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4 Pages

### hw5-sol

Course: PHYSICS 444, Fall 2010
School: Rutgers
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Word Count: 1156

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444 Solutions Ph for Problem Set 6 1. (Ryden 7.5) The flux, f , received from a standard candle of luminosity L is (Ryden equation 7.21) L f= , (1) 4d2 L where dL is the luminosity distance. The angular diameter, , of a standard yardstick of size is (Ryden equation 7.33) = , da (2) where da is the angular diameter distance. Thus, the surface brightness, , of an object that is both a standard candle and a...

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Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Solutions for Numerical Assignment 11. The particle horizon at the time t is calculated by taking each interval of proper distance, cdt , covered by a photon between t and t + dt , increasing it by the expansion of the universe between t and t, a(
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Solutions for Problem Set 51. (Ryden 5.4) The proper distance today to a galaxy with redshift z in a flat, singlecomponent universe with an equation of state defined by the parameter w is given by equation (5.54) from Ryden: dp (t0 ) = c H0 2 1 +
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Solutions for Problem Set 41. (Ryden 4.2) The acceleration of the universe is governed by equation (4.64) from Ryden: 4G a = - 2 ( + 3P ) + . (1) a 3c 3 Initially only a density of non-relativistic matter is present. Non-relativistic matter has P
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Solutions for Problem Set 32 1. The critical energy density is c = 3H0 /(8Gc2 ) and so the critical density is 2 c = 3H0 /(8G). The uncertainty in the critical density isc = c cc H0 = H0 H0 H0 = 2 H02 3H0 6H0 H0 = H0 8G 8G(1) (2)I find that f
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Blk imgPOSSII.F.DSS2.443N1'12:59:48.72 +27:58:49.3 / 13.12' x 12.92'EBlink sequence by AladinProduced by Aladin (Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg)http:/aladin.u-strasbg.frBlk img2MASS.K.000128N_KI1120173N1'12:59:48.72 +27:58:49.3
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Solutions for Problem Set 11. (Ryden 2.2) To decide how far one can see on average in a universe filled with spherical objects of radius R, it is simplest to think of a long cylinder along the line of sight. If an object is closer than R to the li
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 8Due: Tuesday, November 30, 20101. Ryden problem 10.1 (Suppose the neutron decay time were n = 89 s instead of n = 890 s . . . ) 2. Ryden problem 10.2 (Suppose the difference in rest energy of the neutron and proton were Qn = (mn - mp
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 7Due: Friday, November 19, 20101. Ryden problem 9.3 (Imagine that at the time of recombination, the baryonic portion of the universe consisted entirely of 4 He. . . ) A slightly tricky point here is what to use for nbaryon when calcul
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 6Due: Friday, November 12, 20101. (Ryden problem 7.5) The surface brightness of an astronomical object is defined as its observed flux divided by its observed angular area; thus, f /()2 . For a class of objects that are both standard
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Numerical Assignment 1Due: Friday, November 5, 2010The fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provide some of our most powerful constraints on the properties of the universe. We will see later in the course that an import
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 5Due: Friday, October 15, 20101. Ryden problem 5.4. 2. Ryden problem 6.3. 3. In class this week, I presented an interesting derivation for a flat, dust-filled Universe of the proper distance of a photon as a function of time that orig
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 4Due: Friday, October 8, 20101. Ryden problem 4.2. Assume that the value of is held fixed as some nonrelativistic matter is turned into radiation. 2. Ryden problem 5.2. Note that in this problem, the source of light remains at a fixed
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 3Due: Friday, October 1, 20101. Calculate the critical mass density and its uncertainty using the current best estimate of the Hubble constant, H0 = 70.6 1.8 km s-1 Mpc-1 . 2. The Millennium Galaxy Catalog yields a local luminosity de
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 2Due: Tuesday, September 21, 20101. A simple model for the lumpiness of the universe is that all of the matter is collected into clumps, each of mass mc , with a number density nc . These clumps could represent galaxies, clusters of g
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 444
Ph 444Problem Set 1Due: Tuesday, September 14, 20101. Ryden problem 2.2 2. Ryden problem 2.4 3. Ryden problem 2.5 4. As discussed in lecture, the number of galaxies per unit area on the sky as a function of magnitude is one way to test for the the homo
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Physics H7C Fall 1999Solutions to Problem Set 7Derek KimballAbove the front door of Niels Bohr's cottage was nailed a horseshoe. A visitor who saw it exclaimed: &quot;Being as great a scientist as you are, do you really believe that a horseshoe above the en
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Solution 2.19 a) At what distance is the amplitude down by a factor of exp(-1)? exp(-alpha*distance) = exp(-1) alpha * distance = 1 distance = 1/alpha, where alpha = (2*pi/lambda) * sqrt[sin(pi/4)^2 - n^2], lambda = 500 nm, n = n2/n1 = 1/1.5 alpha = 0.002
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 301
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 140
Physics 140 (Spring 2012) - The Greenhouse EffectHomework 1 - Due January 30, 20121) Determine the amount of thermal energy of a half liter of water. Hint: you may want to use the fact that one mole of water has a mass of 18 grams. 2) Determine the amou
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 140
Physics 140 Lecture 4The Temperature History of the EarthJan. 30, 20121Saturday, February 4, 12Announcements1) For next lecture please read: Dire Predictions - pp. 62-75 Beyond Smoke and Mirrors - pp. 16-26 (chapter 3) 2) I will be away for the next
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 140
Physics 140 Lecture 3Greenhouse GasesJan. 25, 20121Sunday, January 29, 12Announcements1) For next lecture please read: Dire Predictions - pp. 32-47 Beyond Smoke and Mirrors - pp. 27-33 (chapter 4) 2) First homework assignment is due on Monday2Sund
