus the total benefit John gets from eating three cheeseburgers. b. the same as the total benefit of eating four cheeseburgers. c. less than the marginal cost of eating the fourth cheeseburger since he chose to eat the fourth cheeseburger. d. the total benefit John gets from eating five cheeseburgers minus the total benefit John gets from eating four cheeseburgers. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes 18 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 58. Teresa eats three oranges during a particular day. The marginal benefit she enjoys from eating the third orange a. can be thought of as the total benefit Teresa enjoys by eating three oranges minus the total benefit she would have enjoyed by eating just the first two oranges. b. determines Teresas willingness to pay for the first, second, and third oranges. c. does not depend on how many oranges Teresa has already eaten. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 59. DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes The average cost per seat on the 50-passenger Floating-On-Air Bus company's trip from Kansas City to St. Louis, on which no refreshments are served, is $45. In advance of a particular trip, three seats remain unsold. The bus company could increase its profit only if it a. charged any ticket price above $0 for the three remaining seats. b. charged at least $15 for each of the three remaining seats. c. charged at least $45 for each of the three remaining seats. d. paid three people to occupy the three remaining seats. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 62. Marginal changes A furniture maker currently produces 100 tables per week and sells them for a profit. She is considering expanding her operation in order to make more tables. Should she expand? a. Yes, because making tables is profitable. b. No, because she may not be able to sell the additional tables. c. It depends on the marginal cost of producing more tables and the marginal revenue she will earn from selling more tables. d. It depends on the average cost of producing more tables and the average revenue she will earn from selling more tables. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 61. TOP: After much consideration, you have chosen Cancun over Ft. Lauderdale as your Spring Break destination this year. However, Spring Break is still months away, and you may reverse this decision. Which of the following events would prompt you to reverse this decision? a. The marginal benefit of going to Cancun increases. b. The marginal cost of going to Cancun decreases. c. The marginal benefit of going to Ft. Lauderdale decreases. d. The marginal cost of going to Ft. Lauderdale decreases. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 60. DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal cost Tom is restoring a car and has already spent $3500 on the restoration. He expects to be able to sell the car for $5000. Tom discovers that he needs to do an additional $2000 of work to make the table worth $5000 to potential buyers. He could also sell the car now, without completing the additional work, for $2800. What should he do? a. He should sell the car now for $2800. b. He should keep the car since it wouldnt be rational to spend $5500 restoring a car and then sell it for only $5000. c. He should complete the additional work and sell the car for $5000. d. It does not matter which action he takes since the outcome will be the same either way. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 19 63. Traci is planning to sell her house, and she is considering making two upgrades to the house before listing it for sale. Replacing the carpeting will cost her $3,000 and replacing the roof will cost her $6,000. Traci expects the new carpeting to increase the value of her house by $2,500 and the new roof to increase the value of her house by $7,500. a. Traci should make both improvements to her house. b. Traci should replace the carpeting but not replace the roof. c. Traci should replace the roof but not replace the carpeting. d. Traci should not make either improvement to her house. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 64. TOP: Marginal changes Sue drinks three sodas during a particular day. The marginal benefit she enjoys from drinking the third soda a. can be thought of as the total benefit Sue enjoys by drinking three sodas minus the total benefit she would have enjoyed by drinking just two sodas. b. determines Sues willingness to pay for the third soda. c. is likely different from the marginal benefit provided to Sue by the second soda. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 65. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes A construction company has built 50 houses so far this year at a total cost to the company of $8 million. If the company builds a 51st house, its total cost will increase to $8.18 million. Which of the following statements is correct? a. For the first 50 houses, the average cost per house was $160,000. b. The marginal cost of the 51st house, if it is built, will be $180,000. c. If the company can experience a marginal benefit of $190,000 by building the 51st house, then the company should build it. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal cost | Marginal benefit MSC: Applicative 66. Mike has spent $500 purchasing and repairing an old fishing boat, which he expects to sell for $800 once the repairs are complete. Mike discovers that, in addition to the $500 he has already spent, he needs to make an additional repair, which will cost another $400, in order to make the boat worth $800 to potential buyers. He can sell the boat as it is now for $300. What should he do? a. He should sell the boat as it is now for $300. b. He should keep the boat since it would not be rational to spend $900 on repairs and then sell the boat for $800. c. He should complete the repairs and sell the boat for $800. d. It does not matter which action he takes; the outcome is the same either way. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal cost 20 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 67. Bills Bakery bakes fresh bread every morning. Any bread not sold by the end of the day is thrown away. A loaf of bread costs Bill $1.50 to produce, and he prices loaves of bread at $4 per loaf. Suppose near the end of one day Bill still has 12 loaves of bread on hand. Which of the following is correct? a. Bill should only sell the remaining bread for $4 per loaf since that is the regular price. b. Bill should only sell the remaining bread for $1.50 per loaf or more since that is what the bread costs to make. c. Bill should be willing to sell the remaining bread for any price above $0 per loaf since he will have to throw it away if he does not sell it for something. d. Bill should just throw the bread away and change the price of his bread starting tomorrow to make sure he sells all of his bread each day. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 68. Marginal changes DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes Stan buys a 1966 Mustang for $2,000, planning to restore and sell the car. He goes on to spend $8,000 restoring the car. At this point he can sell the car for $9,000. As an alternative, he can spend an additional $3,000 replacing the engine. With a new engine the car would sell for $12,000. Stan should a. complete the repairs and sell the car for $12,000. b. sell the car now for $9, 000. c. never try such an expensive project again. d. be indifferent between (i) selling the car now and (ii) replacing the engine and then selling it. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 70. TOP: A bagel shop sells fresh baked bagels from 5 a.m. until 7 p.m. every day. The shop does not sell day-old bagels, so all unsold bagels are thrown away at 7 p.m. each day. The cost of making and selling a dozen bagels is $1.00; there are no costs associated with throwing bagels away. If the manager has 8 dozen bagels left at 6:30 p.m. on a particular day, which of the following alternatives is most attractive? a. Lower the price of the remaining bagels, even if the price falls below $1.00 per dozen. b. Lower the price of the remaining bagels, but under no circumstances should the price fall below $1.00 per dozen. c. Throw the bagels away and produce 8 fewer dozen bagels tomorrow. d. Starting tomorrow, lower the price on all bagels so they will all be sold earlier in the day. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 69. DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal cost Sarah buys and sells real estate. Two weeks ago, she paid $280,000 for a house on Pine Street, intending to spend $40,000 on repairs sell the house for $350,000. Last week, the city government announced a plan to build a new landfill on Pine Street just down the street from the house Sarah purchased. As a result of the citys announced plan, Sarah is weighing two alternatives: She can go ahead with the $40,000 in repairs and then sell the house for $270,000, or she can forgo the repairs and sell the house as it is for $240,000. Sarah should a. keep the house and live in it. b. go ahead with the $40,000 in repairs and sell the house for $270,000. c. forgo the repairs and sell the house as it is for $240,000. d. move the house from Pine Street to a more desirable location, regardless of the cost of doing so. