Visualizing Nutrition- Chapter 2
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Visualizing Nutrition- Chapter 2

Course Number: HUN 2201, Fall 2011

College/University: University of Florida

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c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 28 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet W hat you dont know could kill you may have been the rst nutrition recommendation in human history. To swallow the wrong berry or gulp down water from a suspect source or tuck into a diseased organ from the most recent kill could have been fatal to early humans, who were hunter-gatherers. Such lessons would serve as anecdotal guideposts to...

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PM Page c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 28 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet W hat you dont know could kill you may have been the rst nutrition recommendation in human history. To swallow the wrong berry or gulp down water from a suspect source or tuck into a diseased organ from the most recent kill could have been fatal to early humans, who were hunter-gatherers. Such lessons would serve as anecdotal guideposts to survival. As societies developed, dietary cautions turned into taboos, sometimes laws, and ultimately, nutrition recommendations. Governments have been providing what we would call modern nutrition information for the past 150 years. As the Industrial Revolution swept through Great Britain in the rst half of the 19th century, urban populationsand poverty and hungerswelled. To ensure a healthy workforce, the British government developed minimum dietary guidelines utilizing the cheapest foods. It wasnt until World War I that the British Royal Society determined that a healthy workforce required a healthy diet, not necessarily the cheapest. So fruits, vegetables, and milk became elements of a solid nutritional foundation. Since then, virtually every national government has sought, with varying degrees of success, to establish dietary standards for its citizens. Today, modern public health agencies provide valuable information regarding nutritional choices. However, this information isnt always understood or used properly. As portion sizes grow, so do American waistlinesand the attendant health concerns. What you dont know could kill you remains as vital an admonition today as it was 40,000 years ago. 28 2 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 29 C HAPTER OUTLINE s Nutrition Recommendations p. 30 s Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) p. 34 s Tools for Diet Planning p. 37 Nutrition Facts Serving Size 1 cup (228g) Servings Per Container 2 Amount Per Serving Calories 250 Calories from Fat 110 % Daily Value* Total Fat 12g 18% s Food and Supplement Labels p. 44 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 30 Nutrition Recommendations LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain the purpose of government nutrition recommendations. Discuss how U.S. nutrition recommendations have changed over the past 100 years. hat should we be eating if we want to satisfy our nutrient needs? Our taste buds, food marketers and advertisers, and magazine and newspaper headlines all inuence our choices. These choices may not always be healthy ones, however. Our taste buds respond to avor and sensation, W A World War II nutrition poster Figure 2.1 Food shortage was a national concern in the United States during World War II. People were expected to cooperate with rationing efforts and to plant home gardens, called victory gardens. The food that could be produced from a plot of land was too valuable to waste. Not to grow a garden or care for fruiting shrubs and trees was considered unpatriotic. 30 CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet Describe how nutrition recommendations are used to evaluate nutritional status and set public health policy. not necessarily to sensible nutrition; manufacturers want to sell products; and magazines want to sell subscriptions. Government recommendations, on the other hand, are designed with individual health as well as public health in mind. They can be used to plan diets and to evaluate what we are eating, both as individuals and as a nation. PAST AND PRESENT U.S. RECOMMENDATIONS The federal government has been in the business of making nutritional recommendations for over 100 years. These recommendations have changed over time as our food intake patterns have changed and our knowledge of what constitutes a healthy diet has evolved. The rst dietary recommendations in the United States, published in 1894 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), suggested amounts of protein, carbohydrate, fat, and mineral matter needed to keep Americans healthy.1 At the time, specic vitamins and minerals essential for health had not been identied; nevertheless, this work set the stage for the development of the rst food guides. Food guides translate nutrient-intake recommendations into recommended food choices. The food guide How to Select Foods, released in 1917, was designed to help people choose a healthy diet based on ve food groups: meat and milk, cereals, vegetables and fruit, fats and fatty foods, and sugars and sugary foods. In the 1930s, as food became scarce for many Americans because of the Depression, the USDA began to publish low-cost food plans to help people meet their nutritional needs on a limited income. In the early 1940s, as the United States entered World War II, the Food and Nutrition Board was established to advise the Army and other federal agencies regarding problems related to food and the nutritional health of the armed forces and the general population (Figure 2.1). The Food and Nutrition Board developed the rst set of recommendations for specic 7:25 PM Page 31 amounts of nutrients. These came to be known as the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The original RDAs made recommendations on amounts of energy and on specic nutrients that were most likely to be decient in peoples dietsprotein, iron, calcium, vitamins A and D, thiamin, riboavin, niacin, and vitamin C. Recommended intakes were based on amounts that would prevent nutrient deciencies. Over the years since those rst standards were developed, dietary habits and disease patterns have changed, and dietary recommendations have had to change along with them. Overt nutrient deciencies are now rare in the United States, but the incidence of diet-related chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, has increased. To combat these more recent health concerns, recommendations are now intended to promote health as well as prevent deciencies. The original RDAs have been expanded into the Dietary Reference Intakes; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a set of diet and lifestyle recommendations rst published in 1980, have been updated to better promote health and reduce chronic disease risk in the population; early food guides have evolved into MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You, which suggests servings from ve food group to meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines; and standardized food labels have been developed to help consumers choose foods that meet these recommendations. HOW WE USE NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS Nutrition recommendations are developed to address the nutri- s nutritional status An individuals health, tional concerns of the populaas it is inuenced tion and help individuals meet by the intake and their nutrient needs. These recutilization of nutrients. ommendations can also be used to evaluate the nutrient intake of populations and of individuals within populations. Determining what people eat and how their nutrient intake compares to nutrition recommendations is important for assessing their nutritional status. When evaluating the nutritional status of a population, food intake can be assessed by having individuals track their food intake or by using information about the amounts and types of food that is available to the population to identify trends in the diet (see What a Scientist Sees). Trends in Milk Consumption The graph shows estimates of milk consumption in the United States from 1909 to 1999, based on the amount of milk available for human consumption during that period. Anyone looking at the graph can tell that overall milk consumption and consumption of whole milk both declined, while consumption of lower-fat milks increased. A nutrition scientist looking at this graph, however, would see not just changes in the amounts and types of milk consumed but the nutritional and public health implications of these changes as well. 50 Because whole milk is high in saturated fat, replacing whole milk with lower-fat milk decreases saturated fat intake. This is good from the standpoint of heart health, but the decline in total milk consumption may be bad for bone health. Milk is one of the most important sources of calcium in the North American diet. The scientist will be alerted to the fact that calcium intake from milk has been declining. Unless more calcium from other sources is being consumed, this drop in milk consumption may indicate that the population is at risk for fragile bones and an increase in fractures. Based on this analysis, what kinds of measures would you suggest to increase the populations calcium intake? Total milk Whole milk Lower-fat milks 40 30 Bone fracture due to osteoporosis 20 10 0 1909 1919 1929 1939 1949 1959 1969 1979 1989 1999 Year Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Major trends in the U.S. food supply. 19091999. Food Review 23:12, 2000. What a Scientist Sees 7/14/09 Gallons per person c02.qxd c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 32 Assessing nutritional status Figure 2.2 Process Diagram A complete assessment of an individuals nutritional status includes a diet analysis, a physical exam, a medical history, and an evaluation of nutrient levels in the body. An interpretation of this information can determine whether an individual is well nourished, malnourished, or at risk of malnutrition. 