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1 Question (Worth 6 points) Match Term Definition 1 Correct Register to View Answer A) Sun Belt 2 Correct Register to View Answer B) Country which is attempting to join the EU. 3 Correct Register to View Answer C) Destination of the majority of the slave trade from Africa 4 Correct Register to View Answer D) Area that was once the Cradle of Civilization and is now increasingly desertified 5 Correct Register to View Answer E) Location of one of the most polluted cities in the world. 6 F) The population is only 1/10 the size of the population of the U.S. 7 Correct Answer: H G) A global economically dominant region 8 Correct Answer: G H) Contains E climate 9 Correct Answer: J I) Poorest country in the Western Hemisphere 10 J) Taiga Vegetation Points earned on this question: 1.2 Question 2 (Worth 2 points) Continental Central Americas poorest country is: A. Haiti B. Mexico C. Honduras D. Nicaragua This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 3 (Worth 2 points) The island contested between Greece and Turkey is: A. Cyprus This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. B. Crete C. Malta D. Sicily Question Information: The disagreement about Cyprus is being suggested as the primary reason for the delay of Turkey entering the EU. Your text suggests that the reasons may more likely be based on religious differences. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 4 (Worth 2 points) Which of the following statements is true? A. Desertification occurs only in the eastern hemisphere. B. Deserts are found on the eastern sides of the continents. C. Soils in desert regions tend to be thin and poorly developed and thus not fertile. This is a correct answer D. All of the above are false. Feedback for this selection: See Introduction, "Climate, Climate Regions, Dry (B)) Climates" and the World Climates map. Question Information: A general rule about the location of deserts is that you will encounter dry regions in the windward direction from cool ocean currents. Check this out. Points earned on this question: 0 Question 5 (Worth 2 points) _________ depict(s) spatial distributions and are a premier tool of geographers. Satellite images Feedback for this selection: Satellites cannot record everything on earth. Maps This is a correct answer Cartograms A highway map. Points earned on this question: 0 Question 6 (Worth 2 points) Which of the following European countries most nearly satisfies the definition of nation-state? A. France B. England C. Ukraine D. Sweden This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 7 (Worth 2 points) Rainfall patterns in humid tropical (A) climates are characterized by all but: A. substantial precipitation every month, year-round, in the Af (rainforest) subtype Feedback for this selection: See Introduction, "Climate, Climate On the Map, Humid Equatorial (A) Climates." B. a double maximum sometimes involving long rains and short rains in the savanna (Aw) subtype C. principally nighttime rainfall in rainforest (Af) areas, reducing evapotranspiration This is a correct answer D.the specter of hunger in savanna areas because of comparatively infertile soils and unreliable seasonal precipitation Question Information: You may have missed this question because you did not take not of the word "except." Words such as "except" or "not" really change the meaning of questions. Points earned on this question: 0 Question 8 (Worth 2 points) From the end of World War II until the 1990s, Eastern Europe was dominated by the _________ which accounts for the high percentage of Muslims in this region. A. Ottomans B. Hapsburgs C. Soviet Union This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. D. Poles Points earned on this question: 2 Question 9 (Worth 2 points) The majority of Russia falls within the humid cold climate region. In the Kppen-Geiger classification scheme, this is signified by the letter A. A B. B C. C D. D This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. Question Information: Do not forget to read maps. A map can be understood in about 3-5 seconds. Text takes much longer to decipher. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 10 (Worth 2 points) The rebellion in Chiapas was designed to occur at the same time as Mexico's signing of NAFTA as a means trying to force the Mexican government to do something about A.the economic gap between north and south. This is a correct answer B.marauding gangs. C.other Mexican states were seceding from the country Feedback for this selection: See Chapter 4: "Middle America, Mexico, States of Contrast." D. none of the above Points earned on this question: 0 Question 11 (Worth 2 points) Which of the following is not a major cause of tropical deforestation in Central America? A. need to clear land for cattle pasture B. persistent economic and demographic problems Feedback for this selection: See Chapter 4, "Middle America: The Central American Republics.", Insert titled: "Tropical Deforestation." C. the lumber industry D. all of the above are major causes This is a correct answer Points earned on this question: 0 Question 12 (Worth 2 points) Your textbook identifies Eastern Europe as a