Interfunctional Coordination
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Interfunctional Coordination

Course Number: COM 410, Spring 2011

College/University: Chapman

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Introduction The role of climate and socialization in developing interfunctional coordination Interfunctional coordination is the synchronization of personnel and other resources throughout the company to create value for buyers. It is the process that assimilates the results of being customer and competitor oriented and allows coherent action. Interfunctional coordination is achieved when a firm actively...

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role Introduction The of climate and socialization in developing interfunctional coordination Interfunctional coordination is the synchronization of personnel and other resources throughout the company to create value for buyers. It is the process that assimilates the results of being customer and competitor oriented and allows coherent action. Interfunctional coordination is achieved when a firm actively coordinates the use of all company resources to create superior value for target customers. Because of an increasingly fast moving and competitive global business environment, interfunctional coordination is becoming very important. Cross-functional coordination causes internal functional boundaries to lose meaning. Thus, marketing in a marketoriented company may become less important because all the functions become focused on creating and delivering customer value. Marketing's role may become that of development and maintenance of a culture that is truly market oriented. Firms face the challenge of developing strategies that will allow them to survive while creating profits and stability for its stakeholders (Booth and Philip, 1998). The goal of a firm's strategy is to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) (Slater, 1996). When Day and Wensley (1988) found no consensus in either the literature or practice for the meaning of competitive advantage, they combined the two most popular definitions and asserted: competitive advantage is based on positional and performance superiority and is a consequence of relative superiority in the skills and resources a business deploys. These skills and resources reflect the pattern of past investments to enhance competitive advantage. A firm that is able to maintain and exploit a SCA will have superior performance in the marketplace. This ability to sustain a SCA allows a business to maintain a market failure and thus sustain its supernormal profitability (Yao, 1988). Bettis and Hitt (1995) proposed that technology is rapidly altering the nature of competition and is accordingly altering the strategies used to acquire a competitive advantage. They identified four factors driving this new competitive environment: (1) the increasing rate of technological change and diffusion; Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky The authors Barbara Ross Wooldridge is Assistant Professor of Marketing, College of Business Administration, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, Texas, USA. Barbara D. Minsky is Assistant Professor of Management, Troy State University Dothan, Dothan, Alabama, USA. Keywords Co-ordination, Market orientation, Information, Corporate culture, Strategy Abstract Interfunctional coordination may be of primary importance to a firm developing a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper suggests that climate and socialization processes facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, and thus its impact on firm performance. By merging the organizational culture, market orientation, climate, socialization, and competing values framework streams of literature to describe the process by which an organization positions itself in the competitive arena, a framework is developed and research propositions are offered. Electronic access The research register for this journal is available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregisters The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0969-6474.htm The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . pp. 2938 # MCB UP Limited . ISSN 0969-6474 DOI 10.1108/09696470210414809 29 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky (2) the information age; (3) increasing knowledge intensity; and (4) the emergence of the positive feedback industry. a firm has gained strong attention in the current strategy literature (Bettis and Hitt, 1995; Booth and Philip, 1998; Eisenhardt and Brown, 1998). Market orientation has been closely linked in the literature to a firm's culture (e.g. Deshpande et al. in 1993 posited a link between culture and a firm's market orientation). Since a market orientation is embedded in a firm's culture and hence exploits the core competencies inherent within the firm, it may be the most dynamic and protectable source of a SCA in this new and changing environment. Narver and Slater (1990) defined a market orientation as having three behavioral components: (1) customer orientation; (2) competitor orientation; and (3) interfunctional coordination. Thus the traditional means of obtaining a competitive advantage such as economies of scale, market power, and product line breadth may no longer meet the criteria of a SCA. The criteria for a SCA are: . it must be valuable; . it must be rare among a firm's current and potential competitors; . it must be imperfectly imitatable; and . there must not be any strategically equivalent substitutes for this resource/ skill (Barney, 1991). One method for obtaining a SCA is to develop a market-oriented philosophy. Since a market orientation is embedded in a firm's culture and hence exploits the core competencies inherent within the firm, it may be the most dynamic and protectable source of a SCA in this new and changing environment. Interfunctional coordination may be of primary importance to a firm developing a sustainable competitive