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tb03[1]

Course: BME 214614, Fall 2010

School: SUNY Empire State

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CHAPTER 3 PERSONALITY, PERCEPTION, AND ATTRIBUTION MULTIPLE CHOICE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 1. According to the proponents of interactional psychology, all of the following are correct EXCEPT: A. behavior is a function of heredity and physical stature B. people vary in terms of cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors C. a situation can be viewed objectively D. one's...

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3 PERSONALITY, CHAPTER PERCEPTION, AND ATTRIBUTION MULTIPLE CHOICE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 1. According to the proponents of interactional psychology, all of the following are correct EXCEPT: A. behavior is a function of heredity and physical stature B. people vary in terms of cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors C. a situation can be viewed objectively D. one's subjective view of the situation can also be important Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 51-52 2. The basis for understanding individual differences stems from: A. Jung's development of personality archetypes B. Carl Roger's contention that everyone is unique C. Bandura's approach to social-cognitive social learning theory D. Lewin's contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 51 3. The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another is referred to as: A. personality B. individual differences C. the basis for group differences D. variation in traits Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 51 PERSONALITY 4. A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior defines: A. behavioral predispositions B. personality C. the humanistic approach to behavior D. the approach emphasizing the perceptual process Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 52 5. Personality is shaped by: A. consequences of behavior and the environment B. the person and the situation C. thinkings and feelings D. heredity and environment Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 52 26 Personality, Perception, and Attribution Personality Theories 6. Freudian psychology is based on: A. dispositions B. traits C. self-actualization D. unconscious determinants of behavior Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 53 7. The approach to the study of personality that focuses on both person (dispositions) and situational variables as combined predictors of behavior is known as: A. trait theory B. the integrative approach C. psychodynamic theory D. wholistic humanism Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 54 8. A more people-centered approach to personality theory based on the belief that people are driven toward self-actualization is: A. psychodynamic theory B. trait theory C. humanistic theory D. the integrative approach Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 54 9. Which traits are associated with less absenteeism at work? A. extraversion and emotional stability B. introversion and emotional stability C. extraversion and conscientiousness D. introversion and conscientiousness Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 53 10. The traits associated with high-performing employees are: A. extraversion and agreeableness B. agreeableness and conscientiousness C. conscientiousness and emotional stability D. emotional stability and agreeableness Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 53 11. Which of the following is NOT considered one of the Big Five personality traits? A. heredity B. extraversion C. emotional stability D. conscientiousness Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 53 27 27 Personality, Perception, and Attribution 28 Personality Characteristics in Organizations 12. Individuals possessing an internal locus of control: A. display high anxiety B. tend to be dissatisfied on the job C. prefer participative management styles D. avoid greater responsibility Register to View Answerhard, K&C., pg. 54 13. As a supervisor of a group of employees, all of whom have an internal locus of control, you should: A. closely supervise them B. provide explicit and frequent job instructions C. expect to frequently discipline group members for slowness and lack of initiative D. allow them considerable leeway in determining how to perform their work Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 55 14. Which of the following statements regarding internals and externals is FALSE? A. Internals and externals have similar positive reactions to being promoted. B. Internals and externals have distinctly different reactions to being promoted with internals having higher organizational commitment than externals. C. Internals tend to have positive feelings to a promotion longer than do externals. D. Externals may be more reluctant than internals to participate in decision making. Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 54 15. Generalized self-efficacy is the general: A. feeling of ones self-worth B. extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations C. belief about ones own capabilities to deal with the events and challenges that make life demanding D. belief about self or situational control over what happens to them Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 55 16. Which of the following is one of the most important determinants of high self-efficacy? A. an internal locus of control B. high self-esteem C. previous success D. the tendency to be a low self-monitor. Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 55 17. Denise and Teresa are two students in a course on organizational behavior. Denise outperforms Teresa on the first exam in OB and Teresa convinces herself that Denise is not really a good person to compare herself because Denise is a psychology major and Teresa is majoring in accounting. Which of the following is the best explanation for Teresas reaction? A. Teresas high self-esteem is protecting her from this unfavorable comparison. B. Teresa is a low self-monitor. C. Teresa has an external locus of control. D. Teresa probably has an inflated generalized belief of her capabilities. Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 56 29 Chapter 3 18. As a manager that understands the implications of self-esteem on work behavior, you should: A. clearly measure the results of employee tasks B. provide continual positive feedback C. clearly tie rewards to performance D. give them appropriate challenges and opportunities for success Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 56 19. An individual's generalized belief about internal control versus external control is called: A. self-efficacy B. self-esteem C. locus of control D. self-monitoring Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 54 20. Low self-monitors tend to: A. be slow in responding to situational cues B. be high on self-efficacy C. be high in self-esteem D. require little supervision Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 56 21. Positive affectivity is likely to be displayed by: A. persons with low self-efficacy B. low self-monitors C. persons with high anxiety D. internals, or those with an internal locus of control Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 54-55, 57-58 22. Managers who want to promote positive affectivity should: A. allow participative decision making and provide pleasant working conditions B. hire those with an external orientation C. reduce the anxiety in jobs D. give positive feedback in order to increase self-esteem Register to View Answereasy, appl., pg. 58 23. The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations refers to: A. locus of control B. self-esteem C. self-efficacy D. self-monitoring Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 56 24. When predicting behavior, an important idea to remember concerns the extent to which a situation overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing cues for appropriate behavior. This type of situation is called a: A. weak situation B. weak individual difference C. strong individual difference D. strong situation Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 58 Personality, Perception, and Attribution 30 Measuring Personality 25. A count of the times a student asks a question or makes a comment in an organizational behavior course is a/an: A. self-report measure of personality B. projective measure of personality C. example of the MMPI D. behavioral measure of personality Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 59 26. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: A. is a projective test B. provides direct indices of personality C. is administered as an inkblot test D. assesses a variety of traits Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 59 27. The most common method of assessing personality is the: A. projective test B. behavioral measurement through observation C. self-report questionnaire D. Rorschach ink blot test Register to View Answereasy, recall, pg. 59 28. A problem with the behavioral measure for personality would be: A. low reliability B. the fact self-report measures suffer from potential bias C. their tendency to be too long D. the observers ability to stay focused Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 59 A POPULAR APPLICATION OF PERSONALITY THEORY IN ORGANIZATIONS: THE MYERSBRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR 29. The MBTI is: A. a projective test that captures psychological disorders B. a way to identify human differences and similarities by separating behavioral tendencies or dispositions C. a self-report questionnaire designed to understand individual differences D. a direct index of personality Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 60 The Preferences 30. The basic preference in type theory which represents where you get your energy is the: A. extraversion/introversion preference B. sensing/intuiting preference C. thinking/feeling preference D. judging/perceiving preference Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 60 31 Chapter 3 31. According to the Jungian approach to personality, the basic preference that reflects what we pay attention to or how we prefer to gather information is: A. extraversion/introversion B. sensing/intuiting C. thinking/feeling D. judging/perceiving Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 61 32. Jung contended that the most important distinction between individuals was the: A. extravert/introvert preference B. sensing/intuiting preference C. thinking/feeling preference D. judging/perceiving preference Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 60 SOCIAL PERCEPTION 33. The process of interpreting information about another person is: A. high external control B. social perception C. encoding D. evaluation Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 64 34. The three major categories of factors that influence our perception of another person include: A. characteristics of ourselves, the target person, and the situation B. availability of information, the target person, and the situation C. recency of information, availability of information, and consistency of information D. characteristics of ourselves, the target person, and consistency of information Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 65 Characteristics of the Perceiver 35. The perceiver's pattern of thinking or manner in which they assemble and interpret information about another person is: A. the strength of situational cues B. cognitive structure C. self-concept D. attitude structuring Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 66 36. The ability of an individual to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attend to just a few traits is a function of their: A. attention span B. ability to focus C. cognitive weighting D. cognitive complexity Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 66 Personality, Perception, and Attribution 37. Which of the following is NOT an important characteristic of the perceiver that can affect social perception? A. attitude B. mood C. self-concept D. emotional stability Register to View Answermedium, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 66 38. All of the following are characteristics of the target of one's perceptions, EXCEPT: A. physical appearances B. oral communication C. nonverbal cues D. purpose and context of encounter or interaction Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 65 Characteristics of the Target 39. In an interview situation, the interviewer's first impression of the interviewee (or target) is likely to be based upon: A. nonverbal cues of the target B. verbal communication by the target C. the intentions of the target D. the target's physical appearance Register to View Answereasy, appl., pg. 66 40. All of the following are characteristics of the target which influence social perception EXCEPT: A. inferred intentions B. nonverbal communication C. verbal communication D. cognitive complexity Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 67 Characteristics of the Situation 41. In which of the following situations are situational cues and social context most formalized? A. job interview B. employee coaching session C. on-the-job