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical DIF: 3 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal cost Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 21 71. You are considering staying in college another semester so that you can complete a major in economics. In deciding whether or not to stay you should a. compare the total cost of your education to the total benefits of your education. b. compare the total cost of your education to the benefits of staying one more semester. c. compare the cost of staying one more semester to the benefits of staying one more semester. d. compare the total benefits of your education to the cost of staying one more semester. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 72. DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal costs and benefits DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes Suppose your management professor has been offered a corporate job with a 30 percent pay increase. He has decided to take the job. For him, the marginal a. cost of leaving was greater than the marginal benefit. b. benefit of leaving was greater than the marginal cost. c. benefit of teaching was greater than the marginal cost. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 75. Marginal cost Your professor loves her work, teaching economics. She has been offered other positions in the corporate world that would increase her income by 25 percent, but she has decided to continue working as a professor. Her decision would not change unless the marginal a. cost of teaching increased. b. benefit of teaching increased. c. cost of teaching decreased. d. cost of a corporate job increased. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 74. TOP: Sam and Sadie charge people to park on their lawn while attending a nearby craft fair. At the current price of $10, eight people park on their lawn. If they raise the price to $15, they know that only six people will want to park on their lawn. Whether they have eight or six cars parked on their lawn does not affect their costs. From this information it follows that a. they should leave the price at $10. b. it does not matter if they charge $10 or $15. c. they would do better charging $15 than $10. d. they should raise the price even more. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 73. DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits DIF: 2 REF: 1-1 LOC: Marginal costs & benefits TOP: Marginal changes Economists are particularly adept at understanding that people respond to a. laws. b. incentives. c. punishments more than rewards. d. rewards more than punishments. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 1 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives 22 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 76. People are likely to respond to a policy change a. only if they think the policy is a good one. b. only if the policy change changes the costs of their behavior. c. only if the policy change changes the benefits of their behavior. d. if the policy changes either the costs or benefits of their behavior. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 77. DIF: 2 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives DIF: 1 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives DIF: 2 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives U.S. laws requiring that drivers wear seat belts have resulted in a. a reduction in both driver deaths and pedestrian deaths. b. fewer accidents and fewer deaths per accident. c. fewer driver deaths, fewer accidents and fewer pedestrian deaths. d. little change in the number of driver deaths, but more accidents and more pedestrian deaths. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 81. Incentives Following the implementation of laws requiring automobiles to have seat belts, which of the following occurred? a. An individuals probability of surviving an auto accident rose.. b. There was an increase in pedestrian deaths. c. There was an increase in automobile accidents. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 80. TOP: Ralph Nader's book Unsafe at Any Speed caused Congress to require a. safety glass in all new cars. b. seat belts in all new cars. c. air bags in all new cars. d. stricter drunk driving laws in all states. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 79. 1-1 Government policies can change the costs and benefits that people face. Those policies have the potential to a. alter peoples behavior. b. alter peoples decisions at the margin. c. produce results that policymakers did not intend. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 78. DIF: 1 REF: LOC: The role of incentives DIF: 2 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives TOP: Incentives Evidence indicates that seat belt laws have led to a. fewer pedestrian deaths. b. fewer automobile accidents. c. fewer deaths per automobile accident. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional DIF: 1 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 23 82. One effect of the government-imposed seat belt law in the U.S. has been a. a dramatic decrease in the number of pedestrian deaths. b. safer driving. c. an increase in the number of accidents. d. a dramatic decrease in the number of driver deaths. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 83. 1-1 TOP: Incentives Based on the available evidence, which of the following groups benefits most from mandatory seat belt laws? a. automakers b. pedestrians c. drivers d. owners of collision-repair shops Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 84. DIF: 2 REF: LOC: The role of incentives DIF: 3 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives Which of the following can policy do? a. alter incentives b. alter trade-offs c. change opportunity costs d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: The role of incentives | Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity costs, trade-offs, incentives MSC: Interpretative 85. Suppose the state of Iowa passes a law that increases the price of cigarettes by $1 per pack. As a result, residents in Iowa start purchasing their cigarettes in surrounding states. Which of the following principles does this best illustrate? a. People respond to incentives b. Rational people think at the margin c. Trade can make everyone better off d. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 86. 1-1 TOP: Incentives Suppose the state of Massachusetts passes a law that bans smoking in restaurants. As a result, residents of Rhode Island who do not like breathing second-hand begin smoke driving across the border to Massachusetts to eat at restaurants there. Which of the following principles does this best illustrate? a. People respond to incentives b. Rational people think at the margin c. Trade can make everyone better off d. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 87. DIF: 1 REF: LOC: The role of incentives DIF: 1 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives In the former Soviet Union, producers were paid for meeting output targets, not for selling products. Under those circumstances, what were the economic incentives for producers? a. to produce good quality products so that society would benefit from the resources used b. to conserve on costs, so as to maintain efficiency in the economy c. to produce enough to meet the output target, without regard for quality or cost d. to produce those products that society desires most Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: LOC: The role of incentives 1-1 TOP: Incentives 24 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 88. ANS: NAT: LOC: TOP: 89. Which of the following principles is not one of the four principles of individual decisionmaking? a. People face tradeoffs. b. Trade can make everyone better off. c. People respond to incentives. d. Rational people think at the margin. B DIF: 1 REF: 1-1 Analytic Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost | Marginal costs & benefits | The role of incentives Tradeoffs | Trade | Marginal changes MSC: Definitional Which of the following statements exemplifies a principle of individual decisionmaking? a. Trade can make everyone better off. b. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. c. The cost of something is what you give up to get it. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-1 NAT: Analytic LOC: Scarcity, tradeoffs, and opportunity cost TOP: Opportunity cost MSC: Interpretive Multiple Choice-Sec02-How People Interact MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is a principle concerning how people interact? a. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. b. Rational people think at the margin. c. People respond to incentives. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 2. Which is the most accurate statement about trade? a. Trade can make every nation better off. b. Trade makes some nations better off and others worse off. c. Trading for a good can make a nation better off only if the nation cannot produce that good itself. d. Trade helps rich nations and hurts poor nations. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 3. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive The principle that "trade can make everyone better off" applies to interactions and trade between a. families. b. states within the United States. c. nations. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 4. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Applicative The principle that trade can make everyone better off applies to a. individuals. b. families. c. countries. d. All of the above Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade TOP: Gains from trade MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 25 5. Which of the following statements about trade is false? a. Trade increases competition. b. With trade, one country wins and one country loses. c. Bulgaria can benefit, potentially, from trade with any other country. d. Trade allows people to buy a greater variety of goods and services at lower cost. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 6. Trade between the United States and India a. benefits both the United States and India. b. is a losing proposition for the United States because India has cheaper labor. c. is a losing proposition for India because capital is much more abundant in the U.S. than in India. d. is a losing proposition for India because U.S. workers are more productive. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 7. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive If the United States decides to trade with Mexico, we know that a. Mexico will benefit, but trade with a less developed country could not benefit the United States. b. it will not benefit Mexico because workers in the United States are more productive. c. Mexico and the United States can both benefit. d. it will not benefit either country because their cultural differences are too vast. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 10. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive If Japan chooses to engage in trade, it a. will only benefit if it trades with countries that produce goods Japan cannot produce. b. cannot benefit if it trades with less developed countries. c. should first attempt to produce the good itself. d. can benefit by trading with any other country. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 9. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive Canada can benefit from trade a. only with nations that can produce goods Canada cannot produce. b. only with less developed nations. c. only with nations outside of North America. d. with any nation. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 8. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive Senator Smart, who understands economic principles, is trying to convince workers in her district that trade with other countries is beneficial. Senator Smart should argue that trade can be beneficial a. only if it allows us to obtain things that we couldn't make for ourselves. b. because it allows specialization, which increases total output. c. to us if we can gain and the others involved in the trade lose. d. in only a limited number of circumstances because others are typically self-interested. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive 26 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 11. Suppose that a country that has a high level of output per person agrees to trade with a country that has a low level of output per person. Which country can benefit? a. only the one with a low level of output per person. b. only the one with a high level of output per person. c. both d. neither Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 12. Suppose that a country that has a high average wage level agrees to trade with a country that has a low average wage level. Which country can benefit? a. only the one with a low level of output per person. b. only the one with a high level of output per person. c. both d. neither Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 13. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretative Trade between countries tends to a. reduce both competition and specialization. b. reduce competition and increase specialization. c. increase competition and reduce specialization. d. increase both competition and specialization. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade 14. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretative DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Definitional When the United States trades with Singapore, a. both countries are likely made better off. b. only Singapore benefits since the United States can produce all goods at a higher level of quality than Singapore. c. only the United States benefits since Singapores low wages guarantee profitable firms in Singapore regardless of trade. d. niether country will benefit since the United States is more efficient than Singapore at producing all goods. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade TOP: Gains from trade MSC: Applicative 15. Benefits from trade would not include a. the ability of people and nations to specialize. b. a greater variety of goods and services becoming available. c. less competition. d. lower prices. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Trade DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Gains from trade, specialization and trade MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 27 16. Central planning refers to a. markets guiding economic activity. Today many countries that had this system have abandoned it. b. markets guiding economic activity. Today many countries that did not have this system have implemented it. c. government guiding economic activity. Today many countries that had this system have abandoned it. d. government guiding economic activity. Today many countries that did not have this system have implemented it. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 17. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Definitional One advantage market economies have over centrally-planned economies is that market economies a. provide an equal distribution of goods and services to households. b. establish a significant role for government in the allocation of resources. c. solve the problem of scarcity. d. are more efficient. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 18. The basic principles of economics suggest that a. markets are seldom, if ever, a good way to organize economic activity. b. government should become involved in markets when trade between countries is involved. c. government should become involved in markets when those markets fail to produce efficient or fair outcomes. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities | The role of government TOP: Markets | Government | Trade MSC: Interpretive 19. Which of the following statements best characterizes a basic difference between market economies and centrally-planned economies? a. Society relies more upon prices to allocate resources when the economy is centrally-planned than when it is market-based. b. The self-interest of households is reflected more fully in the outcome of a centrally-planned economy than in the outcome of a market economy. c. Government plays a larger role in the economic affairs of a market economy than in the economic affairs of a centrally-planned economy. d. None of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 20. Market economies are distinguished from other types of economies largely on the basis of a. the political affiliations of government officials. b. the process by which government officials are elected or appointed. c. the ways in which scarce resources are allocated. d. the number of retail outlets available to consumers. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 28 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 21. The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe took place mainly in the a. 1960s. b. 1970s. c. 1980s. d. 1990s. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Communism 22. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Definitional The economy of the former Soviet Union is best described as a a. primitive economy. b. market economy. c. hybrid economy. d. centrally-planned economy. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Definitional 23. Communist countries worked under the premise that a. markets were the best way to organize economic activity. b. central planners were in the best position to determine the allocation of scarce resources in the economy. c. households and firms, guided by an invisible hand, could achieve the most efficient allocation of scarce resources. d. allowing the market forces of supply and demand to operate with no government intervention would acheive the most efficient allocation of scarce resources. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 24. Prior to the collapse of communism, communist countries worked on the premise that economic well-being could be best attained by a. a market economy. b. a strong reliance on prices and individuals self-interests. c. a system of large privately-owned firms. d. the actions of government central planners. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Communism 25. