ch4
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ch4

Course Number: PHIL 233, Fall 2011

College/University: University of...

Word Count: 18577

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ch4 Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the early 1800s, bears were a nuisance to settlers in upstate New York." Smithsonian 2. Assess...

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___________________________________________________________________________ 1. Assess ch4 Student: the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the early 1800s, bears were a nuisance to settlers in upstate New York." Smithsonian 2. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. NO CHOLESTEROL! Label on Crisco Corn Oil 3. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Mezzo-soprano Frederica von Stade's two little girls always tried to keep her from singing in church because, they said, every time she did, everyone would turn around and stare at her." Joseph McLellan, in the Washington Post 4. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "By age 30, roughly a quarter of men and women have discernibly graying hair. Even so, only 28 percent of us ever become completely white haired." Lowell Ponte, Reader's Digest 5. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Enough is enough! A national survey finds a majority of American adults do not support more restrictive or tougher anti-smoking measures." The Tobacco Institute 6. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the near future look for floods in Britain which will culminate in the flooding of Parliament." A prediction made by Maitreya Swami, "The World Teacher," in the News Release of the Tara Center, N. Hollywood, Calif. 7. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Smoking more than triples the likelihood of premature facial wrinkling." Dr. Donald Kadunce, lead author of a group of University of Utah scientists, reporting in Annals of Internal Medicine 8. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. University student to professor: "I'm sorry I missed the test on Thursday, Dr. Aarsack. My grandmother unexpectedly died, and I had to go home." 9. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "With due regard to the recent experience by certain individuals in the Russian city of Voronezh, the Space Brothers who landed and exited from their craft were on a peace mission. . . . What was thought to be and reported mistakenly as a knife held in the hand of one of the Space Brothers was a thought, only in the mind of the reporter. . . . What was being held was a communication device. . . . This device was translating the thoughts of the Space voyager into the language that could be understood in that particular part of the world." Press release, Unarius Academy of Science 10. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Driven by the Gramm-Rudman mandate to cut $46 billion from the budget . . ., OMB director James Miller is proposing to sell off whole programs and agencies from the federal establishment. Miller's hit list is mostly secret for the time being, but administration sources say it includes some large, costly and much-venerated legacies of the Democratic past. One example: the Bonneville Power Administration, which provides low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest from a far-flung system of hydroelectric dams and substations, including the Grand Coulee Dam." Newsweek (during the Reagan administration in the late 1980s) 11. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "A few years ago AT&T did two surveys showing that technically trained persons did not achieve as many top managerial jobs in the company as liberal arts graduates did." New York Times 12. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. According to Funk & Wagnalls Hammond World Atlas, the three longest rivers in the world are the Nile, the Amazon, and the Yangtze. 13. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Letter to the editor: "Your editorial page of October 15 contained a cartoon that was highly offensive. . . ." Midfield Sentinel 14. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "General Motors is on a journey to the future. With the help of its thousands of scientists, designers, and engineers, GM is embarking on an odyssey into the unknown. Roads paved with scientific and technological wonders that might seem like science fictions. But at GM, they're reality. . . ." From a General Motors magazine advertisement 15. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Comment from an acquaintance: "I saw Bigfoot with my own eyes! It was huge!" 16. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Q: Did Marilyn Monroe keep a diary about her relationships with John and Robert Kennedy? A: No. Walter Scott's Personality Parade, Parade 17. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Remark heard in a coffee shop: "There is a disproportionate percentage of left-handed people in politics." 18. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Reported after a debate between Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, who were running for the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 2008: "James Carville, a Clinton advisor and supporter, declared his candidate the winner' in the debate, saying she'd made her case more strongly." 19. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Warning: St. John [in the Virgin Islands] is very much a cash only' island. Most restaurants and car rental agencies accept cash or travelers checks only." Janet Fullwood, travel writer for the Dallas Times Herald 20. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Every day 5,000 Americans try cocaine for the first timea total of 22 million so far according to estimates by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. About five million people are believed to be using the drug at least once a month, and they are administering it to themselves in increasingly destructive ways." James Lieber, in the Atlantic 21. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. You've taken your car in to the local branch of a nationwide chain of brake and muffler shops for an advertised "free brake inspection." After the inspection, the service manager tells you: "I'm afraid your linings are almost completely gone and the drums need turning. You need a complete brake overhaul." 22. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "[Atmospheric nuclear] tests do not seriously endanger either present or future generations." Edward Teller, physicist, one of the "fathers" of the atomic bomb, 1958 23. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Do you feel insecure? Or are you confident about your position in life? According to Dr. Ian Cameron, how and where you stand in an elevator will reveal the answers to these questions." Reported in the National Examiner. Dr. Cameron is described in the article as "a noted scientist and researcher." 24. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. From a letter to the editor by a person we've never heard of: "Eighty-five percent of the jail population smokes." 25. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the history books, the personal-computer slump of 1985 will be a footnote compared to the Japanese assault on the American semiconductor industry." Newsweek 26. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The West German Cabinet has conditionally agreed to let private companies enroll in the research [on the Strategic Defense Initiative]." From an editorial in the Los Angeles Times 27. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The yearly cancer rate for men in Glasgow, Scotland, is 130 cases per 100,000." "Atlas of Cancer in Scotland," World Health Organization (an agency of the United Nations) 28. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "My cat has fewer brains than a hubcap!" Spoken by one of the authors of the text after his cat had spent three days on his housetop 29. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The American word yup' means sex' in Russia." Comedian Yakov Smirnoff (who was born and lived in Russia for sixteen years before emigrating to America in 1977). Smirnoff uses the claim in question as a basis for "yuppie" jokes. 30. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The past year was a turbulent one. It was a year that began with record profits and sales. It was also a year in which we reported the first quarterly loss in Apple's history. We had to take swift action. We did. And it's working." Apple Computer, Inc., 1985 Annual Report 31. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. According to a Baron Gottfried von Swieten, King Frederick of Prussia claimed that he had once given a chromatic theme to Johann Sebastian Bach, who had immediately made of it a fugue in four parts, then in five parts, and finally in eight parts. From H. T. David and A. Mendel, The Bach Reader, reported in Gdel, Escher, Bach, by Douglas R. Hofstadter 32. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Apple's history is more like a soap opera than a corporate biography." Macworld magazine, March 1997 33. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Huddie Ledbetter ("Leadbelly") was not only a writer and performer of songs but also an unusually powerful man. Alan Lomax, the historian of American folk music, wrote that "in the Texas Penitentiary he was the number one man in the number one gang on the number one farm in the statethe man who could carry the lead row in the field for 12 or 14 hours a day under the broiling July and August sun." He could pick a bale of cotton in a daythat's 500 pounds! Adapted from liner notes to the record Leadbelly (Everest recording FS-202) 34. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Of all species, only pigs and humans like liquor." Charles Halsted, Professor of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis 35. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "[Bybon, a Greek of the sixth century B.C.] threw a 315-pound block of red sandstone over his head. The feat was reported after archeologists found a description of Bybon's act inscribed on the rock itself." The Book of Lists 36. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Lottery director Mark Michalko said Thursday that allegations that Californians are squandering money they once used for food to buy lottery tickets are just not correct.'. . . California Grocers Association president Don Beaver raised the issue earlier in the week, saying five supermarket chains had complained that grocery sales dropped about 5 percent after lottery tickets went on sale October 3." Sacramento Bee 37. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The great preponderance of lottery players are from the lowest third of the population in terms of income levels. It is mainly the poor who are being exploited by state lotteries." A sociology professor at a state university in the Midwest, in a radio interview 38. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "NASA [the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] says private investors, not taxpayers, will fund its newest manned space vehicle. If you believe that, you probably think little green men inhabit Mars." Forbes 39. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "[G]ram for gram, trans fat [found in hydrogenated oil] is nearly as bad for your bloodcholesterol levels as saturated fat is. . . . Brandeis University scientists . . . concluded that trans fats may be worse than saturated fats. . . ." Consumer Reports On Health 40. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Barack Obama is a citizen of both the United States and the Republic of Kenya. an online article run in August, 2008, by the Rocky Mountain News 41. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Contrary to popular belief, The Star-Spangled Banner' has been the nation's official song only since 1931." James Kilpatrick, syndicated columnist 42. In a brief essay, explain what factors help establish someone as an expert. 