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101 AFAM Midterm Study Guide Hine Ch. 2 Questions (2 and 3): Think about Olaudah Equianos experience as a young boy captured by traders and brought to a slave ship. What new and strange things did he encounter? How did he explain these things to himself? What kept him from descending into utter despair? New and strange things from his experience: Olaudah Equiano is a former slave who wrote a book providing a vivid account of a West Africans capture, sale to traders, and voyage to the Americas in 1755. African slave raiders captured the boy when he was 10 years old and forced him to march along with other captives to the Niger River or one of its tributaries, where they traded him to the coast and sold him to European slave traders whose ships sailed to the West Indies. His experience at the coastal salve factory convinced him he had entered a sort of hell, peopled by evil spirits. He talks about the stench caused by forcing so many people to live in close confinement making him sick to his stomach and emotionally agitated. His African and European captors try to calm him with liquor, but because hes not associated with alcohol (thats shitty) he becomes disoriented and more convinced of his impending doom. He refuses to eat and is therefore whipped. Then he witnesses the flogging (the act of methodically beating or whipping the human body) of a white crewman. The white guy dies and the sailors throw his body into the sea just as they disposed of dead Africans. During the time the ship is in port awaiting a full cargo of slaves, the boy Equiano is giving an account about spends much time on deck. After putting to sea, however, he usually remains below deck with the other slaves where each had scarcely room to turn himself. There, the smells of unwashed bodies and of toilet tubs, into which the children often fell and were almost suffocated, create a loathsome atmosphere. The darkness, the chafing of chains on human flesh, the shrieks and groans of sick and disoriented people provide a scene of horror almost inconceivable. He goes on to talk about nets on deck to prevent them from jumping overboard, being forced to dance and sing, and how the traders separated the people who spoke the same language to prevent rebellion. He manages to find adults, however, who speak his language and they explain to him the purpose of the voyage is to go to the white peoples country to work for them rather than to be eaten by them. Equiano wrote in his narrative that slaves working inside the slaveholders' homes in Virginia were treated cruelly. They suffered punishments such as an "iron muzzle, used around the mouths to keep house slaves quiet, leaving them barely able to speak or eat. Equiano conveyed the fear and amazement he experienced in his new environment. He thought that the eyes of portraits followed him wherever he went, and that a clock could tell his master about anything Equiano would do wrong. In fact, Equiano was so shocked by this culture that he tried washing his face in an attempt to change its color. How did he explain them and why didnt he lose hope? The book doesnt really say, but Im assuming that hearing he wasnt going to get eaten, singing and dancing, keeping a stronghold and native roots, and finding other adults that spoke his same language helped him explain these things to himself and keep from descending into despair. How could John Newton reconcile his Christian faith with his career as a slave-ship captain? -Poor health forced Newton to retire from the slave trade in 1754. 10 years later he gained ordination as an Anglican priest. In 1779 he became rector of St. Mary Woolnoth Church in London and served there until his death in 1807. By the late 1770s Newton had repented his involvement in the slave trade and had become one of its leading opponents. Together with William Cowper, a renowned poet, Newton published the Olney Hymns in 1779. Among the selections included in this volume was Amazing Grace, which Newton wrote as a reflection on divine forgiveness for his sins. For several reasons, Newton and other religious Britons had begun to perceive an evil in the slave trade that, despite their piety, they had failed to see earlier. Hine Ch. 3 Questions (1 and 3): Based on your reading of this chapter, do you believe racial prejudice among British settlers in the Chesapeake led them to enslave Africans? Or did the unfree condition of the first Africans to arrive at Jamestown lead to racial prejudice among the settlers? -From what Ive read, it seems as though the unfree condition of the first Africans to arrive at Jamestown did lead to racial prejudice among the setters. The reason why is that initially, there wasnt much of a difference between white indentured servants and black servants in Jamestown, but eventually as demand for labor increased the prejudices started to shift towards the unfree arrivals as opposed to white indentured servants. The books says, The colonys (Jamestown) inhabitants, for two reasons, regarded the new arrivals and those black people who had been in Jamestown earlier to be unfree, but not slaves. First, unlike the Portuguese and the Spanish, the English had no law for slavery. Second, at least those Angolans, who bore such names as Pedro, Isabella, Antoney, and Angelo, were Christians, and- according to English custom and morality in 1619Christians could not be enslaved. So, once these individuals worked off their purchase price, they regained their freedom. Then, to better explain why it was the unfree condition of the first Africans that swayed the need for labor toward enslaving Africans, the book says, Prior to the 1670s the English in the Chesapeake did not draw a strict line between white freedom and black slavery. Yet the ruling elite had from the early 1600s treated black servants differently from white servants. Over the decades, the regions British population gradually came to assume that persons of African descent were inalterably alien. This became the foundation or chattel slavery in the Chesapeake, in which slaves were legally private property on a level with livestock. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the black family in the eighteenth century? -Strengths: Naming practices reinforced family ties, families for now biological rather than based on improvised family structures, provided shelter for escapees, allowed blacks to work together to improve their lives as much as possible , indigenous and Islamic religions were able to persist, music, moral stability -Weaknesses: Poor housing, lack of sanitation, minimal cooking utensils and furniture, incest, being split up (prior to 1865) by capture and trade, being black sucks. The book doesnt answer this question I made all of this up. Hine Ch. 4 Questions (3 and 5): What was the role of African Americans in the War for Independence? How did their choices in this conflict affect how the war was fought? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. - In Virginia in April of 1775 the British appointed Governor of Virginia John Murray Dunmore ordered that the gunpowder that was stored in the magazines for the colonys defense in Williamsburg be put aboard an English ship. The people of Virginia were outraged and Dunmore promised to pay them for it. In November of the same year, the war for Independence was underway and Governor Dunmore came up with a plan to help the British. He issued as proclamation that stated that any slave that left his patriot master and enlisted in the British army would be freed. By the time he issued the proclamation colonists had known of his plans since April. Dunmore knew this plan would cause the patriots to focus less on the war and more on the internal threat this presented. He also knew that this would slow Americas production and economy and add soldiers to his own small army of only 300. This only increased the patriots desire to be rid of the British. - On the American side, only Georgia and South Carolina refused to enlist blacks, in every other colony they only had to prove that they were free. This however was often not even required. When an African American enlisted they were entitle to the same wages, enlistment bounties, clothing allowances, food and pension as white soldiers. Although in some cases if it was found out that a black had served while a fugitive he was often denied pension after the war. New England regiments had by far the most blacks in their regiments. It is estimated that nearly 8% of the New England soldiers were African American and it seems that there was little prejudice in the New England regiments as well. -The Negros role in the Revolution can best be understood by realizing that his major loyalty was not to a place nor to a people, but to a principle. When it came to fighting between Patriots on one side and the British and their Loyalist American allies on the other, African Americans joined the side that offered freedom. In the South, where the British held out the promise of freedom in exchange for military service, black men eagerly fought on the British side as Loyalists. In the North, where white Patriots were more consistently commited to human liberty than in the South, black men just as eagerly fought on the Patriot side. Black Loyalists were most numerous in the low country of South Carolina and Georgia. Why did a substantial class of free African Americans emerge from the revolutionary era? -They gained their freedom by serving in the war or escaping or because of economic and ideological change. As a result, a substantial free black population emerged in the Chesapeake after the war. Black independence is best understood in the context of revolutionary ideology derived from the Enlightenment. Black men and women, such as Benjamin Banneker and Phillis Wheatley, exemplified the intellectually liberating impact of the 18th century rationalism and recognized its application to black freedom. Professor McMillans Questions: What was the basic structure of the Triangle Trade? How were profits made? How did different parts of Europe, Africa, and the Americas participate? Why was the gun/slave cycle so important? Who profited the most and who profited the least? 6. How did the history of Africa relate to the history of Europe in terms of the development of the T-A slave trade? 7. Why did West and Central Africa supply so many slaves to the international slave trade? 8. Why was Portugal such an early and such a significant instigator of the T-A slave trade? 9. Why did Brazil and the Caribbean import so many more people than North America? 10. Why is the Middle Passage so significant in understanding New World Slavery? 11. How did slavers maximize the economic value of enslaved people on the middle passage? 12. How did enslaved people react to the Middle Passage? 13. How did sugar, rice, and religion affect the nature of slavery in the New World? 14. What is significant about the Siete Partidas in understanding the differences in slave systems in Latin America and Anglo-America? 15. Why is it significant to think about Barbados and the rest of the Caribbean when examining colonial North America? 16. Why did slavery differ so greatly between the Chesapeake, the Low Country, the Lower Mississippi, and New England/Middle Colonies? 