advantage. The sharing of information and the development of knowledge that is created by interfunctional coordination may become a necessity for survival and true competitiveness. Yet not all organizations learn with the same speed nor do they all emphasize learning (Bhatt, 2000). This paper suggests that climate and socialization processes facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, and thus its impact on firm performance. By merging the organizational culture, market orientation, climate, socialization, and competing values framework streams of literature to describe the process by which an organization positions itself in the competitive arena, a framework is developed and research propositions are offered. Due to the changing competitive environment, a stream of research has been developed that is focused on the study of market orientation. Most of the studies do not individually examine the three behavioral aspects of market orientation as defined by Narver and Slater (1990). To be competitor oriented, a firm focuses on the short and longterm strengths and weaknesses of the competition. To be customer oriented means to understand one's target buyers and to be able to create superior value for them. Interfunctional coordination is achieved when a firm actively coordinates the use of all company resources to create superior value for target customers. Narver and Slater (1990) posited from their review of the literature that the three behavioral components are of equal importance. There is debate on the role of interfunctional coordination in regards to market orientation. Narver and Slater (1990) see interfunctional coordination as one of the three behavioral aspects of market orientation. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) see interfunctional coordination as an antecedent to market orientation. They state that an examination of the literature and insights from the field reveal three hierarchically ordered categories of antecedents to a market orientation. These are individual, intergroup and organizational-wide factors. The view point of Narver and Slater (1990) developed from a synthesis of the literature (Aaker, 1988; Porter, 1980; Levitt, 1980; Day, 1984) Market orientation Market orientation is a set of activities and behaviors implemented to reflect the degree to which a marketing concept has been adopted as a business philosophy (Siguaw et al., 1994). Because of the new competitive landscape, the ability to either maintain or acquire an effective market orientation within 30 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky role to play in helping a firm achieve and sustain a competitive advantage, and each unit must clearly understand what role it plays in achieving and maintaining the SCA (Narver and Slater, 1990). Cross-functional coordination causes internal functional boundaries to lose meaning. Thus, marketing in a market-oriented company may become less important because all the functions become focused on creating and delivering customer value. Marketing's role may become that of development and maintenance of a culture that is truly market oriented. Narver and Slater (1990) use the following metaphor to sum up eloquently interfunctional coordination's importance and value: Creating value for buyers is analogous to a symphony orchestra in which all members contribute according to a general plan and in which the contribution of each subgroup is tailored and integrated by a conductor with a synergistic effect. This integration builds directly on both customer and competitor analyses. will be used in this study, as it appears that more of the literature supports their conceptualization. Another debate is whether market orientation is a culture or whether there are certain cultures that are conducive to developing a market orientation (Deshpande et al., 1993). In this paper the view will be taken that certain cultures are more conducive to the development of a market orientation. Given the new competitive landscape, a study exploring the linkages between a firm's culture and its affect on climate, socialization and acceptance of firm values and their impact on interfunctional coordination leading to superior performance would be of value. To date no study has attempted to link culture, climate, socialization and acceptance of values with the effectiveness of interfunctional coordination and a firm's performance. Interfunctional coordination Culture and climate Narver and Slater (1990) defined market orientation as the organizational culture that most effectively and efficiently creates the necessary behaviors for the creation of superior values for buyers and, thus, superior performance for the business. As stated earlier, Narver and Slater (1990) envisioned the market orientation as having three major components: (1) customer orientation; (2) competitor orientation; and (3) interfunctional coordination. Organizational culture can be defined as the pattern of shared assumptions (at the deepest levels), values (what ``ought'' to be) and beliefs that help individuals understand organizational functioning thus providing them with the norms of behavior in the organization and therefore affects both the firm's outcomes and the means to achieve these outcomes (Gordon, 1991; Moorman, 1995). Culture can be operationalized as why things happened the way they do. Climate is related to culture but is a different concept. Deshpande and Webster (1989) defined climate as a member's perceptions about the extent to which the organization is currently fulfilling their expectations. Schneider and Rentsch (1988) summarized the difference between culture and climate in the following way: climate refers to the ways organizations operationalize the themes that pervade everyday behavior, the behavior that gets rewarded, supported and expected by organizations. Simply stated it is the ``what happens around here'' concept. For example, J. Carrlzon, CEO of Scandinavian Airlines, states that every organization