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Course: BME 214614, Fall 2010

School: SUNY Empire State

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CHAPTER 10 POWER AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE THE CONCEPT OF POWER 1. The legitimacy inherent in one's job is __________, whereas the ability to influence someone else is __________. A. power; authority B. influence; authority C. authority; power D. power; control ANSWER: C, medium, K&C, pg. 231 2. If a person can affect the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person, she has: A....

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10 POWER CHAPTER AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE THE CONCEPT OF POWER 1. The legitimacy inherent in one's job is __________, whereas the ability to influence someone else is __________. A. power; authority B. influence; authority C. authority; power D. power; control Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 231 2. If a person can affect the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person, she has: A. influence B. power C. authority D. dominance Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 231 3. In a subordinate role, you may have __________ over your boss. A. authority B. command C. power D. influence Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 231 4. If a manager asks an employee to purchase a gift for his wife, the employee would think this request: A. falls within his zone of indifference B. falls outside his zone of indifference C. should be based on the managers authority base D. is in conflict with the employees value system Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 231 5. Enlarging an employees zone of indifference is accomplished by: A. the use of authority B. the use of power C. the use of effective communication techniques D. eliminating cognitive dissonance Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 231 6. The range in which attempts to influence the employee are perceived as legitimate and are acted on without a great deal of thought is known as: A. the principal/agent relationship B. agency theory C. the zone of indifference D. congruency 122 123 Chapter 10 Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 231 FORMS AND SOURCES OF POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS Interpersonal Forms of Power 7. As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on ___________ power. A. reward B. legitimate C. referent D. expert Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 232 8. Assume you are a senior accounting major. A friend who is taking a Principles of Accounting course seeks you out for tutorial assistance. This is an example of __________ power. A. reward B. expert C. referent D. legitimate Register to View Answereasy, appl., pg. 232 9. The power base of the future will likely be: A. reward B. legitimate C. referent D. expert Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 233 10. As a student, you are developing __________ power. A. legitimate B. expert C. reward D. personal Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 232 Using Power Ethically 11. Your authors suggest the addition of another source of power to French and Ravens five sources of power. Which of the following best reflects this additional source of power? A. network centrality B. position power C. gatekeepers power D. information power Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 233 Power and Political Behavior 12. An important aspect of a manager's exercise of reward power in the determination of employee salary increases is: A. individual rights B. utilitarian outcomes C. distributive justice D. procedural justice Register to View Answerhard, analysis, pg. 235 13. To use power ethically a manager should examine the behavior by asking three questions regarding criterion outcomes of: A. procedural justice, utilitarian, and individual rights B. procedural justice, utilitarian, and distributive justice C. distributive justice, utilitarian, and individual rights D. procedural justice, distributive justice, and individual rights Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 235 14. Granting a day of vacation to one employee in a busy week when coworkers must struggle to cover for them would be considered unethical under which of the following criterions? A. distributive justice B. individual rights C. utilitarian outcome D. procedural justice Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 235 15. 124 If a salesperson significantly discounted the price of a product in order to make a sale that would win a contest, the salesperson would be most likely to breach which of the following ethical principles? A. utilitarian principle B. distributive justice C. individual rights D. procedural justice Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 235 Two Faces of Power: One Positive, One Negative 16. A manager who withholds information to make another manager look bad by making an incorrect decision is displaying _________ power. A. reward B. coercive C. social D. personal Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 235 17. A manager who is considered Machiavellian would rely on what type of power? A. social B. reward C. personal D. referent Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 235 125 Chapter 10 18. Which of the following is NOT a positive power-oriented characteristic according to McClelland? A. Explain just enough to pacify employees sufficiently so they won't ask questions. B. Publicly put the company and its needs before one's own needs. C. A strong belief is justice. D. Comfortable influencing and being influenced. Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 235 19. McClelland's two faces of power include: A. coercive and social B. legitimate and personal C. personal and social D. legitimate and social Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 235-236 20. McClelland's positive face of power is: A. social power B. personal power C. expert power D. referent power Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 236 21. According to McClelland, when a manager treats others as objects to be utilized to get ahead, or views situations as winlose, the manager is using which form of power? A. personal power B. social power C. legitimate power D. expert power Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 235 Intergroup Sources of Power 22. When a firm is preparing for bankruptcy, the accountants as a group may become unduly powerful because of: A. high centrality B. their nonsubstitutability C. operational knowledge of the firm D. their ability to better cope with change Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 237 23. According to the strategic contingency perspective, which one of the following factors is NOT a primary factor used to explain differences in power between departments? A. amount of formal authority given departments B. nonsubstitutability of the groups function C. degree of centrality D. ability to cope with uncertainty Register to View Answereasy, analysis, pg. 237 Power and Political Behavior 24. 