17. What was the major crop/economic pursuit in each region? -Low Country: large landholders or planters were encouraged to cultivate and produce single staple crops with the use of slave labor. The production of sugar, tobacco and rubber based on the plantation system made both planters and the mother countries immensely wealthy and totally dependent on slave labor. -Chesapeake: Tobacco was the mainstay of the Virginia and Maryland economies. Plantations were established by riverbanks for the good soil and to ensure ease of transportation. Because wealthy planters built their own wharves on the Chesapeake to ship their crop to England, town development was slow. To cultivate tobacco, planters brought in large numbers of English workers, mostly young men who came as indentured servants. More than 110,000 had arrived in the Chesapeake region by 1700. Each indentured servant meant more land for his sponsor under the headright system, which had the effect of squeezing out small-scale farming. -New England/ Middle Colonies: New England's rocky soil and short growing season along with the practice of dividing already small farms among siblings led families to a barely subsistent living. The crops they grewbarley, wheat, and oatswere the same as those grown in England, so they had little export value compared with the staples of the southern plantations. Many New Englanders left farming to fish or produce lumber, tar, and pitch that could be exchanged for English manufactured goods. In the Middle Colonies, richer land and a better climate created a small surplus. Corn, wheat, and livestock were shipped primarily to the West Indies from the growing commercial centers of Philadelphia and New York. -Lower Mississippi: Senegambian labor enabled Louisiana planters to move rather quickly into plantation development, first of indigo, but, later, and more importantly, of sugar cane. African slaves also labored on government fortifications and public works, and built and repaired the levees that protected New Orleans. 18. Why was the Low Country so Africanized in culture and population and New England was not? 19. What makes Rhode Island an unusual case in New England? -Black slaves were in Rhode Island by 1652, and by the end of that century Rhode Island had become the only New England colony to use slaves for both labor and trade. After overtaking Boston by 1750, Newport and Bristol were the major slave markets in the American colonies. Slave-based economies existed in the Narragansett plantation family, the Middletown crop workers, and the indentured and slave craftsmen of Newport. Little Rhode Island generally had a smaller population of black slaves than its neighbors, Massachusetts and Connecticut, but with a very small white population as well, Rhode Island's blacks made up a higher percentage of the total population than elsewhere in New England. In the mid-18th century, Rhode Island had the highest proportion of slaveto-white of any colony in the North. This tended to make slave laws more severe in Rhode Island. Rhode Island's government jealously protected its slaves. The runaway law of 1714 penalized ferrymen who carried any slave out of the colony without a certificate from their masters. Such laws existed in neighboring colonies, but Rhode Island's was particularly severe in its penalties, and in the zeal with which the machinery of state was put to work in recovering human property, which was reminiscent of the hated Fugitive Slave Law of a later day. "The intrenched position of the slaveholders is clearly seen in this law, for all public officers of the colony and all citizens as well were charged with arresting, securing the slave, and notifying his master." 20. Why is it necessary to understand the French, Dutch, and Spanish as well as the British when examining American slavery? - The shippers were, in order of scale, the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch, and North Americans. European- and American-owned fortresses and ships obtained enslaved people from African slave-traders, though some were captured by European slave-traders through raids and kidnapping.[1][2] Most contemporary historians estimate that between 9.4 and 12 million[3][4] Africans arrived in the New World,[5][6] although the actual number of people taken from their homes is considerably higher. The First Atlantic system was the trade of enslaved Africans to, primarily, South American colonies of the Portuguese and Spanish empires; it accounted for only slightly more than 3% of all Atlantic slave trade. It started (on a significant scale) in about 1502[42] and lasted until 1580, when Portugal was temporarily united with Spain. While the Portuguese traded enslaved people themselves, the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants (mostly from other countries) the license to trade enslaved people to their colonies. During the first Atlantic system most of these traders were Portuguese, giving them a near-monopoly during the era, although some Dutch, English, Spanish and French traders also participated in the slave trade.[43] After the union, Portugal was weakened, with its colonial empire being attacked by the Dutch and British. -The Second Atlantic system was the trade of enslaved Africans by mostly British, Portuguese, French and Dutch traders. The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies, Brazil, and North America, as a number of European countries built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Amongst the proponents of this system were Francis Drake and John Hawkins 21. How did the nature of slavery vary between the different colonies of Anglo-North America? -Slave trade to the original thirteen colonies was slow and sporadic. In places like New York and Virginia, where small farming units were the norm, slaves were bought by handfuls rather than shiploads. The preference for male laborers limited the ability of most black slaves in early colonial society from developing relationships with black women. Among the Atlantic Creole population in New Amsterdam, however, a more balanced male to female ratio made as many as twenty-six marriages possible. These unions took place within the Dutch Reformed Church. The church became an institution through which New Amsterdam blacks were able to form independent familial units. In addition to marriage papers, archives of the Dutch Reformed Church contain baptism records that list children according to fathers rather than owners and name black godparents as witnesses. - As the plantation revolution swept across the South in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and the terms of racial slavery were concretized in law, slaves found it increasingly difficult to form families. Not only did the law forbid interracial wedlock and deny blacks legal rights to marry each other, but the agricultural demands of Southern slave societies also continued to generate a disproportionate population of black men in the colonies. -By the early 1700s, however, planters in both the Chesapeake region and in the Southern low country were becoming aware that they could profit economically by promoting the families their slaves were struggling to create. Marriage, they reasoned, would make slaves content and therefore docile. What is more, stable unions would lead to reliable reproduction cycles. This idea of a self-renewing slave labor force was exploited on a grand scale for the first time on the plantations of late eighteenth century America, increasing in intensity after 1807 when Congress outlawed international slave trade. -The nature of the slave family varied depending on the form of agrarian activity taking place in a given region. Because tobacco planting required fewer slaves on a single farm, Chesapeake slave families were often spread across several plantations. Men and women in this region often "married abroad," meaning that spouses had different owners and lived apart. In such cases, a husband, either with permission or surreptitiously, would usually visit his wife and children once or twice a week. The divisiveness of agricultural production in this area helped to foster a vast kinship network that linked several plantations. In contrast, the largest of "Cotton Kingdom" plantations required dozens of hands, making it more common to find whole families working and living together. -As industry attempted to keep up with agricultural output in the South, the number of African slaves in the North increased, rapidly replacing the first generation of Atlantic Creoles who had successfully organized into autonomous families. Unlike their Southern contemporaries, Northern slave owners had little interest in family formation among slaves. The nature of urban life and small-farm production made large workforces untenable and unnecessary. While the plantation master approved of, oversaw, and often arranged marriages among his slaves, the Northern master discouraged marital union and dissolved existing bonds by separating husbands and wives. 22. What defined (that is what sorts of work, what sorts of punishments, what sorts of family life existed in each region) the daily life of an enslaved person in the different regions? - The first blacks in the American Colonies were brought in, like many lower-class whites, as indentured servants. Most indentured servants had a contract to work without wages for a master for four to seven years, after which they became free. Blacks brought in as slaves, however, had no right to eventual freedom. The first black indentured servants arrived in Jamestown in the colony of Virginia in 1619. They had been captured in Africa and were sold at auction in Jamestown. After completing their service, some black indentured servants bought property. But racial prejudice among white colonists forced most free blacks to remain in the lowest level of colonial society. The first black African slaves in the American Colonies also arrived during the early 1600's. The slave population increased rapidly during the 1700's as newly established colonies in the South created a great demand for plantation workers. By 1750, about 200,000 slaves lived in the colonies. The majority lived in the South, where the warm climate and fertile soil encouraged the development of plantations that grew rice, tobacco, sugar cane, and later cotton. Most plantation slaves worked in the fields. Others were craft-workers, messengers, and servants. Only 12 percent of slave-owners operated plantations that had 20 or more slaves. But more than half of all the country's slaves worked on these plantations. Most of the other slave-owners had small farms and only a few slaves each. Under arrangements with their masters, some slaves could hire themselves out to work for other whites on farms or in city jobs. Such arrangements brought income to both the slaves and the masters. The cooler climate and rocky soil of the Northern and Middle colonies made it hard for most farmers there to earn large profits. Many slaves in those colonies worked as skilled and unskilled laborers in factories, homes, and shipyards and on fishing and trading ships. During the mid-1600's, the colonies began to pass laws called slave codes. In general, these codes prohibited slaves from owning weapons, receiving an education, meeting one another or moving about without the permission of their masters, and testifying against white people in court. Slaves received harsher punishments for some crimes than white people. A master usually received less punishment for killing a slave than for killing a free person for the same reason. Slaves on small farms probably had more freedom than plantation slaves, and slaves in urban areas had fewer restrictions in many cases than slaves in rural areas. 