Antecedents of language development
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Antecedents of language development

Course Number: PSYC 250, Fall 2010

College/University: UNC

Word Count: 348

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o Antecedents of language development Infants know a great deal about language before than can speak Categorical speech perception infants and adults can perceive speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories o Ba vs. pa Cooing and babbling o Infants coo and babble between 2 & 4 months o Impact of physical development o Impact of the environment Children only babbly a small selection of sounds found...

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Antecedents o of language development Infants know a great deal about language before than can speak Categorical speech perception infants and adults can perceive speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories o Ba vs. pa Cooing and babbling o Infants coo and babble between 2 & 4 months o Impact of physical development o Impact of the environment Children only babbly a small selection of sounds found in the human language Joint attention o Process in which social partners intentionally focus on a common referent in the environment Parent follows the babys lead and comments on what the baby is doing or looking at o Intersubjectivity o Semantic development Early word recognition 4.5 month infants recognize their own name 7-8 month infants recognize new words Reference Associating words with meaning occurs at 6 months Comprehension vocabulary words that infants understand 10 month infants comprehend, but cannot say, 11 to 154 words Baby sign language First words Production vocabulary the words a child is able to say o Most children produce their first words between 10-15 months o Early production word is limited to the sound infants can pronounce Early vocabulary Initial vocabularies in the US often include people objects events (up bye bye night night), modifiers (mine, hot all gone), nouns Naming explosion From the first word to about 18 months babies plod along with language 50-100 words Naming explosion the rapid increase in vocabulary shown by children about 18 months o 44 words a week o By 2 900 words o By 6 8000 words Children learn new words from the context of their use and from comparison to words already known Whole-object assumption child must understand that the word assigned to an object describes the object in its entirety Mutual exclusivity an item will only have one name Pragmatic cues aspects of the social context that are used for word learning Fast mapping learning new words through contrasting use of a familiar and unfamiliar word Syntactic bootstrapping using the grammatical structure of the whole sentence Errors in word use o Overextension of meaning calling anything round a ball o Underextension of meaning car only used to refer to one car

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UNC - PSYC - 250
o Attachment to mother or father? Fathers, like mothers, develop attachment to their babies Early interaction is key By the end of the first year infants show similar attachment tomom and dado Childs temperament Temperament Individual difference in
UNC - PSYC - 250
Behavioral geneticso Studies how variation in behavior and development results from combination ofgenetic and environmental factorso Research designs Twin-study design compares identical and fraternal twins If identical twins are more similar than f
UNC - PSYC - 250
Changes in families in the USo The median age for marriage has risen 1950s: 20 for women 23 for men Present: 25 , 27 Tends: most adults marry and have positive attitudes about marriage 1/3 fail within 5 years Over end in divorce 75% of men and 66%
UNC - PSYC - 250
Chapter 1: Themes and method of Child Development Historical foundation of the Study of Child Developmento Early philosophical views how do children acquire knowledge? Plato Children are born with innate knowledge Knew what animals were at birth Emp
UNC - PSYC - 250
ooooChildren learn how to form categories and learn what to place incategories Perceptual categorization: grouping together objects that looksimilaro Coloro Sizeo Movement Where?Space WhenTime Why?Causality How many? Numbers and mathCor
UNC - PSYC - 250
Cognitive Development Influential theories of cognitive developmento Why not just one theory? Child development is complex and varied no single theory can accountfor all of ito Piagets theory genetic epistemology (the study of knowledge) Central the
UNC - PSYC - 250
Conclusions about intelligenceo Our intelligence and success in life involve a broader range of capabilities thanthose measured by traditional intelligence testso There is no single correct theory of intelligenceo A variety of theories and assessment
UNC - PSYC - 250
Contingency learning Contingency infant does target behavior then the child getsreward Rovee-Collier foot tied to a mobileObservational learning (imitation) The infant learns by observing othersTest 2 notes asalem@email.unc.eduThe Development of L