126 The key element behind the factors used to explain power differences between groups based on the strategic contingency model is: A. interdependency B. synergy C. independence D. dependence Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 237 POWER ANALYSIS: A BROADER VIEW 25. In terms of Etzioni's power analysis, a college or university would exhibit __________ power and __________ membership. A. coercive; alienative B. utilitarian; calculative C. normative; moral D. legitimate; involuntary Register to View Answerhard, appl., pg. 237-238 26. As a supervisor, you will most likely exercise __________ power in an employee disciplinary situation. A. referent B. normative C. coercive D. personal Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 237 27. The most controversial characteristic of Etzioni's sociological orientation to power is: A. the argument that you should match the type of organizational power to the type of membership in order to achieve congruence B. the three types of organizational power C. the three types of organizational involvement D. the contention that a single type of power is appropriate in any organization. Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 238 28. The three types of organizational power in Etzioni'a power analysis include: A. coercive, normative, and distributive B. normative, distributive, and utilitarian C. expert, normative, and utilitarian D. utilitarian, coercive, and normative Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 237 29. Etzioni's analysis of power includes all of the following types of membership EXCEPT: A. alienative membership B. moral membership C. calculative membership D. inclusive membership Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 238 127 Chapter 10 30. According to Etzioni and his power analysis based on congruence between types of power and type of membership, a business partnership where each partner weighs the benefits from the partnership against the costs entailed in the contractual arrangement would most likely use: A. coercive power B. social power C. personal power D. utilitarian power Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 238 31. In an organization where members have a strong positive feeling about the particular cause, purpose, or goal of the organization, the most appropriate form of power according to Etzioni would be: A. normative power B. social power C. referent power D. coercive power Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 238 SYMBOLS OF POWER Kanter's Symbols of Power 32. Kanter's focus on power is in terms of one's: A. inclination to be coercive B. ability to exercise power and do things for others, particularly persons in need C. expertise in accomplishing job tasks and reaching production objectives D. charisma and liking by others Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 239 Kanter's Symbols of Powerlessness 33. According the Kanter's perspective on power, the key to overcoming powerlessness in organizations is to: A. delegate tasks and share power B. recruit strong willed individuals C. identify strategic contingencies and reduce uncertainty D. develop relationships with individuals within the organization that have influence Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 240 34. Which of the following is a symptom of powerlessness at the first line supervisory level? A. overly close supervision B. resistance to change C. protecting your turf D. punishing others Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 239 Power and Political Behavior 128 Korda's Symbols of Power 35. An individual who seems to always have a full calendar and is frequently going to meetings displays __________, according to Korda. A. top-down power B. expert power C. legitimate power D. time power Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 240 36. Whose perspective on power is best captured by the statement, "There are more people who inconvenience themselves on your behalf than there are people on whose behalf you would inconvenience yourself."? A. Kantor B. Etzioni C. McClelland D. Korda Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 240 37. According to Michael Korda's view on power which emphasizes symbols of power, which of the following are the three unusual symbols used to explain power differences between individuals? A. level of organization, time power, and standing by B. size of office, time power, and level of organization C. office furnishings, time power, and standing by D. office furnishings, size of office, and time power Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 240 38. Kordas symbols of power focus on status or: A. the ability to help others B. a persons relative standing in a group based on prestige and having other people defer to him or her C. the access to information D. position within the hierarchy Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 240 POLITICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS 39. All of the following are conditions within an organization that can encourage unnecessary political behavior EXCEPT: A. ambiguous lines of authority B. unclear goals C. well-defined and understood problems D. uncertainty Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 241 40. The use of power and influence in organizations is referred to as: A. manipulative B. negative C. organizational politics D. an alternative to authority Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 240 41. Actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one's personal goals is called: 129 Chapter 10 A. coercion B. illegitimate power C. utilitarian power D. political behavior Register to View Answereasy, K&C, pg. 241 Influence Tactics 42. Research on influence tactics indicates that __________ tactics are least used. A. coalition B. pressure C. exchange D. ingratiation Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 241 43. Evidence indicates that the influence tactic which has the most positive effect on supervisors' assessments of promotability is: A. upward appeal B. ingratiation C. rational persuasion D. consultation Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 