23. How did resistance play a part in the life of the enslaved? - Enslaved African Americans resisted slavery in a variety of active and passive ways. "Day-to-day resistance" was the most common form of opposition to slavery. Breaking tools, feigning illness, staging slowdowns, and committing acts of arson and sabotage--all were forms of resistance and expression of slaves' alienation from their masters. Running away was another form of resistance. Most slaves ran away relatively short distances and were not trying to permanently escape from slavery. Instead, they were temporarily withholding their labor as a form of economic bargaining and negotiation. Slavery involved a constant process of negotiation as slaves bargained over the pace of work, the amount of free time they would enjoy, monetary rewards, access to garden plots, and the freedom to practice burials, marriages, and religious ceremonies free from white oversight. Some fugitives did try to permanently escape slavery. While the idea of escaping slavery quickly brings to mind the Underground Railroad to the free states, in fact more than half of these runaways headed southward or to cities or to natural refuges like swamps. Often, runaways were relatively privileged slaves who had served as river boatmen or coachmen and were familiar with the outside world. - Slave revolts were most likely when slaves outnumbered whites, when masters were absent, during periods of economic distress, and when there was a split within the ruling elite. They were also most common when large numbers of native-born Africans had been brought into an area at one time. 24. How did Africans create new cultures in colonial North America? - During the 18th century two vastly different societies emerged in the American Colonies. One was white and free and the other was black and for the most part non-free. By the time America was beginning its Revolutionary war there were over 500,000 black residents. It was during this time that another group of black Americans began to emerge, the Creoles. Creoles were locally born Blacks who drew strongly on the cultural influences on their black ancestors, subsidizing their beliefs with practices and traditions from America, the only home they ever knew. These early Creoles were the beginning of the African American culture we know today. 25. How did religion, language, family, and folk culture play a role in creating community? - African culture was not entirely removed from slave culture through the process of enslavement and "was much more resistant to the bludgeons that was slavery than historians have hitherto suspected."[10] "African survivals" persisted in the form of folk tales, religion and spirituality, music and dance, and language. He asserts that the retention of African culture acted as a form of resistance to enslavement: "All things considered, the few Africans enslaved in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century America appear to have survived their traumatic experiences without becoming abjectly docile, infantile, or submissive" and "since an overwhelming percentage of nineteenth-century Southern slaves were native Americans, they never underwent this kind of shock [the Middle Passage] and were in a position to construct psychological defenses against total dependency on their masters."[11] Historians have discussed "what could be generally described as slave 'culture,' but give little solid information on life in the quarters."[12] He argues that culture developed within the slave community independent of the slaveowners' influence. Antebellum black slaves created several unique cultural forms which lightened their burden of oppression, promoted group solidarity, provided ways for verbalizing aggression, sustaining hope, building self-esteem, and often represented areas of life largely free from the control of whites."[13] Slave music and dance (depicted here in The Old Plantation) represented forms of resistance and examples of African cultural retention Many of the folk tales told by slaves have been traced by African scholars to Ghana, Senegal, and Mauritania to peoples such as the Ewe, Wolof, Hausa, Temne, Ashanti, and Igbo. He remarks, "While many of these tales were brought over to the South, the African element appears most clearly in the animal tales. Southern slaves often included African animals like elephants, lions, and monkeys as characters in their folk tales. [14] As Christian missionaries and slaveowners attempted to erase African religious and spiritual beliefs, "in the United States, many African religious rites were fused into one voodoo." Voodoo priests and conjurers promised slaves that they could make masters kind, harm enemies, ensure love, and heal sickness. Other religious survivals include funeral rites, grave decorating, and ritualistic dancing and singing.[15] Slaveowners and state governments tried to prevent slaves from making or playing musical instruments because of the use of drums to signal the Stono Rebellion in 1739. However, in spite of restrictions, slaves were able to build a strong musical tradition drawing on their African heritage. Music, songs, and dances were similar to those performed or played in Africa. Instruments reproduced by slaves include drums, threestringed banjos, gourd rattles, and mandolins.[16] Still, cross-cultural exchanges occurred on southern plantations, arguing that "acculturation in the United States involved the mutual interaction between two cultures, with Europeans and Africans borrowing from each other."[17] The most significant instance revolved around Protestant Christianity (primarily Baptist and Methodist churches): "The number of blacks who received religious instruction in antebellum white churches is significant because the church was the only institution other than the plantation which played a major role in acculturating the slave."[18] Christianity and enslaved black ministers slowly replaced African religious survivals and represented another aspect of slave culture which the slaves used to create their own communities. While ministers preached obedience in the presence of the slaveowners and other whites, slaves often met in secret, "invisible" services unsupervised by whites. In these "invisible churches", slaves could discuss freedom, liberty, and the judgment of God against slaveowners.[19] How did location in the colonies affect the development of African American cultures? 27. How African was the culture of Colonial Carolina? - The South had a significantly higher number and proportion of slaves in the population, as its commodity crops were labor intensive.[6] Early on, slaves in the South worked primarily in agriculture, on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, and tobacco; cotton became a major crop after the 1790s. Tobacco was very labor intensive, as was rice cultivation.[24] In South Carolina in 1720, about 65% of the = In much the same way they viewed slave marriage, planters also saw religion as a means of controlling their slaves, and they encouraged it. Slaves, in a prayer house built on the plantation or at services in their master's nearby church, heard time and again a simple sermonobey your master and do not steal or lie. But the slaves also developed their own religion, often an amalgam of evangelical Christianity and West-African beliefs and practices, and it was the source of a very different message. At services held secretly during the evening in the slave quarters or nearby woods, prayers, songs, and sermons focused on ultimate deliverance from bondage. Not at all surprising was the emphasis on Moses, the promised land, and the Israelites' release from Egypt in both slave religion and song. 26. Music, particularly what became known as the Negro spiritual, was an important part of slave culture. It seemed to southern whites that slaves sang all the time, and apologists for slavery argued that this showed slaves were happy and content with their lot. They evidently ignored the songs' lyrics about the burden of backbreaking labor; sorrow over the breakup of families; and hope for the end to slavery, either in the hereafter or sooner, if escape to the North could be arranged. 28. How African was the culture of Colonial New England? -Not that African? - New England and the Middle Colonies were areas of small farms and ports hospitable to seagoing vessels. There were no plantations, but some large estate farms. The climate and short growing season prohibited the production of tobacco and rice. Farmers mainly grew grains, which were not labor-intensive to harvest. Slavery was marginal to the northern economy. Many northern colonists owned slaves, but they tended to own only a few. Artisans used slaves to work in their shops. A small farmer might purchase one or two slaves to supplement the family's labor. 29. How did the Declaration of Independence affect black people in the AngloAmerican colonies? - The contradiction between the claim that "all men are created equal" and the existence of American slavery attracted comment when the Declaration was first published. As mentioned above, although Jefferson had included a paragraph in his initial draft that strongly indicted Britain's role in the slave trade, this was deleted from the final version. [171] "If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature", English abolitionist Thomas Day wrote in a 1776 letter, "it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves." [172] In the 19th century, the Declaration took on a special significance for the abolitionist movement. Historian Bertram Wyatt-Brown wrote that "abolitionists tended to interpret the Declaration of Independence as a theological as well as a political document".[173] Abolitionist leaders Benjamin Lundy and William Lloyd Garrison adopted the "twin rocks" of "the Bible and the Declaration of Independence" as the basis for their philosophies. "As long as there remains a single copy of the Declaration of Independence, or of the Bible, in our land," wrote Garrison, "we will not despair."[174] For radical abolitionists like Garrison, the most important part of the Declaration was its assertion of the right of revolution: Garrison called for the destruction of the government under the Constitution, and the creation of a new state dedicated to the principles of the Declaration.[175] The controversial question of whether to add additional slave states to the United States coincided with the growing stature of the Declaration. The first major public debate about slavery and the Declaration took place during the Missouri controversy of 1819 to 1821. [176] Antislavery Congressmen argued that the language of the Declaration indicated that the Founding Fathers of the United States had been opposed to slavery in principle, and so new slave states should not be added to the country.[177] Proslavery Congressmen, led by Senator Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina, argued that since the Declaration was not a part of the Constitution, it had no relevance to the question.[178] From this time forward, defenders of slavery, from John Randolph in the 1820s to John C. Calhoun in the 1840s, found it necessary to argue that the Declaration's assertion that "all men are created equal" was false, or at least that it did not apply to black people.[179] During the debate over the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1853, for example, Senator John Pettit of Indiana argued that "all men are created equal", rather than a "self-evident truth", was a "self-evident lie".[180] Opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, including Salmon P. Chase and Benjamin Wade, defended the Declaration and what they saw as its antislavery principles. 30. Was the promise of American Independence fulfilled for most black people? - The American Revolution had profound effects on the institution of slavery. Several thousand slaves won their freedom by serving on both sides of the War of Independence. As a result of the Revolution, a surprising number of slaves were manumitted, while thousands of others freed themselves by running away. In Georgia alone, 5000 slaves, a third of the colony's prewar total, escaped. In South Carolina, a quarter of the slaves achieved freedom. 31. Why is Washington such a complex figure in understanding black American history? - Washington was the only prominent, slaveholding Founding Father to emancipate his slaves. He did not free his slaves in his lifetime, however, but instead included a provision in his will to free his slaves upon the death of his wife. William Lee, Washington's longtime personal servant, was the only slave freed outright in the will. The will called for the ex-slaves to be provided for by Washington's heirs, the elderly ones to be clothed and fed, the younger ones to be educated and trained at an occupation. Washington did not own and could not emancipate the "dower slaves" at Mount Vernon. Prior to 1782, Virginia law prohibited slave owners from emancipating slaves. The only exception being for "meritorious service" and only at the approval of the Governor and his council.