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### lecture11

Course: EEL 4213, Fall 2011
School: FSU
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Word Count: 819

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3-Phase Balanced Short Circuit Consider a synchronous generator operating at 60 Hz with constant excitation Examine the impact on the stator currents when a threephase short circuit is applied to the generator terminals The initial currents Park ia (0+ ) = ib (0+ ) = ic (0+ ) = 0 i0 (0+ ) = id (0+ ) = iq (0+ ) = 0 VF iF (0 ) = rF + The voltage after applying the fault Park va = vb = vc = 0 v0 = vd =...

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FSU - EEL - 4213
power flow - evaluate normal operating conditionsfault analysis - evaluate abnormal operating conditionsthree-phasesingle-line to ground and double-line to groundline-to-line faultsunbalanced faultsbalanced faultsspecifying ratings for circuit brea
FSU - EEL - 4213
inversion of the bus admittance matrix is a n3 effortfor small and medium size networks, direct building of the matrixis less effortfor large size networks, sparse matrix programming withgaussian elimination technique is preferredDirect formation of
FSU - EEL - 4213
three-phasesingle-line to grounddouble-line to groundline-to-line faultsunbalanced faultsbalanced faults60-75%15-25%5-15%&lt;5%Percentage of total faultssymmetrical componentsaugmented component modelsUnbalance fault analysis requires new tools
FSU - EEL - 4213
TransformersEquivalent Series Impedance:Transformer bank of three single-phase transformersZ 0 = Z1 = Z 2 = Z Three-phase transformer with a three-leg coreZ1 = Z 2 = Z Z0 &gt; ZWye-Delta Wound TransformersWiring connection will always cause a phase s
FSU - EEL - 4213
Common Unbalanced Network FaultsSingle-line-to-ground faultsDouble-line-to-ground faultsLine-to-line faults March 2004Power Systems I1Single Line to Ground FaultVa = 0IaVaI f = IaIbVbIb = Ic = 0IcVcI a0 1 1 1 I a I = 1 1 a a 2 0 a1 3
FSU - EEL - 4213
StabilitylThe ability of the power system to remain in synchronismand maintain the state of equilibrium following adisturbing forceuSteady-state stability: analysis of small and slow disturbancesnugradual power changesTransient stability: analys
FSU - EEL - 4213
Steady State StabilityllllThe ability of the power system to remain in synchronismwhen subject to small disturbancesStability is assured if the system returns to its originaloperating state (voltage magnitude and angle profile)The behavior can be
FSU - EEL - 4213
Transient StabilityThe ability of the power system to remain in synchronismwhen subject to large disturbancesLyapunov energy functionsLarge power and voltage angle oscillations do not permitlinearization of the generator swing equationssimplified en
FSU - EEL - 4213
Solving Non-linear ODEObjectiveTime domain solution of a system of differential equations Given a function or a system of functions: f(x) or F(x) Seek a time domain solution x(t) or x(t) which satisfy f(x) or F(x)Integration of the differential equat
FSU - EEL - 4213
Multi-machine SystemsEach synchronous machine is represented by a constantvoltage source behind the direct axis transient reactanceThe input powers are assumed to remain constantUsing the pre-fault voltage, all loads are converted toequivalent admitt
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 2CHAPTER 1.8 and 21. A three phase wye-connected unbalanced load is supplied by a balanced three-phasedelta connected source. The three source voltages and two of the line currents are:Vab = 13.2 kV 90
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 3CHAPTER 3(Problems 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-6, 3-7, 3-8, pp 154-157 in Textbook)1. The secondary winding of a transformer has a terminal voltage ofvs(t) = 282.8 sin 377t V. The turns ratio of the transfo