1 Determine typical food intake. Peoples typical food intake can be evaluated by having them record their food as they consume it or recall what they have eaten during the past day or so. Because food intake varies from day to day, to obtain a realistic picture, an individuals intake should be monitored for more than one day. An accurate food record includes all food and beverages consumed, along with descriptions of cooking methods and brand names of products. It is often difcult to obtain an accurate record because people may change what they are eating rather than record it, or they may forget what they ate when recalling it. 2 Analyze nutrient intake. A computer analysis of an individuals food intake can calculate nutrient intake and compare it with the appropriate nutrition recommendations. In this example, which shows only a few nutrients, intake of vitamin A, iron, and calcium is below the recommended amounts, and intake of vitamin C and saturated fat is above the recommended amounts. Nutrient Percent of recommendation 0% 50% 100% Vitamin A 75% Vitamin C Iron Calcium 115% 54% 75% Saturated fat 134% 3 Evaluate physical health. A physical examination can detect signs of nutrient deciencies or excesses. Measures of body dimensions such as height and weight can be monitored over time or compared with standards for a given population. Drastic changes in measurements or measurements that are signicantly above or below the standards could indicate a nutritional deciency or excess. When food intake data are evaluated in conjunction with information about the health and nutritional status of individuals in the population (Figure 2.2), relationships between dietary intake and health and disease can be identified. This is important for developing public health measures that address nutritional problems. For example, population surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) helped public health officials recognize that low iron levels are a problem for many people, in32 CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet cluding young women, preschool children, and the elderly. This information led to the fortification of grain products with iron, beginning in the 1940s. Recent NHANES data have also shown that the number of calories Americans consume per day has increased over the past few decades and that the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during the same period. This has led public health experts to develop programs to improve both the diet and the fitness of Americans. c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 33 4 Consider medical history. Personal and family medical histories are important because genetic risk factors affect an individuals risk of developing a nutritionrelated disease. For example, if you have high cholesterol and your father died of a heart attack at age 50, you have a higher-than-average risk of developing heart disease and may need to modify your diet to reduce your risk. Great grand parents 5 Assess with laboratory tests. Measures of nutrients, their by-products, or their functions in the blood, urine, and body cells can help detect nutrient deciencies and excesses (Appendix B). For instance, levels of iron and iron-carrying proteins in the blood can be used to determine whether a person has iron-deciency anemia, and levels of blood cholesterol such as those shown here can provide information about an individuals risk of heart disease. Blood Lipid Panel Result Healthy range2 Cholesterol, total Grand parents Test 185 mg/dL <200 Triglycerides 56 mg/dL <150 HDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol, calculated 59 mg/dL >40 90 mg/dL <100 Parents Affected by or at risk for heart disease Kids The information obtained from population health and nutrition surveys is also used to determine whether the nation is meeting health and nutrition goals, such as those established by Healthy People. This set of health-promotion and disease-prevention objectives is revised every 10 years, with the goal of increasing the quality and length of healthy lives for the population as a whole and eliminating health disparities among different segments of the population. The newest version of these objectives, Healthy People 2020, will be released in 2010 (see Appendix D).3 CONCEPT CHECK How do nutrition What factors are recommendations benet individual and public health? considered in evaluating nutritional status? What was the original purpose of the RDAs? Nutrition Recommendations 33 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 34 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) LEARNING OBJECTIVES Summarize the purpose of the DRIs. Describe the four sets of DRI values used in recommending nutrient intake. List the variables that affect energy needs (EERs). Dene the concept of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). he Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommendations for the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and prevent deciencies.4 The DRIs can be used to T DRIs for different groups Figure 2.3 Because gender and life stage affect nutrient needs, Dietary Reference Intake values have been set for each gender and for various life-stage groups. These values take into account the physiological differences that affect the nutrient needs of men and women, infants, children, adolescents, adults, older adults, and pregnant and lactating women. evaluate whether a persons diet provides all the essential nutrients in adequate amounts. They include several types of recommendations that address both nutrient intake and energy intake and include values that are appropriate for people of different genders and stages of life (Figure 2.3). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NUTRIENT INTAKE The DRI recommendations for nutrient intake include four sets of values. The Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) are average amounts of nutrients or other dietary components required s Estimated Average by healthy individuals in a popRequirements ulation (Figure 2.4). They (EARs) Nutrient are determined using experiintakes estimated mental data on nutrient needs to meet the needs and are used in assessing the of 50% of the healthy adequacy of a populations individuals in a given food supply or typical intake. gender and life-stage They are not appropriate for group. evaluating an individuals intake but are used to calculate the Recommended Dietary s Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The RDAs Allowances recommend specic amounts (RDAs) Nutrient of nutrients and other dietary intakes that are components to meet the needs sufcient to meet the of most healthy people (Figure needs of almost all 2.4). When there arent healthy people in a enough data about nutrient respecic gender and quirements to establish EARs life-stage group. and RDAs, Adequate Intakes (AIs) are set, based on what healthy people typically eat. s Adequate RDA or AI values can be used as Intakes (AIs) goals for individual intake and Nutrient intakes that to plan and evaluate individual should be used as a diets (Appendix A and inside goal when no RDA covers). They are meant to repexists. AI values are resent the amounts that most an approximation of healthy people should conthe nutrient intake sume, on average, over several that sustains health. days or even weeks, not each 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 35 Understanding EARs, RDAs, and ULs Figure 2.4 EARs and RDAs are determined by measuring the different amounts of nutrients required by different individuals in a population group and plotting the resulting values. Because a few individuals in the group need only a small amount, a few need a large amount, and most need an amount that falls between the extremes, the result is a bell-shaped curve like the one shown here. The RDA is set by adding a safety factor to the EAR. About 97% of the population meets its needs by consuming this amount (shown as yellow shading). If nutrient intake meets the RDA, the risk of deficiency is very low. As intake falls, the risk of a deficiency increases. An EAR is the average amount of a nutrient required for good health. If everyone in the population consumed this amount, only 50% would obtain enough of the nutrient to meet their requirements (shown as diagonal lines). EAR RDA Number of people c02.qxd UL The UL is set well above the needs of everyone in the population and represents the highest amount of the nutrient that will not cause toxicity symptoms in the majority of healthy people. As intake rises above the UL, the likelihood of toxicity increases. Daily nutrient requirement and every day. Because they are set high enough to meet the needs of almost all healthy people, intake below the RDA or AI does not necessarily mean that an individual is decient, but the risk of deciency is greater than if the individual consumed the recommended amount. The fourth set of values, Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs), specifies the maximum amount of a nutrient that most people can consume on a daily basis without some adverse effect (Figure 2.4). For most nutrients, it is difficult to exceed the UL by consuming food. Most foods do not contain enough of any one nutrient to cause toxicity; however, some dietary supplements may. For some nutrients, the UL is set for total intake from all sources, including food, fortified foods, and dietary s Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) Maximum daily intake levels that are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a given gender and life-stage group. s Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) Average energy intake values predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals. supplements. For other nutrients, the UL refers to intake from supplements alone or from supplements and fortified foods. For many nutrients, there is no UL because too little information is available to determine it. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENERGY INTAKE The DRIs make two types of recommendations about energy intake. The rst, called Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs), provides an estimate of how many calories are needed to keep body weight stable. EER calculations take into account a persons age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity. A change in any of these variables Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 35 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 36 The right amount of energy from the right sources Figure 2.5 v c02.qxd A A 17-year-old girl who is 5 4 tall, weighs 127 pounds, and gets no exercise has an EER of about 1730 Calories a day. If she adds an hour of moderate activity to her daily routine, her EER will increase to 2380 Calories, so she must eat 650 Calories more per day to maintain her current weight and support growth.4 If she grows taller or gains weight, her EER will also increase. B A healthy diet can include different proportions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. These two plates show very different food combinations, but both are within the AMDRs for protein, carbohydrate, and fat. w This meal contains approximately 480 Calories, of which 55% is from carbohydrate, 20% is from protein, and 25% is from fat. changes the persons energy needs (Figure 2.5A). Macronutrient The second type of energy Distribution recommendation, called AcRanges (AMDRs) ceptable Macronutrient DisHealthy ranges of tribution Ranges (AMDRs), intake for carbomakes recommendations about hydrate, fat, and the proportions of calories protein, expressed that should come from carboas percentages of hydrate, fat, and protein in total energy intake. a healthy diet. AMDRs are ranges10 to 35% of calories from protein, 45 to 65% of calories from carbohydrate, and 10 to 35% of calories from fatnot exact values; they are intended to promote s Acceptable 36 CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet This meal contains approximately 740 Calories, of which 30% is from carbohydrate, 35% is from protein, and 35% is from fat. diets that minimize disease risk while allowing exibility in food intake patterns (Figure 2.5B). CONCEPT CHECK What are RDAs and AIs used for? How might you use ULs? What are three variables that affect your energy needs? Why are AMDR values given as ranges rather than as single numbers? c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 37 Tools for Diet Planning LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain how the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid are related. Determine your individualized MyPyramid recommendations. Discuss how following the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines can help prevent chronic disease. Identify foods that are high in discretionary calories. he DRIs tell you how much of each nutrient you need, but they do not help you choose foods that will meet these needs. To help consumers choose diets that will meet their needs, the U.S. government has developed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You. The Dietary Guidelines are a set of diet and lifestyle recommendations designed to promote health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases in the U.S. population.5 The USDAs MyPyramid is the most recent pyramid-shaped food guide. It divides foods into groups based on the nutrients they supply most abundantly and recommends appropriate amounts from each food group. MyPyramid was developed to help Americans put the recommendations of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines into practice. T RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 include recommendations that promote nutrient-dense food choices, a balance between food intake and exercise (intended to support a healthy body weight), limited intake of dietary components that contribute to chronic disease, and prevention of food-borne illness (Table 2.1). These recommendations are designed for all healthy Americans 2 years of age and older. Additional recommendations target specic subpopulations (see Appendix D). Make nutrient-dense choices Despite the great variety of foods available to most Americans, many of us do not make the most nutritious choices. To address this problem, the Dietary Guidelines recommend choosing a variety of nutrient-dense foods. They encourage Americans to improve their nutrient intakes by eating more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, lean meats, beans, and nuts and seeds. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and beans are rich in fiber, micronutrients, and phytochemicals. Low-fat dairy products provide calcium and protein without too much saturated fat. Beans, peas, nuts, seeds, and lean meats and fish are nutrient-dense protein sources. Key recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 20055 Table 2.1 1. Consume a variety of foods within and among the various food groups. 2. Balance calorie intake with expenditure to manage body weight. 3. Be physically active every day. 4. Choose more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products. 5. Choose fats wisely. 6. Choose ber-rich carbohydrates and limit added sugars. 7. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. 8. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. 9. Prepare, handle, and store food safely. Tools for Diet Planning 37 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 38 Balance food intake with physical activity Limit nutrients that increase health risks More Americans are overweight than ever before, and the numbers continue to grow. To address this problem, the Dietary Guidelines recommend that Americans balance the calories they consume in food and beverages with the calories they expend through physical activity in order to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Weight maintenance requires consuming the same number of calories as you burn; this means that if you eat more, you need to exercise more (discussed in Chapter 9). Losing weight requires consuming fewer calories than you burn. This can be accomplished by reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure through exercise (Figure 2.6). The Dietary Guidelines recommend reducing intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterolthe types of lipids that increase the risk of heart disease (discussed in Chapter 5). Most of the fats in our diet should come from vegetable oils and sh, which promote heart health. The Dietary Guidelines also recommend limiting salt intake in order to prevent high blood pressure and minimizing intake of foods to which rened sugar has been added because such foods provide calories but contribute few nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines also make recommendations regarding alcohol consumption. Those who drink alcohol should do so in moderation. Excess alcohol consumption can alter judgment, lead to addiction, and cause serious Healthy weight and exercise recommendations Figure 2.6 B To reduce the risk of chronic disease, the Dietary Guidelines recommend 30 minutes of moderate activity most days. Ideally, this activity should include aerobic exercise to strengthen the heart, stretching exercises for exibility, and weight lifting for muscle strength and endurance. Greater health benets can be obtained by engaging in more vigorous activity or being active longer. Sixty minutes of moderate to vigorous activity on most days is recommended to help manage weight and prevent weight gain. For those who have lost weight and want to keep it off, 60 to 90 minutes of moderate activity per day is recommended. w v A To promote a healthy weight, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend moderating calorie intake by limiting portion sizes and reducing consumption of added sugars, fats, and alcohol, which provide calories but few essential nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines emphasize that the key to weight management is consuming the appropriate number of calories rather than the relative proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet. 38 CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 39 Moderate alcohol consumption Figure 2.7 Having a glass of wine with dinner is considered moderate drinking (one drink per day for women and two for men) and is the amount of alcohol associated with the lowest overall mortality as well as the lowest mortality from coronary heart disease. Alcohol consumption is not recommended for people who cannot restrict their intake; women who are or may become pregnant; lactating women; children and adolescents; people with conditions or taking medications that interact with alcohol; and people who are engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination. health and societal problems (discussed in Chapter 12). Moderate alcohol consumption may have some benecial effects in middle-aged and older adults, but it is not recommended that anyone who does not drink begin drinking for the sake of its potential health benets (Figure 2.7) (see also What Should I Eat?). WHAT SHOULD I EAT? Keep food safe Paying attention to food safety is part of healthful eating. To reduce the risk of food-borne illness, the Dietary Guidelines encourage Americans to choose and prepare foods with safety in mind and to cook and store foods at the recommended temperatures (discussed in Chapter 13). Use iProle to look up the saturated fat and sugar content in your breakfast cereal. Following the Dietary Guidelines Increase nutrient density Add more vegetables and less mayo to your turkey sandwich. Snack on fruit and nuts rather than on chips and cookies. Have a whole grain such as bulgur, quinoa, or brown rice rather than packaged, avored white rice with dinner. Stir-fry a variety of vegetables. Have strawberries rather than strawberry shortcake for dessert. Balance intake with activity Dont skip breakfast; if you do, youre more likely to overeat later in the day. Pass on that second helping. When you eat out, split an entre with a friend. Walk an extra 1000 steps; the more you exercise, the easier it is to keep your weight at a healthy level. Ride your bike to work or when running errands. Lift some weights or walk on a treadmill while watching the news. Limit nutrients that increase health risks Look at product labels for sodium and saturated and trans fat content before making a choice. Choose lean meat, sh, and low-fat dairy products in order to limit saturated fat. Have water and skip the soft drinkit adds nothing but sugar to your diet. Pass on the salt; instead, try lemon juice or some basil and oregano. If you drink alcohol, stop after one drink. Tools for Diet Planning 39 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 40 Proportionality is demonstrated by the widths of the colored triangles. The widest triangles are groups from which we should make most of our choices grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk. The narrower the triangle, the smaller the amounts we need; the meat and beans triangle is narrower, and the oils triangle is the narrowest. Physical activity reduces the risk of chronic disease, improves physical fitness, and increases energy needs, making weight management easier. Moderation is represented by the triangle shapes. The wide base of each triangle includes the most nutrient-dense choices, which should be selected more often. The narrower tip includes foods within the group that should be selected only infrequently because they contain more added sugars and solid fats. Variety is symbolized by the six colored triangles representing the five food groups plus oils. Foods from all the groups are needed each day for good health. GRAINS VEGETABLES FRUITS MILK MEAT & BEANS Make half your grains whole Vary your veggies Focus on fruits Get your calcium rich foods Go lean with protein Eat at least 3 oz. of whole-grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day 1 oz. is about 1 slice of bread, about 1 cup of breakfast cereal, or up of cooked rice, cereal, or pasta Eat more dark-green veggies like broccoli, spinach, and other dark leafy greens Eat a variety of fruit Eat more orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes Go easy on fruit juices Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit Eat more dry beans and peas like pinto beans, kidney beans, and lentils Go low-fat or free-fat when you choose milk, yogurt, and other milk products Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry Bake it, broil it, or grill it Vary your protein If you dont or cant routinechoose more consume milk, choose fish, beans, peas, nuts, lactose-free products or and seeds other calcium sources such as fortified foods and beverages MyPyramid messages and symbolism Figure 2.8 Simple messages guide our choices from each food group. We are advised to select whole grains for half of our grain choices, vary our vegetables, focus on fruits, choose calcium-rich foods, and go lean with protein. MYPYRAMID: PUTTING THE GUIDELINES INTO PRACTICE Activity, variety, proportionality, and moderation The MyPyramid icon emphasizes the key mes- The recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines are made more usable by MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You. This food guide is built around ve main food groups grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, and meat and beans represented by the colored triangles that make up the pyramid (Figure 2.8). Oils, though not a food group, provide essential nutrients that are needed in small amounts, so they are represented by a sixth thin triangle. sages of the Dietary Guidelines: activity, variety, proportionality, and moderation (see Figure 2.8). Physical activity is represented by the steps and the person climbing them, a reminder of the importance of daily exercise. Variety, illustrated by the different-colored triangles, is important for a healthy diet because no one type of food provides all the nutrients and food components the body needs. Proportionality means eating more of some types of foods than others. The widths of the triangles show us that 40 CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 41 the proportions of grains, fruits, and vegetables in your diet should be larger than the proportion of meat and beans. Moderation means avoiding excesses of saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol, all of which can increase health risks. Practicing moderation means choosing more of the nutrient-dense foods at the wide base of each triangle and fewer from the less-nutrient-dense foods in the tips of the triangles. A personalized approach The colored triangles of MyPyramid indicate different food groups, but the pyramid icon does not show a recommended number of servings from each group. The reason for this is that peoples needs vary. You can obtain your own personalized eating plan by going to the Web site www.MyPyramid.gov, clicking on MyPyramid Plan, and entering your age, gender, and activity level. After you enter this information, the site provides recommendations from each food group, based on your individual calorie needs (Figure 2.9). The amounts recommended from the vegetables, fruits, and milk groups are given in cups, and oil recommendations are given in teaspoons. The amounts from the grains group