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Contributions The parental investment theory theory ofevolutionary psyc that explains why parents spendso much time and energy in raising their children Evolutionary psychologists believe that the lengthyperiod of human childrens immaturity anddep
UNC - PSYC - 250
Development of conceptions of self: the self in adolescenceo Abstract thinking emergeso There is concern with social competence and social acceptanceo Adolescents are egocentric They create personal fables in which the self is regarded as unique and
UNC - PSYC - 250
DNA carries the instructions for the formation and functioning oforganisms Prenatal diagnostic techniques Amniocentesis withdraw a small amount of amniotic fluid and test thefluid to see if the fetus is a carrier of certain genes Chorionic villi sam
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Early peer interaction Infants and toddlers Contagion if one baby cries, other babies will cry Arousal peers become very interested in one another Reciprocal imitation coordination of efforts with the play partnero Shared meaning allows for preten
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Effectiveness of program Gains in IQ scores from participating in early programs are not lasting butthere are other long term effects Fewer children needed special education classes Fewer children were held back in school More program participants
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Emotional development in childhood The causes of emotions change throughout childhood, as childrenscognitive and emotional development progresses In preschool and early school years, children become less intense and lessnegative emotionally Emotion
UNC - PSYC - 250
Emotional Developmento Delayed gratification tasko The ability to delay gratification predicts social, emotional, and academiccompetence years laterWhat are emotions?o Emotions consist of several components The desire to take action To escape, app
UNC - PSYC - 250
Erikson Life span developmental theoryo Proposed 8 age related development stages that spaninfancy to old age in which each stage is characterized by acrisis.o An unresolve task will impede developmental progress Basic trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Ethical issues in child development research Fully informed Give informed and voluntary consent Not to be harmed To withdraw voluntarily To be informed of the results To confidentiality Full compensation To beneficial treatment Institutional Re
UNC - PSYC - 250
Factors of intelligenceo Factor analysis statistical procedure for identifying closely related groups ofvariablesIntelligence as 1 factoro Spearman intelligence exists as a single factor or go In other words, smart people are smart all of the time a
UNC - PSYC - 250
Gender Identityo Gender identity: the extent to which you perceive yourself as masculine andfeminine in characteristicso Androgyny: gender identity in which the individual rates him or herself as high inboth masculine and feminine characteristicso I
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Grammatical development Holophasic period The period in which a whole phrase is expressed by a single wordo Drink or juice to express the entire statement of I am thirsty Telegraphic speech two-word combinations Around 2 years Nonessential element
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Imaginary companionso Entirely normalo More likely to be first born or only childo Watch relatively little TVo Verbally skillfulo Advanced theory of mindAutism and ToMo Autism is a disorder of neural development characterizedby impaired social in
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o Learning theory Infants become attached to their mothers because their mothers providefood (primary reinforcement) and she becomes a secondary reinforce Challenges to learning theory Harry Harlow Monkeys raised without their mothers or other monkey
UNC - PSYC - 250
Lesbian and Gay parentso Between 2 and 6 millions children have lesbian or gay parentso Children of gay parents are very similar in their development to children ofheterosexual parents in terms of Adjustment, personality, and relationships with peers
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Maternal characteristics Age best b/w 16-34 Older mothers are more susceptible chromosomal disorders Nutrition Disease Rubella can lead to deafness, blindness, mental retardation STDs Stress Leads to higher rates of emotional problems and behavi
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o Mechanisms of change Variation Differences within and among individuals Selection More frequent survival and reproduction of organisms that are welladapted to their environmento Sociocultural context Physical, social, cultural, economic, and his