zone of politico-geographical splintering and fracturing, called a: A. Irredentist region B. hinterland C. shatter belt This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. D. heartland region Points earned on this question: 2 Question 13 (Worth 2 points) In the list below, which is the missing aspect for the classification of regions? Landmasses and Oceans Geographic Realms Subregions, Donmains, Districts Geographic Regions This is a correct answer Mountains and Rivers Mental Maps Climate Zones Feedback for this selection: See "Introduction - Realms and Regions, Regional Classification." Points earned on this question: 0 Question 14 (Worth 2 points) Wegener's supercontinent is known as: tectonic desertification Eurasia Pangaea This is a correct answer Points earned on this question: 2 Question 15 (Worth 2 points) The core areas of the world: A. include areas that are only in the northern hemisphere B. include areas that are located only in Europe and North American C. include most of the countries of Eastern Europe D. include the area where the richer countries are clustered This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. Question Information: Core-periphery relationships are nothing new. In antiquity they also existed with the core being more developed and richer than the periphery. Modern core-periphery relationships exist with the economic gap ever widening between the core and periphery. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 16 (Worth 2 points) The primary factor that structured U.S. metropolitan areas is immigration. industrial development. Feedback for this selection: See Chapter 3, "North America, Cities and Industries, The Evolving Metropolis." Note that as cities evolved, infrastructure improved along with transportation inventions. development of transportation technology. This is a correct answer governmentally sponsored urban renewal programs. Points earned on this question: 0 Question 17 (Worth 2 points) The fact that Quebec has a separatist movement and that other Canadian provinces may also foster separationist movements which could result in "Four Canadas" is an example example of ______. Centripetal isolationism. devolution. This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. regional division Points earned on this question: 2 Question 18 (Worth 2 points) The largest ethnic group in Mexico are European Mestizos This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct, they comprise about 60% of Mexico's population. Amerindians Mulattos Points earned on this question: 2 Question 19 (Worth 2 points) _______ dominates Western Europe demographically and economically. France Belgium Austria Germany This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. Question Information: Although Germany suffered a financial setback when the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, currently, Germany is a dominant force in Western Europe. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 20 (Worth 2 points) This former Soviet Republic contains the oil city of Baki (Baku) and its people have ethnic affinites with Iran. Recently, the Armenian population of this area became refugees. A. Azerbaijan This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. B. Moldavia C. Georgia D. Estonia Points earned on this question: 2 Question 21 (Worth 2 points) Which of the following jobs belongs to the tertiary sector of the American economy? A. coal miner Feedback for this selection: See Chapter 3, "North America, The United States, The Changing Geogrpahy of Economic Activity, The Spatial Economy." B. chief executive of a multinational corporation C. auto assembly line welder D. office receptionist This is a correct answer Question Information: Employees in the primary sector extract goods from the earth. Employees in the secondary sector engage in modifying those extracted goods. (Manufacturing) Employees engaged in the tertiary sector provide services not a product. Employees engaged in the quaternary sector are involved in information technologies or management. Quinary sector employment is limited to few high level decision makers, CEOs, Presidents of countries, and the Head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for instance. Points earned on this question: 0 Question 22 (Worth 2 points) The physiographic trait that best defines the geographic realm of Europe is penninsulas and islands. This is a correct answer Feedback for this selection: Correct. a humid temperate climate with no dry season. an upland topography. the locus of the realm as the origin of the Industrial Revolution. Points earned on this question: 2 Question 23 (Worth 2 points) Using the map, G-7, in your text titled World Climates, determine the climate classification of the eastern United States. Af Bwh Dwd Cfa This is a correct answer Points earned on this question: 2 Question 24 (Worth 10 points) Carefully match the detractors to the questions. Make sure to read this question each time your enter the exam because the software scrambles the answers. Match Term Definition Maquiladora Correct Register to View Answer A) Factories that were located close to the North American border after the implementation