243 44. The least effective influence tactic, regardless of the circumstance of the situation, involves: A. consultation B. upward appeals C. pressure D. ingratiation Register to View Answerhard, K&C, pg. 243 45. Research has shown that four tactics are used most frequently regardless of the target of the influence attempt. Which of the following is NOT one of the four tactics used most frequently? A. exchange B. inspirational appeals C. ingratiation D. consultation ANSWER: medium, A, K&C, pg. 241 46. When both men and women witness political behavior and the agent is of their gender and the target is of the opposite gender, evidence suggests: A. women will view the political behavior more negatively than men B. men will view the political behavior more negatively them women C. men and women will view the political behavior as negative D. men and women will view the political behavior more positively Register to View Answerhard, analysis, pg. 243 Power and Political Behavior 130 47. Which of the following influence tactics would likely have the most negative effect in your attempt to influence a decision with respect to promotability? A. pressure B. consultation C. inspirational appeal D. ingratiation Register to View Answerhard, analysis, pg. 243 48. The textbook suggested that there were three ways a manager can use influence tactics well or in a positive manner. Which of the following is NOT one of the key ways to positively use influence? A. maintain open lines of communication in all directions B. treat targets with basic respect C. use job-related tactics D. direct influence attempts toward organizational goals Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 244 Managing Political Behavior in Organizations 49. Which of the following is least likely to minimize the negative aspects of organizational politics? A. encourage participative management B. disregard the informal organization C. clarify goals and performance objectives D. maintain open communication channels Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 244 MANAGING UP: MANAGING THE BOSS 50. You have a new boss, someone hired from outside the firm. He has several years of managerial experience in the industry of your firm, but, of course he doesn't have specific knowledge of operational matters for your firm. If you want to develop an effective work relationship with him, you should: A. provide information on performance deficiencies in the organization B. share information and keep him informed C. limit his time with other employees D. try to encourage a better match between his management style and those being supervised Register to View Answermedium, appl., pg. 246-247 51. Which of the following is NOT included in the set of activities discussed in your text on how to manage the relationship with your boss? A. Assess yourself and your needs. B. Assess the needs of the organization as they relate to customers or the external/market environment. C. Develop and maintain a relationship that is based on dependability and honesty. D. Make sure you understand your boss and her context. Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 245 SHARING POWER: EMPOWERMENT 52. All of the following are guidelines for implementing an empowerment program EXCEPT: A. create opportunities for employees to participate in significant problem solving B. remove tight controls C. allow failure and offer constructive criticism D. set modest goals Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 249-250 131 Chapter 10 53. Which of the following set of dimensions comprise the essence of empowerment? A. teamwork, delegation, trust, and autonomy B. meaning, teamwork, competence, and trust C. delegation, trust, competence, and autonomy D. meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact Register to View Answerhard, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 247 54. An employee empowerment attempt would be least appropriate in a: A. quality control lab B. bank C. hospital D. prison Register to View Answereasy, appl., pg. 247 55. The term meaning with respect to the essence of empowerment refers to: A. the fit between the work role and employees values and beliefs B. the belief that one has the ability to do the job well C. the belief that one's job makes a difference within the organization D. the degree one has control over the way one does his or her work Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 248-249 56. The organizational rewards sought from using all four of the empowerment dimensions discussed in your text include: A. increased effectiveness, efficiency, and higher job satisfaction B. lower turnover, less absenteeism, and higher job satisfaction C. higher organizational commitment, increased effectiveness, and efficiency D. increased effectiveness, less stress, and higher job satisfaction Register to View Answerhard, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 249 57. Empowerment can be thought about as being related to which two job dimensions? A. job content and job variety B. job autonomy and job variety C. job context and job variety D. job content and job context Register to View Answereasy, K&C, 250 58. The critical factor that increases empowerment in relation to the critical job dimensions is: A. involvement in the decision-making process B. self-management. C. mission defining D. motivation of accept responsibility Register to View Answermedium, K&C, pg. 250-251 59. Self-management or the highest level of empowerment represents: A. decision-making control over job content and job context B. shared decision making over job context C. shared decision making over job content D. decision-making control over internal critical psychological processes as they relate to the job Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 251 Power and Political Behavior 60. 132 If an employee has problem identification decision-making authority over job content and job context, the position on the employee empowerment grid is best reflected by: A. mission definition B. participatory empowerment C. task setting D. self-management Register to View Answermedium, analysis, pg. 251 TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS 1. Your boss asks that you buy a birthday present for his wife while you are on your lunch hour because he doesn't have time. This probably falls within your zone of indifference. Register to View Answerpg. 231 2. Authority is legitimate power. Register to View Answerpg. 231 3. A police officer exercises both legitimate and coercive power when she subdues a criminal. Register to View Answerpg. 