instruction for new employees D. employee briefing at start of work shift Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 67 42. The discounting principle is a characteristic of the: A. situation B. perceiver C. target D. cognitive miser Register to View Answermedium, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 67 32 33 Chapter 3 43. When you encounter warm a and personable car salesperson and don't assume that this behavior reflects the salesperson's personality, you are using which principle in social perception? A. perceiver principle B. discounting principle C. cognitive bias principle D. social context principle Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 67-68 44. The social context and discounting principle are characteristics of the: A. perceiver B. target C. situation D. interaction Register to View Answermedium, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 67 Barriers to Social Perception 45. An employee who does not get along well with other employees but generates the most sales is evaluated only on sales performance. This is an example of: A. stereotyping B. the cognitive miser C. the self-fulfilling prophecy D. selective perception Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 68 46. A supervisor's high expectations of a new employee and the subsequent high performance of that employee is known as: A. impression management B. stereotyping C. perceptual bias D. self-fulfilling prophecy Register to View Answereasy, recall, pg. 70 47. The primacy effect is also known as: A. selective perception B. self-fulfilling prophecy C. first-impression error D. a stereotype Register to View Answereasy, recall, pg. 69 48. Assume you are an employment interviewer. An applicant's physical appearance could cause you to commit an incorrect hiring decision because of all of the following EXCEPT: A. stereotype B. selective perception C. first-impression error D. self-fulfilling prophecy Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 68-69 Personality, Perception, and Attribution 49. 34 Increasing workforce diversity is likely to reduce __________ as a barrier to social perception. A. the primacy effect B. first-impression error C. selective perception D. stereotyping Register to View Answerhard, synthesis & evaluation., pg. 68 Impression Management 50. In which of the following organizational situations is impression management more likely to occur? A. a supervisor disciplining an employee B. a job interview C. a meeting of the top management team D. an exit interview when an employee retires Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 70-71 51. Which of the following results regarding impression management and employment interviews has NOT been supported by research? A. Impression management is associated with higher interview performance. B. Impression management is associated with increasing the probability of a site visit. C. Impression management is associated with higher probabilities of getting hired. D. Impression management is associated with higher starting salaries. Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 70-71 ATTRIBUTIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS 52. Attribution theory helps to __________ behavior in organizations. A. measure B. explain causes of C. specify correct or appropriate D. observe Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 71 Internal and External Attributes 53. An achievement-oriented sales representative might attribute his failure to meet a monthly sales quota to: A. changing economic conditions B. a short list of prospects provided by the company C. a lack of effort D. a cutback in product advertising Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 71 54. Individuals who make external attributions will be more likely to: A. achieve higher levels of performance B. rarely quit because they do not feel responsible C. develop feelings of incompetence which may lead to depression D. provide a supporting environment for followers Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 71 35 Chapter 3 55. When you attribute the performance in this class to the type of exams and their relative difficulty, you are making what type of attribution? A. internal B. external C. ability D. luck Register to View Answereasy, appl., pg. 71 56. Achievement-oriented individuals attribute their success to: A. a combination of hard work and ability B. ability C. hard work D. hard work and task difficulty Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 71 57. Achievement-oriented individual attribute their failures to: A. bad luck B. a combination of bad luck and a difficult task C. lack of effort D. lack of effort and a difficult task Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 71 58. Research shows that successful candidates make: A. less attributions than unsuccessful candidates B. more external attributions than unsuccessful candidates C. more internal attributions for negative events D. less internal attributions for negative events Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 72 Attributional Biases 59. When a student attributes a high test grade to his or her diligent study habits and a low grade to the instructor's poorly worded questions, the student is displaying: A. the fundamental attribution error B. the consensus error C. the acceptance error D. self-serving bias Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 72 60. Attributional biases implies that managers must: A. always be correct in their perceptions B. be very wary of the cognitive process in decision making C. know as much as possible about individual differences and determine the cause of behavior and perceived source of responsibility D. take into account the fundamental tendency for people to make external attributions for their behavior Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 73 Personality, Perception, and Attribution 61. The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavior is: A. remedied by the discounting principle B. known as the fundamental attribution error C. not related to cultural predispositions D. known as the fundamental cognitive error Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 72 62. When a manager makes the attribution that an employee's lack of effort or ability is the basis for poor performance, they are probably making an error called: A. fundamental attribution B. self-serving bias C. discounting attribution D. consistency attributions Register to View Answereasy, appl., pg. 72 63. A person from India would be more likely than someone from China to: A. make an internal attribution B. make a self serving bias error C. make a fundamental attribution error D. make an external attribution Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 73 TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS 1. Personality is defined as a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior. Register to View Answerpg. 