has moments of truth, which are everyday behaviors of the Though Narver and Slater (1990) posited that the three are equal in importance, this paper only reviews the role of interfunctional coordination. From Narver and Slater's (1990) model it can be seen the pivotal role interfunctional coordination plays. It is the process that assimilates the results of being customer and competitor oriented and allows coherent action. Figure 1 shows interfunctional coordination as the synchronization of personnel and other resources throughout the company to create value for buyers. This figure reflects the concept that any point in the buyer's value chain is an opportunity for the seller to create value. Porter (1980) posited that every department, unit, office and so forth has a 31 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky Figure 1 Market orientation modal or dominant. This means that, as Harris and Ogbonna (1999) proposed, organizational culture is pluralistic and a market-oriented culture can be viewed as a ``family of concepts''. Firms can have several types of cultures; however, over time, one type of culture will often emerge as the dominant one. The framework is highly flexible and has been applied to numerous areas of research (e.g. motivation, power, change, communication, management information systems). Figure 2 focuses on managerial information processing and it views organizations as knowledge systems. Deshpande and Webster (1989) justified the perspective of organizational information processing to understanding culture and its relationship to marketing strategy. This is the proper perspective if one is to study interfunctional coordination (market orientation). A market orientation is valuable because it focuses the organization on continuously collecting information about target-customers' needs and competitors' capabilities and using this information to create continuously superior customer value (Slater and Narver, 1995). Hence, interfunctional coordination is vital as knowledge is a changing reality. This changing reality is realized via multiple acts of information sharing. This sharing of information is critical to the process of ``knowing'', by allowing organization members to create realities and then to readjust these beliefs systems in a turbulent and changing environment (Bhatt, 2000; Pemberton and Stonehouse, 2000). To update and refine knowledge, organizations are, therefore, required to interact with their environments and accordingly readjust their belief system. A market orientation is the manager, clearly showing what is important and how to behave (Popper and Lipshitz, 2000). Slater and Narver (1995) added even more depth to this definition: climate describes how an organization operationalizes its culture, the structure and processes that facilitate the achievement of the desired behaviors. Culture, on the other hand, is a more complex, multilevel construct wherein there is a shared interpretation and understanding of organizational events (Rentsch, 1990). The competing values framework of culture will be used in this paper. The competing values framework (CVF) has its origins in the notion of organizational effectiveness (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983). Deshpande et al. (1993) in their study of corporate culture, modified Cameron and Freeman's (1991) adaptation of the competing values framework. In their modified framework, the key dimensions merge two theoretical traditions from organizational behavior literature. These are the systems-structure perspective and the transaction cost perspectives. The Deshpande et al. (1993) model identifies four cultural types based on the Jungian framework. The shared beliefs relate to dominant organizational attributes and overall strategic emphasis. Two key dimensions define cultural types. One dimension encompasses the organic (flexible, spontaneous, individuality) to mechanistic (control, stable, order) processes continuum. The second continuum describes the organizational emphasis on internal maintenance to external positioning. The four culture types are labeled clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market. The four cells are not mutually exclusive; the types are 32 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky Figure 2 Model of cultural types unifying force that focuses the efforts and projects of firms which allows them to create superior performance (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990). Thus, the knowledge share and learning that occurs due to interfunctional coordination can create a competitive advantage; consequently, this learning based on the sharing of knowledge is a resource that should be nurtured, protected and leverage as any other business resource (Marsick and Watkins, 1999). A successful corporate strategy must fit the organization's structure, systems, people and culture (Deshpande and Webster, 1989). Culture is the hardest of these to modify, since changing it represents a change in the principles on which the organization is based. Thus, culture is the pivotal component of organizational sharing of information, since culture is comprised of the attitudes and beliefs that steer the actions of the individual in an organization (Pemberton and Stonehouse, 2000). Slater and Narver (1995) focused on the importance of the interaction between culture and climate and asserted that it is vital that the organization's culture and climate be complementary because it is difficult to develop and sustain appropriate behaviors if the corresponding organizational values are not in place. Conversely, the values are difficult to sustain if the appropriate incentives and examples do not exist. In support of this statement, Slater and Narver (1995) cited the work of Day (1994) and Schein (1990). In fact, Slater and Narver (1995) do not separate climate out from culture, rather they leave the two combined. In this study this importance of congruence between culture and climate is