[10][11] This law was repealed by the 1782 law allowing slave emancipation by will or deed.[12][13] Washington never manumitted any slaves by deed after the liberal 1782 law was passed, with the exception of his will. -Washington's failure to act publicly upon his growing private misgivings about slavery during his lifetime is seen by some historians as a tragically missed opportunity. The major reason Washington did not emancipate his slaves after the 1782 law and prior to his death was because of the financial costs involved. To circumvent this problem, in 1794 he quietly sought to sell off his western lands and lease his outlying farms in order to finance the emancipation of his slaves, but this plan fell through because enough buyers and renters could not be found. Also, Washington did not want to risk splitting the new nation apart over the slavery issue. "He did not speak out publicly against slavery", argues historian Dorothy Twohig, "because he did not wish to risk splitting apart the young republic over what was already a sensitive and divisive issue. 32. Why did George Washington resist allowing black people into the Continental Army? - Revolutionary leaders began to be fearful of using blacks in the armed forces. They were afraid that slaves who were armed would uprise against them. Slave owners became concerned that military service would eventually free their slaves. In May 1775, the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, stopped the enlistment of slaves in the armies of the colony. This action was adopted by the Continental Congress when they took over the Patriot Army. George Washington in July 1775 issued an order to recruiters, ordering them not to enroll "any deserter from the Ministerial army, nor any stroller, negro or vagabond".[11] This order did not apply to blacks already serving in the army. In September 1775, the southern delegates moved that Washington should discharge all blacks, free or slaves. The northern delegates were aware of how brave the blacks had been in the Massachusetts battles and opposed the notion. The blacks that were already in the army were then allowed to finish out their enlistments. In October 1775, Washington announced that all blacks, both free and slave would be "rejected altogether." In November he said that "Neither Negroes, boys unable to bear arms, nor old men unfit to endure the fatigues of the campaign, are to be enlisted." [12] Most blacks were integrated into existing military units, but some segregated units were formed, such as the Bucks of America. 33. Why did Lord Dunmore advocate admitting black people into the British forces? - Both the British and the colonists believed that slaves could serve an important role during the revolution. In April 1775, Lord Dunmore (1732-1809), the royal governor of Virginia, threatened that he would proclaim liberty to the slaves and reduce Williamsburg to ashes if the colonists resorted to force against British authority. In November, he promised freedom to all slaves belonging to rebels who would join "His Majesty's Troops...for the more speedily reducing the Colony to a proper sense of their duty...." Some eight hundred slaves joined British forces, some wearing the emblem "Liberty to the Slaves." The British appeal to slave unrest outraged slaveholders not only in the South but in New York's Hudson Valley. Be able to identify and define the following terms, people, and places: -Anthony Benezet--French Quaker and one of the earliest American abolitionists, from Philly. Said slave-owning was not consistent with Christian doctrine and tried to get the British ban on slavery extended to the US. He established the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes -Gun/Slave Cycle: Africans sell slaves to white traders in exchange for guns and muskets to capture more enemy tribes. The Europeans would not sell the technology to build guns so the Africans had to keep relying on them for more. this can be included in number. -Ralph Henry--slave of Patrick Henry who fought for the British in the Revolution-reveals the irony in the very different ways blacks and whites viewed the world. -Asiento- The monopoly over the slave trade from Africa to Spains American coloniesgiven to Spain by the pope. Granted exclusive right for the Portugese Prince to trade people into labor. -The Henrietta Marie was a slave ship that carried captive Africans to the West Indies, where they were sold as slaves. The ship wrecked at the southern tip of Florida on its way home to England, and is one of only a few wrecks of slave ships that have been identified. -Rhode Island Regiment- allowed slaves to enlist because RI was having difficulty recruiting enough white men to meet quota. -Bacons rebellion - uprising in VA lead by planter, attacked indians, drove governor out -Interlopers--something to do with transatlantic slave trade and found in Wright. Independent traders who threatened the monopolies of slave trading companies in the late 17th century. -Ring shout- A shout or ring shout is an ecstatic, transcendent religious ritual, first practiced by African slaves in the West Indies and the United States and their descendants, in which worshipers move in a circle while shuffling and stomping their feet and clapping their hands. Despite the name, shouting aloud is not an essential part of the ritual. -Bartolome de las Casas- a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". His extensive writings, the most famous being "A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies" and "Historia de Las Indias", chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies, focusing particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the Indigenous peoples. One of the 1st abolitionists by being an advocate for indigenous peoples of Spanish colonies. Suggested to bring over people who do deserve to be slaves (Africans) however his last book said enslavement of Africans was wrong. -Isabel de Olvena-most famous black woman to join the military expedition through New Mexico in 1600 in pursuit of conquering Pueblo IndiansRuy do Siqueria: Portuguese who gained permission from King of Benin to trade European goods for slaves within the borders of the kingdom (1472) -Benjamin Lay - p.101; former slave owner turned Quaker and tried to persuade people to stop owning and buying slaves -James Oglethorpe- a British general, member of parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia in the United States. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prisons, in the New World. -Scramble--once slave ships reached port, they herded their slaves together to be sold for a fixed price per head; buyers rushed upon them and grabbed whoever; it was a good way to sell the slaves that normally wouldnt pass inspection -Benjamin Banneker- a free African American astronomer, mathematician, surveyor, almanac author and farmer. -Jupiter Hammon- a Black poet who became the first African-American published writer in America when a poem appeared in print in 1760. He was a slave his entire life, and the date of his death is unknown. He was living in 1790 at the age of 79, and died by 1806. Hammon was a devout Christian, and is considered one of the founders of African American literature. -Sea Dogs--Chp. 2 and similar to interlopers p. 49; English ships that attacked Spanish ships to steal their cargo -Bloody Flux--dysentery plus blood -Loango Bay-- same place as interlopers; in index; major harbor north of the Congo River where the English, Dutch and French met with Vili kingdom representatives to get slaves (1680) -Seasoning- p. 49; method by which slave owners broke the slaves into agricultural work by assigning them to work gangs and teaching the European language; was an attempt to make the workers as efficient as possible. also refers to the period during which slaves adjust to their environment (disease, etc). If they survive these new diseases (aka grow immune to them) they survive the seasoning period. -Colonel Tye- also known as Titus Cornelius, was a slave of African descent in New Jersey who achieved notability during the American Revolutionary War by his leadership and fighting skills, when he fought as a Loyalist. -Lucy Terry Prince- is the author of the oldest known work of literature by an African American.Terry was stolen from Africa and sold into slavery as an infant. She was owned by Ebenezer Wells of Deerfield, who allowed her to be baptized into the Christian faith at about five years of age during the Great Awakening. -Sierra Leone- British free black colony; some black Loyalists went there after Patriot win. However the colony failed because the society was not established and the native Africans did not welcome them. -Creole/Pidgin -Pidgin was a (business) language that was created for slaves and their owners to communicate that was neither English nor African and used to only talk about economic consequences. After new generations came along, they adopted this as their spoken language which is now Creole complete with emotions and feelings.. -Maroon communities- escaped slaves establish their own settlement in inaccessible regions like Spanish Florida and Jamaica. -Siete partidas- overarching Spanish law that defined slavery; slaves could marry, be baptized, own land, etc. -Duke of Argyle - has to do with triangle trade; John Newtons large ship that wasnt originally a slave ship but was good because he could pack more slaves into it -Mansa Musa - emperor of Mali in 1324 and made a pilgrammage to Mecca with 60,000 people as an entourage. Participated in the giving of alms which lowered the global value of gold by throwing so much gold into the streets of Cairo. -Speculum oris - tool used in slave ships to force feeding -Elizabeth Kay- slave that sued for her freedom in Virginia because her father is white and free although her mom is a slave. She wins but then it is passed that a childs status is based on the mothers -Miscegenation-interracial sexual contacts between slaves, white indentured servants, and American Indians. Produced people of mixed race and changed all three groups culturally. -St. Augustine, Florida - first place with slaves in New World -Esteban- a Moorish slave with a significant role in the Spanish exploration of what would be the U.S. state of New Mexico.Esteban will be remembered for his contributions of language and "mystical abilities." He was the first black to explore North America and is remembered for his stories of the Seven Cities of Gold. -Negro Watch-- Hine pg. 68; imposing a curfew on slaves as a result of their growing population and the owners fears that they would revolt -Tituba/Candy- Salem withches. Tituba was Native American and Candy was Black. Candy was brought with her master from Barbados and was accused of witchcraft. She told the court that her master taught her. -Gang system- p.50; collective agricultural labor; slaves work harder in groups because their happier---can sing songs and keep the African spirit alive -Patriarchy- is a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and is dependent on female subordination. -Voodoo/Santeria/Candomble - combination of European and West African religions that were present in Hispaniola (Voodoo), Mexico (Santaria), and Brazil (Candomble). Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose: Maroon community in St. Augustine, FL that was a refuge for slaves -Prince Hall- a tireless abolitionist and a leader of the free black community in Boston. Hall tried to gain New Englands enslaved and free blacks a place in some of the most crucial spheres of society, Freemasonry, education and the military. He is considered the founder of Black Freemasonry in the United States, known today as Prince Hall Freemasonry. -Wilson Swain Caldwell - The son of November Caldwell (Slave to the Caldwells) and Rosa Burgess (slave to the Swains). Parents could not get married because they were property and was birthed in the Swains backyard. Worked for students on campus as a waiter and until cleaner Union army marched through campus. One of the first paid employees. -Guinea-birds- something to do with your status as a slave Hine Chp 2 & 3; unseasoned new Africans that are not worth as much as the slaves born in America (Creoles)..Hine p.49 -Prince Henry the Navigator- an infante (prince) of the Kingdom of Portugal and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents. -Zong Atrocity - Left the Bight of Benin with 440 people as cargo and 14 crew members. Ship was traveling to Jamaica which was about a 2 month journey but it took about 4 months and they were running out of supplies so to make a decent profit, 133 slaves were thrown overboard. The owner asked to be reimbursed but insurance company refused because it was not an act of God. Study Guide for Terrible Transformation Africans in America # 1 AFAM 101 McMillan Terminology William Tucker- the first Negro child born in 1624 in Jamestown Colony Anthony Johnson- In March 1622 thirty nations of the Powhatan Confederacy kill 350 colonists over violations of land treaties. On the Bennett plantation only 12 out of 52 people survive, among them a man whose name appears in the 1625 Virginia census as a servant, "Antonio the Negro." Antonio eventually changes his name to Anthony Johnson and marries a "Negro" servant named Mary who bears four children. Anthony Johnson enjoys the same privileges as free Englishmen. In Northampton county, Johnson lives among nearly 20 free African men and women, 13 of whom own their own homes. John Punch- was an indentured servant and ran away in order to become free. He was quickly caught. Two white indentured servants were captured with Punch and their punishment was whippings and four years added to their indentured terms. Punch however was whipped and was condemned to lifelong servitude. Anthony Johnson moves his family north to Maryland. He dies on his 300-acre farm. Johnson's grandson adds to the property and the Johnson family prospers. Francis La Jau- Francis Le Jau becomes the first full-time Anglican minister in South Carolina. He preaches that all men, regardless of color, have immortal souls. He is a precursor to the Anglican missionaries. Jemmy-On September 9, 1739 a slave named Jemmy leads the Stono Rebellion, a revolt which begins with 20 Angolan slaves on a march toward St. Augustine and freedom. White settlers catch up with the slaves and kill fifteen men. The rest are surrounded, questioned, and then shot. In response to the Stono Rebellion, the "Negro Act" takes away Africans' freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, and outlaws their right to earn money or to read. Mary Burton- On March 18, 1741 a fire breaks out in the governor's official residence. White colonists worry that this is an act of rebellion by African slaves. In response nearly every African American male over 16 years old is jailed. In return for her freedom from servitude, Mary Burton claims that African American men were part of the plot. Jamestown Virginia- In April 1607 the Jamestown colony is founded. Few can endure the hardship of the new country; by the spring of 1610, only 60 out of 500 settlers are left. In 1619, a Spanish ship trades a cargo of Africans for food. These Africans, baptized Christians, are purchased as indentured servants like most Europeans. The colonists establish tobacco as a profitable crop; the Africans supply much-needed labor for the tobacco crop. The more land and labor a colonist acquires, the more profit he can make. Initially, colonists rely on white indentured servants as a labor force. English settlers sign indenture forms--a contract that defines length of service and the conditions of servitude--to guarantee their labor in exchange for passage to Virginia. Powhatan Confederacy-In March 1622 thirty nations of the Powhatan Confederacy kill 350 colonists over violations of land treaties. Bennett Plantation- On the Bennett plantation only 12 out of 52 people survive, among them a man whose name appears in the 1625 Virginia census as a servant, "Antonio the Negro." Antonio eventually changes his name to Anthony Johnson and marries a "Negro" servant named Mary who bears four children. Bacons Rebellion- a rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon as a result of Governor Berkeleys failure to protect the frontier from attack from native Americans. He rebelled by attacking tribes. He briefly took control over Jamestown and burned it and later died. Angola (Maryland)Tonys VineyardRoyal African Company- The Royal African Company. Founded in 1672, the Royal African Company was granted a similar monopoly in the slave trade. Between 1680 and 1686, the Company transported an average of 5,000 slaves a year. Between 1680 and 1688, it sponsored 249 voyages to Africa. Freedom Dues- what indentured servants received after finishing their terms of identure. Includes land money and guns Headright system- entitles a planter to fifty acres of land for each servant brought into the colony. By 1622 three thousand new settlers arrive in Virginia El Mina- a slave castle erected by Portugal in present day Ghana was established as a trade settlement and became one of the most important stops on the route of the Atlantic slave trade. Middleton Plantation- The Middleton family is one of the first to arrive from Barbados in 1678. Rice, the popular cash crop in South Carolina, brings them wealth. By 1706 they triple the size of their holdings. Barbados- established by the English as a place to grow a commercial crop which was tobacco at first then changed to sugar. High mortality rate among slaves working on these sugar plantations. Anglo Nort h Amreican (13 US colonies plus Spanish and French) colony; economically it was same as Haiti or Cuba (both English colonies). Discredited idea that English were less brutal than other anglo races, they were equally brutal in the right circumstances (ie Cuba or Haiti) Stono rebellion- On September 9, 1739 a slave named Jemmy leads the Stono Rebellion, a revolt which begins with 20 Angolan slaves on a march toward St. Augustine and freedom. In response to the Stono Rebellion, the "Negro Act" takes away Africans' freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, and outlaws their right to earn money or to read. Negro Act- takes away Africans' freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, and outlaws their right to earn money or to read New York Negro Conspiracy- a supposed plot by slaves and poor whites in the british colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires. Discussion 1. What brought the first black people to Virginia? Were they the first black people in the New World? Were the first black Virginians slaves? Why or why not? They were people from Angola taken to Jamestown. They were captures from a Spanish ship and were already baptised and giving Christian names so they could not be enslaved. They were not the first people in the New World because the Spanish had already brought slaves to St. Augustine. 2. How did colonial laws change from 1619-1670 in their definition of servitude and freedom? How did the colonies differ in their treatment of slavery? Spanish colonies defined any conquered peoples to be eligible for slavery; did think that Africans were people and thus obligated to be baptized, married, own land, and have access to a priest and should have access to freedom eventually. English had no overarching rule that governed how slaves were treated 3. How does Anthony Johnsons story illustrate the development of AngloAmerican slavery and freedom? Was he typical? He began as an indentured servant in the colonies so once his term of service was over, he was able to own his own land and make his own money. He was not typical, but eventually as attitudes changed many of the freedoms that he had gained for his family was taken away. 4. How does Olaudah Equianos story illustrate the Middle Passage? Was he typical? 5. What was the relationship between the English and the Spanish (in terms of slavery) in North America? 6. How do the Stono Rebellion and the New York Conspiracy illustrate the nature of slavery throughout the American Colonies? What was significant about the locations in which they occurred? Study Guide for Revolution Africans in America # 2 AFAM 101 McMillan Terminology Venture Smith- Venture Smith is a slave who grows to be a very big man. He fights his master and is sold. He buys his freedom for 71 pounds and 2 shillings. He ends up buying his freedom for himself and his family and he has a baby who is born free. Venture buys land and slaves to work it with him. Black Codes- restrictive laws which are imposed on free blacks in Connecticut Great Awakening- inspired new ideas about religion and individual rights Phillis Wheatley- a slave, receives critical acclaim for her first book of poetry Lord Dunmore- a british general issues a proclamation that blacks who join British troops will be given their freedom Martha Dandridge Custis- George Washingtons wife helped Washington rise in stature and wealth during their marriage. David George- David George was born into slavery in Virginia in 1742, but ran away to South Carolina where he hid for several years -- first as a servant to Creek chief Blue Salt, then to Natchez chief King Jack, who sold him to a plantation in Silver Bluff, South Carolina, near the Georgia border. Between 1773 and 1775, George, his wife, and six other slaves owned by George Galphin were converted to Christianity and baptized by Joshua Palmer, a white Baptist itinerant minister. Following Dunmore's proclamation, white ministers were prohibited from preaching to slaves "lest they should furnish...too much knowledge." Upon Palmer's recommendation, George took on responsibility for the Silver Bluff group. With help from Galphin's children, George learned to read and write by using the Bible. The Silver Bluff church grew under George's leadership, gradually increasing in number from eight to more than 30. George Liele, the first black Baptist in Georgia, occasionally preached to congregation. In 1778, when their Patriot master abandoned the plantation as the British advanced, the whole Silver Bluff group fled to British-occupied Savannah. There, George "kept a butcher's stall" while his wife took in laundry for the British troops. George continued to preach in Savannah, and was once again baptized, this time by Liele. With borrowed money, George and his wife made their way to Charleston. When the British evacuated over 5,000 blacks from the city in 1782, most of them to slavery in the West Indies, they were among the handful who found their way to Nova Scotia. George settled in Shelburne, where he quickly became one of the leading black preachers, founding what was the first Baptist Church in Shelburne and the second in Nova Scotia. His powerful preaching attracted both black and whites to his camp meetings and mass baptisms. Since the arrival of the British refugees, tension had been building over competition between blacks and whites for scarce jobs and resources. In 1784, riots erupted when George attempted to baptize two whites. His July 26 diary entry records, "Great riot today. The disbanded soldiers have risen against the free Negroes to drive them out of the town." A few days later, "Riot continues. The soldiers force the free Negroes to quit the town -- pulled down 20 of their houses." The soldiers entered George's church, beat him, and drove him into the swamps. He wrote; "forty or fifty disbanded soldiers...turned oer my dwelling house...I continued preaching til they came one night, and stood before the pulpit and swore how they would treat me if I preached again." George and his family fled to Birchtown, where he was required to obtain a preaching license that restricted his ministry to blacks. He also faced opposition from black Anglicans, forcing his return to Shelburne, where he gained a widespread following. George's ministry sparked many independent congregations in Nova Scotia (over the next thirty years making Baptists the majority among blacks); he himself established seven Baptist churches and trained a number of other black preachers. His work, along with that of other black religious leaders, created the first movement of black churches and benevolent organizations in North America. Eventually, after a decade of persecution in Canada, George left to become a founding father of Sierra Leone and of the first Baptist Church in West Africa. Graduated Emancipation Natural Rights of Man- the continental congress calls for a wartime halt to the slave trade because a war fought for these rights cannot include a slave trade Crispus Attucks- was in the boston massacre has been named as the first martyr of the American revolution African Baptist Church- Christian conversion becomes popular among enslaved Africans and the African Baptist church is established despite restrictions against meetings Book of Negroes- holds the names of the slaves who gained passage back to Europe with the British. There were only 3,000 of these slaves allowed to make the journey and their names are in the book. Discussion Questions 7. How did the Great Awakening affect black Americans? 