and the meat and beans group are expressed in ounces. Some examples of 1 ounce of grains are; 1 cup of cold cereal, 1/2 cup of cooked cereal or grains, or a slice of bread. In the meat and beans group; one egg, a tablespoon of peanut butter, a quarter-cup of cooked dry beans, and 1/2 ounce of nuts or seeds are equivalent to 1 ounce of cooked meat, poultry, or sh. Individual MyPyramid recommendations Figure 2.9 This individualized MyPyramid plan for a person who requires about 2000 Calories per day shows the recommended amounts from each food group and advises nutrient-dense choices from within each group. Discretionary calories 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 42 In addition to the food group recommendations of calories MyPyramid, your personalized The calories remaining pyramid plan tells you to limit after an individual has extras to a certain number of met recommended Calories (see Figure 2.9). These intake levels with extras, called discretionary healthy choices from calories, come from dietary all the food groups. components that should be consumed in limited amounts, such as added sugars, alcohol, and solid fats, which are high in saturated or trans fat (Figure 2.10). If you imagine your energy intake as a calorie budget, discretionary calories are the calories you have left over after making nutrient-dense choices, according to your MyPyramid recommendations. The more s discretionary active you are, the more calories you need and the more of these discretionary, or splurge, calories you can consume while meeting nutrient needs without exceeding your calorie needs. Based on your individual MyPyramid recommendations, you can choose foods that suit your food preferences. It is easy to see how some foods in your diet t into a MyPyramid plan. For example, a chicken breast is 3 ounces from the meat and beans group; a scoop of rice is 2 oz from the grains group. It is more difcult to see how much mixed foods such as pizza, stews, and casseroles contribute to each food group. Often individual ingredients must be considered. For example, a slice of pizza provides 1 ounce of grains, 1/8 cup of vegetables, and 1/2 cup of milk. Having meat on your pizza adds about 1/4 oz from that group. One way to see how your 2000 Discretionary calories Figure 2.10 1750 265 Discretionary Calorie allowance 1500 Energy (Cal) c02.qxd 1250 1000 1735 750 Calories needed to meet nutrient needs Calories needed to maintain weight 500 250 0 A If you are at a healthy weight and you choose nutrient-dense foods, you satisfy can all your nutrient needs with fewer calories than you need to maintain your weight. The extra calories needed to maintain your weight make up your discretionary calorie allowance. These can come from additional nutrientdense choices or from foods such as candy, soda, or butter that are high in added sugar or solid fats. B Some discretionary calories come from foods that belong to a food group but contain added sugars and solid fats. These cookies, for example, are in the grains group, but about half of their calories are discretionary calories from solid fat and sugar. Some foods, such as butter, table sugar, soft drinks, candy, and alcohol, dont belong in any food group, so all their calories are discretionary. Because oils are healthy fats, they are not counted toward discretionary calories. 42 CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 43 Tracking your progress on the MyPyramid Web site Figure 2.11 The MyPyramid Menu Planner (at www.mypyramid.gov) helps you visualize each foods contribution to your diet. It shows you whether your diet includes enough food from each group and whether you are meeting or exceeding calorie recommendations. It can be used to evaluate up to a weeks worth of meals and snacks. Your goals are based on a 2000 calorie pattern. Daily Goals: 100% 2 1/2 cups 6 oz. 2 cups 51/2 oz. 3 cups 75% 50% 4 oz. 11/4 cups As you enter each food, the amount it contributes to your food consumption within each group is shown as the bars grow higher. Your daily goal is shown across the top. 3 oz. 11/2 cups 25% 1/2 cup 0% Grains Vegetables Fruit Meat & Beans Milk Sound is on Click on a food group name for helpful tips. 754 Daily Limits: Total Calories: 2000 2000 94 Extras* : 265 calories 265 * solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. Oils: 6 tsp. 2 What about salt?Learn more.. The calories contributed by each food are added as you enter it so you can see how close you are to your recommended energy intake (in this case, 2000 Calories). The number of discretionary calories in each food is added to the Extras. In this example, the total number of discretionary calories allowed is 265. The number of teaspoons of oils in each food is added so it can be compared with recommendations. In this example, 6 teaspoons of oils is recommended. daily intake matches the MyPyramid recommendations is to use the interactive tools on the MyPyramid Web site to help track your progress toward choosing a healthy diet (Figure 2.11). Exchange Lists provide a useful tool whether you are controlling calorie intake for purposes of weight loss or carbohydrate intake for purposes of diabetes management. Appendix E provides more information about exchange lists. EXCHANGE LISTS CONCEPT CHECK The Exchange Lists are a set of food-group recommendations developed in the 1950s to plan diets for people with diabetes. Since then, their use has been expanded to planning diets for anyone who has to monitor calorie intake. They group foods based on the amounts of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat they provide per serving. Foods in the same exchange list each contain approximately the same amounts of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Therefore, any one of the foods on a list can be exchanged with any other food on the list without altering the calories or percentages of carbohydrate, protein, or fat in the diet. How does MyPyramid help you follow the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines? How many ounces from the grains group are recommended each day for you? What is the signicance Which contains more of the size and shape used to represent each food group in the MyPyramid graphic. discretionary calories a bagel or a doughnut? Tools for Diet Planning 43 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 44 Food and Supplement Labels source of vitamin C, how much ber your breakfast cereal provides, or how much calcium is in your daily vitamin/ mineral supplement? You can nd this information on food and supplement labels. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss how the information on food labels can help you choose a healthy diet. Determine whether a food is high or low in ber, saturated fat, and cholesterol. FOOD LABELS Explain how the order of ingredients on a food label is determined. Compare dietary supplement labels to food labels. he Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid recommend appropriate amounts of nutritious foods, but sometimes it is difcult to tell how nutritious a particular food is. How do you know whether your frozen entree is a good T Food labels are designed to help consumers make healthy food choices by providing information about the nutrient composition of a food and how that food ts into the overall diet (Figure 2.12).6 Knowing how to interpret the information on these labels can help you choose a healthy diet. This doesnt mean that you can never choose high-calorie, low-nutrient-density foods, but rather that you should balance your choices. It is your total dietnot each choicethat counts. Visualizing Food labels Figure 2.12 Standard serving sizes are required to allow consumers to compare products. For example, the number of calories in one serving of this macaroni and cheese can be compared to the number of calories in one serving of packaged rice because the values for both are for a standard 1-cup serving. Food labels must list the % Daily Value for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, and dietary fiber, as well as for vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron. A daily value of 5% or less is considered low, and one of 20% or more is considered high. The label provides information about the amounts of total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, and sodium, nutrients whose intake should be limited. Nutrition Facts A Food labels must appear on all Serving Size 1 cup (228g) Servings Per Container 2 packaged foods except those produced by small businesses and those in packages too small to accommodate the information. This label from a macaroniand-cheese package illustrates how the Nutrition Facts panel and the ingredient list can help you evaluate the nutritional contribution this food will make to your diet. Amount Per Serving Calories 250 Calories from Fat 110 % Daily Value* Total Fat 12g 18% 15% Saturated Fat 3g Trans Fat 1.5g 10% 20% 10% 0% Cholesterol 30mg Sodium 470mg Total Carbohydrate 31g Dietary Fiber 0g Sugars 5g Protein 5g S USA FOOD The label provides information about the amounts of fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron, nutrients that tend to be low in the American diet. Vitamin A 4% Vitamin C Calcium Iron 2% 20% 4% The footnote gives the Daily Values for a 2,000 and a 2,500 Calorie diet to illustrate that for some nutrients the daily value increases with increasing caloric intake. * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs: The ingredients are listed in descending order by weight, from the most abundant to the least abundant. The enriched white flour in the macaroni is the most abundant ingredient in this product. Calories: Less than Total Fat Less than Sat. Fat Cholesterol Less than Less than Sodium Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber 2,000 65g 20g 300mg 2,400mg 300g 2,500 80g 25g 25g 30g R DINNE 300mg 2,400mg 375g Ingredients Enriched macaroni product (wheat flour, niacin, ferrous sulfate [iron], thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, folic acid); cheese sauce mix (whey, modified food starch, milk fat, salt, milk protein concentrate, contains less tha 2% of sodium tripolyphosphate, cellulose gel, cellulose gum, citric acid, sodium phosphate, lactic acid, calcium phosphate, milk, yellow 5, yellow 6, enzymes, cheese culture) PA EET NSTR MAI RT. A, WT: , 100 NET EAST 6g) Z (15 GENCO 5.5 OBUTED BY: RI DIST Labels must contain basic product information, such as the name of the product, the weight or volume of the contents, and the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packager, or distributor. c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 45 Nutrition Facts Daily Value is a single standard for all consumers, it may All food labels must contain a 8 overestimate the amount of a nutrient needed for some Nutrition Facts panel (Figure 2.12A). This secpopulation groups, but it does not underestimate the retion of the label presents information about the quirement for any group except pregnant and lactating amounts of specific nutrients in a standard serving. women. The serving size on the label is followed by the number of servings per container, the total Calories, and the Ingredient List Do you want to know exactly what Calories from fat in each serving. If a person eats twice goes into your food? The ingredient list is the place to the standard serving, he or she is consuming twice the look. The ingredient list presents the contents of the number of Calories listed. product in order of their prominence by weight. This The next section of the Nutrition Facts panel lists the information can be very helpful to conamounts of nutrients contained in a serving sumers who are allergic to nuts, trying to and, for most, the amount they provide as a avoid animal products, or just curious about percentage of the Daily Value. The % Daily s Daily Value what is in the food they eat. Value is the amount of a nutrient in a food as A reference value for An ingredient list is required on all a percentage of the Daily Value recomthe intake of nutrients products containing more than one ingredimended for a 2000-Calorie diet. For examused on food labels to ent and optional on products that contain a ple, if a food provides 10% of the Daily Value help consumers see single ingredient. Food additives, including for vitamin C, it provides 10% of the recomhow a given food ts food colors and avorings, must be listed mended daily intake for vitamin C in a 2000into their overall diet. among the ingredients. Calorie diet (see Appendix F). Because a B Raw fruits, vegetables, sh, meat, and poultry are not required to carry individual labels. However, grocery stores are asked to provide nutrition information voluntarily for the raw foods most frequently eaten in the United States. The information can appear on large placards or in consumer pamphlets or brochures. w v C Food served in restaurants and other eating establishments, such as delicatessens and bakeries, is not required to carry labels. However, if a claim is made about a foods nutritional content or health benets, such as low-fat or heart healthy, the eating establishment must provide nutritional information about that food, if requested.7 Food and Supplement Labels 45 c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 46 Nutrient content and health claims Looking for low-fat or high-ber foods (see the Case Study)? You may not even need to look at the Nutrition Facts. Food labels often contain nutrient content claims. These are statements that highlight specic characteristics of a product that might be of interest to consumers, such as fat free or low sodium. Standard denitions for these descriptors have been established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (see Table 2.2 and Appendix F). Because of the importance of many types of foods in disease prevention, food labels are permitted to include a number of health claims. Health claims refer to a relationship between a nutrient, food, food component, or dietary supplement and reduced risk of a disease or health-related condition. All health claims are reviewed by the FDA. To carry a health claim, a food must be a naturally good source of one of six nutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, protein, calcium, iron, or ber) and must not Nutrient content claims 8 Table 2.2 Claim Used on products that contain no amount of, or a trivial amount of, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugars, or calories. For example, sugar free and fat free both mean 0.5 g per serving. Synonyms for free include without, no, and zero. Low Used for foods that can be eaten frequently without exceeding the Daily Value for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, or calories. Specic denitions have been established for each of these nutrients. For example, low-fat means that the food contains 3 g of fat per serving, and low cholesterol means that the food contains 20 mg of cholesterol per serving. Synonyms for low include little, few, and low source of. Lean and extra lean Used to describe the fat content of meat, poultry, seafood, and game meats. Lean means that the food contains 10 g fat, 4.5 g saturated fat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving and per 100 g. Extra lean is dened as containing 5 g fat, 2 g saturated fat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving and per 100 g. High Used for foods that contain 20% or more of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient. Synonyms for high include rich in and excellent source of. Good source Used for foods that contain 10 to 19% of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient per serving. Reduced Used on nutritionally altered products that contain 25% less of a nutrient or energy than the regular or reference product. Less Used on foods, whether altered or not, that contain 25% less of a nutrient or energy than the reference food. For example, pretzels may claim to have less fat than potato chips. Fewer may be used as a synonym for less. Light Used in different ways. First, it can be used on a nutritionally altered product that contains one-third fewer calories or half the fat of a reference food. Second, it can be used when the sodium content of a low-calorie, low-fat food has been reduced by 50%. The term light can be used to describe properties such as texture and color as long as the label explains the intentfor example, light and uffy. More Used when a serving of food, whether altered or not, contains a nutrient in an amount that is at least 10% of the Daily Value more than the reference food. Synonyms for more are fortied, enriched, and added. Healthy Used to describe foods that are low in fat and saturated fat, contain limited amounts of sodium and cholesterol, and provide at least 10% of the Daily Value for vitamins A or C, or iron, calcium, protein, or ber. Fresh 46 Description Free Used on foods that are raw and have never been frozen or heated and contain no preservatives. CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 47 CASE STUDY USING FOOD LABELS TO MAKE HEALTHY CHOICES S cott is trying to improve his nutritional health. He has visited the MyPyramid Web site and now knows how much food he should choose from each food group, but he sometimes has trouble making decisions when shopping for food. For breakfast he likes hot or cold cereal. Whether he eats oatmeal or granola, it is a serving from the grains group. Use the labels shown here to determine whether they are equivalent in terms of the amounts of saturated fat and added sugar. Juice Drink Orange Juice Nutrition Facts Nutrition Facts Serving Size 8 fl oz (240.0 g) Serving Size 8 fl oz (240.0 g) Amount Per Serving Calories 110 Amount Per Serving Calories 120 Sodium 0 mg Total Carbohydrates 26.0 g Sugars 22.0 g Vitamin A 0 % Calcium 2 % % Daily Value * 0% 9% Sodium 160 mg Total Carbohydrates 29.0 g Sugars 28.0 g Vitamin A 0 % Calcium 0% Vitamin C 120% Iron 0% % Daily Value * 7% 10% Vitamin C 100% Iron 0% * Based on a 2000 calorie diet * Based on a 2000 calorie diet w Ingredients: Water, concentrated orange juice Natural Granola Old Fashioned Oats Nutrition Facts Nutrition Facts Serving Size 1/ 2 cup (40g) dry Servings Per Container about 13 Ingredients: Water, high-fructose corn syrup, pear and grape juice concentrates, citric acid, water extracted orange and pineapple juice concentrates, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), natural flavor Serving Size 1/ 2 cup (51g) Servings Per Container about 16 Cereal with 1 /2 cup Amount Per Serving Dry Calories 150 Calories 230 Calories from Fat 80 190 25 Amount Per Serving 30 Calories from Fat Skim Milk % Daily Value* Total Fat 9g Saturated Fat 3.5g Trans Fat 1g Polyunsaturated Fat 1g Monounsaturated Fat 4g Cholesterol 0mg Sodium 20mg Potassium 250mg Total Carbohydrate 34g Other Carbohydrate 15g Dietary Fiber 3g Sugars 16g Protein 5g % Daily Value** Total Fat 3g 5% 5% Saturated Fat 0.5g 3% 3% Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 0mg 0% 0% Sodium 0mg 0% 3% Total Carbohydrate 27g 9% 11% Dietary Fiber 4g 16% 16% Sugars 0g Protein 5g 13% 18% Which choice provides more vitamin C? w Your answer: 0% 1% 7% 11% 13% Other than water, what is the most abundant ingredient, by weight, in the juice drink? in the orange juice? w Your answer: The added vitamin C increases the nutrient density of the juice drink, but does that make it a better choice than the orange juice? Your answer: Scott likes to have juice with his breakfast. He is deciding between plain orange juice and the less expensive juice drink, which claims to be an excellent source of vitamin C. How much of the sugar in the orange juice is added? w The only ingredients in the ingredient list are water and concentrated orange juice. This tells Scott that no sugar has been added. The 22 grams of sugars listed in the Nutrition Facts panel all come from the sugar found naturally in oranges. w Your answer: When Scott is choosing between more- and less-processed products, what advice would you give him? w Your answer: (Check your answers in Appendix K.) c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 48 contain more than 20% of the Daily Value for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium. Approved health claims are supported by strong scientic evidence (Figure 2.13 and Appendix F). Health claims for which there is emerging but not well-established evidence are called qualied health claims, and such a claim must be accompanied by an explanatory statement to avoid misleading consumers. Health claims Figure 2.13 4 grams of soluble fiber from oatmeal daily in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease DIETARY SUPPLEMENT LABELS Oatmeal contains enough soluble ber to be permitted to include this health claim about the relationship between soluble ber and the risk of heart disease. Other health claims focus on relationships such as those between sodium and high blood pressure, dietary fat and cancer, saturated fat and cholesterol and heart disease, calcium and reduced risk of osteoporosis, and fruits and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer (see Appendix F).8 Products ranging from multivitamin pills to protein powders and herbal elixirs all meet the denition of a dietary supplement. These products are considered foods, not drugs, and therefore are regulated by the laws that govern food safety and labeling. To help consumers understand what they are choosing when they purchase these products, dietary supplements are required to carry a Supplement Facts panel similar to the Nutrition Facts panel found on food labels (Figure 2.14).9 Dietary supplement label Figure 2.14 Unlike food labels, dietary supplement labels must provide directions for use and must provide information about ingredients that are not nutrients and for which Daily Values have not been established. For such ingredients, it is difcult to tell from the label whether the amount included in a serving is helpful, is harmful, or has no effect at all. The serving size tells you the recommended dose. SUGGESTED USE: Take 3 capsules daily with meals. Supplement Facts Serving Size 3 Capsules Servings Per Container 33 Amount Per Serving Calories Calories from Fat Total Fat % Daily Value* 20 20 2g 3% Total Omega-3 Fatty Acids 1100 mg EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) 450 mg DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) 500 mg DPA (Docosapentaenoic Acid) 60 mg Stearidonic, Eicosatrienoic, Eicosatetraenoic, Heneicosapentaenoic, and Alpha-Linolenic Acids 90 mg The name, quantity per serving, and % Daily Values for nutrients are listed. You can use these to assess how that amount compares to the recommended intake and UL for each nutrient. Nutrients with Daily Values are listed first, followed by ingredients without Daily Values. * Percent Daily Values are based on 2,000 calorie diet Daily Value not established INGREDIENTS: Salmon Oil, UHPO3 Omega-3 Fatty Acid Concentrate (Sardines, Tuna, Anchovies), Gelatin, Glycerin and Water. Each serving of Fish Oil Omega AC provides the complete spectrum of healthful Omega-3 fatty acids equivalent to approximately one serving of fresh salmon. * Research shows Omega-3 fatty acids play a role in the health and function of the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, vision, connective tissue, and the inflammatory response. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All these products must include the words dietary supplement on the label. Because structure/function claims are based on the manufacturers interpretation and are not approved by the FDA, products with these claims must include this disclaimer. All ingredients must be listed on the label either in the Supplement Facts panel or in the ingredient list below the panel. Ingredients are listed in descending order of prominence. c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 49 Labels on dietary supplements may also include nutrient content claims and FDA-approved health claims similar to those on food labels. For example, a product can claim to be an excellent source of a particular nutrient. This means that one serving of the product contains at least 20% of the Daily Value for that nutrient. A label that says high potency means that one serving provides 100% or more of the Daily Value for the nutrient it contains. For multinutrient products, high potency means that a serving provides more than 100% of the Daily Value for two-thirds of the vitamins and minerals present. Dietary supplement labels may also carry structure/function claims, which describe the role of a dietary ingredient in maintaining normal structure, function, or general well-being. For example, a structure/ function claim about calcium may state that calcium builds strong bones; one about ber may say ber maintains bowel regularity. These statements can be misleading. For example, the health claim lowers cholesterol requires FDA approval, but the structure/function claim helps maintain normal cholesterol levels does not. It would not be unreasonable for consumers with high cholesterol to conclude that a product that helps maintain normal cholesterol levels would help lower their elevated blood cholesterol level to within the normal range. Manufacturers must notify the FDA when including a structure/function claim on a dietary supplement label and are responsible for ensuring the accuracy and truthfulness of these claims. Structure/function claims are not approved by the FDA. For this reason, the law says that if a dietary supplement label includes such a claim, it must state in a disclaimer that the FDA has not evaluated the claim. The disclaimer must also state that the dietary supplement product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease because only a drug can legally make such a claim (Figure 2.14). Structure/function claims may also appear on food labels, but the FDA does not require conventional food manufactures to notify them about their structure/function claims, and disclaimers are not required. CONCEPT CHECK Why are serving sizes Where should you standardized on food labels? look to see if a food contains nuts? What food label How can structure/ information helps you nd foods that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol? function claims on dietary supplement labels be misleading? SUMMARY Nutrition Recommendations 1 1. Nutrition recommendations are designed to encourage consumption of a diet that promotes health and prevents disease. Some of the earliest nutrition recommendations in the United States were in the form of food guides, which translate nutrient intake recommendations into food intake recommendations. The rst set of Recommended Dietary Allowances, developed during World War II, focused on energy and the nutrients most likely to be decient in a typical diet. Current recommendations focus on promoting health and preventing chronic disease as well as nutrient deciencies. 2. Dietary recommendations can be used as a standard for assessing the nutritional status of individuals and of populations. Records of dietary intake along with information obtained from a physical examination, a medical history, and laboratory tests can be used to assess an individuals nutritional status. Collecting information about the food intake and health of individuals in the population or surveying the foods available can help identify potential and actual nutrient deciencies and excesses within a population and help policymakers develop improved nutrition recommendations. Summary 49 c02.qxd 7/14/09 2 7:25 PM Page 50 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 1. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommendations for the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that should be consumed by healthy people to promote health, reduce the incidence of chronic disease, and prevent deciencies. Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) can be used to evaluate the adequacy of a populations nutrient intake. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs) can be used by individuals as a goal for nutrient intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) indicate a safe upper intake limit. 2. The DRIs make two types of energy-intake recommendations. Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) provide an estimate of how many calories are needed to maintain body weight. Acceptable 3 Tools for Diet Planning 1. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are a set of diet and lifestyle recommendations designed to promote health and reduce the risk of chronic disease in the population. They recommend choosing nutrientdense foods; balancing calorie intake and exercise; limiting intake of saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, salt, added sugar, and alcohol; and taking steps to keep food safe. 4 Food and Supplement Labels 1. Standardized food labels are designed to help consumers make healthy food choices by providing information about the nutrient composition of foods and about how a food ts into the overall diet. The Nutrition Facts panel presents information about the amount of various nutrients in a standard serving. For most nutrients, the amount is also given as a percent of the Daily Value. A food labels ingredient list lists the contents of the product in order of prominence by weight. Food labels often include FDA dened nutrient content claims, such as low fat or high ber, and health 50 claims, which refer to a relationship between a nutrient, food, food component, or dietary supplement and the risk of a particular disease or healthrelated condition. All health claims are reviewed by the FDA and permitted only when they are supported by scientic evidence, but the level of scientic support for such claims varies. 2. A Supplement Facts panel appears on the label of every dietary supplement. When dietary supplement labels include a structure/function claim, which describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient in maintaining normal structure or function in humans, it must be accompanied by a disclaimer. CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) make recommendations about the proportion of energy that should come from carbohydrate, fat, and protein in a healthy diet. 2. MyPyramid is the USDAs current food guide. It recommends amounts from ve food groups plus oils, based on individual energy needs. It also makes recommendations about the number of discretionary calories allowed in an individuals diet. MyPyramid stresses using variety, proportionality, and moderation in choosing a healthy diet and promotes the physical activity recommendations included in the Dietary Guidelines. 3. Exchange lists are a food group system used to plan individual diets that provide specific amounts of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat. 4 grams of soluble fiber from oatmeal daily in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease c02.qxd 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 51 KEY TERMS s food guides p. 30 s Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) p. 35 s Exchange Lists p. 43 s nutritional status p. 31 s Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) p. 35 s Nutrition Facts p. 45 s Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) p. 36 s nutrient content claims p. 46 s Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 p. 37 s qualied health claims p. 48 s Healthy People p. 33 s Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) p. 34 s Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) p. 34 s Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) p. 34 s Adequate Intakes (AIs) p. 34 s MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You p. 40 s discretionary calories p. 42 s Daily Value p. 45 s health claims p. 46 s Supplement Facts p. 48 s structure/function claims p. 49 CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING QUESTIONS 1. The Dietary Guidelines recommend reducing serving sizes to keep weight in a healthy range, limiting salt intake to prevent high blood pressure, limiting dietary cholesterol and saturated fat to reduce the risk of heart disease, and limiting added sugar to increase the nutrient density of the diet. Suggest some changes that the food industry could implement to support these nutrition recommendations. 2. Keep a food diary of everything you eat for a day. Go to www.mypyramid.gov and look up the MyPyramid recommendations for a person of your age, gender, and activity level. Now use the MyPyramid Menu Planner to compare your intake with your MyPyramid plan. 3. If a food record indicates that Gina consumes less than the RDA for vitamin C and more than the RDA for vitamin A, what does this mean in terms of her nutritional status? Does she have a vitamin C deciency? Is she at risk of vitamin A toxicity? What other factors need to be considered before you can draw any conclusions about her nutritional status? 4. If a survey indicates that the consumption of red meat, which is an excellent source of iron, has been declining over the past ve What is happening in this picture This man is snacking on chips while watching television. s Why might he consume a larger portion than he plans to? The label on the bag says that a serving consists of about 20 chips. The bag contains 11 servings, and each serving provides 150 Calories. s If the man eats half the bag, how many Calories will he have ingested? s How might he moderate his portion size without counting every chip he eats? ? years, what can be concluded about the iron intake of the population during that period? How might this decline affect public health? How might it affect public health policy? 5. Select three packaged foods that have food labels. What is the percentage of calories from fat in each product? How many grams of carbohydrate, fat, and ber are in a serving of each? How does each product t into your daily diet with regard to total carbohydrate recommended? total fat? dietary ber? If you consumed a serving of each of these three foods, how much more saturated fat could you consume during the day without exceeding the recommendations? How much more total carbohydrate and ber should you consume that day to meet recommendations for a 2000-Calorie diet? 6. Maryellen is trying to increase her intake of calcium and vitamin D by taking a dietary supplement. How can she determine whether it contains enough of these nutrients to meet her needs but not so much that it will cause toxicity? If the product claims to build strong bones, does this mean that it will help reverse Maryellens osteoporosis? Why or why not? 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 52 SELF-TEST 5. Which of the following statements is false? (Check your answers in Appendix L.) 1. Which DRI standards can be used as goals for individual intake? a. b. c. d. AIs RDAs EARs A and B only 2. Based on this graph, showing one days intake of selected nutrients, which of these statements about this persons nutrient intake is true? Percent of recommendation 0% 50% 100% Nutrient Vitamin A a. An EER value gives the amount of energy needed to maintain body weight. b. Your EER stays the same when you gain weight. c. If you consume more calories than your EER, you will gain weight. d. Your EER depends on your age, gender, weight, height, and activity level. 