of NAFTA Hacienda Correct Register to View Answer B) A Spanish institution that gave the land holder a large land grant and the natives that worked on the land Subsistence Agricuture Correct Register to View Answer C) Farmers who either do not produce beyond their needs or only produce a small excess for market Commercial Agriculture Correct Register to View Answer D) Landlocked states Brazilia E) Center of the of the Inca Empire Barrio (favela) Correct Answer: I F) Market agriculture Chiapas Correct Answer: H G) Forward Capitol Africa H) A poor state where social unrest based on land tenure creates problems for the national government Altiplano Correct Register to View Answer I) Urban community inhabited by rural to urban migrants in search of employment outside of agriculture Uganda, Rwanda, Botswana, & Zimbabwe J) Cradle of humanity Points earned on this question: 3 Question 25 (Worth 10 points) Carefully match the detractors to the questions. Make sure to read this question each time your enter the exam because the software scrambles the answers. Match Term Definition Hinterland Correct Register to View Answer A) Surrounding area served by an urban center Absolute Location Correct Answer: J B) Russia's problem with interactions within their country Relative Location Correct Answer: H C) Hungarian support for ethnic Hungarians who live in other countries Ethnicity Correct Answer: I D) Habitable zones of a state or a nation Multi nation state Correct Register to View Answer E) A political state containing several ethnic groups. An example of Distance Decay F) A functional region that expands to incorporate an Correct Register to View Answerarea based on economic interactions which may cross national boundaries Nation Correct Answer: G G) A group of people who identify with each other because of ethnicity. An example of Irredentism Correct Register to View Answer H) A method of referring to a location that relies on situation and reference to other locations. Ecumene Correct Register to View Answer I) A person's culture and racial ancestry. Regional State Correct Register to View Answer J) A location expressed with degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude Points earned on this question: 0 Question 26 (Worth 10 points) Choose ONE of the following questions and answer it fully using geographic concepts. A. For any one of the political entities (states, nations, nation states, or multi nation states, not realms or regions) that you have studied in the first half of this course, briefly discuss the physical and cultural geographic aspects that impact the country. You may choose those that have either a positive or a negative impact. Be sure to use concrete examples to illustrate your Register to View AnswerGlobalization is increasingly becoming a buzz word. Explain the concept of globalization including the historical, present, and future ramifications of globalization. Be sure to use concrete examples. Read this question carefully and make sure that you answer ALL parts of it. ESSAY SUBMISSION The concept Globalization emerged right after World War II because there were many war-torn nations who wanted to take advantage of US expertise in technology and industrial arena to improve upon their nations condition. If seen closer Globalization is in itself is a relatively new concept. This phase saw developed countries/economies exerting primarily their market presence in terms of trade wherein one economy sold their goods to other economy without any adaption. Brief history of globalization : 1914 The outbreak of World War I ends the first great age of globalization, when trade and international investment had boomed 1970 Boeing bets its fortunes on the 747 jumbo jet, which for the first time makes intercontinental air travel accessible to a mass market 1999 Riots at the World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle signal a backlash against free trade 2001 After arduous negotiations, China joins the WTO, hence integrating its economy into international trading patterns 2006 Dubai Ports World tries to buy 21 U.S. ports from a U.K. firm, but ferocious political and public pressure nixes the deal Globalization phases and future challenges, including examples : Phase 1: Globalizing the resource base This phase of Globalization saw the mobilization of resource bases and not just goods and hence many organizations from developed countries moved to newly industrializing countries and/or developing countries or otherwise simply to other developed countries to establish their marketing or finance operations and R&D labs. Phase 2: Glocalization This phase saw a lot of products and services from developed countries coming to newly industrializing countries like India and China with a lot of adoption primarily aimed for these countries. These adoptions were done to bring the cost the down and to make them easily sellable for these countries. However, these adoption strategies were usually decided in the parent country and not in the target country, thus making them fail more often than not. For example, when Ford motors ( decided to enter India for the first time in 1990s, they decided to enter the market with