accepted, but each construct will be viewed separately. Though it might seem that the distinction between organizational climate and organizational culture is quite clear, at a deeper level these distinctions seem to disappear: culture and climate might actually address a common phenomenon, the creation and influence of social contexts in organizations 1996). Socialization Though (Denison, the main body of socialization literature is focused on the introduction of new employees into the firm and the 33 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 assimilation of employees into new jobs within the firm, there is still much that can speak to culture and socialization of employees toward interfunctional coordination. For example, when Diamond (1991) contended that an organization's culture is a product of the way participants interact with one another; the components of culture in his study included socialization. Organizational socialization can be defined as the process in which one learns ``the ropes'' or a particular organizational role. At the minimum, socialization is the way an individual is taught and learns what behaviors and perspectives are customary and desirable within the work setting as well as ones that are not (Fisher, 1986; Popper and Lipshitz, 2000). It has been stated that socialization is the glue, which holds together the various interlocking parts of an ongoing social concern (Norburn et al., 1988). It is vital to remember that socialization does not occur in a vacuum, rather there is an interaction zone, in which colleagues, superiors, subordinate, clients and other associates support and guide the individual in learning the new role (Van Maanen and Schein, 1979). Acceptance of firm values has been linked to a strong culture and socialization processes of employees. Both the marketing and strategic management literature identified problems with the implementation of strategies by firms due to the human element involved (Bhatt, 2000). This implementation problem suggests a relationship between strategic effectiveness and the beliefs and values of the managers themselves. This view is appropriate when studying interfunctional coordination. Deshpande and Webster (1988) argued that there must be a positive relationship between corporate culture and business strategy or conflict occurs and leading to failure of the strategy. Buzzel et al. (1975), drawing from a study using the PIMS database, stressed that the characteristics and beliefs of top managers were a major explanatory factor in determining financial variability. A gap occurs when senior managers say one thing and their actions reflect something else. For example, Marsick and Watkins (1999) state that often organizations send mixed messages concerning the corporate acceptance of mistakes, in that the organization states it is okay to experiment but that it is not okay to fail. The greater the ambiguity between what is said and what is done, the lower the acceptance or effectiveness of the culture. The above literature leads to the following research propositions: P1A. Firms that have a culture that is high on organic processes (flexibility and spontaneity) and high on internal maintenance (smoothing activities, integration) will have a climate and socialization processes that will facilitate a high level of acceptance of firm values. P1B. Firms that have a culture that is high on organic processes and high on external positioning (competition and differentiation) will have a climate and socialization processes that facilitate acceptance of firm values (but not as high a level of acceptance as that of the firm in P1A). P1C. Firms that have a culture that is high on mechanistic processes (control, order, stability) and is internally focused will not have a climate or socialization processes that facilitates a high acceptance of firm values (P1A and P1B will have higher levels of acceptance). P1D. Firms that are high on mechanistic processes and are high in external positioning will have a climate and socialization process that leads to the lowest acceptance of firm values. P2A. A firm with a culture that is organic in its process and internally focused will have a high acceptance of firm values, and these values will lead to a high degree of interfunctional coordination. P2B. A firm with a culture that is organic in its processes and is externally focused will have a high acceptance of firm values, but these values will not lead to as high of a degree of interfunctional coordination as that of the firm in P2A. P2C. A firm with a culture that is mechanistic and is internally focused will have a lower level of acceptance of firm values and a lower level of interfunctional coordination, than that of the firms in P2A and P2B. 34 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky P2D. A firm with a culture that is mechanistic and is externally focused will have low acceptance of firm values and the lowest level of interfunctional coordination. The interfunctional coordination will be lower than that of the firms in P2A, P2B and P2C. above literature review leads to the following research propositions: P3A. Firms with the highest degree of interfunctional coordination will have the highest judgmental rating of firm performance: (i) firms that have a high degree of interfunctional coordination and are externally oriented will have the highest level; (ii) firms that have a high degree of interfunctional coordination and are internally oriented will have the next highest level. P3B. Firms with a low degree of interfunctional coordination will have lower levels of performance: (i) firms that have a lower degree of interfunctional coordination, but are internally focused will have a higher rating of performance than those that are externally focused. Performance There are many measures that can be used to evaluate performance (e.g. profitability, customer retention, sales growth and new product success (Slater and Narver, 1984; Narver and Slater, 1990; Kohli and