6. Use this label to determine which of the following statements about the amount of saturated fat in this product is true. Nutrition Facts Serving Size 1 cup (228g) Servings Per Container 2 75% Amount Per Serving Vitamin C 115% Calories 250 Calories from Fat 110 % Daily Value* 54% Iron Calcium Total Fat 12g 75% Saturated fat 134% a. She has an iron deciency. b. She consumes the recommended amount of vitamin A. c. If she consumes this amount of iron every day, she is at risk for iron deciency. d. She has osteoporosis. 3. Which DRI standard can help you determine whether a supplement contains a toxic level of a nutrient? a. RDA b. AI c. EAR d. UL 4. Which letter labels the DRI standard that represents the average needs of the population? A B C 52 10% 20% 10% 0% Cholesterol 30mg Sodium 470mg Total Carbohydrate 31g Dietary Fiber 0g Sugars 5g Protein 5g Vitamin A 4% Vitamin C Calcium Iron 2% 20% 4% * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs: Calories: Less than Total Fat Less than Sat. Fat Cholesterol Less than Less than Sodium Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber 2,000 65g 20g 300mg 2,400mg 300g 2,500 80g 25g 25g 30g 300mg 2,400mg 375g a. This product contains 15% of the maximum daily recommended amount of saturated fat. b. This product is high in saturated fat. c. To meet nutritional needs, the other foods you consume during the day should provide 17 g of saturated fat. d. This product is low in saturated fat. Daily nutrient requirement a. b. c. d. 18% 15% Saturated Fat 3g Trans Fat 1.5g Number of people c02.qxd A B C None of the above is correct. CHAPTER 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet 7/14/09 7:25 PM Page 53 7. The different colors of the triangles that make up MyPyramid are designed to illustrate that _______________. a. a variety of foods are needed to make up a healthy diet b. we need more of some food groups than others to make up a healthy diet c. there are foods within each food group that should be chosen more often than others d. exercise is important for a healthy lifestyle 11. Which of the following is stressed by the Dietary Guidelines? a. Choose nutrient-dense foods. b. Balance food intake with physical activity. c. Limit nutrients that are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease. d. Handle food safely to prevent food-borne illness. e. All of the above 12. Which of the following is used to assess nutritional status? 8. Which of these foods is highest in discretionary calories? a. b. c. d. an apple a tablespoon of olive oil a slice of whole-wheat bread a doughnut 9. In which order are the ingredients listed on a food label? a. b. c. d. alphabetical from largest to smallest, by volume from largest to smallest, by weight dry ingredients rst, followed by liquid ingredients 10. Which of the following statements is an invalid interpretation of this graph showing trends in milk consumption? 50 Total milk Whole milk Lower-fat milks 40 Gallons per person c02.qxd a. b. c. d. e. nutritional analysis of the diet measurements of body dimensions medical history and physical examination laboratory tests All of the above 13. Which of the following is a structure/function claim? a. b. c. d. Fiber maintains bowel regularity. Soluble ber helps reduce the risk of heart disease. Calcium helps reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Diets that are low in sodium can reduce the risk of high blood pressure. 14. What is meant by nutritional status? a. how healthy a persons diet is relative to that of his or her peer group b. the measure of a persons health in terms of his or her intake and utilization of nutrients c. a persons blood values relative to normal levels d. the quality of foods a family is able to afford 30 15. Which of the following is not a food group in MyPyramid? a. b. c. d. 20 milk meat and beans vegetables fats and sweets 10 0 1909 1919 1929 1939 1949 1959 1969 1979 1989 1999 Year a. b. c. d. People drank more milk in 1949 than in 1999. People drank more low-fat milk in 1999 than in 1949. Children drank less milk in 1999 than in 1949. Total consumption of whole milk declined between 1949 and 1999 Self-Test 53

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Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Decentralization is a systematic delegation of authority at all levels ofmanagement and in all of the organization. In a decentralization concern,authority in retained by the top management for taking major decisions andframing policies concerning the
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
c03.qxd7/24/092:54 PMPage 54Digestion: FromMeals to MoleculesThe human body has been compared to a car:We ll the tank of our car with gasoline to getdown the highway; we ll our body with food toget on with life. In both machines, combustionwith
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Decentralization is not the same as delegation. In fact, decentralization is allextension of delegation.Decentralization pattern is wider is scope and the authorities are diffused to thelowest most level of management.Delegation of authority is a com
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
WaterandMajorMineralsSampleTestQuestions1)Inthebody,waterthatresidesbetweencellsisknownas a.diureticfluid. b.interstitialfluid. c.edematousfluid. d.intravascularfluid.2)Whichofthefollowingbodystructureshelpstoregulatethirst? a.Brainstem b.Ce
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Delegation and DecentralizationBasisDelegationDecentralizationMeaningManagers delegate some oftheir function and authorityto their subordinates.Right to take decisions is shared bytop management and other level ofmanagement.ScopeScope of deleg
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
ThiaminRiboflavin1Active CoenzymesNiacinBiotin2PantothenicAcid3Food MonoglutamateFolate PolyglutamateGlutamateGlutamateGlutamateGlutamateGlutamateEnzymeGlutamateGlutamate4Normal red blood cellsMegaloblastic anemiaIncidence of Neural
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Delegation of AuthorityA manager alone cannot perform all the tasks assigned to him. In order to meet thetargets, the manager should delegate authority. Delegation of Authority means division ofauthority and powers downwards to the subordinate. Delegat
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONS1. For the water-soluble vitamins discussed in class (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid,vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin C) be able to identify: major function(s) significant
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
WaterSolubleVitaminsSampleTestQuestions1)Generalcharacteristicsofthewatersolublevitaminsincludeallofthefollowingexcept a.theymustbeconsumeddaily. b.toxiclevelsinthebodyarerarelyfound. c.theyareabsorbeddirectlyintotheblood. d.excessesareeliminated
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Delegation of authority is help to both superior and subordinates.This, in a way, gives stability to a concerns working. With effectiveresults, a concern can think of creating more departments anddivisions flow working. This will require creation of mo
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
WaterSolubleVitaminsSampleTestQuestions1)Generalcharacteristicsofthewatersolublevitaminsincludeallofthefollowingexcept a.theymustbeconsumeddaily. b.toxiclevelsinthebodyarerarelyfound. c.theyareabsorbeddirectlyintotheblood. d.excessesareeliminated
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
o Delegation of authority is the ground on which the superior-subordinate relationship stands.o An organization functions as the authority flows from top levelto bottom. This in fact shows that through delegation, the superiorsubordinate relationship b
University of Florida - HUN - 2201
Name: _FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN NUTRITION (HUN2201; SECTION 2670)FALL SEMESTER 2011 SYLLABUSCREDITS: 3Building/Room: MCCC 100Days/Times: Mon. 4:05-6:00 P.M., Wed. 4:05-4:55 p.m.INSTRUCTOR: Dr. James F. Collins, Associate Professor; Food Science &amp; Human
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes that occur in acell. MICROBIAL METABOLISM&quot;WE ARE WHAT WE EAT&quot;METABOLISM IS THE STUDY OF WHAT LIVING ORGANISMS ARECHEMICALLY AND HOW THEY USE THE RAW MATERIALS IN THEENVIRONMENT TO LIVE, GROW AND REPRODU
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Demerits of Functional Organization1. Confusion- The functional system is quite complicated to put into operation,especially when it is carried out at low levels. Therefore, co- ordination becomesdifficult.2. Lack of Co- ordination- Disciplinary contr
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
BACTERIAL RECOMBINATIONPurposesA. Vaccine production (subunit type)B. Production of proteins (growth hormone)C. Amplification of DNA for identification (DNA fingerprint)End productsA. Gene itself (to incorporate into other organisms, DNA fingerprint
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Carbon in Living systems Carbon is one of the most common elements in living systems Aside from water, most biologically important molecules are carbon-based. Structural and functional diversity of organic molecules emerges from theability of carbon t
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Demerits of Line and Staff Organization1. Lack of understanding- In a line and staff organization, there are twoauthority flowing at one time. This results in the confusion betweenthe two. As a result, the workers are not able to understand as to whoi
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Diagnosis of Infectious DiseasesDiagnosis: literally &quot;knowledge of the day&quot;Prognosis: literally &quot;knowledge of tomorrow&quot;The purpose of a diagnosis is simply to form a basis on which to make a decision abouthow to manage the disease in question. Thus, d
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Developing employment programmers- Once the current inventoryis compared with future forecasts, the employment programmers canbe framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment,selection procedures and placement plans.Design training
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR PLACE IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAn Overview of the Influence of Microbes on the Earth's Environment and Inhabitants.The many and varied metabolic activities of microbes assure that they participate in chemicalreactions in almos
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
PowerPoint Lecture MICROBIALCONTROLLINGSlide PresentationGROWTHBYPHYSICAL ANDCHEMICAL MEANS1Terminology of Microbial ControlSterilizationAsepticDisinfection/disinfectantsAntisepsis/antiseptic Pasteurization Chemotherapeutics Suffix stasis/-s
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Difference between Recruitment and SelectionBasisRecruitmentSelectionMeaningIt is an activity ofestablishing contact betweenemployers and applicants.It is a process of pickingup more competent andsuitable employees.ObjectiveIt encourages large
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Course OutlineExplore prokaryotes structureMetabolism and growthGenetics of microorganismsMechanism of PathogenesisHost immune system the defense mechanismInfectious diseasesAntimicrobial AGENTSMicrobial ecologyApplied and environmental microbiol
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Differences between Authority and ResponsibilityAuthorityResponsibilityIt is the legal right of a personIt is the obligation of subordinate to perform theor a superior to command hiswork assigned to him.subordinates.Authority is attached to theRe
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Important monomers/polymersA. Sugars/PolysaccharidesB. Fatty acids/LipidsC. Nucleotide bases/Nucleic acidsD. Amino acids/ProteinsPolymers are Long Stretch of Identical/similarMolecules1Carbohydrates:Sugars and PolysaccharidesMonosaccharides vs.