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive The idea that only the government can organize economic activity in a way that promotes economic wellbeing for a country as a whole a. is a basic principle regarding individual decisionmaking. b. amounts to a denial of one of the basic principles regarding interactions among people. c. supports the idea that the "invisible hand" should guide economic activity. d. was promoted by the economist Adam Smith in a well-known 1776 book. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 26. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive Which of the following statements about markets is most accurate? a. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. b. Markets are usually inferior to central planning as a way to organize economic activity. c. Markets fail and are therefore not an acceptable way to organize economic activity. d. Markets are a good way to organize economic activity in developed nations, but not in less developed nations. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 29 27. Which of the following observations was made famous by Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations? a. There is no such thing as a free lunch. b. People buy more when prices are low than when prices are high. c. No matter how much people earn, they tend to spend more than they earn. d. Households and firms interacting in markets are guided by an "invisible hand" that leads them to desirable market outcomes. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Definitional 28. The term "invisible hand" was coined by a. Adam Smith. b. David Ricardo. c. Karl Marx. d. Benjamin Franklin. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Definitional 29. The famous observation that households and firms interacting in markets act as if they are guided by an invisible hand that leads them to desirable market outcomes comes from whose 1776 book? a. David Ricardo b. Thorstein Veblen c. John Maynard Keynes d. Adam Smith Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 30. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations was published in a. 1692. b. 1776. c. 1816. d. 1936. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Definitional 31. Both The Wealth of Nations and the Declaration of Independence share the point of view that a. every person is entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. b. individuals are best left to their own devices without the government guiding their actions. c. the government plays a central role in organizing a market economy. d. because of human nature a strong legal system is necessary for a market system to survive. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Interpretive 32. The "invisible hand" directs economic activity through a. advertising. b. prices. c. central planning. d. government regulations. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Interpretive 30 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 33. The invisible hand refers to a. how central planners made economic decisions. b. how the decisions of households and firms lead to desirable market outcomes. c. the control that large firms have over the economy. d. government regulations without which the economy would be less efficient. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Definitional 34. The invisible hand's ability to coordinate the decisions of the firms and households in the economy can be hindered by a. government actions that distort prices. b. increased competition in markets. c. enforcement of property rights. d. too much attention paid to efficiency. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Interpretive 35. When the "invisible hand" guides economic activity, prices of products reflect a. only the values that society places on those products. b. only the costs to society of producing those products. c. both the values that society places on those products and the costs to society of producing those products. d. none of the above; when the "invisible hand" guides economic activity, prices of products are set by the government in a manner that is thought to be "fair." Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand | Markets MSC: Interpretive 36. The invisible hand works to promote general well-being in the economy primarily through a. government intervention. b. the political process. c. peoples pursuit of self-interest. d. altruism. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Interpretive 37. According to Adam Smith, the success of decentralized market economies is primarily due to a. the basic benevolence of society. b. society's legal system. c. individuals' pursuit of self-interest. d. partnerships that are forged between business and government. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Interpretive 38. The self-interest of the participants in an economy is guided into promoting general economic self-interest by a. the invisible hand. b. market power. c. government intervention. d. oikonomos. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Invisible hand MSC: Interpretive Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 31 39. In an economy in which decisions are guided by prices and individual self-interest, there is a. the potential to achieve efficiency in production. b. a strong need for government intervention in the market. c. less efficiency than would be observed in a centrally-planned economy. d. more need for a strong legal system to control individual greed than would be needed in a centrallyplanned economy. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 40. In a market economy, who makes the decisions that guide most economic activity? a. firms only b. households only c. firms and households d. government Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 41. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Definitional In a market economy, economic activity is guided by a. the government. b. corporations. c. central planners. d. self-interest and prices. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Definitional 42. Which of the following statements does not apply to a market economy? a. Firms decide whom to hire and what to produce. b. The invisible hand usually maximizes the well-being of society as a whole. c. Households decide which firms to work for and what to buy with their incomes. d. Government policies are the primary forces that guide the decisions of firms and households. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 43. The decisions of firms and households are guided by prices and self-interest in a a. command economy. b. centrally-planned economy. c. market economy. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Definitional 44. For markets to work well, there must be a. market power. b. a central planner. c. property rights. d. abundant, not scarce, resources. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Markets | Property rights MSC: Interpretive 32 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 45. Prices usually reflect a. only the value of a good to society. b. only the cost to society of making a good. c. both the value of a good to society and the cost to society of making the good. d. neither the value of a good to society nor the cost to society of making the good. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 46. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Definitional Prices direct economic activity in a market economy by a. influencing the actions of buyers and sellers. b. reducing scarcity of the goods and services produced. c. eliminating the need for government intervention. d. allocating goods and services in the most equitable way. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market economy MSC: Interpretive 47. A friend of yours asks you why market prices are better than government-determined prices. Because you understand economic principles, you say that market-determined prices are better because they generally reflect a. the value of a good to society, but not the cost of making it. b. the cost of making a good to society, but not its value. c. both the value of a good to society and the cost of making it. d. neither the value of a good to society nor the cost of making it. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Markets | Prices MSC: Interpretive 48. If the price of visiting a doctor were fixed below the current price, then we would expect a. an increase in the number of visits people want to make and an increase in the number of visits health care providers want to provide. b. an increase in the number of visits people want to make and a decrease in the number of visits health care providers want to provide. c. a decrease in the number of visits people want to make and an increase in the number of visits health care providers want to provide. d. a decrease in the number of visits people want to make and a decrease in the number of visits health care providers want to provide. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets 49. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Applicative If the price of a gallon of milk were fixed above the current price, then we would expect a. an increase in the number of gallons of milk people want to buy and an increase in the number of gallons of milk dairy farmers want to sell. b. an increase in the number of gallons of milk people want to buy and a decrease in the number of gallons of milk dairy farmers want to sell. c. a decrease in the number of gallons of milk people want to buy and an increase in the number of gallons of milk dairy farmers want to sell. d. a decrease in the number of gallons of milk people want to buy and a decrease in the number of gallons of milk dairy farmers want to sell. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Markets DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Applicative Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 33 50. When the government prevents prices from adjusting naturally to supply and demand, a. it equates the amount buyers want to buy with the amount sellers want to sell. b. it adversely affects the allocation of resources. c. it improves equality and efficiency. d. it improves efficiency but reduces equality. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities | The role of government TOP: Prices | Government MSC: Applicative 51. One reason we need government, even in a market economy, is that a. there is insufficient market power in the absence of government. b. property rights are too strong in the absence of government. c. the invisible hand is not perfect. d. Both a and b are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities | The role of government TOP: Market economy | Government MSC: Interpretive 52. The government enforces property rights by a. requiring property owners to pay property taxes. b. providing police and courts. c. forcing people to own property. d. providing public parks and recreation facilities. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 53. Government | Property rights A company that formerly produced software went out of business because too many potential customers bought illegally-produced copies of the software instead of buying the product directly from the company. This instance serves as an example of a. market power. b. inefficient trade. c. inadequate enforcement of property rights. d. the invisible hand at work. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 54. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: The role of government TOP: DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: The role of government TOP: Property rights For which of the following problems can well-designed public policy enhance economic efficiency? a. both externalities and market power b. externalities, but not market power c. market power, but not externalities d. neither externalities nor market power Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Public policy, Market failures MSC: Interpretative 55. Public policies a. may be able to improve either economic efficiency or equality. b. may be able to improve economic efficiency but cannot improve equality. c. may be able to improve equality but cannot improve economic efficiency. d. cannot improve either equality or economic efficiency. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Efficiency and equity TOP: Public policy, Efficiency, Equality MSC: Interpretative 34 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 56. To say that government intervenes in the economy to promote efficiency is to say that government is attempting to a. create a more fair distribution of income. b. change the way in which the economic pie is divided. c. enlarge the economic pie. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 57. Efficiency | Government Which of the following could reduce economic efficiency? a. laws that encourage lawsuits. b. policies that redistribute income c. policies that impose significant restrictions on international trade d. All of the above are correct Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 58. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: The role of government TOP: DIF: 1 REF: LOC: Efficiency and equity 1-2 TOP: Efficiency The term used to describe a situation in which markets do not allocate resources efficiently is a. economic meltdown. b. market failure. c. equilibrium. d. the effect of the invisible hand. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Definitional 59. A rationale for government involvement in a market economy is as follows: a. Markets sometimes fail to produce a fair distribution of economic well-being. b. Markets sometimes fail to produce an efficient allocation of resources. c. Property rights have to be enforced. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 60. DIF: 1 REF: 1-2 LOC: The role of government TOP: Government | Markets The term market failure refers to a. a situation in which the market on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently. b. an unsuccessful advertising campaign which reduces demand for a product. c. a situation in which competition among firms becomes ruthless. d. a firm which is forced out of business because of losses. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Definitional 61. Which of the following is not generally regarded by economists as a legitimate reason for the government to intervene in a market? a. to promote efficiency b. to promote equality c. to enforce property rights d. to protect an industry from foreign competition Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: The role of government TOP: Government | Markets Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 35 62. Causes of market failure include a. externalities and market power. b. market power and incorrect forecasts of consumer demand. c. externalities and foreign competition. d. incorrect forecasts of consumer demand and foreign competition. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Interpretive 63. Market failure can be caused by a. low consumer demand. b. equilibrium prices. c. externalities and market power. d. high prices and foreign competition. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Interpretive 64. The term "market failure" a. means the same thing as "market power." b. refers to the dissolution of a market when firms decide to quit producing a certain product. c. refers to the failure of a market to produce an efficient allocation of resources. d. refers to government's failure to enforce the property rights of households or firms that participate in a certain market. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market failure MSC: Interpretive 65. If an externality is present in a market, economic efficiency may be enhanced by a. government intervention. b. increased competition. c. better informed market participants. d. weaker property rights. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Externalities | Efficiency MSC: Interpretive 66. An example of an externality is the impact of a. bad weather on the income of farmers. b. the personal income tax on a person's ability to purchase goods and services. c. pollution from a factory on the health of people in the vicinity of the factory. d. increases in health care costs on the health of individuals in society. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Externalities 67. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive Which of the following is an example of an externality? a. Aaron purchases a new flat screen television. b. Bonnie cannot catch the flu from Bobby because Bobby got a flu vaccine. c. Clyde sells a book to Cathy. d. Doug turns up the heat in his apartment. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Externalities DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive 36 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 68. The willingness of citizens to pay for a vaccinations does not include the benefit society receives from having vaccinated citizens who cannot transmit an illness to others. This extra benefit society gets from vaccinating its citizens is known as a. productivity. b. an externality. c. market power. d. property rights. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Externalities 69. If a paper factory does not bear the entire cost of the pollution it emits, it will a. not emit any pollution so as to avoid the entire cost of the pollution. b. emit lower levels of pollution. c. emit an acceptable level of pollution. d. emit too much pollution. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Externalities 70. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Applicative DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive Laws that restrict the smoking of cigarettes in public places are examples of government intervention that is intended to reduce a. efficiency. b. equality. c. externalities. d. productivity. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Externalities | Government MSC: Applicative 71. Which of these consumption activities will most likely impose an external cost? a. An athlete works out at a gym. b. A secretary smokes a cigarette in a crowded break room. c. A young mother pushes her baby in a stroller. d. A construction worker eats a hotdog during his lunch break. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Externalities 72. Which of these activities will most likely result in an external benefit? a. A college student buys a deck of cards to play solitaire in her dorm room. b. An elderly woman plants a flower garden on the vacant lot next to her house. c. An executive purchases a book to read on a business trip. d. A ten-year-old uses his allowance to buy new Nike shoes. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic TOP: Externalities 73. DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-2 LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities MSC: Interpretive When a single person (or small group) has the ability to influence market prices, there is a. competition. b. market power. c. an externality. d. a lack of property rights. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market power MSC: Definitional Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 37 74. Market power refers to the a. power of a single person or small group to influence market prices. b. ability of a person or small group to successfully market new products. c. power of the government to regulate a market. d. importance of a certain market in relation to the overall economy. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market power MSC: Definitional 75. Which of the following firms is likely to have the greatest market power? a. An electric company b. A farmer c. A grocery store d. A local electronics retailer Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market power MSC: Applicative 76. Which of the following firms is most likely to have market power? a. a grocery store in a metropolitan area b. a gas station in a suburb c. a pub in a college town d. the only hotel in a rural area Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market power MSC: Interpretive 77. An example of a firm with market power is a a. delicatessen in New York. b. cable TV provider in St. Louis. c. clothing store in Los Angeles. d. family farm in Illinois. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-2 NAT: Analytic LOC: Markets, market failure, and externalities TOP: Market power MSC: Interpretive Multiple Choice-Sec03-How the Economy as a Whole Works MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. In the United States, incomes historically have grown about 2 percent per year. At this rate, average income doubles every a. 15 years. b. 25 years. c. 35 years. d. 45 years. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 2. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Income In the United States, incomes have historically grown a. about 0.5 percent per year. b. about 2 percent per year. c. about 4 percent per year. d. about 6 percent per year. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Income 38 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3. Over the past century, the average income in the United States has risen about a. twofold. b. fivefold. c. eightfold. d. tenfold. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 4. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity What is the most important factor that explains differences in living standards across countries? a. the quantity of money b. the level of unemployment c. productivity d. equality Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 8. Productivity The amount of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input is called a. opportunity cost. b. productivity. c. externality. d. marginal benefit. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 7. DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity is defined as the a. amount of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input. b. number of workers required to produce a given amount of goods and services. c. amount of labor that can be saved by replacing workers with machines. d. actual amount of effort workers put into an hour of working time. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 6. Income The term "productivity" a. means the same thing as "efficiency." b. is seldom used by economists, as its meaning is not precise. c. refers to the quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input. d. refers to the variety of goods and services from which households can choose when they shop. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 5. DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity Almost all variation in living standards is attributable to differences in countries' a. population growth rates. b. productivity. c. systems of public education. d. taxes. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Standard of living Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 39 9. The income of a typical worker in a country is most closely linked to which of the following? a. population b. productivity c. market power d. government policies Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 10. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Income A direct or positive relationship exists between a country's a. productivity and its standard of living. b. amount of government spending and its productivity. c. total population and its average citizens income. d. rate of population growth and the extent of its trade with other countries. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Interpretive 11. The primary determinant of a country's standard of living is a. the countrys ability to prevail over foreign competition. b. the countrys ability to produce goods and services. c. the total supply of money in the economy. d. the average age of the country's labor force. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 12. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Standard of living The historical rise in living standards of American workers is primarily a result of a. the influence of labor unions in America. b. tariff protection imposed by the American government. c. the enactment of minimum-wage laws in America. d. the rise in American productivity. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Interpretive 13. The fact that different countries experience different standards of living is largely explained by differences in those countries' a. populations. b. productivity levels. c. locations. d. none of the above; economists are puzzled by differences in standards of living around the world. Register to View AnswerDIF: 1 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Standard of living | Productivity MSC: Interpretive 14. Suppose that the average income of a Kenyan is higher than the average income of a South African. You might conclude that a. Kenyan firms are faced with stricter government regulations than South African firms. b. total income is divided among fewer workers in Kenya since it has a smaller labor force than South Africa. c. Kenya's climate allows for longer growing seasons and therefore Kenya can produce large quantities of grain and other crops. d. productivity in Kenya is higher than in South Africa. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Income 40 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 15. The slow growth of U.S. incomes during the 1970s and 1980s can best be explained by a. unstable economic conditions in Eastern Europe. b. increased competition from abroad. c. a decline in the rate of increase in U.S. productivity. d. a strong U.S. dollar abroad, hurting U.S. exports. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 16. DIF: 3 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Income Suppose a typical worker in France can produce 32 units of product in an eight-hour day, while a typical worker in Germany can produce 30 units of product in a 10-hour day. We can conclude that a. worker productivity in Germany is higher than in France. b. the standard of living will likely be higher in France than in Germany. c. productivity is 4 units per hour for the German worker and 3 units per hour for the French worker. d. there will be no difference between the standard of living in France and Germany. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Applicative 17. Suppose that in Chile total annual output is worth $600 million and people work 70 million hours. In Argentina total annual output is worth $450 million and people work 40 million hours. Productivity is higher a. in Chile. Most variation in the standard of living across countries is due to differences in productivity. b. in Chile. Differences in productivity explain very little of the variation in the standard of living across countries. c. in Argentina. Most variation in the standard of living across countries is due to differences in productivity. d. in Argentina. Differences in productivity explain very little of the variation in the standard of living across countries. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity, Standard of living MSC: Analytical 18. In a particular country in 1998, the average worker needed to work 25 hours to produce 40 units of output. In that same country in 2008, the average worker needed to work 40 hours to produce 68 units of output. In that country, the productivity of the average worker a. decreased by 1.7 percent between 1998 and 2008. b. remained unchanged between 1998 and 2008. c. increased by 4.75 percent between 1998 and 2008. d. increased by 6.25 percent between 1998 and 2008. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 19. DIF: 3 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity In a particular country in 2000, the average worker needed to work 40 hours to produce 55 units of output. In that same country in 2008, the average worker needed to work 30 hours to produce 45 units of output. In that country, the productivity of the average worker a. decreased by about 6 percent between 2000 and 2008. b. remained unchanged between 2000 and 2008. c. increased by about 9 percent between 2000 and 2008. d. increased by about 18 percent between 2000 and 2008. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical DIF: 3 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 41 20. In a particular country in 1998, the average worker needed to work 40 hours to produce 60 units of output. In that same country in 2008, the average worker needed to work 35 hours to produce 55 units of output. In that country, the productivity of the average worker a. decreased between 1998 and 2008, so we would expect the standard of living to have decreased accordingly. b. increased between 1998 and 2008, so we would expect the standard of living to have increased accordingly. c. decreased between 1998 and 2008, so we would expect inflation to have decreased accordingly. d. increased between 1998 and 2008, so we would expect inflation to have increased accordingly. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Analytical 21. In a particular country in 1997, the average worker had to work 18 hours to produce 45 units of output. In that same country in 2007, the average worker needed to work 24 hours to produce 60 units of output. In that country, the productivity of the average worker a. increased by 2 percent between 1997 and 2007. b. increased by 5 percent between 1997 and 2007. c. remained unchanged between 1997 and 2007. d. decreased by 3 percent between 1997 and 2007. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 22. DIF: 3 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity To promote good economic outcomes, policymakers should strive to enact policies that a. enhance productivity. b. enhance individuals' market power. c. result in a rapidly-growing quantity of money. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Market power | Inflation MSC: 24. Productivity A worker in Thailand can earn $2 per day making cotton cloth on a hand loom. A worker in the United States can earn $80 per day making cotton cloth with a mechanical loom. What accounts for the difference in wages? a. U.S. textile workers belong to a union. b. There is little demand for cotton cloth in Thailand and great demand in the U.S. c. Labor is more productive making cotton cloth with a mechanical loom than with a hand loom. d. Thailand has a low-wage policy to make its textile industry more competitive in world markets. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 23. DIF: 3 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Applicative To raise productivity, policymakers could a. increase spending on education. b. provide tax credits to firms for capital improvements. c. fund research and development. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative DIF: 3 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Government 42 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 25. To increase living standards, public policy should a. ensure that workers are well educated and have the necessary tools and technology. b. make unemployment benefits more generous. c. move workers into jobs directly from high school. d. ensure a greater degree of equality, taking all income-earners into account. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Applicative 26. To improve living standards, policymakers should a. impose restrictions on foreign competition. b. formulate policies designed to increase productivity. c. impose tougher immigration policies. d. provide tax breaks for the middle class. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: Productivity | Standard of living MSC: Applicative 27. Incomes of U.S. households in the 1970s and 1980s a. grew rapidly, due to the widespread success of labor unions in pushing up wages during those decades. b. grew rapidly, due to several increases in the minimum wage during those decades. c. grew rapidly, due to government policies that discouraged the importation of foreign products during those decades. d. grew slowly, due to slow growth of the output of goods and services per hour of U.S. workers' time during those decades. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 28. DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation TOP: Inflation TOP: Inflation | Money Inflation is defined as a. a period of rising productivity in the economy. b. a period of rising income in the economy. c. an increase in the overall level of output in the economy. d. an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 30. Productivity | Income An increase in the overall level of prices in an economy is referred to as a. the income effect. b. inflation. c. deflation. d. the substitution effect. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 29. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Productivity and growth TOP: DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation In the early 1920s, a. Germany experienced a very high rate of inflation. b. the quantity of German money was declining rapidly. c. the value of German money remained almost constant. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 43 31. During the early 1920s in Germany, prices a. doubled annually. b. doubled monthly. c. tripled monthly. d. tripled annually. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 32. REF: 1-3 DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation The U.S. president who referred to inflation as public enemy number one was a. Richard Nixon. b. Gerald Ford. c. Jimmy Carter. d. Ronald Reagan. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 36. DIF: 1 MSC: Definitional President Gerald Ford referred to inflation as a. a blight on our nation's economy. b. a necessary evil to combat high unemployment. c. public enemy number one. d. a fly in the ointment. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 35. Inflation In the United States, the overall level of prices more than doubled during the a. 1950s. b. 1960s. c. 1970s. d. 1980s. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 34. TOP: One of the 20th centurys worst episodes of inflation occurred in a. the United States in the 1960s. b. Italy in the 1950s. c. Russia in the 1930s. d. Germany in the 1920s. Register to View AnswerTOP: Inflation 33. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation In which of the following decades was there both high inflation and rapid money supply growth in the US? a. the 1970s and the 1990s b. the 1970s but not the 1990s c. the 1990s but not the 1970s d. neither the 1970s nor the 1990s Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional DIF: 2 REF: LOC: The role of money 1-3 TOP: Inflation 44 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 37. In the 1990s, inflation in the United States was a. very close to zero. b. about 3 percent per year. c. about 6 percent per year. d. commonly referred to as public enemy number one. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 38. Inflation DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation Which of the following would a permanent increase in the growth rate of the money supply change permanently? a. inflation b. unemployment c. both inflation and unemployment d. neither inflation nor unemployment ANS: NAT: TOP: MSC: 40. TOP: Large or persistent inflation is almost always caused by a. excessive government spending. b. excessive growth in the quantity of money. c. foreign competition. d. higher-than-normal levels of productivity. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 39. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation A DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation The short-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment Applicative Most economists believe that an increase in the quantity of money results in a. an increase in the demand for goods and services. b. lower unemployment in the short run. c. higher inflation in the long run. d. All of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Money | Inflation | Unemployment MSC: Applicative 41. In the short run, which of the following rates of growth in the money supply is likely to lead to the lowest level of unemployment in the economy? a. 3 percent per year b. 5 percent per year c. 7 percent per year d. 9 percent per year Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical 42. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment In the short run, which of the following rates of growth in the money supply is likely to lead to the highest level of unemployment in the economy? a. 1 percent per year b. 2 percent per year c. 3 percent per year d. 4 percent per year Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Analytical DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 45 43. In the short run, an increase in the money supply is likely to lead to a. lower unemployment and lower inflation. b. lower unemployment and higher inflation. c. higher unemployment and lower inflation. d. higher unemployment and higher inflation. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 44. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation Unemployment TOP: Inflation Applicative Which of the following is an important cause of inflation in an economy? a. increases in productivity in the economy b. the influence of positive externalities on the economy c. lack of property rights in the economy d. growth in the quantity of money in the economy Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 48. TOP: Which of the following is the most correct statement about the relationship between inflation and unemployment? a. In the short run, falling inflation is associated with falling unemployment. b. In the short run, falling inflation is associated with rising unemployment. c. In the long run, falling inflation is associated with falling unemployment. d. In the long run, falling inflation is associated with rising unemployment. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: 47. Inflation | Unemployment Low rates of inflation are generally associated with a. low rates of government spending. b. small or nonexistent government budget deficits. c. low rates of productivity growth. d. low rates of growth of the quantity of money. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 46. TOP: Suppose that the Federal Reserve Bank announces that it will be making a change to a key interest rate to increase the money supply. This is likely because a. the Federal Reserve Bank is worried about inflation. b. the Federal Reserve Bank is worried about unemployment. c. the Federal Reserve Bank is hoping to reduce the demand for goods and services. d. the Federal Reserve Bank is worried that the economy is growing too quickly. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 45. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation The mainstream view among economists is that a. society faces a tradeoff between unemployment and inflation, but only in the short run. b. society faces a tradeoff between unemployment and inflation, but only in the long run. c. society faces a tradeoff between unemployment and inflation, both in the short run and in the long run. d. no tradeoff exists between unemployment and inflation, either in the short run or in the long run. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: Applicative 46 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 49. Which of the following claims is consistent with the views of mainstream economists? a. If we increase the rate of inflation from 3 percent to 6 percent, then the rate of unemployment will temporarily fall. b. If we increase the rate of inflation from 3 percent to 6 percent, then the rate of unemployment will temporarily rise. c. If we increase the rate of inflation from 3 percent to 6 percent, then the rate of unemployment will permanently fall. d. If we increase the rate of inflation from 3 percent to 6 percent, then the rate of unemployment will permanently rise. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: 50. For a very long time Tropicland has had inflation of 12%. Suddenly its inflation rate drops to 4%. The drop in the inflation rate a. could be due to slower money supply growth. We would expect unemployment to be higher. b. could be due to slower money supply growth. We would expect unemployment to be lower. c. could be due to higher money supply growth. We would expect unemployment to be higher. d. could be due to higher money supply growth. We would expect unemployment to be lower. ANS: NAT: TOP: MSC: 51. A DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation The short-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment Applicative For a number of years country A had inflation of 3% but for the last five years has had inflation of 6%. Country B had inflation of 4% for many years, but very recently inflation unexpectedly rose to 9%. Other things the same, in which of the countries would the higher inflation rate be more likely to reduce unemployment? a. both country A and country B b. neither country A nor country B c. country A but not country B d. country B but not country A Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Short-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment 52. MSC: Interpretive In the early 1980s, U.S. economic policy was directed toward reducing inflation. What would you have expected to observe during this short period of time? a. Inflation fell and unemployment fell. b. Inflation and unemployment were both unaffected. c. Inflation fell and unemployment increased. d. Inflation fell and unemployment was unchanged. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: 53. Applicative Applicative The relatively low inflation experienced in the United States in the 1990s is attributable to a. slow growth of U.S. productivity during the 1990s. b. slow growth of the quantity of money in the U.S. in the 1990s. c. low levels of government spending in the U.S. in the 1980s and 1990s. d. the eight-year presidency of William Jefferson Clinton during the 1990s. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Money Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics y 47 54. During the 1990s, the United Kingdom experienced low levels of inflation while Turkey experienced high levels of inflation. A likely explanation of these facts is that a. the United Kingdom has a better education system than Turkey. b. the rate of growth of the quantity of money was slower in the United Kingdom than in Turkey. c. workers in Turkey are more productive than workers in the United Kingdom. d. there are more instances of market power in Turkey than in the United Kingdom. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 55. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation Inflation | Money TOP: Inflation | Unemployment The short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment implies that, in the short run, a. a decrease in the growth rate of the quantity of money will be accompanied by an increase in the unemployment rate. b. an increase in the growth rate of the quantity of money will be accompanied by an increase in the unemployment rate. c. policymakers are able to reduce the inflation rate and, at the same time, reduce the unemployment rate. d. policymakers can influence the inflation rate, but not the unemployment rate. Register to View AnswerDIF: 3 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: 59. TOP: In the short run, which of the following is not correct? a. Increasing the money supply increases the demand for goods and services. b. Increasing the money supply encourages firms to hire more workers. c. Lowering the money supply leads to a higher level of unemployment. d. Policies that encourage higher employment will also induce a lower rate of inflation. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Interpretive 58. Interpretive Germany could have avoided the high inflation that it experienced in the 1920s by a. not directing so many of its resources toward preparation for World War II. b. not increasing taxes so much on the German middle class. c. not allowing the quantity of money to increase so rapidly. d. using government policies to stimulate the economy more so than what was done. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Applicative 57. Inflation | Money The tradeoff between inflation and unemployment a. implies that policies designed to reduce unemployment also reduce inflation. b. was eliminated by improved economic policies in the 1900s. c. is a long-run tradeoff, persisting for decades, according to most economists. d. None of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIF: 2 REF: 1-3 NAT: Analytic LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Inflation | Unemployment | Tradeoffs MSC: 56. TOP: Applicative The business cycle is the a. relationship between unemployment and inflation. b. irregular fluctuations in economic activity. c. positive relationship between the quantity of money in an economy and inflation. d. predictable changes in economic activity due to changes in government spending and taxes. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation TOP: Business cycle 48 y Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 60. The business cycle is measured by the a. production of goods and services. b. number of people employed. c. the interest rate. d. both a and b Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 61. TOP: Business cycle The broken window fallacy a. explains why inflation is so high. b. is a justification for the government to print more money. c. is illustrated when a government program is justified not on its merits but on the number of jobs it will create. d. has nothing to do with public policy. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional 62. DIF: 2 REF: 1-3 LOC: Unemployment and inflation DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: The role of government TOP: Broken window fallacy It once took 90 percent of our population to grow our food. It now takes only 3 percent of the population to grow our food. Which of the following statements is true? a. This loss of jobs has been detrimental to our economy. b. The government should provide subsidies to encourage more people to become farmers. c. This reduction in the number of farmers explains the increase in the price of food. d. Economists understand this is progress because the proportion of the population that used to be farmers is now employed in other professions. Register to View AnswerNAT: Analytic MSC: Definitional DIF: 1 REF: 1-3 LOC: The role of government TOP: Broken window fallacy ... View Full Document

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