Jaworski, 1990)). Market orientation and performance have been empirically linked in the literature (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990; Narver and Slater, 1990). Narver and Slater's (1990) empirical findings support the implied relationship between market orientation and performance, while Kohli and Jaworski (1993) found mixed results for the linkage between market orientation and business performance (see Figure 3). Kohli and Jaworski (1993) found that when management uses judgmental measures there is a significant linkage between market orientation and performance while, in contrast, they found that when market share is used, the linkage is not found. They tempered their findings by stating that it was not clear that market share is an appropriate indicator for performance. They cited the example of a firm choosing a ``niche'' strategy. They also bring up the possibility of a lag effect of market orientation and market share (i.e. that a market orientation may lead to market share over a long period of time). This is consistent with the beliefs of Narver and Slater (1990) that market orientation is a long-term focus. The Research model Figure 4 was developed from synthesizing the above literature and research propositions. This model illustrates the role that socialization and climate play in the acceptance of firm values and hence the development of interfunctional coordination and its impact on perceived firm performance. Table I provides a brief review of the concepts used to develop the research model and propositions. Summary and conclusions This paper merges the market orientation, organizational culture, climate, socialization, Figure 3 Market orientation, competitive advantage, and business performance coordinated 35 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky Figure 4 Model of propositions Table I Concepts from the literature used in the development of the model Building blocks from the literature Culture CVF (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983) Modifications by Deshpande et al. (1993) Climate Deshpande and Webster (1989), Slater and Narver (1995) Socialization Van Maanen and Schein (1979) Acceptance of values Buzzel et al. (1975) Webster (1991) Interfunctional coordination Narver and Slater (1990) Firm performance Narver and Slater (1990) Kohli and Jaworski (1993) Function in the model This concept of culture was used in the model These modifications were used as the linkage to climate and socialization and their role in the acceptance of values and its impact on interfunctional coordination Their concept of the function of climate is used in the model i.e. that climate is how an organization operationalizes its culture Discuss various responses to socialization, place these levels of acceptance on a continuum. Divide socialization into six dimensions The importance of consistency of culture from top management when gap occurs, lower acceptance of values The important attributes of a consistent culture Development of the concept of market orientation and the role of interfunctional coordination Theoretical link of interfunctional coordination and firm performance, empirical test Empirical test of the linkage, use of judgmental evaluation (Bhatt, 2000; Bettis and Hitt, 1995; Pemberton and Stonehouse, 2000). Though there has been much research on culture, none has yet been able to definitively link culture to performance. Lim (1995), in his empirical work, found that there was not a clear linkage but that there were factors that perhaps moderated the relationship. Gordon and DiTomaso (1992) found that both a strong culture and a strong value on adaptability are associated with short-term performance. Kohli and Jaworski (1993) and Narver and Slater (1990) have empirically linked a market orientation with firm performance. This paper attempts to shed insight on the role culture plays in the development of a climate and the socialization processes that facilitate the acceptance of firm values and the development of interfunctional coordination, and thus its impact on firm and competing values framework streams of literature to describe the process by which an organization positions itself. A framework synthesizing these literatures is presented. A model and research propositions were offered. Future research would include testing the research propositions suggested. The potential findings that climate and socialization processes would affect acceptance of the firm's values, and that all three are related to the development of interfunctional coordination could have practical implications. It could mean that managers could be more proactive and more effectively manage the process. The role of interfunctional coordination would be of primary importance in developing a sustainable competitive advantage in the current turbulent competitive environment 36 The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky Eisenhardt, K.M. and Brown, S.L. (1998), ``Competing on the edge: strategy as structured chaos'', Long Range Planning, Vol. 31 No. 5, pp. 786-9. Fisher, C.D. (1986), ``Organizational socialization: an integrative review'', Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 4, pp. 101-45. Gordon, G.G. (1991), ``Industry determinants of organizational culture'', Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, pp. 396-415. Gordon, G.G. and DiTomaso, N. (1992), ``Predicting corporate performance from organizational culture'', Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 29, November, pp. 783-98. Harris, L.C. and Ogbonna, E. 