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Multiple Risk Model and Poverty as a Developmental Risk Risk factors occur togethero Drug abuse + stress + unhealthy eating + no prenatalcare Many of these maternal risk factors are associated with poverty Cumulative risk: the presence of multiple r
UNC - PSYC - 250
Peers in groupso Young childrens groups When very young children interact in small groups, status patterns emerge.Some children are more dominant and central to the activities By preschool age there is a clear dominance hierarchy within peer groups
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Phinneys 3 phases of ethnic identity development Multigroup ethnic identitymeasure (MEIM) Ethnic identity diffusion/ foreclosure Ethnic identity search/moratorium Ethnic identity achievemento Development of ethnic identity Some minority adolescen
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Planning Contributes to successful problem-solving Children begin to form simple plans by their firstbirthday As children grow they make a greater variety ofplans, which helps them solve a broader range ofproblemso Strategies conscious cognitive
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Preoperational (2-7)o Knowledge acquired through language, metal imagery,symbolic thought Symbolic representations pretend play Egocentrism tendency to view the world fromones own perspective Centration focusing on one dimension of an object Rever
UNC - PSYC - 250
Spankingo Defined as hitting a child with an open hand on the buttocks or extremities withthe intent to discipline without leaving a bruise or causing physical harmo Distinguished from physical abuse, which would encompass corporal punishmentthat is
UNC - PSYC - 250
o Stages of pregnancy First trimester (conception-3 months) Second trimester (3-6 months) Third trimester (6-9 months) Birth(38 weeks)o The embryo Physiological structures and system differentiate Embryo is quite vulnerableo Development Cephaloca
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Status in peer groupsRole of parents in childrens peer relationshipsThe development of Gender Roles Gender stereotypes and roleso Stereotypes Instrumental vs. expressive Cross-culturally, instrumental traits are encouraged in males (active,indepen
UNC - PSYC - 250
Surveyso Statistical surveys Quantitative info about items in a population Standardized to ensure reliability, validity, andgeneralizability Conducted by phone, mail, web, etc Advantages Quick Large groups of ppl reached Control of environment w
UNC - PSYC - 250
The brain and experience Plasticity capacity of the brain to be affected by experienceo Experience-expectant plasticity Universal, experience by all humans Touch, sounds, voices, visual stimulationo Experience-dependent plasticity Processes unique t
UNC - PSYC - 250
The family The nature and functions of the familyo Families serve several functions regardless of culture: Survival of offspring Economic function Cultural traingingo Dimensions and styles of parentingo Parenting styles parenting behaviors and att
UNC - PSYC - 250
The importance of play Children are at their highest level of development when they areplayo Play create ZPDo Play teaches children about cultural norms children oftenplay out social situationsThe role of culture on development Vygotskys 2 princip
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o Theories of social cognition concerned with childrens ability to think andreason about their own and other peoples thoughts, feelings, motives, andbehaviors. Emphasizes the process of self socialization rather than the role ofothers Selman Theory o
UNC - PSYC - 250
Toucho Oral exploration dominates the first few monthso Manual control facilitates visual explorationIntermodal perceptiono Infants are able to combine information from two or more senses At about 4 months can integrate speaking sounds with a pictur
UNC - PSYC - 250
What do IQ scores predict?o IQ is a strong predictor of academic, economic, and occupational successo IQ scores correlate positively and strongly with school grades and achievementtestsThe first big BUT of intelligence tests: biaso Back to issues of
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Gas Thermometer Temperature Scale: Data AnalysisProom (mmHg)23.5760Temp (C)24.572.563.652.730.312.5P (mmHg)750880860830770720LINEST results:slope =Err:502(slope) =Err:502Err:502R2 =v/R (theor.) =v/R (exper.) =rel. unc. =rel. er
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t^2x(m)1.696506252.43363.38564.12095.25555625t^2 vs xaverage t(sec) 2x0.41.300.61.560.81.8412.031.22.29a0.8 0.4715571.2 0.4930971.6 0.472592 0.4853312.4 0.45666t^2 vs. X6f(x) = 4.4027x - 0.1437275R = 0.994487212t ^254321
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Part 0:Projectile Motion SetupPartHeight (m)Angle ()11.06621.066Gravity (m/s)=uH (m)030 (rad)u ()0.0053300.00533 0.523599 x (m) =9.81u (rad)0.01745329250.096Part 1: Time of Flight vs. Initial Velocity Experimental DataMeasurements (