232 4. When a supervisor denies your request to be considered for a job transfer because you have a unique expertise, he is exercising expert power. Register to View Answerpg. 232 5. Referent power is linked with organizational effectiveness. Register to View Answerpg. 233 6. Expert power has the strongest relationship with performance and satisfaction in comparison to the other forms of power. Register to View Answerpg. 233 7. The positive face of power is social power. Register to View Answerpg. 236 8. McClelland states that when power is used for the good of the group, rather than for individual gain, it reflects a positive face. Register to View Answerpg. 236 9. Groups have power to the extent that they control strategic contingencies. Register to View Answerpg. 236 10. The strategic contingency model suggests that groups will have more power when their functioning is central to the organization's success. Register to View Answerpg. 237 11. Groups seen as powerful tend to be given more resources from top management. Register to View Answerpg. 236 12. A manager who makes external attributions for negative events looks like he or she has no power. Register to View Answerpg. 240 133 Chapter 10 13. While Kanters symbols focus on the ability to help others, Kordas symbols focus on status. Register to View Answerpg. 240 14. Political behavior is actions officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one's personal goals. Register to View Answer241 15. Authority is exercised downward throughout the organization, whereas influence is exercised upward within the organization. Register to View Answerpg. 241 16. Mission defining is an unusual case of empowerment and is seldom seen. Register to View Answerpg. 251 17. Empowerment should begin with job content and proceed to job context. Register to View Answerpg. 251 18. When you delegate responsibility and authority, you must be prepared to allow employees to fail. Register to View Answerpg. 251 MATCHING QUESTIONS 1. Authority A. Legitimate power. Expert Power B. Area within which one accepts authority and influence. Referent Power C. The process of affecting thoughts and behavior of others. Zone of Indifference D. Power based on interpersonal attraction. Influence E. Power based on knowledge. Register to View AnswerE, D, B, C 2. Personal Power A. A good result for the individual and the organization. Strategic Contingencies B. Equitable allocation of resources. Social Power C. Power used for personal gain. Utilitarian Outcome D. Activities that other groups depend on in order to complete their tasks. Distributive Justice E. Power used to create motivation or accomplish group goals. Register to View AnswerD, E, A, B Power and Political Behavior 3. Alienative Membership A. Influence based on threats to punish or through fear intimidation. Powerlessness B. Individuals evaluate the benefits and limitations of belonging to an organization. Coercive Power C. Type of organizational membership in a coercive power situation. Normative Power D. The type of power found in a religious organization. Calculative Membership 134 E. A lack of power. Register to View AnswerE, A, D, B 4. Political Behavior A. The use of power and influence in organizations. Coalition B. Belief that one has the ability to do the job well. Organizational Politics C. Actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet ones personal goals. Rational Persuasion D. Whipsawing or using others to persuade. Competence E. Logical argument and factual information used to influence. Register to View AnswerD, A, E, B 5. Pressure A. Total decision-making control over both job content and job context. Empowerment B. Seeking someone else's participation in making a decision. Self-Management C. Delegation and sharing of power. Ingratiation D. Usually a negative tactic. Consultation E. Issuing praise to someone who is a target of influence attempt. Register to View AnswerC, A, E, B ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Distinguish between power, authority, and influence. ANSWER: Power is the ability to influence of another person. Authority is legitimate power or the right to influence another person. Influence is the process of affecting the thoughts and behavior of someone else. (pg. 231) 135 Chapter 10 2. What types of power in the French-Raven model correspond to the types of power in McClelland's view of power? ANSWER: McClelland's definition of personal power corresponds some with the coercive power of French and Raven. Social power as defined by McClelland corresponds to legitimate, referent, and expert power of French and Raven. McClelland's personal power tends to be negative and his social power is viewed as positive for the organization and its employees. (pg. 232-236) 3. How does a college or university fit into Etzioni's typology of power? ANSWER: Little, if any, coercive power is exercised in a college. Utilitarian power is most commonly found along with normative power. Students attend based on their own free will but rewards and benefits are issued according to their ability to meet performance expectations. The college environment is not hostile and therefore does not alienate students. Students weigh the benefits of hard work and preparation and decide the amount of effort necessary to be academically successful. Generally, students will view the college positively and develop loyalty toward the college that may last a lifetime. (pg. 237-238) 4. What are some of the symbols of power found in many business organizations? ANSWER: Signature authority, private office, reserved parking space, corner office, personal secretary, expense account, setting the meeting agenda, and advanced copies of important documents are symbols of power. These symbols are obvious in some organizations, and in others, they are deliberately minimized in order to lessen the negative aspects of status and power differences. (pg. 239-240) 5. Why is organizational political behavior important to study and understand? ANSWER: All organizations exhibit political behavior; it is obvious in some organizations and not visible in others. Organizational politics concerns the use of power and influence in organizations. Power and influence tactics can be beneficial to the organization and its members, as well as produce negative consequences. Positive influence tactics can facilitate decision making whereas negative influence tactics (pressure, for example) can alienate and discourage employees. If the organization benefits from one's influence, then many, maybe all, within the organization gain or experience positive outcomes. (pg. 240245)
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