FSU - EEL - 3216
Life Long LearningProfessional development: seminars, workshops, conferences,summer courses, PE licenseLiterature resourcesReference books, i.e. McGraw Hill Standard Handbook for ElectricalEngineersMagazines, i.e. IEEE Power &amp; Energy, CIGRE Electra
FSU - EEL - 3216
Transmission LinesOverhead ConductorOverhead Spacer CableUnderground CableThree-Conductor CableService CablesFundamentals of Power SystemsLecture 141Overhead ConductorsACSRAluminum Conductor withinner Steel ReinforcedstrandsACARAluminum Con
FSU - EEL - 3216
Induced Voltage in Stator Coil P-PolesFor a P-pole machine the flux per pole remains the same(integrating d =rlBmcos(P/2 )d over one pole pitch - /P to + /P )2rlBMThe electrical frequency becomesP2elmTherefore, the induced voltage per pole-pair (
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 1SOLUTIONS1. In the 60Hz circuit shown in Figure 1, VS = 240.0VR1 = 2.530 and I1 = 38.8A-36.2.L1 = 0.015 Ha) Determine the phasor currents, IS and I2, and the impedance Z2.b) Calculate the apparent
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 2SOLUTIONS1. A three phase wye-connected unbalanced load is supplied by a balanced three-phasedelta connected source. The source voltages and load impedances are:Vab = 13.2 kV 90Vbc = 13.2 kV 210Vca
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 3SolutionsCHAPTER 3(Problems 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-6, 3-7, 3-8, pp 154-157 in Textbook)1. The secondary winding of a transformer has a terminal voltage ofvs(t) = 282.8 sin 377t V. The turns ratio of t
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 4SOLUTIONS1. A Y-connected bank of three identical 100-kVA, 7967/480-V transformers is suppliedwith power directly from a large constant-voltage bus. In the short-circuit test, therecorded values on th
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 5, SOLUTIONS4-2. A three-phase four-pole winding is installed in 12 slots on a stator. There are 40turns of wire in each slot of the windings. All coils in each phase are connected inseries, and the thr
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 6SOLUTIONS4-6. The flux density distribution over the surface of a two-pole stator of radius r andlength l is given by)B BM cos( m tProve that the flux density under each pole face is2rlBMSolve fir
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 7 Solution1. A 3-phase, 4-pole synchronous machine rotates CCW with 1500 rpm and produces arated torque of 668.45 Nm at the shaft in CW direction. The total rated losses are5 kW and the rated stator (co
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 8A balanced 3-phase impedance type load is rated 3 MVA at 4.16 kV, with a laggingpower factor of 0.75. It is supplied by a generator via a 2 km long overhead transmissionline. The GMD of the conductors
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 8A balanced 3-phase impedance type load is rated 3 MVA at 4.16 kV, with a laggingpower factor of 0.75. It is supplied by a generator via a 2 km long overhead transmissionline. The GMD of the conductors
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 9Problems from book 9-6, 9-11, and 9-15 as shown below.Problem 9-6 refers to a single-phase, 8 kV, 50 Hz, 50 km long transmission line consisting of twoaluminum conductors with a 3 cm diameter separated
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 9Problems from book 9-6, 9-11, and 9-15 as shown below.Problem 9-6 refers to a single-phase, 8 kV, 50 Hz, 50 km long transmission line consisting of twoaluminum conductors with a 3 cm diameter separated
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 10Problem from book 5-29 as shown below.