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(1995), ``Organizational market information processes: cultural antecedents and new product outcomes'', Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 32, August, pp. 318-35. Narver, J.C. and Slater, S.F. (1990), ``The effect of a market orientation on business profitability'', Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, October, pp. 20-35. Norburn, D., Birley, S. and Dunn, M. (1988), ``Strategic marketing effectiveness and its relationship to corporate culture and beliefs: a cross-national study'', International Studies of Management & Organizations, Vol. XVIII No. 2, pp. 83-100. Pemberton J.D. and Stonehouse, G.H. (2000), ``Organizational learning and knowledge assets an essential partnership'', The Learning Organization, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 184-98. Popper, M. and Lipshitz, R. (2000), ``Installing mechanisms and instilling values: the role of leaders in organizational learning'', The Learning Organization, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 135-44. Porter, M.A. (1980), Competitive Strategy, The Free Press, New York, NY. 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Diamond, M.A. (1991), ``Dimensions of organizational culture and beyond'', Political-Psychology, Vol. 12 No. 3, September, pp. 509-22. 37 Barbara Ross Wooldridge and Barbara D. Minsky The role of climate and socialization The Learning Organization Volume 9 . Number 1 . 2002 . 2938 Schneider, B. and Rentsch, J. (1988), ``Managing climates and cultures: a futures perspective'', in Hage, J. (Ed.), Futures of Organizations, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA. Siguaw, J.A., Brown, G., and Widing, R.E. (1994), ``The influence of the market orientation of the firm on sales force behavior and attitudes'', Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31, pp. 106-16. Slater, S.F. (1996), ``The challenge of sustaining competitive advantage'', Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 25, pp. 79-86. Slater, S.F. and Narver, J.C. (1984), ``Market orientation, customer value, and superior performance'', Business Horizons, March-April, pp. 22-7. Slater, S.F. and Narver, J.C. (1995), ``Market orientation and the learning organization'', Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, July, pp. 63-74. Van Maanen, J. and Schein, E.H. (1979), ``Toward a theory of organizational socialization'', Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 1, pp. 209-64. Webster, C. (1991), ``A note on cultural consistency within the service firm: the effects of employee position on attitudes toward marketing culture'', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 19 No. 4. Yao, D.A. (1988), ``Beyond the reach of the invisible hand: impediments to economic activity, market failures, and profitability'', Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 59-70. 38

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The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available atwww.emeraldinsight.com/0268-3946.htmJMP21,5492Received February 2006Accepted February 2006INVITED MANUSCRIPTOrganizational socializationA new theoretical model and recommendat
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Western Journal of CommunicationVol. 73, No. 4, OctoberDecember 2009, pp. 370394It Depends on Who Youre TalkingTo . . . : Predictors and Outcomes ofSituated Measures of OrganizationalIdentificationCraig R. Scott & Keri K. StephensScholars have rese
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Flanagin, Waldeck / ORGANIZATIONAL NEWCOMER SOCIALIZATIONJOURNAL OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION1 0.1177/0021943604263290TECHNOLOGY USEAND ORGANIZATIONALNEWCOMER SOCIALIZATIONAndrew J. FlanaginJennifer H. WaldeckUniversity of California at Santa Barbara
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The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available atwww.emeraldinsight.com/researchregisterThe current issue and full text archive of this journal is available atwww.emeraldinsight.com/0309-0566.htmOrganisational innovationin SMEsThe impor
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The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available atwww.emeraldinsight.com/0262-1711.htmOrganizational identication andcommitment of members of ahuman development organizationSow Hup ChanFaculty of Business Administration, Univers
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Organizational learning in a high-tech environment:from theory to practiceAtul GuptaSchool of Business and Economics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, Virginia, USAGlen ThomasFramatone Cogema Fuels, Lynchburg, Virginia, USAKeywordsOrganizational learn
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Communication Research ReportsVol. 26, No. 1, February 2009, pp. 4049Predicted Outcome Value ofOrganizational CommitmentPaul E. Madlock & Sean M. HoranThis study represents an application of predicted outcome value (POV) theory in theorganizational
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The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available atwww.emeraldinsight.com/0268-3946.htmThe role of social socializationtactics in the relationshipbetween socialization content andnewcomers affectivecommitmentMaria SimosiThe rol
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Socialization Turning Points:The Organization/Individual RelationDavid ArmonUniversity of UtahThe relationship between worker and organization is complex. By thetime the relationship is terminated (by either party) each has had a profound affect upon
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Western Journal of Speech Communication, 53 (Summer 1989), 273-293Socialization T urnin g Points: AnExamination of Change i nOrganizational IdentificationCONNIE BULLIS and BETSY WACKERNAGEL BACHThis report identifies a gap between theory and research
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Study GuideCOM 410 Final ExamThe final exam will consist of 50 objective-type items (multiple choice & true/false).Chapters 7 and 8, Getting In & Fitting In:Know the meanings of the following terms: (from Ch. 7) recruiting, Realistic JobProfile (from
Chapman - ATH - 160
1. Mayan Court- architecture and archeology was the source of information. In additionyou have glyphic texts. There is so much speculation when you only deal with this kindof evidence, but we know women had important roles at the court because of the ar