their 20.000 USD mid-segment car and customized to bring it in India at the rate of 15.000 USD. The customization for this car, meant for India was done in Detroit, US. During the customization process, the engineers decided to get away with the power windows of the back seats in the car to bring the cost down, unaware of the fact that anyone in India during 1990s who would buy a car worth 15.000 USD, would also have a chauffeur and hence the power windows were left for the chauffer instead of the car owner. As a result, the car with which Ford motors entered India failed miserably to attract customers. Most US companies are still in "Glocalization" phase, however they do a better job at localizing their products/services now, learning from their experiences. Phase 3 : The future Globalization challenge is reverse innovation A reverse innovation is any innovation likely to be adopted first in the developing world. Increasingly we see companies developing products in countries like China and India and then distribute them globally. The concept is just not restricted with products. It can and will happen with Services, Management Ideas and leadership techniques. For example, Micro- Finance and Microcredit was conceptualized in Bangladesh by Muhammad Yunus ( and has spread now to 100 countries including US transforming peoples life. The Income Gulf Emerging markets have customer's discontinuity because there is a clear paradox in these markets - They are usually large, fast growing economies with very low per capita income. Hence the innovation opportunities are more pricing strategy for low-cost reverse innovation products. The margin won't be high, but gross margin or percentage average margin can be high . The volume is the key since these products can be sold in both developing and developed nations . You can sell the same without any fixed cost (R&D etc.) when you take the product to developed countries, since you have already spent that fixed cost to develop the product in developing countries. More examples of reverse innovation: - Netbook is a 10 Billion USD opportunity and is a result of reverse opportunity, since it emerged from the idea of a computer for less than 1000 USD - Tata Nano, a USD 1000 car by Tata Motors is conceptualized and manufactured in India and will be launched in Europe and USA in 2011 and 2012 respectively Points earned on this question: 0 Question 27 (Worth 10 points) Define the geographic perspective and explain how this approach can be used to analyze local, regional, national, and international and events situations. Use specific and concrete examples to illustrate your understanding. Do not simply cut and paste your answer from materials that you have been given in your text or in the class. You will need to use your critical thinkng skills. (All students must answer this question.) ESSAY SUBMISSION A geographic perspective is a way of looking at and understanding the world. When one view the world through the lens of geography, you are asking who, what, where, and when people, places, and things are distributed across the surface of the earth, and why and how they got there. In other words, it means that you are analyzing something within its spatial, historical, cultural, political, and physical contexts. You can study anything that has some spatial component to it from this perspective. All thingswhether they are rivers, cities, populations of people, or eventsexist in a particular place and in a particular time for a set of specific reasons. For example, the Great Plains resulted from the retreat of a massive glacier nearly 14,000 years ago; and the United States is in part the consequence of a small group of people from England who immigrated to North America because of religious persecution and their interactions with the indigenous people who already lived here. Although these two events are separated in time by thousands of years, they are connected in that the descendents of those original colonists, as well as later immigrants, traversed the Great Plains; displaced indigenous populations; established cities, farms, and ranches; and disseminated their culture. Geographic perspective and culture The total way of life that characterizes a group of people, is one of the most important things that geographers study. There are literally thousands of cultures on Earth today and each contributes to global diversity. One reason for the existence of so many cultures is that there are so many ways that Earth's 6.3 billion people can be culturally different. Specifically, a culture consists of numerous cultural components that vary from one culture group to the next. For example, language is a cultural component. While some cultural communities use English, others speak Spanish, Japanese, Arabic, or another of the thousands of languages spoken today. Religion is another cultural component, and there are hundreds (if not thousands) of ways that different culture groups practice and are characterized by that trait. Likewise, there is a world of cultural differences with respect to technology and medicine, economic and agricultural activity, and modes of architecture and transportation. Moreover, cultural