8. Why were black people originally denied the right to fight in the Continental Army? What made George Washington change his mind about black participation? They were denied because of Washingtons feeling of black people serving in the military. He only added black people into the military because he needed the man power 9. How did the revolutionary war affect the trans-Atlantic slave trade? 10. How did the struggle for freedom from England affect the lives of black Americans? 11. How were George Washington and Thomas Jefferson able to justify their positions on liberty and slavery? How did their positions differ? Both studied their forefathers. Pragmatically, slavery meant prosperity to both Jefferson and Washington. Without slavery the two up and coming men could not have made money as quickly as they did. Washington didnt think blacks were his equal because he didnt allow black entrance into the military, both freed slaves and slaves and only allowed them in when he needed the men. Jefferson said that black people dont show emotion, have a disagreeable odor, and that black men prefer white women; but made public abolitionist claims even though he died with several hundred slaves under his ownership 12. How did Venture Smith define freedom? How does his story compare and contrast with that of Anthony Johnson? George Washington-1781, waited for something to come in to cripple them. Defeat at Yorktown broke the backbone of the war. British retreated across the south, slaves escaped bound for NYC. At end of Revolution, thousands have joined the British and realized that they have joined the wrong side. The British are about to depart and take many of these people with them, people dont know whether or not to stay or go. 6,000 former slaves boarded ships in Charleston, thousands went to South Florida, some went to Novachosha. Many ended up in slavery in the Caribbean. Angry war veterans fought for their freedom. In 1787-people met for a constitutional convention. Washington was summoned to join the convention. He is the revolution to a lot of people. He new it was far from being complete. No greater barrier than that between the states that began to abolish slavery and those that had not. 1783Massachusetts outlawed slavery completely, CT and Rhode Island followed stating that all men are born and created equal. Jefferson believed that all men were created equal, but it was difficult because property was part of slavery as well. Slavery or Slave do not appear in the constitution. The U.S. Congress prevented the constitution from prohibiting slavery for 20 years. Slaveholders won, because it would be a big part of freedom and a Union was formed. Washington began to think that slavery was equal, never took a public stand against slavery. He and his wife owned 300 humans during his presidency. When his wife died, he wanted the slaves to gain their freedom. In his final will, he said that the slaves he owned would be made free. His wifes would be freed according to her will. -Important in Understanding American History as A Whole: After Victory in Yorktown: first issue that Washington ordered control, bloody battle, German mercenaries to fight for the English, Washington brought in the French. Would not have been won by the Patriots if it hadnt been for the French. Very few black people fighting on the Americans side. Over 20,000 people on the British side. Patriots/Loyalists Washington freed his slaves in his will. When he married Martha he had 10 slaves, now he had 125. Freed the slaves when his wife died. Slavery was economically addictive. Born into a world that you place in the world is dependent on inferior people. PA-1750 Gradual Emancipation Midterm Review from class 3 essay questions one 40 point, two 20 point questions, and 20 fill in the blank None of the essays on the video study guides The big essay is about the four basic slave experiences new england, chesapeake, low country, mississippi how these regions were different and how the slaves were expected to be treated in these areas How did black and white people experience the revolutionary war Difference between colonies and states First colony to legalize slavery mass First state to abolish slavery mass Last colony to legalize slavery georgia Hispanola first place in the new world in the new world Black people in the revolutionary war -freedom from enslavement and the institution of enslavement -whites who were opposed to slavery believed blacks to be contaminated and by freeing them ending the black presence, whites who thought slavery was economically detrimental to the growth of the united states, slavery to be morally wrong for white people to engage in (thomas jefferson believed that black people didnt feel emotion) Negro Watch- comes up in the discussion about jemmy (Hine 65) Tituba-Native American but was turned into a black person by arthur miller Candy- the real black witch of salem, she accused her mistress of being a witch and learning of being a witch from her mistress. Her name comes from the relation of barbados creating sugar and how Candy was from barbados St. AugustineGuinea-birds- chapter 2+3- a country and region in africa Portuguese didnt import woman- werent concerned about reproduction and men were better workers for the short life expectancy. Woman were harder working than men in Africa. It was more likely to attain men than women in Africa Interlopers- north atlantic slave trade Elizabeth KayScramble- put all of the people in a pen or a coral and buyers run in and select the slaves they want. Buy the slaves for a set price. Bloody flux- dysentery, diarrhea plus blood Washington and Jefferson's justification of slavery- Wright Outline Ch. 2-4 Chapter 2 Jamestown- English 1607 Black slavery appeared in NA colonies before 1650s grew rapidly after 1680 By 1700s over half of all laborers in Chesapeake colonies= slaves of African origin Adequate, stable labor force needed to produce for export colonies part of Atlantic colonial economic system: produce staples for Euro market, buy imports made in England Virginia, Maryland: tobacco cereal, livestock SC, GA: livestock, timber tobacco, indigo Mississippi tobacco indigo Northern colonies food All colonies participated in carrying trade, esp. northern colonies Mainland colonies closely linked to Caribbean islands: 1640s Barbados, Martinique: shift from tobacco, cotton sugar cane went along with shift from using white servants African slave labor By 1675 plantation model spreading through Americas: owners using repressive force to extract extraordinary amounts of work out of Africans held in bondage Historian Ira Berlins study of colonial slavery: Colonies into 4 regions 1. Chesapeake 2. Low Country 3. North 4. Lower Mississippi valley Africans/Afri-Americans generations 1. Charter generations- first to arrive, their kids/grandkids 2. Plantation generations- who were forced to grow great staples 3. Revolutionary generations-grasped freedom, faced resurgent slave regime Age of Revolution- Late 18th century roiled waters of American slavery: primary agitator= master vs. slave Chesapeake a. Tidewater, piedmont VA (1607 established), MD (1634), NC b. Motivated to produce staple crop to sell in English market prompt more Englishmen to come to colonies often unemployed, landless men viewed as threat to English society already suffering from declining real wages, civil war, social unbalance c. Early decades of tobacco growth, poor young men were labor force fare paid for through work in new lands servants, tenants, bondservants, apprentices w/ terms of servitude 5-7 years d. Native Americans not suited for type of work e. 1619 Jamestown first African imports unforced bound laborers (status in contrast to later chattel slaves) mostly Atlantic creoles, some gained freedom and entered planter class, some owned own slaves. Examples: i. Antonio a Negro Anthony Johnson w/ wife, 250 acres, cattle, slaves sued white man for detaining one of his slaves ii. Francis Payne worked to buy freedom, servants for self, wife/kids from slavery f. Tobacco cultivation difficult work servants faced harsh discipline, viewed as commodity rather than as human g. Disease: typhoid, malaria, influenza, measles, smallpox not many servants lived long enough to reach planter status h. By 1640s life expectancy higher but tobacco prices down exservants lacked resources to buy land restless, dangerous population of menlandowners lengthened periods of servitude, passed laws: property owners only can vote i. Bacons rebellion 1676 i. Supply of white laborers limited by i. Number of English men available/willing to cross Atlantic declines ii. Opportunities available to these men once here declines iii. Competition from other new colonies: NY, Penn. iv. English Civil War real wages up less men willing v. King William IIIs War, Queen Annes War demand for military work, work in gen. vi. 1680s tobacco depression harder for poor to get own land/labor j. By 1700 white servant immigration almost completely stopped k. Still preference for white servants vs. black slaves sought young English women, Irishmen High prices paid but supply low l. 1672 est. Royal African Company provided solution for landowners m. Enslaved Africans comparatively cheap, easily forced to do hard work n. Transition to black slavery varied in Tidewater i. By 1680s 4/5 bound laborers =black ii. Northern areas made transition slowly until 1695 rush to buy Africans iii. By 1700 bought 3,000: same as over past 20 years; black population 3x as was 20 yrs ago= 13,000, most slaves became laborers of choice even though whites majority of tobacco workers still o. From 1700- 1740ish Atlantic trade=major source of labor p. Took a while for African slave population to sustain itself i. High mortality rates of unseasoned slaves ii. More men q. Peak of # imported slaves 1740 r. Tobacco robs soil of nutrients planters began growing winter wheat, grain In NC produced naval stores, lumber, grains, provisions= more diversified economy s. 1690-1170 100,000 slaves from West, West Central Africa t. English common law didnt allow slavery VA, MD looked @ Barbados, Jamaica for precedence u. Need for control, law, grew with # of blacks after 1680s blacks lost most of remaining rights v. An act about the casual killing of slaves- VA 1669- resistance to masters = death w. Took away right to own property ability to accumulate wealth x. By 1720s Chesapeake colonies becoming slave societies vs. societies w/ slaves y. 2/3 of all slaves worked for 6% of planters (of larger plantations along Chesapeake Bay, rivers, inlets) z. 1780 blacks 40% of people- free blacks pretty much gone from population onset of Revolution < 5% of black population 2. The Low Country a. SC, GA, northern FL b. Subtropical; most similar climate to many of Africans homelands of all British Isles, mainland colonies African advantage over owners: disease immunities, knowledge of cultivation c. Spanish first to establish permanent settlement & import African slaves here but black population small St. Augustine d. Charles II (Spain) 1693 freedom to slaves escaping from English colonies to FL outpost 1783 Francisco Menendez (black militia captain) & 38 fugitives est. 1st free black town Gracia Real de Santa Terese de Mose e. 1670-1700: Child of Barbados rich planters, freed servants, African slaves left overcrowded Barbados for SC region f. Early English migrants came from Barbados rather than British Isles First 30 years production of livestock, timber for English in Caribbean; deerskins for England- rice production g. 1670- first SC settlers; experienced with African slavery; high pop of black slaves, most Atlantic creoles h. Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina- 1669 John Locke slavery accepted as way of life i. 1/3-1/4 of peps coming to SC enslaved blacks, mostly men vital to colonial enterprise West African methods of cattle tending useful making demand for Gambian slaves high among planters j. Rice Revolution- Late 1690s i. SC imports more slaves than any other mainland colony through rest of 18th century ii. Benefits of rice- cheap, filling, easy to store popular among poor Europeans & to feed armies/gang workers iii. Africans helped SC transition into rice cultivation coastal groups (Jola, Papel, Baga, Temne, Mende) & inland (Bambara, Mandinka) experienced k. 1710- 1.5 million lbs. of rice exported 1720-6 million 1730-20 million l. 1750s tidal flow method of production introduced Carolina Gold m. Geography- restictor of rice production b/c grows in lowest coastlands n. Georgia-1732 chartered for outlaws/criminals o. Georgia Trustees banned slavery from colony 1734 Pretty much no slaves in GA for first 20 yrs white colonists of GA sucked at producing anything1750s Parliament lifts slavery restrictions p. SC Market= source of most slaves for Low Country Georgians until 1760s directly from Africa q. 1773-GA black population 15,000 about = to white population rice-producing regions blacks >whites slavery exclusive Low Country institution r. Low Country resembled sugar cane islands in Brit West Indies w/ large, specialized plantations s. Indigo as secondary staple developed as early growth of English textiles (1740s) i. Short production cycleeasily integrated w/ other productions t. 1706-1776 94,000 slaves arrived @ Charleston harbor u. Move to intense staple (rice) intense working/living conditions rates of slave mortality rise but huge supply of imported Africans meant low prices so masters could easily replace dead slaves v. Not until right before Revolution did slave population start to sustain itself while imports kept coming w. Steady erosion of black rights resulted in strictest laws/harshest punishments i. SC 1690s looked to Barbados for slave codes x. Social tension existed b/t white laborers and black majority worse jobs designated for blacks y. Hidden social/cultural advantages for slaves in Low-Country i. Task system periods of intermittent isolation/limited free time unique culture emerged manifested African heritage 3. Lower Mississippi Valley a. France & Spain= major Euro colonial nations in area b. French initially attempted to establish slave-based, stapleproducing economy never really stuck c. 1730s slave society w/ harsh slave lawsevolved into more open setting by 1750s i. Mix of Indians, whites, blacks each w/ more social and economic interaction; opportunity for freedom for some blacks d. After 1763 Span control efforts to stimulate plantation production still provided opportunities for blacks area with greatest mixing of blacks, whites, Indians e. 1699- Frenchmen from Canada est. settlements f. 1719-1731 French Compagnie des Indes brought around 6,000 slaves directly from Africa into LA i. Senegambia: Bambaras ii. Bight of Biafra, Angola g. By 1727 blacks outnumbered whites unhealthy place, blacks better suited h. Legal basis of French slavery in New world- Code Noir of King Louis XIV (1685) reissued by Louis XV for LA in 1724 i. Catholic instruction for slaves ii. Church/state degree of guarantee of rights for blacks iii. Not really adhered to or incredibly favorable for black rights i. Rebellions/uprisings common (Blacks often joined w/ Indians) whites feared unruly black majority French stopped importing African slaves in 1733 demands/constrictions on Afri/Afri Americans loosened 1760s creoles began to replace Africanborn slaves j. Slaves eventually able to participate in subsistence-based economy difficult to regulate i. Could hire out their own time ii. Free black militiamen k. Treaty of Paris 1763- LA to Spain, West Florida to England brought in more slaves/settlers to recreate staple-producing economyincreased indigo production hard to keep order in new colonies so Lower Mississippi society/economy remained fluid l. During Spanish control, population of free blacks in NO increased in # and their ability to advance socially economically m. Began as slave society, became society with slaves n. After 1795 sugar conditions change for Afri Americans those still slaves set foundation for 19th century LA as land of commercial agriculture based on sugar cane 4. New England & Middle Colonies a. Eve of American Revolution-Blacks 2.5% of NE population; 6.5 % of Midle Colonies b. NE- blacks concentrated near coastal, urban centers/ along river systems c. Rhode Island heavy concentration of blacks d. Middle Colonies- large black urban populations: serve gentry assisting tradesmen e. Blacks not in isolation from other African descendants, not dominated by white customs f. Typical northern slave after 1750 lived alone/small group of slaves, work on small farm, in small industry, as domestic, at a trade in urban area g. Early imports- Atlantic creoles from West Indies/southern mainland colony h. 1740-1770 direct importation of Africans into northern markets never reached scale of importation for plantation colonies i. No available staple for cultivation in North over time developed skills in variety of tasks: grain, livestock farming, whaling, fishing, carrying trade (early & extensive involvement) none involved same economy of scale of Southern planters j. Dutch first to import slaves north of Maryland (1626)- Dutch West Indies Co. est. posts there in 1620s for fur trading imported workers before farmers i. From Curacao in Dutch West Indies or taken by pirates from Spanish ships ii. Slaves cleared land along Hudson farming replaces fur trade iii. 1640s melding of cultures- free blacks w/ Indians, Dutch, Walloons k. Access to freedom closes eventually i. Slaves as luring technique for white farmers/settlers requiring labor ii. Slave labor cheaper more slaves imported from coastal African ports and Caribbean ports l. Dutch Reformed Church- slavery accepted, no more slave baptism, no more freedom promises m. By 1660s Africans population of New Netherland n. 1664 English takeover laws recognized slavery as legal institution demand for slaves increases o. By 1700 New York- 2,000 slaves of total 19,000; 1750- 10,000 slaves of 75,000 greatest number of any mainland colony north of Chesapeake i. Black women (domestics in city) outnumbered men in NY p. Settlements along Deleware River, New Jersey- Hudson River area i. English proprietors of NJ authorized and encouraged slaverys importation by offering settlers 60 acres for each slave ii. By 18th century, Perth Amboy one of main ports of entry for northern slaves q. Slaves in Pennsylvania before Quakers i. William Penn even favored black slaves vs. white servants ii. Philly carriers in Caribbean trade brought slaves as part of return cargos iii. By 1700 1/15 families owned slaves in Philly iv. r. Slaves treated differently under law early in 18th century formalized caste system on basis of skin shade Urban and rural forms of slavery majority lived/worked in countryside i. heaviest concentration in CT, RI, Long Island, n New Jersey ii. raised provisions & draft animals for export to West Indies s. NE < African Americans than any other region of mainland colonies t. Most blacks came there b/c of coastal New Englands interdependence w/ West Indies & its heavy involvement in Caribbean trade i. refuse slaves- infirm/ailing slaves not profitable in island markets ii. Exiled offenders iii. Purchased to work the voyage northward then sold when done u. Caribbean islands sometimes used as way stations- some captives sold there before reaching NE v. Most slave importing ships in first 3rd of 18th century from West Indies; some slaves once had home in Africa w. Immigration of white workers declines after 1740s i. Increasing opportunities in Europe ii. Occasional blocking of Euro shipping lanes by warfare x. Nature of slave trade changes: New imports no longer mostly Atlantic creoles peps fresh from Atlantic crossing, not long out of West-Afri society affects ability for blacks to build families/domestic lives, fuses elements of African culture w/ northern Afri-American culture less free blacks y. Distribution of slaves uneven high concentration @ ports: Mass, RI z. Slaves=status symbol aa. Slave codes least stringent of all colonies ambiguous construction & enforcement i. Hard to regulate movement/assembly b/c of nature of jobs ii. Still established slaves as different caste bb. Slave conspiracies grew w/ increasing number of slaves w/ greater Afri presence i. NY= city w/ most difficulty w/ controlling slave population cc. Northern free blacks kept in menial jobs to lessen their threat dd. Poor slaves had better life than poor freed blacks Slavery & Racial Prejudice Origins disputed, unclear Chesapeake- English mainland colonists made 1 st legal commitment to black slavery, 1st to practice slavery on large scale Slavery & Racism- cause and effect, continuously reacting upon eachotherWinthrop D. Jordan Most English had negative preconceptions of blackness/black people- word signified sinister, evil, foul things vs. white-pure, virtuous Black slavery perceived as easy solution (large availability of Africans at cheap prices) to economic necessity Within few generations of black slavery was born black population caught in labor system that must necessarily keep them at the bottom of Americas economy & society AND a white society exhibiting early forms of racial prejudice that only grows and remains for centuries Chapter 3 Frederick Douglass part of subculture of Marylands Eastern Shore a variant of a greater Chesapeake Afri-American culture both in broader unity of black culture in America and of blacks around Atlatic basin both close to EuroAmerican culture of whites, among whom Afri-Americans lived, worked, worshiped, played Different but related subcultures= stable products of a long evolution in the colonies part of broader cultural mixing/melding occurring along Atlantic side of Americas and @ Atlantic ports in Africa & Europe Black American subcultures result of interactions among Africans, Native Americans, Europeans patterns of behavior, social customs distinctly Afri American Africans also influenced Euro-American culture held many of same ideas, values: thoughts of time, space, world view, causality, family ties, death, afterlife Especially influential in southern states: speech patterns, traditions of manners, way of cooking, etc. not widely studied until recently b/c white record keepers failed to recognize black influence of own cultures/beliefs Africans in America: Many of earliest slaves in mainland America were Atlantic creoles- products of long-standing commercial world of Atlantic rim of 4 continents, familiar w/ Euro languages, religions, customs Early 1700s outlandish Africans majority of imports on slave vessels By 1770 most African Americans living in families w/ extended ties of kinship in greater black communities, practicing own culture Development of African-American families, communities, & common culture occurred during 1st 2/3 of 18th century To cope w/ new, extremely difficult experiences Africans clung to own cultural traditions- sense of personal ID, language, worldview/religion, concepts of time/space/family/work, social customs, historical traditions Variety of cultural