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Section 450SUNEET BHANSALILab 3: Projectile MotionFebruary 20, 2009Partners: Liz Goodman, Wei Ji, Ben KaneTA: Luke OsborneHonor PledgeExperimental Data: Part 1 Time of Flight vs. Initial Velocity Experimental DataPart0:ProjectileMotionSetupPar
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4.4796.43738.33611.3416.24Spring Constant20For c e ( ne wt ons )00.00420.0060.00890.011515105000.0020.0040.0060.008Change in x (met ers)0.010.0120.014MassDistance Force0.015.8860.0179.810.02213.7340.0317.6580.03321.582
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Trial12345Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Trial1.0751.14141.08141.08061.07741.0730.84821.07311.1811.36521.00961.1260.95561.07061.08560.193283 0.046672 0.0449380.086439 0.020872 0.02009712345Period 4 Period 5 Period 61.4360.81232
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Periods1.45341.571.181.45061.57981.181.45351.58151.1811.44271.58171.17831.4291.58381.17921.42291.58241.17931.4231.57651.17421.42981.58661.17171.43971.58731.1714Avg1.438289 1.581067 1.177233Stdev0.012558 0.005294 0.003537sta
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Section 450SUNEET BHANSALILab 6: Energy of a Rolling ObjectMarch 20, 2009Partners: Liz Goodman and Wei JiTA: Luke OsborneHonor PledgeAbstract:The purpose of the rolling objects lab was to apply the Law of Conservation of Energy todetermine k valu
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Equilibrium of Forces Acting at a PointName: Suneet BhansaliSection:DatePartners:TAPart 1: Finding the required force magnitude and direction to reach equilibrium (3 Pulleys)MeasurementsPulley 1Mass (kg) :um (kg) :Angle (rads) :u (radians) :C
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Section 450Suneet BhansaliEquilibrium of Forces Acting on a PointJanuary 30, 2009Chris and Liz GoodmanLuke OsborneHonor PledgeExperimental DataMass(g)Weight 1Weight 2Weight 3Degrees()166.0 +/- 0.1166.1 +/- 0.1165.8 +/- 8.0Uncertainty of
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Section 450SUNEET BHANSALILab 2: Motion in One Dimension13 February 2009Partners: Liz Goodman and Wei JiLuke OsborneHonor PledgeData and Results: Part 1: t2 vs. PositionCollected DataX (m)T1(s)T2(s)T3(s)T4(s).41.261.311.321.32Average1.
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Part 1:Mass of hollow ring = .1002 kg +/- 0.0001 kgRing was 108.05mm +/- 0.01 mm in diameter from inside to insideHeight from bottom of ramp to tray = H = 0.765 +/- 0.001 mh (meters) of h (meters) (meters) x3 (meters)x1x2 (meters)x4(meters)Mean x
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Common Mistakes (ProjectileMotion):Similar to theDraw some tables, make your data organized. Dont put some spread outnumbers and calculations there; dont make me go back and forth multipletimes. Write your data, calculations and results in a nice log
UNC - PHYS - 104
Alec RubensteinExperiment 5-Uniform Circular MotionPre-Lab 1, 3, 4, 6, 71. The acceleration of a rotating object is not zero for uniform circular motion becausevelocity is a vector term which means that it has a magnitude and direction. If either the
UNC - PHYS - 104
Lab 3 Projectile MotionSection 442 Arada MalekianThursday, February 17, 2011Alec RubensteinPartner: Andres NovoaPledge:Abstract: The goal of this experiment is to study the motion of a freely-falling projectilelaunched at both a zero launch angle a
UNC - PHYS - 104
Lab 4 Work and EnergySection 442 Arada MalekianThursday, February 24, 2011Alec RubensteinPartners: Andres NovoaPledge:Abstract:The purpose of this lab is to compare the energy of a system during different phases and examinethe validity of the work
UNC - PHYS - 104
Raw Datah (m)X1 (m)0.3100.2800.2500.2300.2000.6520.6200.5780.5640.545X2 (m)X3 (m)0.6440.6410.6180.6130.5800.5870.5710.5600.5320.5280.4169070.3806980.3383510.3192460.2862780.4251040.38440.3340840.3180960.2970250.4147360.
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Lab 6 Energy of a Rolling ObjectSection 442 Arada MalekianThursday, March 17th, 2011Alec RubensteinPartner: Andres NovoaPledge:Abstract:The purpose of this experiment is to explore the Law of Conservation of Energy and to obtain thegeometric facto
UNC - PHYS - 104
Alec RubensteinLab 7 Pre-LabEmpirical Analysis of a Ring Pendulum2, 4, 6, 8: Part 2 of 52.I do not think that varying the mass will affect the period of oscillation. Because thependulum is based off the force of gravity and all objects fall at the s
UNC - PHYS - 104
Lab 8 Sound WavesSection 442 Arada MalekianThursday, April 7, 2011Alec RubensteinPartners: Andres NovoaPledge:Data & Analysis:Part A:Tuning Fork Rubber MalletModelC256B480Amplitude0.01090.120Frequency (Hz)253.91478.52Tuning Fork Plastic
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Physics 24 Lab Exam SAMPLE (with answers)Name: _Student ID# _Date: _ Time: _Lab Instructor: _Instructions: Work individually to complete each exercise to the best of your ability, show all your work, andclearly explain your answers in the spaces pro