52 2. Heredity has been found NOT to be a determinant of personality. Register to View Answerpg. 52 3. Psychodynamic theory, based on the work of Freud, emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior. Register to View Answerpg. 52 4. The integrative approach to personality-emphasized individual growth and improvement. Register to View Answerpg. 54 5. Persons with high self-esteem and internal locus of control tend to be higher performers and are more satisfied with their jobs. Register to View Answerpg. 54-55 6. High self-monitors can adjust their behavior to fit the situation. Register to View Answerpg. 56 7. The affectivity of individuals can impact group affect either positively or negatively. Register to View Answerpg. 57-58 8. The most common method of assessing personality is through projective testing. Register to View Answerpg. 59 36 37 Chapter 3 9. According to MBTI research, artists and executives are extroverts. Register to View Answerpg. 60 10. The Pygmalion effect usually is associated with reduced output. Register to View Answerpg. 69-70 11. High achievers are more likely to attribute their success to others and good luck. Register to View Answerpg. 71 MATCHING QUESTIONS 1. Self-Esteem A. Freudian psychology emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior. Dispositions B. A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences one's behavior. Personality C. Behavior is a function of the person and his or her environment. Psychodynamic Theory D. Tendencies of persons to respond to situations in consistent ways. Interactional Psychology E. A person's general feeling of self-worth. Register to View AnswerD, B, A, C 2. Affectivity A. An approach to personality that emphasizes individual growth and improvement. Self-Monitoring B. One's generalized belief about situational and self-control. Humanism C. When focusing on one's behavior the tendency to internal attributions for successes and external attributions for failures. Locus of Control D. The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from others and the situation. Self-Serving Bias E. Positive and negative mood dispositions at work. Register to View AnswerD, A, B, C Personality, Perception, and Attribution 3. 38 MBTI A. A widely used self-report questionnaire that assesses a variety of psychological disorders. Behavioral Measures B. A projective test or measure of personality. Carl Jung C. A popular instrument based on Jungian personality theory. Rorschach D. He or she suggested that human similarities and differences could be understood by combining preferences. Carl Rogers E. Direct indices of personality. MMPI F. He or she suggested that people have a basic drive toward self-actualization. Register to View AnswerE, D B, F, A 4. Extravert A. Likes closure. Perceiver B. Logical decision maker. Sensor C. Energized by interaction with others. Judger D. Pays attention to data gathered through physical senses. Thinker E. Prefers a flexible, more spontaneous life. Register to View AnswerE, D, A, B 5. Projection A. Facial expressions, body posture, and eye movement. Pygmalion Effect B. A generalization about a particular group of people. First Impression C. The false consensus effect. Nonverbal Communication D. A view of another person based on first encounter. Stereotype E. Expectations of others affects our interactions with them. Register to View AnswerE, D, A, B 39 Chapter 3 ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. The basis for understanding individual differences stems from Lewin's early contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment. This idea has been developed by the interactional psychology approach to personality. Briefly explain the basic propositions of this approach. ANSWER: The four propositions include (1) behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation; (2) the person is active in this process and both is changed by situations and changes situations; (3) people vary in many characteristics, including cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors; and (4) two interpretations of situations are important: the objective situation and the person's subjective view of the situation. (pg. 51-52) 2. Compare and contrast the trait and psychodynamic theories of personality. ANSWER: Trait theory argues that behavior can be best understood by focusing on traits or characteristics of personality such as aggressiveness, assertiveness, dominance, agreeableness, and many others. Freudian, or psychodynamic, theory emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior. Freud presented personality as the interaction of the id, ego, and superego. The id represents uncensored drives and impulses while the superego contains values and ethical standards. The ego serves to mediate conflict between the id and superego. (pg. 52-54) 3. Using the five personality characteristics identified in the chapter as important for understanding organizational behavior, describe an individual who would most likely be a strong performer. ANSWER: An internal locus of control, high self-esteem, high self-efficacy, moderate-to-high selfmonitoring, and positive affectivity are likely to be displayed by a high performer. (pg. 54-58) 4. Identify and explain barriers to social perception. ANSWER: Stereotyping stems from generalizing about a group of people. Selective perception involves using only information that supports one's preconceived view of someone. One's initial interaction with another may lead to an incorrect conclusion or first-impression error. Pet theories one has of behavior may produce inaccurate perception. A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs in a situation where one's expectations about people affect interaction with them in such a way that expectations are fulfilled. (pg. 68-70) 5. How could a manager use self-fulfilling prophecies to improve a work group? ANSWER: If a supervisor is told that a work group contains individuals with high achievement potential, this information may get translated into high expectations of the supervisor and he/she may set high goals and objectives for the group (that is, higher goals and objectives than would otherwise be set). With high expectations and goals, group members may respond with unusually strong effort and meet the high goals and objectives. (pg. 70)
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