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 10SOLUTION
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 11Problem from book 7-5, 7-7, 7-11 as shown below.7-57-77-11
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 11 SOLUTIONSProblem from book 7-5, 7-7, 7-11 as shown below.7-5Attention: this solution, as provided by the author of the book, is inconsistent with the text of thebook. The core losses are supplied by
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Fundamentals of Power SystemsHomework # 12You are encouraged to solve the two problems below in a group effort. Therefore, amaximum of 5 students may submit one assignment together. If you do so, clearly writethe names of the 5 students who h
FSU - EEL - 3216
Electric MotorsThree basic types of motorsSynchronous, SMInduction (asynchronous), IMDC motorsIn the past: preferred for variable speed applicationsDecreasing in popularity; replaced by combination of IM and powerelectronic variable speed drive (VS
FSU - EEL - 3216
U.S. Electric Power Industry ExistingNet Summer Capacity by State, 2003Fundamentals of Power SystemsLecture 11U.S. Electric Power TransmissionSystem in 2000Fundamentals of Power SystemsLecture 1Page 12Power Systems ComponentsPrimary power sour
FSU - EEL - 3216
Electric Powersingle-phase (1~) systemsOne sourceTwo energy-carrying wiresPulsating instantaneous power (2f)three-phase (3~) systemsThree sources, 120 phase shiftedLecture 2Fundamentals of Power Systems1Single Phase Powerptv, i, pPVvtptDe
FSU - EEL - 3216
Notes on Phasor Notation andDiagramsMathematically correctComplex quantity(underlined)VmMagnitudeV Vm e jvttVm cos( t )Re(V) Vm cosvtorjVm sin( t )tIm(V) Vm sintPractical notation and usageComplex quantity, butI = 10 Aunderlining omitt
FSU - EEL - 3216
Ideal 1~ Transformer ModelFlux linkages (winding flux)Ideali1i2N1N1 ,1N22N2SourceV2av1e1 , v2e2aV1N1N2e1e2ZLN1N2Loadv1v2i2i1Dot conventionCurrent into doted end produces positive MMF (NI) orampere-turnsTherefore, orientat
FSU - EEL - 3216
FSU - EEL - 3216
Three-phase transformersCore arrangementsTransformer bank =&gt; three 1~ transformers (core typeor shell type)3~ transformer (3, 4, 5 legged core-type)Winding arrangementsY-Y-YYWith tertiaryFundamentals of Power SystemsLecture 61Core Type vs. She
FSU - EEL - 3216
Changing BasesThe impedances of generators, transformers,transmission lines, and loads are supplied by themanufacturers in per unit based on theequipments own rating.When placing the equipment into a system, theimpedance must be converted to the sy
FSU - EEL - 3216
AC Machine FundamentalsGeneratorsMotors3-phase1-phaseSynchronousInductionFundamentals of Power SystemsLecture 91AC Machines SystematicFundamentalsPrinciple of generating a rotating magnetic fieldMagnetomotive force and induced voltagePrincip
FSU - EEL - 3216
SM No-Load CharacteristicRotor flux magnitudeInduced stator voltage magnitudeEAkCharacteristic of theiron (stator and rotor)Rotor field currentRotor field currentEffect of saturation: for large field currents the no-loadarmature voltage magnitud
FSU - EEL - 3216
AmpacityLecture 15Fundamentals of Power Systems1Geometric Mean Radius (GMR)'L102r4lnDr02Inductance of conductorup to a distance of 1 unit(e.g. 1 foot)'L102lnDGMRr4L'GMR1Dlnr110lnGMR2lnInductance of conductor in Hpe
FSU - EEL - 3216
ExampleM1TST = 1.5 MVAX = 3%NH/NL = 5.4586BusV = 4.16 kVM2M150 Hz, 6 pole, Y-connectedPR = 75 kW, Xm = 7.2R1 = 0.082 , R2 = 0.07X1 = 0.19 , X2 = 0.18Friction and windage losses 1.3 kWCore losses 1.4 kWMiscellaneous losses 150 WM2Rated 10
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 1CHAPTER 1.8 and 21. In the 60Hz circuit shown in Figure 1, VS = 240.0VR1 = 2.530 and IS = 35 A15.L1 = 0.015 Ha) Determine the phasor currents, I1 and I2, and the impedance Z2.b) Calculate the appa
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 71. A 3-phase, 4-pole synchronous machine rotates CCW with 1500 rpm and produces arated torque of 668.45 Nm at the shaft in CW direction. The total rated losses are5 kW and the rated stator (copper) los