communities may differ in their dress, grooming, music, cuisine, dance, sport, etiquette, and other cultural components, all of which make for a culturally diverse world. Culture characterizes Earth as well; for it is primarily through the agency of their culture that people interact with and modify Earths surface. Thus, areas may have different looks and feels that reflect differences in culture. For example, church steeples dominate the skylines of numerous small towns in New York State. Minarets dominate similar settlements in the Middle East. Because of the innumerable cultural differences that characterize people and land the world over, there is an entire subfield of geography devoted to the study of cultureappropriately named cultural geography. Cultural geography includes culture region, cultural landscape, cultural diffusion, and cultural interaction. The purpose of regions (which also are arbitrary) is to make geographyor cultural geography, in this casemore comprehensible by dividing the world into areas that have something in common. Culture regions, like cultures themselves, display considerable variety. Any number of cultural components may be used to define culture regions. A map of world religions, for example, includes a shaded area in South Asia where Hinduism is dominant .That is a culture region based on a single cultural component. Similarly, a language map of Europe would show an area where Basque is dominant .That also would be a culture region based on a single cultural component. For comparisons sake, you might then compare that list to the U.S. culture region, or to the Mexican culture region, or the culture region of some other country. Culture regions differ greatly in size. Some are exceedingly large, like the Islamic culture region that encompasses millions of square miles of North Africa and Southwest Asia. Some are very small, like Spanish Harlem, which encompasses about two square miles of Manhattan. Many others are of intermediate size, like the Corn Belt, which occupies a portion of the midwestern United States. Culture regions can be found in urban, suburban, or rural settings. Many cities contain ethnic neighborhoods. Basically, these are urban culture regions whose borders are defined by the locations of specific cultural communities. Different cities around the world have ethnic mixes, however. In France, for example, you would discover that Arabs, sub-Saharan Africans, and West Indians comprise large ethnic communities in many cities. In Germany, in contrast, Turks and various Slavic peoples often are the major groups. Urban fringes the world over also exhibit cultural differences. The typical American suburb exhibits housing, land use, and lifestyles that differ significantly from what is observed on the periphery of cities in West Africa or Central America, for example.Rural parts of the world may differ on the basis of language, religion, or some other cultural componentmost notably agriculture. Thus, dairy farming and apple growing characterize different sections of rural New York State. Both are visually distinctive and may be thought of as separate culture regions. In contrast, rural culture regions elsewhere in the world might be dominated by cattle ranches, rice fields, banana plantations, or some other form of agriculture. Over time culture regions tend to appear and disappear, and expand and contract in between. Many millennia ago, for example, there were no human beings in North America. In the course of subsequent migrations, however, different peoples occupied different parts of the continent. As a result, by 1492 North America was a mosaic of Native American culture regions. Many of them have since disappeared or have diminished in size. Similarly, an ancient Phoenician culture region gave way to a Roman culture region, which in turn disappeared. Much more immediately, there are lots of areas and neighborhoods in New York State and elsewhere that are experiencing "ethnic change"a situation in which one cultural community is expanding or contracting in opposition to another. The latter highlights the fact that culture unites and divides humanity: while it instills a sense of unity among some peoples, it creates differences (perhaps deep animosities) between others. Accordingly, maps of culture regions may provide important perspectives on contemporary problems that are rooted in cultural differences. For example, Americans have come to appreciate that all Iraqis are not the same. Rather, they are divided mainly into three cultural communities (Sunnis, Shiites, and Kurds) who occupy culture regions that are more or less separate. To a large degree, the future of Iraq is likely to be determined by the extent to which the occupants of those culture regions work together for the common good. The cultural diffusion concerns the spread of culture and the factors that account for it, such as migration, communications, trade, and commerce. Because culture moves over space, the geography of culture is constantly changing. Generally, culture traits originate in a particular area and spread outward, ultimately to characterize a larger expanse of territory. Culture region describes the location