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Acidity Constant from aTitration CurveG00458510Connie Jamieson10/13/2011Chemistry 212 section 205T/A: Tiffany HaLab Partner: John MullenCalculations:Vml at equivalence point for HCl:Theoretical endpoint for HCl: 25.0mlPercent error: 3.6%Vml at
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The Synthesis of AspirinConnie Jamieson11/24/2011Chemistry 212 section 205Tiffany HaLab Partner: Andrew CedenoConclusion:Aspirin is one of the most commonly used over the counter drug in the world. The averageaspirin tablet contains approximately
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
The Synthesis of AspirinConnie Jamieson11/24/2011Chemistry 212 section 205Tiffany HaLab Partner: Andrew CedenoConclusion:Aspirin is one of the most commonly used over the counter drug in the world. The averageaspirin tablet contains approximately
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
Calculations:Trial 1:Moles HCl: (0.250 x 0.0042) = 0.0011 mols of HClMoles of Borax: 0.0011mols HCl ( 1mol borax/2mols HCl) = 5.3 x 10-4 mols borax5.3 x 10-4 mols borax/0.0050L borax solution used = 0.011M boraxKsp= 4(0.011M)3 = 0.0046 M3G= -(8.314J
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Calculations:Trial 1:Moles HCl: (0.250 x 0.0042) = 0.0011 mols of HClMoles of Borax: 0.0011mols HCl ( 1mol borax/2mols HCl) = 5.3 x 10-4 mols borax5.3 x 10-4 mols borax/0.0050L borax solution used = 0.011M boraxKsp= 4(0.011M)3 = 0.0046 M3G= -(8.314J
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Simultaneous Deteminationof several ThermodynamicQuantities:K, Delta G, Delta H, and Delta SConnie Jamieson11/3/2011Instructor: Tiffany HaChemistry 212 section 205Lab partner: Elizabeth HoCalculations:Trial 1:Moles HCl: (0.250 x 0.0042) = 0.001
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
Simultaneous Deteminationof several ThermodynamicQuantities:K, Delta G, Delta H, and Delta SConnie Jamieson11/3/2011Instructor: Tiffany HaChemistry 212 section 205Lab partner: Elizabeth HoCalculations:Trial 1:Moles HCl: (0.250 x 0.0042) = 0.001
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Conclusion:The purpose of this lab was to determine the mass present of an unknown sample of a coppercontaining compound made from a known mass of a copper containing compound, copperglycinate. This was accomplished by performing a titration with thios
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
Tables and Graphs:Table 1:Crystal Violet Absorbance Versus Time NaOH=0.0250M Trial 1% Transmittance(%T)Time (min.)A=-log(%T/100)InA1/A168.20.166-1.796.02272.60.139-1.977.19376.80.115-2.178.72480.20.0958-2.3510.4583.60.0778
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Electrochemical Cells:Determination of Reduction Potentials for a Seriesof Metal/Metal Ion Systems, Verification of NernstEquationConnie Jamieson12/1/2011Chemistry 212 section 205Instructor: Tiffany HaLab Partner: Andrew CedenoCalculations:Cu(s)
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
Measurement of EquilibriumConstantConnie Jamieson G0045851010/6/2011Chemistry 212 section 205TA: Tiffany HaLab partner: Andrew CedenoCalculations:Initial concentration (NCS)1- solution #4:M2 = =Initial concentration of Fe3+ solution #4:Equilibr
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
Solubility Product Constant and the Common-Ion Effect for a Salt of Limited SolubilityConstance Jamieson10/27/2011Chemistry 212 section 205Lab partner: Andrew CedenoConclusion:In this experiment, the solubility product constant Ksp was determined fo
George Mason - CHEMISTRY - 212
Calculations:Equation for the oxidation-reduction reaction:5C2O42- + 2MnO4- + 16H+ 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2OMoles of KMnO4 reducedMoles of C2O4 oxidizedWeight of oxidized C2O4Experimental weight % of oxalate in sampleAverage percent weight of oxalate =
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
DYESDyeing is an ancient art which predates written records.It was practiced during the Bronze age in Europe.Primitive dyeing techniques included sticking plants tofabric or rubbing crushed pigments into cloth. Themethods became more sophisticated wi
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Electric ShaverDescriptionAn electric shaver is a handheld battery-powered electrical device used for shavingfacial hair. It has an elongated shape with an ergonomic handle. It is approximately 2030 centimeters and length and has a diameter of approxim
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
TO: Mr. George Jeffrey Cuevas, Technical Writing InstructorFROM: Congo RedSUBJECT: DefinitionsDATE: January 30, 2012We would like to present to you the technical definitions of Electric Shaver which wehave chosen from the two objects that were as
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
EXPERIMENT NO. 5Determination of Carbonate in Soda Ash by Titration withHydrochloric AcidNuyda, J.B.Chemistry Department, College of Science, Adamson University, Ermita, Manila 1000PhilippinesKeywords: acid-base titration, back titration, acid/base
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Experiment # 8Synthesis and Reactivity of tert-Butyl ChlorideIntroduction:The purpose of this experiment is to synthesize tert-butyl chloride via an SN1reaction and to characterize it using simple chemical tests to describe its reactivity.HClOHClt
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Experiment 3Preparation of tert-Butyl ChlorideThe purpose of this experiment is to prepare tert-butyl chloride (2-chloro-2methylpropane) from tert-butyl alcohol (tert-butanol) using an acid catalyzed dehydrationreaction. (Note: the correct IUPAC name f
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
a gas burner, widely used in scientific laboratories, consisting of a metal tube with an adjustable air valve at the base-The Bunsen burner is the object most frequently associated with a chemistry laboratory.In this lab, it will serve as the primary he