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 140
Physics 140 Lecture 2Blackbody RadiationJan. 23, 20121Sunday, January 29, 12Announcements1) By midnight tonight the first homework assignment will be posted on the course web site: http:/ /physics.rutgers.edu/ugrad/140/ 2) The lectures notes are now
Rutgers - PHYSICS - 140
Physics 140 Lecture 1IntroductionJan. 18, 20121Saturday, January 21, 12Announcements1) Check out the updated course web site: http:/ /physics.rutgers.edu/ugrad/140/ You'll find all of the course information there: syllabus (soon) lecture notes hom
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 300:04
Chapter 6Effects of tariffs on asmall country:-always reduces the welfare of a small countryLarge country: ambiguous (may increase, decrease, or do nothing)CONSUMER SURPLUS AND DEMAND CURVE-above market price &amp; below the demand curve-at a higher pr
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 300:04
Chapter 9Economic IntegrationFree trade protectionism (restricted trade) trade liberalization bilateral, trilateral, and multilateral tradeNegotiation: Profilferation of RTAs (regional trade agreements)Stages of Economic Integration-from narrow to
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 300:04
Chapter 7: Nontariff BarriersNontariff Barriers (NTB): regulations &amp; restrictions covering international tradeQuota: a direct restriction on the quantity of a good imported/exported-simplest and most direct form of NTBQuota rents: revenue generated by
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
Demand, Supply, and the meaning of Economic Life (chap 2,3)Chapter 2: The Modern Mixed Economy-Mixed economy: a combination of private enterprise working throughthe marketplace and government regulation, taxation, and programs.-A market is a mechanism
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
1. Economic Issues (Chap 1)-Economics is the study of how societies use scarce resources toproduce valuable goods and services and distribute them amongdifferent individuals.-Scarcity: limited resources-Efficiency: most effective use of a societys re
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
Chapter 3: Basic Elements of Supply and DemandThe Demand Schedule-There exists a definite relationship between the market price of agood and the quantity demanded of that good, other things heldconstant.-Law of downward-sloping demand: When the price
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
The Short Run Keynesian Aggregate Supply and Demand Model (chapter 4)The Birth of Macroeconomics-Three central questions of macroeconomics1. Why do output and employment sometimes fall, and how canunemployment be reduced?2. What are the sources of pr
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
National Income Accounting (chapter 5)Gross Domestic Product-The gross domestic product is the most comprehensive measure of anations total output of goods and services. It is the sum of thedollars values of consumption ( C ), gross investment (I), go
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
The Short-Run Keynesian Model (Chapter 6+7)Chapter 6 (Consumption and Investment)-Consumption: expenditures by households on final goods and services-Saving: part of personal disposable income that is not consumedConsumption, income, and saving-Perso
Rutgers - MACROECON - 103
Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Keynesian SR Model(chapt 7D, 10A+B)Impact of Taxation on Aggregate Demand-Extra taxes lower our disposable incomes, and lower dispoasbleincomes tend to reduce our consumption spending.Fiscal Policy Multipliers-The g
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 220:102
Chapter 1Ten Principles of Economics1. People face trade-offsefficiency - the property of society getting the most it can from itsscarce resourcesequality - the proprety of distributing economic prosperity uniformlyamong the members of societyTrade
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 220:102
Chapter 2The Economist As Scientist-economists plays two roles1. Scientists: try to explain the world2. Policy advisors: try to improve it-first, economists employ the scientific methodThe Scientific Method: Observation, theory, and more obversation
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 220:102
Chapter 3-Absolute advantage: the ability to produce a good using fewer inputsthan the producer-Opportunity cost: whatever must be given up to obtain some item-Comparative Advantage: the ability to produce a good at a loweropportunity cost than anoth
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 220:102
Chapter 4-Markets: a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service-buyers determine the demand-sellers determine the supplyWhat is competition?-Competitive market: a market in which there are many buyers and manysellers so that each ha
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 220:102
Chapter 5The Elasticity of Demand-Elasticity: a measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded orquantity supplied to one of its determinantsThe Price Elasticity of Demand &amp; Its Determinants-Price Elasticity of Demand: A measure of how much the q
Rutgers - ECONOMICS - 220:102
Chapter 6-Price Controls:-Price ceiling: a legal maximum on the price of a good or a service.(example: rent control)Chapter 21The Budget Constraint: What the Consumer can afford-People consume less than they desire because their spending isconstrai
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Confucianism-294concept of reverence for authority. The Chinese created administrative districts under military governors whose civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureaucratic concepts that underlined respect for authority. The political &amp; burea
Georgia Tech - HTS - 3015
Lyndon Johnson's &quot;Great Society&quot;-a set of domestic programs. 2 main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, &amp; trans
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Prince Norodom Sihanouk- The King of Cambodia from 1941 to 1955. When the Vietnam War raged, Sihanouk promoted policies that he claimed to preserve Cambodia's neutrality &amp; most importantly security. While he in many cases sided w/his neighbors, pressures
Georgia Tech - HTS - 3015
Vietnamese Nationalism o Ancient People 208 B.C. Trien Da (Founder of the Vietnamese people) Nam Viet = Land of the Southern Viet 100 B.C. Han Chinese takeover o Consequences Confucianism (Mandarin Class) Buddhism o &quot;Annam&quot; (&quot;Pacified South&quot;) Produce har
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