of culture traits or cultural communities; cultural diffusion helps explain how they got there. For example, New York State generally lies within the English-speaking culture region. Nevertheless there are significant cultural communities within New York State in which Spanish, Chinese, Hebrew, Arabic, or another language is dominant Similarly, while most of New York State is part of the Christian culture region, there also are local cultural communities in which Judaism, Islam, or Buddhism is dominant. What all these languages and religions have in common is that none originated in New York State or even in North America. Rather, each has come to characterize segments of the Empire State as a result of cultural diffusion. Similar stories apply to other parts of the world. In Australia, for example, the continent was once the exclusive domain of an aboriginal cultural community. Because of cultural diffusion, however, most of the present-day Australian people and their homeland bear the unmistakable imprint of European cultureparticularly, cultural characteristics that diffused from Great Britain. Because diffusion occurs over time as well as over space, there may be a time lag between the origin of a trait in a large city and its appearance in small towns and rural areas. Nowadays, the above phenomenon is particularly evident and important in developing countries, where modernization tends to take hold in major cities and then trickle down to the countryside. In China, for example, you can discover a land of rapidly modernizing citiesmany with world-class industries, office towers, and port facilities. In contrast, portions of rural China are still dominated by traditional pre-modern agricultural tools and techniques. In reality, therefore, China is not a cultural community, but is instead a mosaic of many cultural communities. The same is true of Mexico, India, Peru, and virtually every other country. Cultural differences exist within countries as well as between them. The cultural landscape consists of material aspects of culture that characterize our world. Typically, cultural landscapes change in bits and pieces. Thus, most cultural landscapes are a mixture of new buildings and old ones , modern superhighways and old narrow streets, gleaming office buildings and rusting manufacturing facilities, and so on. For instance in Peru, the cultural landscape consists of a variety of old and new elements. That would include architectural artifacts from the Inca period (e.g., agricultural terraces, roads, and ruinslike Machu Picchu), baroque cathedrals that date from Spanish colonial times, and a host of more modern structures. Similarly, about Egypt, the pyramids and temples that date from the time of the ancient pharaohs, grand mosques built in recent centuries, grand hotels built in recent years, and other elements of varying age People of all regions and times have left their cultural imprints on earth and many of these endure. As a result, the cultural landscape may be a tool for understanding the history and status of a given area, as well as current trends. The cultural interaction focuses on the relationships that often exist between cultural components that characterize a given community. When geographers seek to explain why a particular culture trait is found in a particular area, they often discover that the answer lies in another trait possessed by that same cultural community. This demonstrates that cultural components may be interrelated. Some examples: the concepts of personal privacy in Islamic and Iberian culture regions often explain why residences lack street-level windows. Buddhists regard golden colors as a symbol of enlightenment. That explains why gold-domed temples figure so prominently in cultural landscapes in various parts of Southeast Asia. If the residents of a particular neighborhood were conservative Jews, then that would explain the presence of kosher grocery stores, signs in Hebrew, synagogues, and particular styles of clothing. Because north was a sacred direction to the ancient Mayans, the boulevard-facing facades of their temples were always aligned in a north-south manner Points earned on this question: 0 Question 28 (Worth 10 points) Choose ONE of the following questions and answer it fully using geographic concepts. A. List and discuss the reasons why Subsaharan Africa remains in the grip of poverty. B. If as it seems, the current movement toward establishing "Four Nations" in Canada continues to fruition, resulting in fours separate nations, what would be the impact on Canada and what would be the impact in the U.S.? ESSAY SUBMISSION List and discussion of reasons that maintain the poverty in Subsaharan Africa A.Risk and vulnerability People everywhere in the world face risks and vulnerabilities but poor people, especially those living in rural areas dependant on agriculture and in tropical ecologies face more than others. This is true for the majority of Subsaharan Africa population. There are a number of risks and vulnerabilities that drive and maintain poverty in Subsaharan Africa, including harvest failure, market failure and volatility, conflict and health shocks. A.1. Harvest failure Africas