Chapter 07
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Chapter 07

Course Number: ECONOMIC 101, Spring 2011

College/University: Academy of Art University

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Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages True/False Questions 1. Negative messages are received more positively when presented directly followed by convincing explanation. Answer: True Page: 164 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Most people accept bad news when they know why it must be so. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 2. It is logical to write bad news messages directly when the message will be received...

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7 Chapter Indirectness in Bad-News Messages True/False Questions 1. Negative messages are received more positively when presented directly followed by convincing explanation. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Most people accept bad news when they know why it must be so. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 2. It is logical to write bad news messages directly when the message will be received routinely. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: In such situations, the reader is not offended by directness. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 3. When you know your reader well and think he or she will appreciate frankness, it is appropriate to present bad news directly. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: As explained on page 164, directness is logical in such cases. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 4. A good strategic buffer for messages presenting negative news identifies the subject of the message and indicates the nature of the following news. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: It should not indicate that bad news is coming. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 5. One useful technique in writing a bad-news message is to present your reasoning in first and third person. Register to View AnswerPage: 165 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: By avoiding second person writing one does not appear to accuse the reader of wrongdoing. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 67 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 6. Situations exist in which it is acceptable to write a refusal in the direct order. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: As discussed on p.164, when the message is routine or when relationships between writer and reader justify it, the direct order is appropriate. Learning Objective: 1, 3 AACSB Standard: 1 7. Cushioning the shock in a bad-news message with an explanation makes the message too long; thus it is inconsistent with the practice of good business etiquette. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Most bad-news situations are appropriately handled with an explanation preceding the bade news. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 8. The best strategy for diplomatically handling a refusal in a message is to explain first and then to refuse. Register to View AnswerPage: 166 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: See discussion of this order in chapter 7. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 9. In a message refusing a request because of company policy, the explanation needs only to state the company policy. Register to View AnswerPage: 166 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Stating a policy is not enough. For conviction to occur, the policy must be justified. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 10. The opening words in a refusal message should indicate clearly that you are responding to the request. Register to View AnswerPage: 166 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: This is one of the three requirements of the opening of this message. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 11. Because your objective in a refusal message is to refuse, the refusal deserves emphasis by space and position. Register to View AnswerPage: 166-167 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: It is negative and should be subordinated. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 68 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 12. Although a refusal is negative, it is possible to refuse without using a single negative word. Register to View AnswerPage: 167 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Refusals can be covered in positive wordings. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 13. Preceding a refusal with an apology (such as "I deeply regret that . . .") is a positive way of handling refusals. Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Such apologies produce negative effects. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 14. The following sentence illustrates how one can refuse a discount without using a negative word: "We can grant a discount only when payment is received within 10 days after payment is due." Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Saying what can be done rather than what cannot be done is one positive way of handling a refusal. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 15. If a refusal must be made because of company policy, the writer should justify the policy in the explanation. Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Justification of the policy is needed for best results. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 16. In a message refusing a request, no mention should be made of the message being answered. Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: This reference is important. Learning Objective: 1, 3 AACSB Standard: 1 17. Because claim (adjustment-request) messages logically are written in the direct order, refusals of them also should follow the direct order. Register to View AnswerPage: 172-73 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: This bad news message is received better when written in the indirect order. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 69 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 18. In an adjustment-refusal message, it is a good strategy to acknowledge the readers message. Register to View AnswerPage: 172 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Giving away the decision would defeat the strategy. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 19. In refusing an adjustment, one should avoid questioning the reader's sincerity or honesty. Register to View AnswerPage: 172-73 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Such an approach would be highly destructive of goodwill. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 20. It is good strategy in messages refusing claims to end with a skillfully worded reminder of the situation that caused the claim. Register to View AnswerPage: 173 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: For the best goodwill effect, the close should be off-subject and friendly. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 21. Because the reader is wrong, a message refusing to make an adjustment usually is handled best in the direct order. Register to View AnswerPage: 171-73 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: The reader's goodwill is important; thus indirectness is most appropriate. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 22. Your objective in the opening sentence of a message refusing an adjustment is to state the reason for your refusal. Register to View AnswerPage: 172 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Tactful wording involving the careful choice of positive language is necessary for most convincing results. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 23. In a message refusing credit you should proceed directly to the objective, for you are not interested in the reader's goodwill or business. Register to View AnswerPage: 176-79 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: You still should seek the reader's cash business, and he or she may be worthy of credit later. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 70 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 24. In a message refusing credit to one with bad character, it is best to tell the reader directly why you are refusing. Register to View AnswerPage: 176 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Even bad moral risks react emotionally to such blunt treatment. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 25. A credit-refusal message to one with a weak capital position can talk somewhat directly about the reason for refusal. Register to View AnswerPage: 177 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Weak capital is not a reflection on character and can be discussed frankly. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 26. In most credit-refusal messages, it is wise strategy to hold out the hope for a credit extension in the future. Register to View AnswerPage: 176 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Credit worthiness can change over time. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 27. In refusing a request for credit accompanied by an order, the message appropriately may begin with a reference to the order. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: This is one good possibility. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 28. A message refusing credit for bad character reasons needs to explain the reason in detail, for the reason is of vital importance to the reader. Register to View AnswerPage: 176 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: It is best handled somewhat indirectly and by implication. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 29. Because businesslike directness is desired in handling credit refusals by mail or email, the message should begin with a courteous statement of refusal. Register to View AnswerPage: 175-179 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Because credit refusals are bad news, they are best handled in the indirect order. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 71 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 30. A good choice of ending subject matter for a credit-refusal message is a suggestion of cash buying. Register to View AnswerPage: 179 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: This form of goodwill talk, if skillfully handled, can lead to profitable business relations. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 31. Because they cover the primary goal of the message refusing credit, the words carrying the refusal should be placed in a position of major emphasis. Register to View AnswerPage: 178-79 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: The refusal words should be subordinated by position. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 32. In contrast with other negative messages, all negative announcements should be direct and to the point. Register to View AnswerPage: 182 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: They may be direct or indirect, although the indirect approach usually is better.. Learning Objective: 6 AACSB Standard: 1 33. Acceptable strategy in writing a negative announcement is to begin with talk focusing on the good relationship that you and the reader have developed.. Register to View AnswerPage: 182 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: This strategy is a good way to set up the explanation. Learning Objective: 6 AACSB Standard: 1 34. If a negative announcement creates a problem for the reader, it is better not to discuss how to solve it.. Register to View AnswerPage: 184 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: This is one of the good things one can do to make the reader feel better. Learning Objective: 6 AACSB Standard: 1 72 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages Multiple Choice Questions 35. Mark the best of these sentences in the negative news part of a message declining to accept the return of a product. A) State law prohibits us from returning all such products to stock. B) Since you have broken the seal, state law prohibits us from returning the product to stock. C) You made the mistake of breaking the products seal, which prohibits us from returning the product to stock. D) If you had not broken the seal, we could return the product to stock. E) We can understand why you broke the seal, but this action prohibits us from returning the product to stock. Register to View AnswerPage: 165 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Presenting reasoning in the first and third person (not second) is one good technique. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 36. Mark the best description of the opening of a message refusing a request. A) A statement indicating receipt of the preceding message B) A direct answer to the request C) An on-subject comment that is neutral as to answers D) A review of the preceding communications E) A thank you for the inquiry Register to View AnswerPage: 166-167 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Only this one meets the requirements of setting up the explanation, remaining and neutral, making contact. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 37. Mark the beginning of the clearest and most positive wording of the refusal in a message turning down a request. A) I am sorry to inform you that . . . . B) I must refuse your request for . . . . C) Your request cannot be considered favorably . . . . D) These facts clearly show that your request cannot . . . . E) The best we can do at this time is to . . . . Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Only this one contains no negatives. Obviously, it introduces a compromise, thereby telling what can be done while implying what cannot be done. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 73 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 38. Which one of the following topics normally would be the most inappropriate for the close of a message refusing a request? A) Sincere wishes for the reader's future success B) Some helpful comment or suggestion C) An expression of interest in the reader's activities D) An apology for not being able to help E) A suggestion of a counter-proposal Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Only this one is negative and thus is inappropriate for a goodwill close. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 39. Mark the best of five beginnings of a message refusing an adjustment on an electric mixer. A) Thank you for your message telling us about your problems with your Mix-Well. B) Yes, you should not have experienced problems with your Mix-Well. C) You are right about expecting your Mix-Well to stand up under normal kitchen use. D) Your message of the 16th has been received and referred to me for attention. E) I am pleased to have your message of the 16th. Register to View AnswerPage: 172 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Two answers have negative references; two answers do little to set up an explanation and, in fact, say little or nothing that builds the strategy. The correct answer makes a positive contact with the reader and sets up reasoning. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 40. In an adjustment-refusal message, the best place to state the refusal is: A) early in the opening sentence so as not to tantalize the reader. B) immediately following the explanation that justifies it. C) at the end of the message following detailed supporting reasons. D) at the beginning of the last paragraph following supporting reasons. E) at the end of the first paragraph following introduction of the situation. Register to View AnswerPage: 172-173 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: The refusal should come as a logical outgrowth of the reasoning. It should not be placed in an emphasis position. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 74 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 41. The most appropriate ending of a message refusing an important request would be: A) a final reminder of the main reason for the refusal. B) a sincere expression of regret. C) a reader-advantage transition. D) specially adapted goodwill talk. E) an apology for any inconvenience caused. Register to View AnswerPage: 164 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Specially adapted goodwill talk constitutes the close. Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 42. Which of these sentences forms the best beginning of a message refusing a request for free use of equipment for a charity? A) We have received your January 11 message requesting to use our duplicating equipment. B) Your kind message of January 11 has been given to me for attention. C) We deeply regret that our duplication equipment cannot be loaned at this time. D) Your fund-raising plans are most commendable and deserve all the cooperation we are able to give. E) Although we would like to grant your January 11 request, we are not able to at this time. Register to View AnswerPage: 166-168 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Only this one is the neutral beginning setting up an explanation. Two are obvious statements, and two are negative and indirect. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 43. Choose the most appropriate of these wordings handling the refusal of a request. A) We cannot permit . . . . B) Although we'd like to, we cannot permit . . . . C) For these reasons, the best we can do is to . . . . D) We deeply regret to inform . . . . E) We are sorry to say that . . . . Register to View AnswerPage: 167 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Only this wording contains no negative wording. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 75 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 44. Which of these subject-line wordings is best for a message refusing to make an adjustment? A) Refusal of your July 7 claim B) Why your July 7 claim is not justified C) The facts concerning our request for adjustment D) Your recent request for adjustment E) Your July 7 request for adjustment Register to View AnswerPage: 172-173 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Only this one is neutral and makes a specific reference to the date of the message being answered. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 45. Which of these is the best wording of the refusal in a refused-request (adjustment) message? A) The best we can do is . . . . B) It would be better if . . . . C) We must refuse . . . . D) I regret to inform you . . . . E) These facts clearly support the policy of . . . . Register to View AnswerPage: 167 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: These are similar to text examples in chapter 6. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 46. Mark the best of five closing sentences for a message refusing to participate as a speaker on a program. A) I wish you a most successful meeting. B) May I say again that I regret that I must refuse. C) I sincerely hope that you understand why I make this decision. D) Perhaps next time I will not have to refuse. E) Please forgive me this time. Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Difficulty: Easy Rationale: Only this one has the off-subject, goodwill quality needed. The others bring negative reminders to the reader's mind. Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 1 76 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 47. Mark the sentence that most appropriately presents a reason supporting the refusal of a claim for adjustment. A) Our contract, signed by you, clearly denies our liability in this case. B) If you had read our contract, you would know that liability is not ours. C) Paragraph 2 of our contract clearly shows that your claim is without foundation. D) As noted in paragraph 2 of our contract, we are liable only when our personnel install the equipment. E) That your claim is not valid is clearly explained in paragraph 2 of our contract. Register to View AnswerPage: 172-173 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Only this sentence meets the requirement of positive language. Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 48. Credit-refusal messages have much in common with other refusal messages, but they tend to be more "touchy" than the rest primarily because they: A) deal with more money. B) reflect on the applicant's character. C) deal with dishonest people. D) deal with more sophisticated readers. E) deal with people who don't understand the ways of business. Register to View AnswerPage: 175-176 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: Credit is tied in with one's integrity. A refusal is likely to bring about strong feelings. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 49. Mark the best of five sentence beginnings carrying the refusal in a credit-refusal message. A) We should like to grant your request but we must decline . . . B) In review of these considerations the best we can do for you at this time . . . . C) Although we should like to, we are sorry to say that . . . . D) You will understand how sorry we are to refuse . . . . E) It is with genuine regret that I must refuse . . . . Register to View AnswerPage: 176-178 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Only this one is without negative words. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 77 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 50. In a message refusing to grant credit, the best place to state the refusal would be: A) in an interest-catching opening. B) after any compromise suggestion that might be made. C) after explanation of the basis of the refusal. D) in the middle of the opening buffer paragraph. E) at the beginning of the second paragraph. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: The refusal follows the justification. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 51. Mark the best of five sentences denying credit to a bad moral risk. A) You will understand, I am sure, why we grant credit only to good moral risks. B) As your credit report indicates that cash buying would be best in this case, may we suggest that you take advantage of our special December discounts. C) Your long record of nonpayment makes it imperative that we ask you to buy for cash only. D) You will have to buy for cash, for your record does not justify credit. E) I am sorry to report that we must decline your request for credit. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Only this sentence handles the refusal without negative words or implications. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 52. Indicate the best opening sentence to a message refusing a request for credit that accompanied an order for goods. A) We are sincerely grateful for our order and your credit application. B) Your credit application and order have been received. C) We sincerely regret that we cannot grant your request for credit. D) You will understand, I feel certain, why we must refuse your request for credit. E) Please try to understand why we must ask you to buy on a cash basis. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Only this one forms the neutral buffer needed for the refusal. Although one is neutral, it is obvious and slow. The last three are direct and negative. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 78 Chapter 7 Indirectness in Bad-News Messages 53. Mark the best of five sentences beginning a message refusing credit to a weak capital risk. A) Thank you for your recent application for credit. B) Even though we sincerely appreciate your desire to do business with us, we are forced to limit our credit at this time. C) We have received your application for credit and have given it our careful evaluation. D) We are most grateful for your credit application and will do all we reasonably can to get your business started. E) We sincerely regret to inform you that your request for credit must be denied at this time. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: Only this sentence has the friendly neutral talk that sets up the explanation. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 54. The best description of appropriate closing material for a message declining credit would be: A) a suggestion of cash buying. B) a comment about your prices, merchandise, or service. C) a forward look to appropriate future relations. D) all of the above. E) none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 179 Difficulty: Medium Rationale: All three are suggestions in Chapter 7. Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 55. If any of the following subjects are not appropriate for the close of a negative announcement, mark it. If all are appropriate, mark E. A) a positive look forward B) an affirmative, positive relationship C) an expression of gratitude D) a promise not to present additional bad news E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 184 Difficulty: Hard Rationale: The preferred closes contain only positive language. Learning Objective: 6 AACSB Standard: 1 79
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