FSU - EEL - 3216
EEL 3216 Introduction to Power SystemsHomework # 3CHAPTER 31. (Problem 3-10 in Textbook)2. (Problem 3-22 in Textbook)3. In a certain single-phase system the per unit values of the impedance, current, voltage,and apparent power are:Z = 0.65 pu I = 1
FSU - EEL - 3216
Power Flow in a SM - GeneratorPout3V I A cos( )PoutReactive QoutpowerNote: is the phase anglebetween armature voltage V andarmature current IA. It is NOT theangle between VT and IL!Qout3 VT I L cos( )3V I A sin( )3 VT I L sin( )Lecture 13Fu
FSU - EEL - 3216
Magnetomotive Force and FluxDistributionThe magnetic fieldused to inducesinusoidal voltages(in the stator) has tobe distributedsinusoidal along thecircumference of thestator/rotor (air gap)Snapshot of oneinstantaneousvalue in timeThis spatial
FSU - EEL - 3216
T-Line Equivalent CircuitsThree general models for equivalent transmissionline circuitsChoice influenced by the line length, type (cable oroverhead line), and operating voltage levelChoice based on the analysis (e.g., short circuit orvoltage drop)M
Drexel - BLAW - 201
Milos RujevicEthics In BusinessMy approach to the topic ethics in business will start with the slogan on the wallof the main factory hall of the paper factory of Mr. Vapa in Belgrade in the years 1930-44.It read: Live, work and give the other to live
Drexel - BLAW - 201
Chapter 1: Terms of EndearmentDefining Information Technology12Chapter 1: Terms of EndearmentDefining Information TechnologyB. megabytesC. gigabytesD. terabytesChapter 1 Test BankTrue/False1.Most of the computers you would see in an airport term
Drexel - BLAW - 201
12Chapter 7 Test Bank True/False 1. Debugging means to solve IT problems. 2. The purpose of debugging is to improve systems. 3. Computers dont make mistakes. 4. 0 is not allowed in an email address. 5. 0 and 1 are allowed in URLs and email addresses. 6.
Drexel - BLAW - 201
CS 103, Fall 2008Midterm 2Prof. NakayamaFamily (or Last) Name_Given (or First) Name_Student ID_Instructions1. This exam has 7 pages in total, numbered 1 to 7. Make sure your copy has all the pages.2. Note the number written on the upper right -han
Drexel - BLAW - 201
Answer Key Testname: MT2-08F1) TRUE 2) FALSE 3) FALSE 4) TRUE 5) TRUE 6) C 7) A 8) 9) 10) FALSE 11) TRUE 12) FALSE 13) FALSE 14) TRUE 15) B 16) B 17) B 18) A 19) D 20) A 21) B 22) B 23) byte 24) nibble 25) 256 26) Hexadecimal 27) TRUE 28) FALSE 29) TRUE
Drexel - PSY - 101
Psychology 101 Dr. D. L. ChuteSample Quiz 11.The inability to recognize familiar faces as a result of brain damage is calledPROSOPAGNOSIA2. What are the primary functions of the frontal lobes?PLANING AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS3.Damage to which lobe o
Drexel - PSY - 101
The principle reason, reduce anxietyThis potential long term effect of alcoholism is caused by a deficiency in thiamine and ischaracterized by encephalitis and psychosis: FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROMEBlood Alcohol Content (BAC) depends on which of the followi
Drexel - PSY - 101
Psychology 101 Dr. D. L. ChuteSample Quiz 21. The therapeutic technique by which a phobicstimulus is conditioned to beassociated with relaxation rather than anxiety isknown as:c. systematic desensitization2. What strengthens the likelihood of a beh
Drexel - PSY - 101
Drexel - MUS - 130
In the Middle Ages, most important musicians were PRIESTS.When notating music for others to read, composers have traditionally used ITALIANwords to indicate dynamics.Not TTHE CATHOLIC CURCH WAS MORE POWERFUL DURING THE RANAISSANCETHE MEDIEVAL PERIOD.
Drexel - MUS - 130
Classical music 1740- 1820MOOD, classical composers will fluctuate in mood ( only masters where able to composewide emotional range )RHYTHM, flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music. A classical Compositionhas a wealth of rhythmic pattern
Drexel - ACCT - 116
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