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Basic Techniques of Technical WritingDefinition in ReportA definition is an explanation that gives the precise meaning of a word of a group of words.Definitions are used in reports to clarify technical terms that may be unfamiliar to the reader, noton
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
TechnicalDefinitionTechnicalDefinitionEN213TechnicalWritingWhat Is a TechnicalDefinition? Itistheprocessbywhichoneassignsaprecisemeaningtoaterm. FORMAT:Term=Classification+Differentiation Example:Astallisaflight conditioninwhichtheliftproducedb
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
What Is a Technical Definition?In technical writing, definition is the process by which one assigns a precise meaning to a term.To define a term, it must be placed into a classification and then differentiated from other termsin that same classificatio
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
OilExtractFromMumFlowerstoKillWaspsByAmandaGaddis,eHowContributorupdatedAugust12,2011Mumflowerscontainachemicalthatkillsflyinginsects.Theessentialoilextractedfromthemumflowercontainsachemicalcalledpyrethrumthatcankill flyinginsectslikewasps.Bothmumoi
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
ssssssssssssssssssssssssnsn nsssssssssss)) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ))) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )) ) ) ) ) ) )
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
1/23/2012J. Garcia 20121IntroductionIntroduction23Popular method of analysis RelativeeaseSuccessful titration Availabilityof suitable titrantand quantitative reaction Means of estimating equivalence point Speed Fast Low-costACID-BASE TIT
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The Odyssey:Aeolos (Ay-oh-lus) As the Wind King, he hascontrol of all the winds that blow from everydirection. He lives on an island with his sons anddaughters.Alkinous (Al-kin-oh-us) The king of Phaiakia,husband of Queen Arete, father of princessN
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Character ListOdysseus - The protagonist of the Odyssey. Odysseus fought among theother Greek heroes at Troy and now struggles to return to his kingdom inIthaca. Odysseus is the husband of Queen Penelope and the father ofPrince Telemachus. Though a st
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Titration of 50.00 mL of 0.0500 M HCl with 0.0500 M KOHmL KOHadded (Vb)Concentration ofunreacted H+ (M)0.0010.020.025.030.040.045.048.049.049.550.050.551.052.055.060.0Concentration ofexcess OH- (M)0.05000.03330.02140.01670.0125
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Titration of 50.00 mL of 0.0500 M HCl with 0.0500 M KOHmL KOHadded (Vb)Concentration ofunreacted H+ (M)0.0010.020.025.030.040.045.048.049.049.550.050.551.052.055.060.0Concentration ofexcess OH- (M)0.05000.03330.02140.01670.0125
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
22222222222 2222221ss2s2s2ss ss s2ssysss ss 2s22sss2y23YY YYS S SSSSSyssssss222 2s22sss2y2s22sss2y222y2sss222 2s22sss2ys2sssss 2 s2sss ss 2s2sys222s sssssssa2sss ss ssss2s2s2ss sss as2ss2sy ss 22s2ssss ss sssss 2ss2sss22s2ss ss2s 2s2sas22
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Santos,MRJ.C.BSChemistryResearch|AnalyticChemistryProf.Garcia,J.L.ActivityActivityistheresultoftheeffectsofinteractionsbetweenionormoleculeandits surroundings.Sinceitishardtodefine,itisusuallymeasuredwithreferencetoanidealstate.ActivityCoefficient
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
1/12/201219Titrant-Analyte Relationships atEquivalence pointSome Useful Relationships20xHA + yBOH = H2O + B-AAt equivalence point:Molar approach: moles A = moles B * (x/y)Equivalents approach: equiv. A = equiv. B J. Garcia 2011211/12/2012Calc
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
1/12/201219Titrant-Analyte Relationships atEquivalence pointSome Useful Relationships20xHA + yBOH = H2O + B-AAt equivalence point:Molar approach: moles A = moles B * (x/y)Equivalents approach: equiv. A = equiv. B J. Garcia 2011211/12/2012Calc
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
72*Standard solution (standard titrant)1. accurate known conc. : 4 significant figures2. stable3. stoichiometric reaction : whole-number ratio4. rapid and quantitatively complete reaction : 99.9 %*Titration*Direct titration*Back-titration, residua
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
72*Standard solution (standard titrant)1. accurate known conc. : 4 significant figures2. stable3. stoichiometric reaction : whole-number ratio4. rapid and quantitatively complete reaction : 99.9 %*Titration*Direct titration*Back-titration, residua
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
J. Garcia 20121Introduction totitrimetry2/2/1202:45:02 PMconcepts and calculationsJonyl L. GarciaDefinition of Terms2TitrimetryJ. Garcia 2012Includes a group of analyticalmethods based on determiningthe quantity of a reagent ofknown concent
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
J. Garcia 20121Introduction totitrimetry2/2/1202:45:02 PMconcepts and calculationsJonyl L. GarciaDefinition of Terms2TitrimetryJ. Garcia 2012Includes a group of analyticalmethods based on determiningthe quantity of a reagent ofknown concent
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
13 Titrimetric Methods; Precipitation TitrimetryTitrimetric method: analytical procedures in which the amount of analyte isdetermined from the amount of a standard reagent required to react withthe analyte completely.Three types of quantitative titrim
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
13 Titrimetric Methods; Precipitation TitrimetryTitrimetric method: analytical procedures in which the amount of analyte isdetermined from the amount of a standard reagent required to react withthe analyte completely.Three types of quantitative titrim
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211
Abu Dhabi University - CHEM - 211