traditions b/c broad origins across West & West Central Africa although not uniform most Afris had enough common ideas to mingle aspects of their respective cultures: apply old ways to new situations while borrowing from Anglo-American & Native-American ways- development of hybrid AfricanAmerican culture 1990s studies regarding ethnic identification of Africans: maintaining cultural ways not priority of most slaves from Africa randomizing tendency in Atlantic trade despite tendency for slaves from certain regions to end up in certain parts b/c ports acted as funnels Survival of purely African traits hindered by experience of enslavement, separation from kin, migration literally and figuratively away from cultural ways Cultures converged in US into combo involving broad Afri and Euro cultural traits, along w/ those of indigenous persons Africans/Euros lived among Demography, Community, & Culture Culture formation not uniform among newly arrived Africans rate of acculturation varied acc. To local circumstances, strength of their particular Afri cultural tradition, personal willingness to change Blacks in America 1st had to have extensive social contacts w/ substantial number of other blacks Must exist in black communities before real group values/ways/beliefs could develop Must have certain amount of freedom to interact without white supervision Black families passed manifestations of culture to subsequent generations African-American social relations affected by demographics- # of blacks, blackwhite proportion Proximity to white colonists African slaves w/ close relationships w/ whites learned Englilsh, accepted Christianity, practiced Euro-American customs faster than those who didnt African cultures better retained in living/working environments of mostly blacks in isolated conditions (Ex. Low-Country plantations) Demographic configurations b/t African-born American slaves & African descendants born in New World so partly acculturated Higher retention of African ways among areas where Afri slave imports were heavy over several years & black population comprised of many slaves born in Afri tended to remain separate, keep to themselves Likewise areas of light trade involving majority of Atlantic creoles/seasoned slaves from Caribbean more unity among partly acculturated black pop, less adherence to unadulterated Afri cultures Growth by natural increase determined by demographics & slave trade more men imported than women b/c cheaper and easier to train adult male than rear one: discourage family life & all it entails; interracial marriage illegal Diseases also affected slaves: Slave trade heavy=mortality rates high/birth rates low slave society unable to replace numbers naturally Only when sex ratios became more balanced naturally w/ decline of slave trade could families provide foundation of slave communities Different circumstances for living/working affected community development small farms = more contact w/ Anglo-American culture; isolated plantations as self-contained production units= less contact, especially under task system able to hold onto more of Afri culture Urban slaves- greater autonomy, lived more closely w/ whites but w/ less enforcement of restrictions mingle w/ whites @ work, play acculturation= regular occurrence for both Slaves as boatmen/seamen- 1740s to Revolution= common accustomed to ways of whites but aware/proud of own traditions/ways maintained/passed on to those around them Distinctions in localities & in time: Chesapeake First 75 yrs - distinctions based on class vs. race blacks interacted w/ whites of same class; open racial society not lasting increasing # of Afri imports after 1680 created sexual imbalance, segmentation of new arrivals from creoles through 1740 (decline of slave trade from Africa) existed distinct African & creole slave societies but this separation didnt last: planters responded to growing # of blacks by uniting w/ lower class whites, lumping all blacks together, constricting creole opportunities and eventually balancing sex ratio African-American creoles dominated Also planters shift to large plantation & wheat production brought more opportunities/variety to slaves; development of roads, markets allowed slaves from different planations to interact broader slave communities existed By Revolution: African-American community w/ own ways of life & ability to practice them although under confined latitude more Anglo-American in language, religion, family structure than southern slaves still had close, broad kinship relations, unique music/dance/diet/dress/work/play/religious practice as incorporated Afri ways became increasingly accultured Low Country Population distinctly separated by mid 18th century First years of settlement: cultural exchange b/t slaves/owners more symbiotic/reciprocal than any other in English colonies; not long-lasting as huge African imports created black majority urban creole slave community emerged in Charleston- separate from rural slaves; rural areas had growing black community w/ slaves directly from Africa who worked on rice plantations- independence & relative isolationretention of African speech patterns results in development of Gullah (mix of English, West-Afri languages); retained more African religious practices, social customs than any other Afri Americans on English mainland could lower Mississippi Greatest cultural mixing over longest time b/c of openness caused by slack administration/maintenance of order slaves have greater opportunity vs. elsewhere thus producing two communities, one creole society By end of colonial pd. Existed creole culture widely shared w/ identifiable African element @ heart north of Maryland By 1740- stable society of Afri Americans largely attuned to Yankee ways Able to Increase #s naturally, as imported small # of seasoned slaves Lived in families, existed in white dominated world Greater freedom on farms and in urban areas 1730-1770 increased importation steered blacks away from complete Anglo assimilation raw imports reintroduced Afri-Americans w/ forgotten Afri heritage conscious inclusion of Afri elements in social customs/practices able to do so b/c small #s so not threatening to whites, autonomy enabled to maintain, readopt certain Afri customs The Daily Toilnot important Family Place where community began; unit for educating and socializing young Importance of family stems from West Africa kinship lines of descent enable identification w/ huge group across West Africa grid of related kin groups that tightly held society together more effectively than political authority or national loyalty could able to bridge existing linguistic/ethnic divides Fictive kin provided some sense of family until real family relationships established during 18th century, enabling communities to be built; occurred earliest in Chesapeake then Low Country and lower Mississippi Greatest obstacle- movement of slaves @ hands of masters thus separation of families even during course of 18th century w/ movement towards paternalism of slave-master relations plantation necessity prevails Black families in America only partially resembled nuclear families of English colonists: common for Afri American families in Chesapeake to live apart Slave marriages- sometimes Christian, especially in NE, but common-law marriages Negro Marriages most prevalent Marriage ties, parental ties, siblings, & even distant kin a generation or more apart tended to be strong Religion Source of individual strength & collective security for Afri Americans as culture matured Form practiced by most blacks minimally Christian; usually kept their distance and when did absorb it, did so by blending Christian tenets into Afri religious practices/beliefs Afri religions diverse but West & West-Central some consistencies: body held spirit; death= spirit returned to greater spiritual world w/ ancestors; spirits also in random objects; some had sense of hegemonic deities involved w/ creation & events of world beyond local realm powers less personal, less intimate & harder to manipulate These beliefs clung to during 1st half of 18th cent & beyond New England- slavery=part of Gods plan to convert heathens from Africa w/ knowledge of True God early 18th cent this is prominent among Protestant evangelicals More closely blacks worshiped w/ whites, less they desired to become Christians; Ex. New England w/ high social interaction yet majority of Afri Americans not Christian segregation in churches, w/ specialized sermons for slaves NE fearful of monogrelization of Christian practices- infusion of Afri religious practices Most blacks followed suit w/ NE blacks & kept to themselves in religious matters began to manifest renewed respect for traditional Afri ways South- slaves learned Christianity from fellow slaves most frequently but also from masters whites allowed slaves more freedom to worship alone or accepted enough African religious practice themselves to help form blend of Christian worship that satisfied both slaves converted to Christianity practiced a blended form like Afri-American folk variety in NE The Great Awakening- special time for slave conversions & blending of Afri & English modes of worship Religious singing; assemblages witnessed frequent spiritual experiences- visions Folk Culture Permanent groupings of slave quarters only on largest plantations Individual dwellings/duplexes development signaling maturing of slave societies by mid 18th cent when masters realized utility of separation Tobacco growing MD slaves usually lived scattered about countryside in pretty much isolated groups of 6 adults and their kids; Even before 1750 masters divided lands into separate units housing groups of slaves according to access to fields they tend African building styles common as was English forms in constructing slave dwellings; seldom permanent structures, allowing for movement w/ seasonal crops, fallowing, removal from waste pits amount of room per individual changed little through 18th cent Outside in surrounding yards= location of most activity Northern colonies- slaves lived w/ masters in backrooms/attics mostly small outbuildings; late 18th cent urban shift of blacks to cheaply constructed tenements plants seeds for citys 19th & 20th century black neighborhoods Masters provided slaves clothing- practical, durable; $$ masters dressed slaves in waistcoats/nice clothes Slave cabins had little furniture; could buy/barter for household items as 18 th cent progressed more furnishing in cabins Nutritional deficiencies led to all types of ailments: bad teeth, crooked legs, knocked knees, eye problems, bad posture, splotchy skin; most slaves existed on basic core of meat & meal w/ some supplements; Chesapeake slaves better fed- more grains & meat taller slaves, lower rate of infant/child mortality vs. Low-Country slaves; diet received in America sufficient in bulk, still not in balance Afri American child mortality rates > whites b/c of negro diseases Over of all slave children died in first 4 years hog & hominy routine Most popular supplements fish & game Blacks maintained own medical system- root doctors-combined knowledge of herbal remedies and ritual skills w/ holistic approach to diversie therapeutics for many ills; closely related to magic, sorcery, witchcraft= voodoo Afri-American folk beliefs in colonial America similar to those of whites of same time/place Development of Languages: Afri Americans learned/developed forms of English comprising elements of African elements; many diverse languages in West Africa and dispersion of slaves made it impossible for newcomers to communicate w/ eachother new ways of communicating developed sharp local differences then regional variation (farther north closer to English & south creole language Music and dance important elements in black folk culture; folk narratives merged w/ song to provide instruction to children while entertaining them Drank alcohol; cities developed tavern culture- mix of black/Indian/lower class whites The rest of Ch. 3 isnt important ... 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