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
1Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings2Fungi Can be divided into yeastsand molds Yeasts are typically round oroval and reproduce bybudding. Example. Candida Molds are composed oftubular structures calledhyphae t
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
DirectingIt is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods towork efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered lifespark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people becausepl
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Microbial Diseases of the CardiovascularSystem:Systemic Infections1Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin CummingsSepticemia and Toxemia Bacteria can infect the blood (opportunistic or nosocomialinfections Septicemia: Presen
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Directing or Direction function is said to be the heart of management ofprocess and therefore, is the central point around which accomplishmentof goals take place.A few philosophers call Direction as Life spark of an enterprise.It is also called as o
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
1Movement across the membrane could be:115Passive; materials move from areas of higher to lowerconcentration. No energy is needed.In simple diffusion, molecules and ions move untilequilibrium is reached. No energy is neededIn facilitated diffusion,
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
DIRECTINGIt is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide andoversee the performance of the workers to achieve predeterminedgoals.Directing is said to be the heart of management process.Planning, organizing, staffing have got no impor
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
1234MICROBIALPATHOGENESITY ANDEPIDEMIOLOGY5Fatty acidsTightlayer ofcellsEarlyimmuneresponseSkin, the larges organ inbody, has natural defensemechanism against manyinfectionsLow moistureSweatFatty acids6Body surfaces: intimate intera
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000 Exam Three Study guide1. What are chemotherapeutic agents?2. What are the differences between natural, synthetic, and semi-synthetic antibiotics?3. Which part of cell could be used as a target for antimicrobial agents4. What is Beta-Lactam ri
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Direction has got following characteristics:1. Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels oforganization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to hissubordinates.2. Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
ExamOneReview1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29.30.31.32.33.34.35.36.37.38.39.40.41.42.43.44.45.46.PartialList.Listanddescribetheimportanceofstructuralstainingproce
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Disciplinea. According to Fayol, Discipline means sincerity, obedience, respect ofauthority &amp; observance of rules and regulations of the enterprise.b. This principle applies that subordinate should respect their superiors andobey their order.c. It is
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000 Exam Three Study guide1. How skin wards off infection. Name and describe two layers of skin2. Which bacteria cause folliculities? What are different forms of the disease?3. List and describe the mode of action of various virulence factors poss
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
During orientationDuring Orientation employees are made aware about the mission andvision of the organization, the nature of operation of the organization,policies and programmes of the organization.The main aim of conducting Orientation is to build u
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000 Study guide for EXAM TWO1.State the difference between and give examples of horizontal and vertical genetic exchanges?2.Name different RNA molecules. What is the role of each molecule? Codon vs. anticodon3.Briefly describe replication, transcr
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Efficient Utilization of ResourcesDirection finance helps in clarifying the role of every subordinatetowards his work.The resources can be utilized properly only when less of wastages,duplication of efforts, overlapping of performances, etc. doesnt ta
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000MICROBIOLOGYExtra Credit Quiz ONEHOW MICROBES CAUSE DISEASEThe universal principle of molecular recognition. Biological molecules interact byrecognizing and binding with one another in a highly specific manner. Pairs of moleculesthat interac
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000MICROBIOLOGYExtra Credit Quiz TWOPUBLIC HEALTH AND THE PREVENTION OFDISEASETABLE OF CONTENTS History of EpidemiologyoJohn Snow Vocabulary of EpidemiologyooooDisease ReservoirsDisease Transmission Direct Contact Fomites Vectors C
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Focus on anthraxRecent events have confirmed that bioterrorism is no longer a threat buta reality. To provide wide-ranging access to the latest scientificinformation about anthrax and other potential bioweapons, Nature hasput together a special online
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Employee Selection ProcessEmployee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job.It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with theskills and qualifications of people.Effective selection can be done only when there is effe
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
FOOD MICROBIOLOGYFOODS MADE BY MICROBESThe line between gourmet and rotten food is often a matter of perspective stemming from ones'upbringing and early gastronomic experiences. As discussed previously, one society willconsider that slightly rotten ph
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Equitya. Equity means combination of fairness, kindness &amp; justice.b. The employees should be treated with kindness &amp; equity if devotion isexpected of them.c. It implies that managers should be fair and impartial while dealing withthe subordinates.d.
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
General Properties of VirusesStructure1. Nucleic acid - Single or double stranded. Segmented or unsegmentedDeoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)2. Capsid -The capsid accounts for most of the virion mass. It is the protein coat of the viru
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Espirit De Corps (can be achieved through unity of command)a. It refers to team spirit i.e. harmony in the work groups and mutualunderstanding among the members.b. Spirit De Corps inspires workers to work harder.c. Fayol cautioned the managers against
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Accessory cell: Cell required for, but not actually mediating, a specific immune response. Often used todescribe antigen-presenting cells (APC; see below).Affinity: A measure of the binding constant of a single antigen combining site with a monovalent a
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Establishment of standardsStandards are the plans or the targets which have to be achieved in thecourse of business function. They can also be called as the criterionsfor judging the performance. Standards generally are classified intotwoa. Measurable
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000Glossary of MicrobiologyAABO blood group system The classification of red blood cells based on the presence or absence ofA and B carbohydrate antigens.acid A substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H + ) and one or more neg
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Microbial GeneticsGenetics is defined as the mechanism by which traits are passed on from one organism toanother and how they are expressed.How does information flow? Central dogma of molecular biology:Replication - to ensure that following generation
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
External Limitations of Planning1. Political Climate- Change of government from Congress to someother political party, etc.2. Labour Union- Strikes, lockouts, agitations.3. Technological changes- Modern techniques and equipments,computerization.4. P
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Test Code = 11112MCB 2000Fall 2011Practice Exam Four1. Interferons are types of cytokines that are primarily produced in response to:(1) fungal infection(*) viral infection(3) bacterial infection(4) protozoan infection2. Type II hypersensitivity
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
External Recruitment - External sources of recruitment have to be solicited fromoutside the organization. External sources are external to a concern. But it involves lot oftime and money. The external sources of recruitment include - Employment at facto
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
MCB 2000EXAM ONE1. In which stage of the bacterial growth (growth curve), the growth rate is equal to death rate.(1) Lag phase(2) Death phase(3) Log phase(4) exponential phase(*) Stationary phase2. In order to survive, an organism must be able to
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Test Code = 11112MCB 2000Practice Exam THREEFALL 20111. Which of the following is not TRUE of Clostridium genus?(*) They produce endotoxin or LPS(2) They are Gram-positive bacteria capable of producing spores (endospores)(3) They produce neurotoxin
Montgomery - MANAGEMENT - mg101
Factors influencing Span of Control1. Managerial abilities- In the concerns where managers are capable,qualified and experienced, wide span of control is always helpful.2. Competence of subordinates- Where the subordinates are capableand competent and
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Test Code = 11112MCB 2000Practice Exam THREEFALL 20111. Which of the following is not TRUE of Clostridium genus?(1) They produce endotoxin or LPS(2) They are Gram-positive bacteria capable of producing spores (endospores)produce neurotoxins (4) The
University of Florida - MCB - 2000
Practice Exam TWO1. Which RNA carries the genetic code used for protein synthesis?(1) tRNA(2) rRNA(*) mRNA(4) cDNA(5) None of these2. Heritable change in DNA:(1) Translation(2) Termination(3) Recombination(*) Mutation3. The mechanism by which