geography and agro-ecology (prone to drought as well as intense rain) combine with inefficient agricultural technologies and inadequate agricultural support and result in environmental degradation, unmanaged pests and poor access to inputs, which increase vulnerability. A.2.Market failure and market volatility Market failure and market volatility increase the prevalence of poverty in Subsaharan Africa. This is because, in many instances, the poor do not possess the level of assets (both physical and human capital assets) required to protect themselves from shocks resulting from markets. Market fragmentation inadequate institutional and infrastructural linkages (e.g. railway, roads, landline and mobile telecommunications) between local, national and international markets means that markets are poorly integrated, over both time and space. This not only affects physical markets but reduces producers and traders access to information that signals price changes, which limits their ability to change their patterns of production and trade to avoid economic shocks. The advantages of rural infrastructure and markets is seen in Tanzania, where households within 100 metres of a yeararound road that has a regular bus service, earn on average one-third more per capita than the rural average. Market volatility is driven by international economic shifts or more localised market failures. International market volatility in key staples and commodities (e.g. coffee, sugar, cocoa, tea) can lead to higher prices (as in Uganda in the late 1990s) but also to low prices, which cause extreme hardship for producers. A.3. Conflicts A strong association is found between high levels of conflict and multidimensional poverty. For example, between 1997 and 2006, nearly 40% of low human-development states globally were found to be affected by armed conflict, compared with less than 2% of high and a third of medium human development states This is significant because African countries are prone to conflict. In 2006 Africa, with 13% of the global population, had over 40% of the worlds violent conflicts; eleven countries were affected directly A.4.Health shocks Health statistics in Subsaharan Africa are alarming. The under-five mortality rate in 2005 was 166/1000 a figure that has hardly improved in two decades and is twice the developing worlds average. Poor maternal health is a scandal, with the odds that a Subsaharan woman will die from complications during pregnancy and child birth at 1 in 16 compared with a developed-world rate of 1 in 3800. Life expectancy in Subsaharan Africa is today lower than it was three decades ago, with an average life expectancy of about 50 years in 2005 The HIV/AIDS pandemic has reduced life expectancy and contributed to high levels of mortality. The number of people dying from AIDS in Subsaharan Africa continues to increase, reaching 2 million in 2006 B. Low capabilities A different way of thinking about the causes of poverty is to think in terms of capabilities. These reflect a persons freedom or ability to choose the way (s)he wishes to live. These include the capacity to be free from hunger, to become educated, and to earn a decent living and as such, they are interconnected and mutually reinforcing. People trapped in persistent poverty tend to experience multiple capability deprivations concurrently. That is, they are illiterate, have inadequate nutrition, poor human rights, and insufficient income and livelihood opportunities, which taken together drive and maintain their poverty and ensure it passes across generations. C. Inequalities, exclusion and adverse incorporation Inequalities in income and other economic indicators, such as asset ownership, are often persistent, deeply rooted and typically a result of political forces that enable powerful groups to protect their wealth, and of market imperfections that make it difficult for those who have low incomes and low savings to accumulate capital. Exclusion from political, social and economic institutions is part of a vicious cycle that leads to low capability levels, which in turn reduces the ability of the people to escape poverty and horizontal inequalities Commonly, exclusion results from various forms of active discrimination, directed against certain people (e.g. who share ethnicity, religion, or culture). In 2006 80% of Africans did not earn enough to lift themselves and their families above the US$2/day poverty line and one-half lived in extreme poverty (less than $US1 a day) Because ethnicity is a key defining characteristic in Africa, it drives discrimination, conflict, state formation, political alliances, economic choices, etc. Ethno-territoriality (where ethnicity overlaps with territorial claims) plays a central role in determining wealth and poverty as well as access to resources and political power. In places, state formation along ethno-territorial lines has created poverty traps for entire peoples and regions Taken together, risk and vulnerability, low capacities, inequality, exclusion, adverse incorporation and limited livelihood opportunities combine to keep many Subsaharan Africans poor ... View Full Document

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