43. In a brief essay, discuss three ways a person can increase his or her background knowledge. 44. Are there conditions in which your own observations may not be totally reliable? Explain in a brief essay. 45. In a brief essay, provide several topics on which you may not trust yourself to give a totally unbiased judgment, and explain. 46. In a brief essay, discuss the conditions under which it is reasonable to regard an eyewitness account as credible. 47. In a brief essay, discuss the news media as a source of information about current events. 48. If the claims of an expert turn out to be in error, were you unreasonable in having accepted them in the first place? Why, or why not? Explain your response in a brief essay. 49. In a brief essay, discuss how to handle a conflict between the opinions of experts who do not agree. 50. In a brief essay, explain why you suppose sensationalism (as found in supermarket tabloids, for example) has such a wide audience despite its frequent conflicts with our background information. 51. In a brief essay, make up an issue and a list of sources and give your own ranking of the credibility of the sources you listed. 52. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the foreign policy of the current administration is more credible. a. a former U.S. president of the same political party as the current president b. a former U.S. president not of the same political party as the current president 53. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the foreign policy of the current administration is more credible. a. a Ph.D. in political science whose specialty is U.S. foreign policy b. the chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee 54. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the condition of the tires on your car is more credible. a. a salesperson at Goodyear b. a mechanic at a garage certified by the American Automobile Association 55. Issue: A proposal for legislation regarding automobile insurance rates is on the ballot. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the benefits for consumers is more credible. a. a spokesperson for the insurance industry b. Ralph Nader 56. Is the pitcher tiring? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a minor league pitching coach b. Reggie Jackson 57. Did life evolve, or was it created? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a biologist b. a minister 58. Can you get a manzanita tree to grow in Pennsylvania? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a Pennsylvania (where manzanita doesn't grow naturally) nursery worker b. a California (where manzanita does grow naturally) nursery worker 59. b. Americans for Legalized Marijuana (ALM) What percentage of American high school students have smoked marijuana? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. USA Today 60. How many homicides involve the use of a stolen firearm? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a Democratic U.S. senator b. a Republican U.S. senator 61. Giving at least one reason for your choice, which of two current movies would you be more apt to like? a. one recommended by a movie critic whose opinions you enjoy listening to b. one recommended by a friend 62. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose would be the best weight-lifting regimen to follow. a. Arnold Schwarzenegger b. Paris Hilton 63. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: In the O. J. Simpson murder case, did the judge rule correctly in admitting evidence that was obtained at Simpson's house before a search warrant was issued? a. a well-known defense attorney who heads the American Trial Lawyers Association b. the former district attorney for Los Angeles County c. a retired judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals 64. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Should lawyers allow their clients to lie? a. the U.S. Supreme Court b. a law school professor c. a political science professor d. the American Bar Association e. a practicing defense attorney 65. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether a recently completed nuclear power plant is safe. a. the power company that owns the plant b. the contractor in charge of the plant's construction c. a spokesman for the Nuclear Regulatory Agency d. the president of the Sierra Club e. a contractor hired by a nearby city who has seen the blueprints of the plant but has not made an on-site inspection f. the author of a statistical study on safety, malfunctions, and accidents at power plants of the same type 66. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether the verdict in the O. J. Simpson civil trial proves that Simpson was actually guilty of the crime of which he was acquitted in the criminal trial. a. a professor of criminal law b. Greta Van Susteren (lawyer and commentator on the Simpson trials for CNN and now a host on Fox) c. Oprah Winfrey d. Geraldo Rivera 67. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Does violence on television contribute to violent behavior on the part of young viewers? a. the president of the National Association of Broadcasters b. the president of an organization called "Parents Against TV Violence" c. a university sociologist d. regular panel members of a program such as "The McLaughlin Group" 68. d. a recent graduate with an M.B.A. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Are schools of business turning out too many ill-prepared M.B.A. graduates? a. the dean of the school of business at the University of Chicago b. the president of the Hewlett-Packard Corporation c. an editorial in the Wall Street Journal 69. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Do mountain bicycles cause ecological damage when ridden on hiking trails? a. an environmental scientist at the Harvard School of Public Health b. the chair of the Sierra Club task force for determining club policy on the wilderness use of mountain bicycles c. a spokesperson for a bicycle manufacturer d. a park ranger from a state park where mountain bicycles have been permitted on hiking trails e. a representative of the Washington Mountain Bike Riders' Association 70. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: How do the economic policies of the Venezuelan government affect the standard of living of most Venezuelans? a. the editor of a daily newspaper in a small town b. a friend who just returned from a trip to Venezuela "to see what was going on" c. a professor of Latin American studies at Ohio State University d. a Republican state senator in Arizona e. a politically radical councilwoman for a middle-sized New York city 71. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether Viking explorers actually landed in the New World before Columbus. a. a historian b. the publisher of a Norwegian-language newspaper in Willmar, Minnesota c. a Norwegian archeologist d. an Italian archeologist e. an archeologist of French ancestry who grew up in Texas 72. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether it's possible for a person to have an "out of body" experience. a. a psychic b. a physicist c. a person who claims to have had such an experience d. a physician e. a philosopher f. a magician g. a psychologist 73. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Were there unjustifiable cost overruns in the construction of ships made for the U.S. Navy by Lytton Industries? a. the chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee b. the accounting director for Lytton c. the Navy Chief of Staff d. the OMB (Office of Management and Budget) e. an article in The Progressive (a left-of-center political journal) 74. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: What levels of mercury and other metals in fish are high enough to make consumption of them hazardous to humans? a. an article in a journal called Diet and Health, published for vegetarians b. a commercial fisherman c. a family medical doctor d. a spokeswoman for the National Institutes of Health e. a toxicologist who works for the Los Angeles coroner's office 75. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: James A. Van Allen received a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa in 1939. During World War II, he was a gunnery officer with the Pacific Fleet. After the war, he returned to the University of Iowa, where he became professor of physics and chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy. In 1958, during the mission of Explorer 1, the first successful U.S. Earth satellite, he discovered the radiation belts surrounding the Earth, that are named for him. He was the principal investigator for the space probe of Jupiter's radiation belts and one of the discoverers of the radiation belts of Saturn. He was chairman of the group that developed the Voyager and Galileo space missions and is currently principal investigator for the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 projects. a. the number of women employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration b. the uses of satellites for national security purposes c. the biological effects of ultraviolet radiation d. the structure of comet tails e. recent geological activity along faults in southern California f. the impact of a manned space station on science and technology 76. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: Mike O'Neill is a scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Northeastern Forest Experimental Station in Durham, New Hampshire. He graduated from Humboldt State University in California with a degree in biology (1988) and earned a Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of West Virginia (1995). After serving for seven years as a consultant to the Pennsylvania state park system, he was employed by the U.S. Forest Service as a specialist in tree diseases. His major area of research has been in the resistance mechanisms of trees to injury and infection. a. the effects of improper pruning techniques on fruit trees b. the kind of fertilizer to use on ornamental shrubs c. resistance mechanisms of mammals to disease and infection d. the characteristics of various types of softwoods relative to their use in the building industry e. how to transplant a small tree f. use rates of campground facilities in Pennsylvania state parks g. methods of controlling garden pests 77. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: Robert Kuttner is the economics correspondent of The New Republic, a columnist for Business Week and the Boston Globe, and a contributor to the Atlantic. After graduating from Oberlin College in 1965, he studied at the London School of Economics and took a master's degree in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. In addition to his writing, Kuttner served in Washington from 1975 to 1978 as the chief investigator for the Senate Banking Committee. In 1979 he was a fellow at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He subsequently edited the journal Working Papers. Kuttner is the author of Revolt of the Haves (1980) and, most recently, The Economic Illusion (1984), which was nominated for a National Book Critics Circle Award. a. the effects of inflation on the stock market b. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which insures deposits at banks and savings and loan institutions c. restaurants in London d. politics and upper-income groups in America e. poverty among Native Americans 78. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "Based on a survey of more than 100,000 people, Toshitaka Nomi and Alexander Besher have drawn up some startling conclusions about blood type and personality. If you are type O, you are probably aggressive and realistic. Type A? You are naturally industrious, detail-oriented, and peaceloving. Type Bs are creative and individualistic. ABs tend to be rational, but moody. YOU ARE YOUR BLOOD TYPE presents detailed analysis of the different blood types and explores the compatibility between the different types." From a news release from Pocket Books about the first Western account "of the Japanese popphenomenon of blood-type analysis" 79. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: David A. Kilbourne taught himself to program in three different computer languages by the time he was sixteen. At seventeen, he was a member of a loose-knit southern California group of computer "hackers" that specialized in tapping the databases of large corporations, including the telephone company and several banks. In 1994, Kilbourne was charged with using his home computer and a telephone communications device to manipulate data in the Pacific Bell Telephone database to avoid telephone bills for his household and those of several friends for almost two years. It was also discovered that he had savings accounts at two Bank of America branches, with balances totaling over seventy thousand dollars, despite never having made a deposit or even "officially" opening the accounts. Kilbourne was found guilty on several counts of defrauding the two companies and was put on three years' probation. During his probation, Bank of America hired him as a consultant to assess the security of its computer files, a job at which he worked for nearly a year. He now works for a legitimate software house in the Silicon Valley. (Asked which side of the law he preferred working on, Kilbourne replied, "Everything considered, being an outlaw was more fun.") a. the morality of software piracy b. corporate data banks c. telecommunications d. purchasing a computer for a small business e. electronic games f. computer programming 80. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "You hear in the folklore about miracles happening, but I have never seen one thing yet that could be called an actual medical cure,' says Douglas Sharon, a University of California, Los Angeles, anthropologist who has studied curandrismo [Peruvian folk medicine] on the north coast of Peru for 18 years." From a National Geographic Magazine news feature 81. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "The UFOnauts are usually clothed in shiny, tight fitting, one piece suits, and in most reports seem able to breathe our air without difficulty. Telepathy seems involved in most contacts. . . . If you are tired of the same old pseudoexplanations, official debunkings, and lame duck logic from quacks suffering megalomania, then you are invited to join the concerted efforts of the UFO Contact Center. . . ." From a pamphlet, undated, issued in the 1980s by Aileen E. Edwards, director of UFO Contact Center International in Seattle, Washington 82. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "The mail order company Hammacher Schlemmer & Co. says in its consumer catalogs that it sells nothing but the best. The company supports its claims by what it calls independent testing. But Bruce Nash and Allan Zullo, in a book called The Mis-Fortune 500 (New York: Pocket Books, 1988), say that while a 1986 letter to potential customers claimed that a "completely separate" "consumer" organization tested and compared the products offered by Hammacher Schlemmer, in reality: "The testing organization is called the Hammacher Schlemmer Institute. "The institute is funded by Hammacher Schlemmer & Co. "The institute's board of directors is composed of Hammacher Schlemmer officials. "The institute is located at Hammacher Schlemmer company headquarters in Chicago." 83. e. a friend who has recently had his attic insulated Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You are thinking of insulating your attic and need advice relative to how much insulation you should install. a. a company that sells insulation but does not install it b. a company that sells and installs insulation c. an energy consultant from your local gas and electric company d. Consumer Reports 84. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: Spring has come, and it's about time to plant some tomatoes. Or is there still a danger of frost? a. the owner of your local nursery b. Aunt Maude, whose garden has kept her friends and family in tomatoes for years c. a friend who grows tomatoes commercially d. a friend who gives the weather report on Channel 8 News each evening e. "Outdoor Planting Table" in The Old Farmer's Almanac 85. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You have saved up for a vacation and are considering taking a cruise on a cruise ship. You are unsure whether this would be the right kind of vacation for you and, if it is, what kind of cruise would be best for you and your budget. a. a travel agent b. a cruise line representative c. a friend who has been on a cruise d. a newspaper travel writer 86. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: A number of your friends have taken up jogging, and you wonder whether your taking it up might have genuine health benefits for you. a. your family physician b. a magazine for runners c. a friend who teaches physical education in high school d. the author of a best-selling book on sports medicine e. a friend who is president of a local runners club 87. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You are looking at a sailboat that you're considering buying, but you've never owned one before and don't know whether you should buy this one. a. the boat salesman at the marina that owns the boat b. a boat salesman from another marina c. a friend who has owned several similar boats d. a buyer's guide published by a sailing magazine e. your own appraisal 88. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: It's quite important that you travel to another town about four hours away by car, but you are concerned about whether you should drive because of adverse weather conditions. a. the local television news b. the local newspaper c. a friend who has made the trip in all kinds of weather d. the state police telephone service e. the local police department 89. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You've purchased a wood-burning stove. You are uncertain, however, what kind of wood to burn in it. You've heard that some produce more smoke, some are more likely to contribute to chimney fires, some burn hotter than others, and so forth. a. the dealer from whom you purchased the stove b. a friend of yours who has used a wood-burning stove for years c. another friend who sells firewood d. a U.S. Department of Agriculture publication, "Comparative Properties of Fuelwood" e. a professor of environmental horticulture at a state university 90. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: Even though your wisdom teeth are not bothering you, your dentist tells you they should be extracted because they may give you trouble later. Should you have them pulled or wait until they cause problems? a. your dentist b. your physician c. a friend who is studying to become an orthodontist d. your sister, who is a dental hygienist e. your brother, who is six years older than you, who still has his wisdom teeth and has had no problems with them 91. Exercise: Work with two other people on this. For each question below, you need to do an Internet search. The primary purpose of this exercise is for you to (1) lay out a convincing argument as to why the source or sources you used to answer the question is/are trustworthy. In other words, you need to present an argument as to why you trust and believe the source you found on the Internet in answering the question. Your argument should use as support the sorts of criteria that give a source credibility as discussed in Chapter 4. You'll also need to (2) answer the question and explain the answer. You'll turn in one set of answers and arguments for the group. (Suggested time to complete: A week or week and a half to formulate arguments and answers.) Questions (your instructor may assign others): 1. What vegetable is toxic to dogs? Why, or why not? 2. Can you catch a cold by going outside with wet hair? Why, or why not? 3. Is it bad for your baby's health to dust a lot? Why, or why not? 4. Are children riding in SUVs safer than those riding in passenger cars? Why, or why not? 92. Exercise: After reading the following account and our remarks, watch a local news program and critically evaluate the newsworthiness of each story covered. How much is news and how much is entertainment? "A shocking scene in a Lake Mary neighborhood tonight," began the anchorman. "A home surrounded by crime scene tape. And a death police are calling suspicious." Up on the screen flashed the words, "Neighborhood Shocker!" "Police say they don't know much about the life of Betty Bracone," on-the-scene reporter Nicole Smith began. "They do know that she was 66 years old and she lived in this home. They do know she had a family and they found many pictures of children inside her home." Smith then segued to an interview with a policeman who said there was no forced entry, that everything in the house was intact and that nothing indicated a robbery. "The autopsy will be held tomorrow and they're not exactly sure yet what they will find," Smith said. "So they want to keep a very tight lid on what happened. . . . Live in Lake Mary, Nicole Smith, Channel 6 News." From a report on Channel 6 News, Orlando, Florida Remarks: Although this report filled the screen with the flashing lights of emergency vehicles and bright yellow crime-scene tape, it was remarkable mainly for being a complete nonstory. The 66-year-old Betty Bracone, it turned out, had died in her own bed of a heart attack, hardly a big news event. But the episode shows how local news programs will go to great lengths to produce an exciting news bit even though it is entirely hype. Every story like this takes up space that could have been devoted to real news. 93. Exercise: List fifteen items that you believe to be true about current popular music. When you are finished, trade your list for that of a classmate. Place each item from your classmate's list into one of three categories: (1) those you believe to be true, (2) those you believe to be false, and (3) those you are uncertain about. Next, explain to each other why you assigned the items as you did. Finally, based on this discussion, compile a third list that contains only those items from the original lists that both of you know to be true. Submit this list to your instructor for any comments he or she might have. 94. You should assume that the claims made by others are false unless you have some specific reason to believe otherwise. True False 95. Except when we have the means to record our observations immediately, they are no better than our memories happen to be. True False 96. If you have reason to believe that an expert is biased, you should reject that expert's claim as false. True False 97. Fallible or not, our firsthand observations are still the best source of information we have. True False 98. Reference works such as dictionaries are utterly reliable sources of informationotherwise they wouldn't be reference works. True False 99. Factual claims that conflict with what we think we know ought to be rejected, but only if we can disprove them through direct observation. True False 100.A surprising claim, one that seems to conflict with our background knowledge, requires a more credible source than one that is not surprising in this way. True False 101.Factual claims put forth by experts about subjects outside their fields are not automatically more acceptable than claims put forth by nonexperts. True False 102.You are rationally justified in accepting the view of the majority of experts in a given subject even if this view turns out later to have been incorrect. True False ch4 Key 1. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the early 1800s, bears were a nuisance to settlers in upstate New York." Smithsonian Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #1 2. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. NO CHOLESTEROL! Label on Crisco Corn Oil Probably true. Vegetable oils do not contain cholesterol, and even if you didn't know that, such claims made by national brands are usually true (despite several famous exceptions). Moore - Chapter 04 #2 3. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Mezzo-soprano Frederica von Stade's two little girls always tried to keep her from singing in church because, they said, every time she did, everyone would turn around and stare at her." Joseph McLellan, in the Washington Post Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #3 4. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "By age 30, roughly a quarter of men and women have discernibly graying hair. Even so, only 28 percent of us ever become completely white haired." Lowell Ponte, Reader's Digest Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #4 5. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Enough is enough! A national survey finds a majority of American adults do not support more restrictive or tougher anti-smoking measures." The Tobacco Institute Further documentation is needed here. Once upon a time this was probably true, but things have changed since the clear connection between smoking and serious lung disease has been established. We've noticed a large increase in anti-smoking sentiment in some parts of the country; we expect that will continue. Moore - Chapter 04 #5 6. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the near future look for floods in Britain which will culminate in the flooding of Parliament." A prediction made by Maitreya Swami, "The World Teacher," in the News Release of the Tara Center, N. Hollywood, Calif. Probably false. We won't get into the philosophical difficulties involved in attaching truth values to future contingent events. Moore - Chapter 04 #6 7. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Smoking more than triples the likelihood of premature facial wrinkling." Dr. Donald Kadunce, lead author of a group of University of Utah scientists, reporting in Annals of Internal Medicine Probably true, but you'd probably want to have a look at the study to see, among other things, how the degree of wrinkling is ascertained. Moore - Chapter 04 #7 8. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. University student to professor: "I'm sorry I missed the test on Thursday, Dr. Aarsack. My grandmother unexpectedly died, and I had to go home." Requires further documentation. This is a good discussion item, though the straightforward answer is that more documentation is needed. Moore - Chapter 04 #8 9. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "With due regard to the recent experience by certain individuals in the Russian city of Voronezh, the Space Brothers who landed and exited from their craft were on a peace mission. . . . What was thought to be and reported mistakenly as a knife held in the hand of one of the Space Brothers was a thought, only in the mind of the reporter. . . . What was being held was a communication device. . . . This device was translating the thoughts of the Space voyager into the language that could be understood in that particular part of the world." Press release, Unarius Academy of Science Probably false. So why was Space Brother even thinking of a knife? Moore - Chapter 04 #9 10. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Driven by the Gramm-Rudman mandate to cut $46 billion from the budget . . ., OMB director James Miller is proposing to sell off whole programs and agencies from the federal establishment. Miller's hit list is mostly secret for the time being, but administration sources say it includes some large, costly and much-venerated legacies of the Democratic past. One example: the Bonneville Power Administration, which provides low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest from a far-flung system of hydroelectric dams and substations, including the Grand Coulee Dam." Newsweek (during the Reagan administration in the late 1980s) Probably true, since we would expect Newsweek to have good Washington sources in such matters. But notice: What is it that's probably true? The claim itself is quite vague. What does "proposing" mean, for example? Moore - Chapter 04 #10 11. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "A few years ago AT&T did two surveys showing that technically trained persons did not achieve as many top managerial jobs in the company as liberal arts graduates did." New York Times Probably true. It is often risky to accept what secondhand reports say about what surveys "show," but the New York Times is a credible source. This claim is probably true. Note, however, the vagueness of "did not achieve" and "top managerial jobs." Moore - Chapter 04 #11 12. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. According to Funk & Wagnalls Hammond World Atlas, the three longest rivers in the world are the Nile, the Amazon, and the Yangtze. Probably true; if you can't trust your Funk & Wagnalls in a matter like this, who can you trust? Moore - Chapter 04 #12 13. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Letter to the editor: "Your editorial page of October 15 contained a cartoon that was highly offensive. . . ." Midfield Sentinel Probably true; the individual is the best authority on what he or she finds offensive. Moore - Chapter 04 #13 14. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "General Motors is on a journey to the future. With the help of its thousands of scientists, designers, and engineers, GM is embarking on an odyssey into the unknown. Roads paved with scientific and technological wonders that might seem like science fictions. But at GM, they're reality. . . ." From a General Motors magazine advertisement Cannot properly be evaluated. This is too vague to make a judgment about. (In fairness to the ad, we might note that a couple of later passages in it were less vague. But not much. We might also point out that the odyssey on which GM was embarking was even more unknown than its ad agency believed, as it required rescuing the company with a federal bailout in 2009.) Moore - Chapter 04 #14 15. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Comment from an acquaintance: "I saw Bigfoot with my own eyes! It was huge!" Probably false; observational error is more likely than incorrect background information. Moore - Chapter 04 #15 16. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Q: Did Marilyn Monroe keep a diary about her relationships with John and Robert Kennedy? A: No. Walter Scott's Personality Parade, Parade Requires further documentation. Scott's question-and-answer column is probably a reasonably reliable source of information about the questions asked. Secret diaries are always a possibility, of course. Moore - Chapter 04 #16 17. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Remark heard a in coffee shop: "There is a disproportionate percentage of left-handed people in politics." Requires further documentation. This claim would take much more authority before we'd believe it. Much of this sort of casual conversation is based on anecdotal evidence. The claim is also vague: What does the speaker mean by "politics"? Moore - Chapter 04 #17 18. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Reported after a debate between Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, who were running for the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 2008: "James Carville, a Clinton advisor and supporter, declared his candidate the winner' in the debate, saying she'd made her case more strongly." Cannot properly be evaluated. Absolutely unreliable for reasons of bias. We'd reserve judgment. Moore - Chapter 04 #18 19. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Warning: St. John [in the Virgin Islands] is very much a cash only' island. Most restaurants and car rental agencies accept cash or travelers checks only." Janet Fullwood, travel writer for the Dallas Times Herald Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #19 20. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Every day 5,000 Americans try cocaine for the first timea total of 22 million so faraccording to estimates by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. About five million people are believed to be using the drug at least once a month, and they are administering it to themselves in increasingly destructive ways." James Lieber, in the Atlantic Requires further documentation. We don't know much about the National Institute on Drug Abuse, but we have found the Atlantic to be pretty reliable in factual matters. Notice that no exact figures are claimed; the first is explicitly said to be an estimate, and the phrases "about" and "believed to be" qualify the second. We would expect these claims to be close to the truth. Moore - Chapter 04 #20 21. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. You've taken your car in to the local branch of a nationwide chain of brake and muffler shops for an advertised "free brake inspection." After the inspection, the service manager tells you: "I'm afraid your linings are almost completely gone and the drums need turning. You need a complete brake overhaul." Probably true, but with reservations. The shop is clearly an interested party, but the fact that the brake shop is part of a nationwide chain means there would be someone beyond the service manager to complain to if you discovered the service report was dishonest. However, unless you've been having problems with your brakes or have verified the service report by your own visual inspection, you should get a second opinion in a case like this. Brake inspections are widely offered free or for a small charge. Moore - Chapter 04 #21 22. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "[Atmospheric nuclear] tests do not seriously endanger either present or future generations." Edward Teller, physicist, one of the "fathers" of the atomic bomb, 1958 Requires further documentation. We'd expect this kind of claim, coming from such a source, to be trustworthy. That it turned out to be false probably shows either that Teller was biased or that there was not enough information on the effects of atmospheric tests in 1958, or both. Moore - Chapter 04 #22 23. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Do you feel insecure? Or are you confident about your position in life? According to Dr. Ian Cameron, how and where you stand in an elevator will reveal the answers to these questions." Reported in the National Examiner. Dr. Cameron is described in the article as "a noted scientist and researcher." Cannot properly be evaluated. Is this remark the conclusion of a study? A speculation on the part of Dr. Cameron? Who is Dr. Cameron, anyway? We are suspicious because so little information is given about him. More importantly, the claim runs counter to our background information. Our experience indicates that when we are free to choose where we stand in an elevator, our choice is affected by whether we must push the elevator buttons, how many other people are in the elevator, how close our destination floor is, and so on. We don't think very much can be determined about one's personality by observing how and where he or she stands in an elevator. Moore - Chapter 04 #23 24. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. From a letter to the editor by a person we've never heard of: "Eighty-five percent of the jail population smokes." Requires further documentation. What's meant by "jail population" is a bit vague; we presume the letter is talking about inmates. We find the claim plausibleat least we would not be surprised if it were true. This plausibility is inherent in the claim; it is not due to the fact that any particular person made it, especially since no source information is provided. Moore - Chapter 04 #24 25. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "In the history books, the personal-computer slump of 1985 will be a footnote compared to the Japanese assault on the American semiconductor industry." Newsweek Probably true, at the time. But it hasn't happened as of yet (twenty-six years later as of this writing). Moore - Chapter 04 #25 26. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The West German Cabinet has conditionally agreed to let private companies enroll in the research [on the Strategic Defense Initiative]." From an editorial in the Los Angeles Times Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #26 27. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The yearly cancer rate for men in Glasgow, Scotland, is 130 cases per 100,000." "Atlas of Cancer in Scotland," World Health Organization (an agency of the United Nations) Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #27 28. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "My cat has fewer brains than a hubcap!" Spoken by one of the authors of the text after his cat had spent three days on his housetop Probably false, but only probably. Moore - Chapter 04 #28 29. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The American word yup' means sex' in Russia." Comedian Yakov Smirnoff (who was born and lived in Russia for sixteen years before emigrating to America in 1977). Smirnoff uses the claim in question as a basis for "yuppie" jokes. Probably true. Moore - Chapter 04 #29 30. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The past year was a turbulent one. It was a year that began with record profits and sales. It was also a year in which we reported the first quarterly loss in Apple's history. We had to take swift action. We did. And it's working." Apple Computer, Inc., 1985 Annual Report Probably true. The remarks about profits, sales, and a quarterly loss are probably true; they are easily investigated. The remarks about taking swift action and that the actions taken are "working" are vague enough to be difficult to evaluate, although after the iPod and iPhone were introduced, it was clear that Apple was doing very well indeed. Moore - Chapter 04 #30 31. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. According to a Baron Gottfried von Swieten, King Frederick of Prussia claimed that he had once given a chromatic theme to Johann Sebastian Bach, who had immediately made of it a fugue in four parts, then in five parts, and finally in eight parts. From H. T. David and A. Mendel, The Bach Reader, reported in Gdel, Escher, Bach, by Douglas R. Hofstadter Probably false. One needs to know something of music to realize how incredible this remark is. To improvise a six-part fugue is nearly beyond imagination (Hofstadter likens it to playing sixty games of chess simultaneously while blindfolded and winning them all). Even Bach, whose genius strains credibility on many counts, is unlikely to have been able to improvise an eight-part fugue. Presumably either King Frederick or the good Baron was doing some exaggerating. Moore - Chapter 04 #31 32. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Apple's history is more like a soap opera than a corporate biography." Macworld magazine, March 1997 Probably true. We're tempted to give this a straightforward "probably true," both because of what is common knowledge about Apple Computer and because of the general trustworthiness of the magazine (one of the two major ones devoted to Macintosh users). But obviously, the comparison here is extraordinarily vagueand this is the most important thing to say about this quotation. Moore - Chapter 04 #32 33. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Huddie Ledbetter ("Leadbelly") was not only a writer and performer of songs but also an unusually powerful man. Alan Lomax, the historian of American folk music, wrote that "in the Texas Penitentiary he was the number one man in the number one gang on the number one farm in the statethe man who could carry the lead row in the field for 12 or 14 hours a day under the broiling July and August sun." He could pick a bale of cotton in a daythat's 500 pounds! Adapted from liner notes to the record Leadbelly (Everest recording FS-202) Probably true. We find this more likely to be true than the item concerning Bach and an improvised six-part fugue, but one should be warned that claims like this are subject to exaggeration, especially over time. (Legends tend to grow after their subjects are gone.) No source is given for the last claim in the passage, but Lomax knew Ledbetter and probably had at least some firsthand information about his physical prowess. Moore - Chapter 04 #33 34. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Of all species, only pigs and humans like liquor." Charles Halsted, Professor of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis Requires further documentation. We'd ordinarily accept this claim as probably true, if it were not for the fact that Moore once had a dog that loved to lick the tops of wine bottles. And many people have seen or heard of dogs lapping up beer. Moore - Chapter 04 #34 35. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "[Bybon, a Greek of the sixth century B.C.] threw a 315-pound block of red sandstone over his head. The feat was reported after archeologists found a description of Bybon's act inscribed on the rock itself." The Book of Lists Probably true. We think this may be true; there are people around now who could perform this feat. (It isn't said how far Bybon threw the rock.) Notice, however, that the documentation of Bybon's act would be a little difficult to corroborate at this point. Moore - Chapter 04 #35 36. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Lottery director Mark Michalko said Thursday that allegations that Californians are squandering money they once used for food to buy lottery tickets are just not correct.'. . . California Grocers Association president Don Beaver raised the issue earlier in the week, saying five supermarket chains had complained that grocery sales dropped about 5 percent after lottery tickets went on sale October 3." Sacramento Bee Cannot properly be evaluated. Based just on information contained in this news item, we'd suspend judgment on the question of whether lottery sales have diminished food sales. Moore - Chapter 04 #36 37. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "The great preponderance of lottery players are from the lowest third of the population in terms of income levels. It is mainly the poor who are being exploited by state lotteries." A sociology professor at a state university in the Midwest, in a radio interview Requires further documentation. We'd want to know if this claim is backed up by a study. Presumably there is some evidence on which the remark is based rather than just the professor's guesswork. Notice the use of the term "exploited" in the second sentence. This tells us something about the speaker's views on lotteries. Moore - Chapter 04 #37 38. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "NASA [the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] says private investors, not taxpayers, will fund its newest manned space vehicle. If you believe that, you probably think little green men inhabit Mars." Forbes Requires further documentation. Although Forbes magazine has a good reputation for knowing something about private investment, we'd have to hear a lot of discussion before we would make an intelligent decision on the truth or falsity of a claim like this. Moore - Chapter 04 #38 39. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "[G]ram for gram, trans fat [found in hydrogenated oil] is nearly as bad for your bloodcholesterol levels as saturated fat is. . . . Brandeis University scientists . . . concluded that trans fats may be worse than saturated fats. . . ." Consumer Reports On Health Probably true. Given the care with which Consumers Union magazines usually make their reports, we give this a "probably true." Moore - Chapter 04 #39 40. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. Barack Obama is a citizen of both the United States and the Republic of Kenya. an online article run in August, 2008, by the Rocky Mountain News Probably false. The article fueled Internet rumors about Obama's eligibility for the presidency, but the newspaper later said the claim was false and published an apology for the mistake. Moore - Chapter 04 #40 41. Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. "Contrary to popular belief, The Star-Spangled Banner' has been the nation's official song only since 1931." James Kilpatrick, syndicated columnist Probably true. We'd be very surprised if Kilpatrick were mistaken about a fact like this. Moore - Chapter 04 #41 42. In a brief essay, explain what factors help establish someone as an expert. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #42 43. In a brief essay, discuss three ways a person can increase his or her background knowledge. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #43 44. Are there conditions in which your own observations may not be totally reliable? Explain in a brief essay. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #44 45. In a brief essay, provide several topics on which you may not trust yourself to give a totally unbiased judgment, and explain. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #45 46. In a brief essay, discuss the conditions under which it is reasonable to regard an eyewitness account as credible. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #46 47. In a brief essay, discuss the news media as a source of information about current events. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #47 48. If the claims of an expert turn out to be in error, were you unreasonable in having accepted them in the first place? Why, or why not? Explain your response in a brief essay. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #48 49. In a brief essay, discuss how to handle a conflict between the opinions of experts who do not agree. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #49 50. In a brief essay, explain why you suppose sensationalism (as found in supermarket tabloids, for example) has such a wide audience despite its frequent conflicts with our background information. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #50 51. In a brief essay, make up an issue and a list of sources and give your own ranking of the credibility of the sources you listed. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #51 52. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the foreign policy of the current administration is more credible. a. a former U.S. president of the same political party as the current president b. a former U.S. president not of the same political party as the current president Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #52 53. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the foreign policy of the current administration is more credible. a. a Ph.D. in political science whose specialty is U.S. foreign policy b. the chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #53 54. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the condition of the tires on your car is more credible. a. a salesperson at Goodyear b. a mechanic at a garage certified by the American Automobile Association Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #54 55. Issue: A proposal for legislation regarding automobile insurance rates is on the ballot. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion on the benefits for consumers is more credible. a. a spokesperson for the insurance industry b. Ralph Nader Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #55 56. Is the pitcher tiring? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a minor league pitching coach b. Reggie Jackson Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #56 57. Did life evolve, or was it created? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a biologist b. a minister Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #57 58. Can you get a manzanita tree to grow in Pennsylvania? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a Pennsylvania (where manzanita doesn't grow naturally) nursery worker b. a California (where manzanita does grow naturally) nursery worker Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #58 59. b. Americans for Legalized Marijuana (ALM) What percentage of American high school students have smoked marijuana? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. USA Today Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #59 60. How many homicides involve the use of a stolen firearm? Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose opinion is the more credible. a. a Democratic U.S. senator b. a Republican U.S. senator Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #60 61. Giving at least one reason for your choice, which of two current movies would you be more apt to like? a. one recommended by a movie critic whose opinions you enjoy listening to b. one recommended by a friend Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #61 62. Giving at least one reason for your choice, discuss whose would be the best weight-lifting regimen to follow. a. Arnold Schwarzenegger b. Paris Hilton Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #62 63. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: In the O. J. Simpson murder case, did the judge rule correctly in admitting evidence that was obtained at Simpson's house before a search warrant was issued? a. a well-known defense attorney who heads the American Trial Lawyers Association b. the former district attorney for Los Angeles County c. a retired judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals We put (c) way out in front, and the other two equally biased on opposite sides of the issue. Moore - Chapter 04 #63 64. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Should lawyers allow their clients to lie? a. the U.S. Supreme Court b. a law school professor c. a political science professor d. the American Bar Association e. a practicing defense attorney This question is not so straightforward and simple as it might seem. For instance, has a client who is forced to tell the truth in effect been denied an effective defense? Can one even know that one's client has lied? In forming our opinion on the subject, we'd be most influenced by the reasoning of the person who seemed to have the best grasp of the various subsidiary issues involved. In other words, in this case it's the reasoning rather than the credentials of the reasoner that will carry the most weight. (We would not anticipate that any of the sources listed would be deficient in powers of reasoning.) Moore - Chapter 04 #64 65. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether a recently completed nuclear power plant is safe. a. the power company that owns the plant b. the contractor in charge of the plant's construction c. a spokesman for the Nuclear Regulatory Agency d. the president of the Sierra Club e. a contractor hired by a nearby city who has seen the blueprints of the plant but has not made an onsite inspection f. the author of a statistical study on safety, malfunctions, and accidents at power plants of the same type Our ranking: (f), a gap, then (c), (e), then (a) = (b) = (d). We would not put too much confidence in any of the sources listed, as a matter of fact. The last alternative, (f), is hypothetical; there are relatively few nuclear power plants of any one type; their construction has so far been "custom"that is, idiosyncratic. Moore - Chapter 04 #65 66. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether the verdict in the O. J. Simpson civil trial proves that Simpson was actually guilty of the crime of which he was acquitted in the criminal trial. a. a professor of criminal law b. Greta Van Susteren (lawyer and commentator on the Simpson trials for CNN and now a host on Fox) c. Oprah Winfrey d. Geraldo Rivera We'd take the views of (a), or, with some reservation, (b). The professor could be counted on to have a correct answer; but it may be that Van Susteren has had more experience in putting such things in terms laypeople can understand. (Of course, some would say she's had more experience sensationalizing such issues.) Winfrey and Rivera might get it right, but they'd be repeating something they learned from their researchers. Moore - Chapter 04 #66 67. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Does violence on television contribute to violent behavior on the part of young viewers? a. the president of the National Association of Broadcasters b. the president of an organization called "Parents Against TV Violence" c. a university sociologist d. regular panel members of a program such as "The McLaughlin Group" We rank (c) first, followed by (b), who would be ahead of (a). We do know what side (b) is on from the outset, of course, but that's somewhat different from having a vested interest in one side of the issue in the way that (a) does. We find most of the people like those mentioned in (d) to be full of hot air on most subjects. Moore - Chapter 04 #67 68. d. a recent graduate with an M.B.A. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Are schools of business turning out too many ill-prepared M.B.A. graduates? a. the dean of the school of business at the University of Chicago b. the president of the Hewlett-Packard Corporation c. an editorial in the Wall Street Journal Our ranking: (c), (b), (a), (d). Moore - Chapter 04 #68 69. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Do mountain bicycles cause ecological damage when ridden on hiking trails? a. an environmental scientist at the Harvard School of Public Health b. the chair of the Sierra Club task force for determining club policy on the wilderness use of mountain bicycles c. a spokesperson for a bicycle manufacturer d. a park ranger from a state park where mountain bicycles have been permitted on hiking trails e. a representative of the Washington Mountain Bike Riders' Association Our ranking: (d) = (b) first, then (e) = (c) = (a). Moore - Chapter 04 #69 70. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: How do the economic policies of the Venezuelan government affect the standard of living of most Venezuelans? a. the editor of a daily newspaper in a small town b. a friend who just returned from a trip to Venezuela "to see what was going on" c. a professor of Latin American studies at Ohio State University d. a Republican state senator in Arizona e. a politically radical councilwoman for a middle-sized New York city Our ranking: (c), (a), (b) = (d) = (e). You might point out that it is difficult to use standard measurements of the effects of economic policies in some locations. Moore - Chapter 04 #70 71. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether Viking explorers actually landed in the New World before Columbus. a. a historian b. the publisher of a Norwegian-language newspaper in Willmar, Minnesota c. a Norwegian archeologist d. an Italian archeologist e. an archeologist of French ancestry who grew up in Texas We take this one, including our ranking, lightly (although some Italians and some Norwegians don't): (e), (a), (c) = (d), (b). Moore - Chapter 04 #71 72. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Whether it's possible for a person to have an "out of body" experience. a. a psychic b. a physicist c. a person who claims to have had such an experience d. a physician e. a philosopher f. a magician g. a psychologist Our ranking: (e), then everybody else. None of the other sources has had experience or training in what is possible. Were we evaluating the question of whether a given individual had actually had such an experience, we'd have required a different ranking. Moore - Chapter 04 #72 73. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: Were there unjustifiable cost overruns in the construction of ships made for the U.S. Navy by Lytton Industries? a. the chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee b. the accounting director for Lytton c. the Navy Chief of Staff d. the OMB (Office of Management and Budget) e. an article in The Progressive (a left-of-center political journal) Our ranking: (d), (a), depending on the individual's politics, then (c) = (e), (b). Moore - Chapter 04 #73 74. For the following issue, discuss which source you'd trust more, and give at least one reason why. You may want to add to or otherwise modify our list of sources. And do keep in mind that we are glad our livelihoods do not depend on a general consensus on our rankings. Issue: What levels of mercury and other metals in fish are high enough to make consumption of them hazardous to humans? a. an article in a journal called Diet and Health, published for vegetarians b. a commercial fisherman c. a family medical doctor d. a spokeswoman for the National Institutes of Health e. a toxicologist who works for the Los Angeles coroner's office Our ranking: (d), then a substantial gap, then (e) and (c), another gap, then (a), (b). Moore - Chapter 04 #74 75. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: James A. Van Allen received a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa in 1939. During World War II, he was a gunnery officer with the Pacific Fleet. After the war, he returned to the University of Iowa, where he became professor of physics and chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy. In 1958, during the mission of Explorer 1, the first successful U.S. Earth satellite, he discovered the radiation belts surrounding the Earth, that are named for him. He was the principal investigator for the space probe of Jupiter's radiation belts and one of the discoverers of the radiation belts of Saturn. He was chairman of the group that developed the Voyager and Galileo space missions and is currently principal investigator for the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 projects. a. the number of women employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration b. the uses of satellites for national security purposes c. the biological effects of ultraviolet radiation d. the structure of comet tails e. recent geological activity along faults in southern California f. the impact of a manned space station on science and technology We assume Van Allen's opinions on (f) would be very informed. He would also have great credibility on (d) and only slightly less on (c). His remarks on (b) would carry more weight than those of a layperson, but we would need further information about him before regarding him as an authority on (a) or (e). Moore - Chapter 04 #75 76. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: Mike O'Neill is a scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Northeastern Forest Experimental Station in Durham, New Hampshire. He graduated from Humboldt State University in California with a degree in biology (1988) and earned a Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of West Virginia (1995). After serving for seven years as a consultant to the Pennsylvania state park system, he was employed by the U.S. Forest Service as a specialist in tree diseases. His major area of research has been in the resistance mechanisms of trees to injury and infection. a. the effects of improper pruning techniques on fruit trees b. the kind of fertilizer to use on ornamental shrubs c. resistance mechanisms of mammals to disease and infection d. the characteristics of various types of softwoods relative to their use in the building industry e. how to transplant a small tree f. use rates of campground facilities in Pennsylvania state parks g. methods of controlling garden pests O'Neill would have more credibility on each of these subjects than a layperson, though we would regard him as most qualified on (a) and (e) and least qualified on (b), (c), and (g). Moore - Chapter 04 #76 77. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: Robert Kuttner is the economics correspondent of The New Republic, a columnist for Business Week and the Boston Globe, and a contributor to the Atlantic. After graduating from Oberlin College in 1965, he studied at the London School of Economics and took a master's degree in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. In addition to his writing, Kuttner served in Washington from 1975 to 1978 as the chief investigator for the Senate Banking Committee. In 1979 he was a fellow at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He subsequently edited the journal Working Papers. Kuttner is the author of Revolt of the Haves (1980) and, most recently, The Economic Illusion (1984), which was nominated for a National Book Critics Circle Award. a. the effects of inflation on the stock market b. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which insures deposits at banks and savings and loan institutions c. restaurants in London d. politics and upper-income groups in America e. poverty among Native Americans We would expect substantial expertise from Mr. Kuttner on topics (b) and (d)the latter because of his 1980 bookand more than lay knowledge about (a). We'd sooner trust him than someone who hasn't lived there on (c), and we would expect no more expertise about (e) than we'd expect from other well-informed non-specialists. Moore - Chapter 04 #77 78. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "Based on a survey of more than 100,000 people, Toshitaka Nomi and Alexander Besher have drawn up some startling conclusions about blood type and personality. If you are type O, you are probably aggressive and realistic. Type A? You are naturally industrious, detail-oriented, and peace-loving. Type Bs are creative and individualistic. ABs tend to be rational, but moody. YOU ARE YOUR BLOOD TYPE presents detailed analysis of the different blood types and explores the compatibility between the different types." From a news release from Pocket Books about the first Western account "of the Japanese popphenomenon of blood-type analysis" According to the release, the principal author, T. Nomi, is carrying on his father's work in bloodtyping theory; Nomi's qualifications are that he has written many articles on the theory, has made many TV appearances, and has sold five million copies of twenty-two different books. Besher publishes translations of modern Japanese literature and contributes to the personal computer newsweekly InfoWorld. Given these qualifications of the authors and the nature of the reported results, we remain skeptical. Moore - Chapter 04 #78 79. Based only on the information given in this biography, discuss the credibility and authority of the person described on each of the topics in the list that follows: David A. Kilbourne taught himself to program in three different computer languages by the time he was sixteen. At seventeen, he was a member of a loose-knit southern California group of computer "hackers" that specialized in tapping the databases of large corporations, including the telephone company and several banks. In 1994, Kilbourne was charged with using his home computer and a telephone communications device to manipulate data in the Pacific Bell Telephone database to avoid telephone bills for his household and those of several friends for almost two years. It was also discovered that he had savings accounts at two Bank of America branches, with balances totaling over seventy thousand dollars, despite never having made a deposit or even "officially" opening the accounts. Kilbourne was found guilty on several counts of defrauding the two companies and was put on three years' probation. During his probation, Bank of America hired him as a consultant to assess the security of its computer files, a job at which he worked for nearly a year. He now works for a legitimate software house in the Silicon Valley. (Asked which side of the law he preferred working on, Kilbourne replied, "Everything considered, being an outlaw was more fun.") a. the morality of software piracy b. corporate data banks c. telecommunications d. purchasing a computer for a small business e. electronic games f. computer programming We'd listen to Kilbourne with attention on topics (b), (c), and (f), and we'd give his opinions more weight than our own on (d) and (e). We think we could get better authority on (a). Moore - Chapter 04 #79 80. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "You hear in the folklore about miracles happening, but I have never seen one thing yet that could be called an actual medical cure,' says Douglas Sharon, a University of California, Los Angeles, anthropologist who has studied curandrismo [Peruvian folk medicine] on the north coast of Peru for 18 years." From a National Geographic Magazine news feature This seems a clear-cut case of good credibility; yet the feature goes on to point out that several other anthropologists, conducting a study for the National Institute of Mental Health, have found that in thirty-eight cases of nervousness, faintness or dizziness, poor appetite, nausea, and the like, the curanderos (the folk healers) were effective in thirty-five of the cases in alleviating all symptoms. Researchers tentatively suggest the curanderos use psychotherapeutic methods to eliminate psychosomatic symptoms in their patients. So part of the credibility rests on what one calls "an actual medical cure." Moore - Chapter 04 #80 81. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "The UFOnauts are usually clothed in shiny, tight fitting, one piece suits, and in most reports seem able to breathe our air without difficulty. Telepathy seems involved in most contacts. . . . If you are tired of the same old pseudoexplanations, official debunkings, and lame duck logic from quacks suffering megalomania, then you are invited to join the concerted efforts of the UFO Contact Center. . . ." From a pamphlet, undated, issued in the 1980s by Aileen E. Edwards, director of UFO Contact Center International in Seattle, Washington The "center" is a clearinghouse for those who have had contact with extraterrestrials to share their fears and insights without condemnation. Edwards herself has had such an experience, says the pamphlet, and now is reaching out to help people with similar stories. The language has a typical "us vs. them" flavor, with those who would offer a more coherent explanation labeled as "quacks"; the assumption is that those who have certain experiences are best able to determine "what really happened." We admit to being quacks: We think Ms. Edwards may be a bit delusional. Moore - Chapter 04 #81 82. Keeping in mind the sources cited, discuss the credibility of the claim(s) made in the following passage: "The mail order company Hammacher Schlemmer & Co. says in its consumer catalogs that it sells nothing but the best. The company supports its claims by what it calls independent testing. But Bruce Nash and Allan Zullo, in a book called The Mis-Fortune 500 (New York: Pocket Books, 1988), say that while a 1986 letter to potential customers claimed that a "completely separate" "consumer" organization tested and compared the products offered by Hammacher Schlemmer, in reality: "The testing organization is called the Hammacher Schlemmer Institute. "The institute is funded by Hammacher Schlemmer & Co. "The institute's board of directors is composed of Hammacher Schlemmer officials. "The institute is located at Hammacher Schlemmer company headquarters in Chicago." The company maintains that the Institute is separate from its other divisions; yet it strains credibility when the implied comparison is between the Institute and say, Consumers Union. Presumably the authors of The Mis-Fortune 500 have presented the whole story in their book, but their claim to fame is to have been the coauthors of several baseball "hall of shame" books and to have appeared on "Late Night with David Letterman." The point is that the examples culled from press reports are intended to show business at its worstwithout including mitigating circumstances. We tend to swallow negative claims more easily, especially if they are embarrassing to Big Business or Big Government. Moore - Chapter 04 #82 83. e. a friend who has recently had his attic insulated Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You are thinking of insulating your attic and need advice relative to how much insulation you should install. a. a company that sells insulation but does not install it b. a company that sells and installs insulation c. an energy consultant from your local gas and electric company d. Consumer Reports We think you are most likely to get the best information from (d), with (c) a close second; (a) and (b) are about equal in credibility, and (e)'s ranking depends on where he got his information. Moore - Chapter 04 #83 84. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: Spring has come, and it's about time to plant some tomatoes. Or is there still a danger of frost? a. the owner of your local nursery b. Aunt Maude, whose garden has kept her friends and family in tomatoes for years c. a friend who grows tomatoes commercially d. a friend who gives the weather report on Channel 8 News each evening e. "Outdoor Planting Table" in The Old Farmer's Almanac Notice that this question is about weather, not tomatoes. We'd trust (c), though (a), (b), and (d) are also credible sources on this subject. As amazing as (e) sometimes is in the accuracy of its predictions, it may not be sufficiently fine-tuned to your locality. Moore - Chapter 04 #84 85. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You have saved up for a vacation and are considering taking a cruise on a cruise ship. You are unsure whether this would be the right kind of vacation for you and, if it is, what kind of cruise would be best for you and your budget. a. a travel agent b. a cruise line representative c. a friend who has been on a cruise d. a newspaper travel writer Notice that there are two issues at stake, not just one: whether to take a cruise and which cruise. We'd trust (d) first on both issues if you are fortunate enough to talk with him or her personally (and not just by letter to the paper). After that, we'd trust (c) and (a) more or less equally on the first question (one knows you, and one knows cruises) and (a) on the second question; (b) could be expected to be biased in favor of a particular line, we'd think. Moore - Chapter 04 #85 86. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: A number of your friends have taken up jogging, and you wonder whether your taking it up might have genuine health benefits for you. a. your family physician b. a magazine for runners c. a friend who teaches physical education in high school d. the author of a best-selling book on sports medicine e. a friend who is president of a local runners club (b), (c), and (e) might tend to be promoters of jogging, so we'd be mildly skeptical of any pro-jogging claims they might make (but less skeptical of any liabilities of jogging that they might mention). We'd find (a) a more credible source, although many general practitioners may not have the time to keep up on such specialized areas. The best potential source is probably (d), although we'd be cautious unless we knew something about the author; he or she might also tend to exaggerate either the benefitsor the risksof jogging. Moore - Chapter 04 #86 87. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You are looking at a sailboat that you're considering buying, but you've never owned one before and don't know whether you should buy this one. a. the boat salesman at the marina that owns the boat b. a boat salesman from another marina c. a friend who has owned several similar boats d. a buyer's guide published by a sailing magazine e. your own appraisal Of course you must consider (e), since if you have doubts from the beginning you're likely to be unhappy with the purchase. We think (c) can be either the best source on the list or the worst, depending on his or her judgment and experience. (What do you know about the friend's sailing experience?) Source (d) can be good with regard to the boat, but remember that the writers of the guide don't know you or your situation; (a) can be depended on to be more upbeat about the boat than a neutral party; (b) may want to sell you one of his boats. Moore - Chapter 04 #87 88. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: It's quite important that you travel to another town about four hours away by car, but you are concerned about whether you should drive because of adverse weather conditions. a. the local television news b. the local newspaper c. a friend who has made the trip in all kinds of weather d. the state police telephone service e. the local police department In descending order, we'd trust (d), (a), (e), (b), and (c). The local police probably know more about local conditions but less about conditions some distance away; the local newspaper's information may be too old to be useful; and we don't trust a friend who will drive in just about any weather conditions. Moore - Chapter 04 #88 89. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: You've purchased a wood-burning stove. You are uncertain, however, what kind of wood to burn in it. You've heard that some produce more smoke, some are more likely to contribute to chimney fires, some burn hotter than others, and so forth. a. the dealer from whom you purchased the stove b. a friend of yours who has used a wood-burning stove for years c. another friend who sells firewood d. a U.S. Department of Agriculture publication, "Comparative Properties of Fuelwood" e. a professor of environmental horticulture at a state university All these sources are credible, but (c) (rather than (a) should rank last. Moore - Chapter 04 #89 90. Whom would you trust as most reliable? Discuss the credibility and authority of each individual or group listed with regard to the following issue: Even though your wisdom teeth are not bothering you, your dentist tells you they should be extracted because they may give you trouble later. Should you have them pulled or wait until they cause problems? a. your dentist b. your physician c. a friend who is studying to become an orthodontist d. your sister, who is a dental hygienist e. your brother, who is six years older than you, who still has his wisdom teeth and has had no problems with them Assuming your dentist specifies more clearly the risks you take by not having the teeth extracted now, we'd go with his or her opinion rather than any of the outside sources. Moore - Chapter 04 #90 91. Exercise: Work with two other people on this. For each question below, you need to do an Internet search. The primary purpose of this exercise is for you to (1) lay out a convincing argument as to why the source or sources you used to answer the question is/are trustworthy. In other words, you need to present an argument as to why you trust and believe the source you found on the Internet in answering the question. Your argument should use as support the sorts of criteria that give a source credibility as discussed in Chapter 4. You'll also need to (2) answer the question and explain the answer. You'll turn in one set of answers and arguments for the group. (Suggested time to complete: A week or week and a half to formulate arguments and answers.) Questions (your instructor may assign others): 1. What vegetable is toxic to dogs? Why, or why not? 2. Can you catch a cold by going outside with wet hair? Why, or why not? 3. Is it bad for your baby's health to dust a lot? Why, or why not? 4. Are children riding in SUVs safer than those riding in passenger cars? Why, or why not? Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #91 92. Exercise: After reading the following account and our remarks, watch a local news program and critically evaluate the newsworthiness of each story covered. How much is news and how much is entertainment? "A shocking scene in a Lake Mary neighborhood tonight," began the anchorman. "A home surrounded by crime scene tape. And a death police are calling suspicious." Up on the screen flashed the words, "Neighborhood Shocker!" "Police say they don't know much about the life of Betty Bracone," on-the-scene reporter Nicole Smith began. "They do know that she was 66 years old and she lived in this home. They do know she had a family and they found many pictures of children inside her home." Smith then segued to an interview with a policeman who said there was no forced entry, that everything in the house was intact and that nothing indicated a robbery. "The autopsy will be held tomorrow and they're not exactly sure yet what they will find," Smith said. "So they want to keep a very tight lid on what happened. . . . Live in Lake Mary, Nicole Smith, Channel 6 News." From a report on Channel 6 News, Orlando, Florida Remarks: Although this report filled the screen with the flashing lights of emergency vehicles and bright yellow crime-scene tape, it was remarkable mainly for being a complete nonstory. The 66-yearold Betty Bracone, it turned out, had died in her own bed of a heart attack, hardly a big news event. But the episode shows how local news programs will go to great lengths to produce an exciting news bit even though it is entirely hype. Every story like this takes up space that could have been devoted to real news. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #92 93. Exercise: List fifteen items that you believe to be true about current popular music. When you are finished, trade your list for that of a classmate. Place each item from your classmate's list into one of three categories: (1) those you believe to be true, (2) those you believe to be false, and (3) those you are uncertain about. Next, explain to each other why you assigned the items as you did. Finally, based on this discussion, compile a third list that contains only those items from the original lists that both of you know to be true. Submit this list to your instructor for any comments he or she might have. Answers will vary Moore - Chapter 04 #93 94. You should assume that the claims made by others are false unless you have some specific reason to believe otherwise. FALSE 95. Except when we have the means to record our observations immediately, they are no better than our memories happen to be. TRUE 96. If you have reason to believe that an expert is biased, you should reject that expert's claim as false. FALSE Moore - Chapter 04 #94 Moore - Chapter 04 #95 The possibility of bias is occasion to question his or her claims, to suspend judgment on them, to give more weight to alternative claims from unbiased experts, and so onthis is different from rejecting the original expert's claims as false. Moore - Chapter 04 #96 97. Fallible or not, our firsthand observations are still the best source of information we have. TRUE Moore - Chapter 04 #97 98. Reference works such as dictionaries are utterly reliable sources of informationotherwise they wouldn't be reference works. FALSE 99. Factual claims that conflict with what we think we know ought to be rejected, but only if we can disprove them through direct observation. FALSE 100. A surprising claim, one that seems to conflict with our background knowledge, requires a more credible source than one that is not surprising in this way. TRUE 101. Factual claims put forth by experts about subjects outside their fields are not automatically more acceptable than claims put forth by nonexperts. TRUE 102. You are rationally justified in accepting the view of the majority of experts in a given subject even if this view turns out later to have been incorrect. TRUE Moore - Chapter 04 #98 Moore - Chapter 04 #99 Moore - Chapter 04 #100 Moore - Chapter 04 #101 Moore - Chapter 04 #102 ch4 Summary Category Moore - Chapter 04 # of Questions 102

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University of Michigan-Dearborn - PHIL - 233
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
- CHAPTER 1. -Chapter OneSection 1.1 1.For C "& , the slopes are negative, and hence the solutions decrease. For C "& , the slopes are positive, and hence the solutions increase. The equilibrium solution appears to be Ca>b oe "& , to which all other so
Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Minnesota - MATH - 366
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Drake - MATH - 201
Math 219, Homework 2Due date: 23.11.2005, Wednesday This homework concerns two (fictitious) design problems about the solar car "MES e" of the METU Robotics Society, which won the Formula-G trophy in September 2005. Just for the purposes of this homework
Drake - MATH - 201
Math 219, Homework 3Due date: 9.12.2005, Friday 1. Consider the initial value problem d2 x dx + + x = u4 (t), dt2 dt y(0) = y (0) = 0(a) Solve this initial value problem using the Laplace transform. dx dt with respect to t (You can use the function Step
Drake - MATH - 201
Math 219, Homework 4Due date: 30.12.2005, Wednesday Suppose that K > 0, and f (t) is defined as 1 0 if 4n t < 4n + 1 otherwisef (t) =where n runs through the set of integers. (a) Determine the Fourier series for f (t). (b) Consider the differential equ
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 1. -Chapter OneSection 1.1 1.For C "& , the slopes are negative, and hence the solutions decrease. For C "& , the slopes are positive, and hence the solutions increase. The equilibrium solution appears to be Ca>b oe "& , to which all other so
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 2. -Chapter TwoSection 2.1 1a+ba,b Based on the direction field, all solutions seem to converge to a specific increasing function. a- b The integrating factor is .a>b oe /$> , and hence Ca>b oe >$ "* /#> - /$> It follows that all solutions co
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 3. -Chapter ThreeSection 3.1 1. Let C oe /<> , so that C w oe < /<> and C ww oe < /<> . Direct substitution into the differential equation yields a<# #< $b/<> oe ! . Canceling the exponential, the characteristic equation is <# #< $ oe ! The ro
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 4. -Chapter FourSection 4.1 1. The differential equation is in standard form. Its coefficients, as well as the function 1a>b oe > , are continuous everywhere. Hence solutions are valid on the entire real line. 3. Writing the equation in standa
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 5. -Chapter FiveSection 5.1 1. Apply the ratio test : lim aB $b8" k a B $b 8 kHence the series converges absolutely for kB $k " . The radius of convergence is 3 oe " . The series diverges for B oe # and B oe % , since the n-th term does not a
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 6. -Chapter SixSection 6.1 3.The function 0 a>b is continuous. 4.The function 0 a>b has a jump discontinuity at > oe " . 7. Integration is a linear operation. It follows that (E !-9=2 ,> /=> .> oe" E ,> => " E ,> => ( / / .> ( / / .> # !
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 7. -Chapter SevenSection 7.1 1. Introduce the variables B" oe ? and B# oe ? w . It follows that B"w oe B# and B#w oe ? ww oe #? !& ? w . In terms of the new variables, we obtain the system of two first order ODEs B"w oe B# B#w oe #B" !& B# 3.
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 8. -Chapter EightSection 8.1 2. The Euler formula for this problem is C8" oe C8 2^& >8 $C8 , C8" oe C8 &82# $2 C8 ,in which >8 oe >! 82 Since >! oe ! , we can also writea+b. Euler method with 2 oe !& >8 C8 8oe# !" "&*)! 8oe% !# "#*#) 8oe' !$
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 9. -Chapter NineSection 9.1 2a+b Setting x oe 0 /<> results in the algebraic equations OE &< $For a nonzero solution, we must have ./>aA < Ib oe <# ' < ) oe ! . The roots of the characteristic equation are <" oe # and <# oe % . For < oe #, th
Drake - MATH - 201
- CHAPTER 10. -Chapter TenSection 10.1 1. The general solution of the ODE is CaBb oe -" -9= B -# =38 B Imposing the first boundary condition, it is necessary that -" oe ! . Therefore CaBb oe -# =38 B . Taking its derivative, C w aBb oe -# -9= B . Imposi