Sport Psychology Lecture 6
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Sport Psychology Lecture 6

Course Number: APK 3400, Spring 2011

College/University: University of Florida

Word Count: 931

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Sport Psychology Lecture 6-1 A. Feedback, Reinforcement, & Intrinsic Motivation I. What is reinforcement? II. Positive and negative ways to influence behavior III. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards IV. Ways to increase intrinsic motivation B. Reinforcement I. Positive reinforcement 1. The process by which doing something results in a pleasant consequence 2. Example: kids learn when they win the game...

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Psychology Lecture Sport 6-1 A. Feedback, Reinforcement, & Intrinsic Motivation I. What is reinforcement? II. Positive and negative ways to influence behavior III. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards IV. Ways to increase intrinsic motivation B. Reinforcement I. Positive reinforcement 1. The process by which doing something results in a pleasant consequence 2. Example: kids learn when they win the game they can go celebrate at McDonalds II. Negative reinforcement 1. The removal of a consequence that increases the frequency of a targeted behavior 2. Example: making 90% of front end free throws, don't have to run wind sprints after practice III. Positive reinforcement is healthy 1. Athletes know when they are wrong 2. Doesn't always work (intrinsic reasons), use negative reinforcement or punishment C. Punishment I. The process by which people are reinforced to avoid a behavior due to the unpleasant consequences that result from that behavior 1. Goal of punishment is to decrease the frequency of a targeted behavior II. Type I punishment: a response is punished by adding an aversive stimulus (a brief electric shock, for example) D. Keys to Positive Reinforcement I. Choose effective reinforcers 1. Both intrinsic (pride, enjoyment) and extrinsic depending on needs II. Select behaviors to reward: not always winning 1. Reward successful approximations (shaping): getting close to the desired results but not entirely there yet: keep doing it, you're getting there! 2. Reward performance (not outcome): one of your best performances ever! 3. Reward effort: you really tried hard 4. Reward emotional and social skills: need people who are leaders and integraters E. The Importance of Feedback I. Benefits: 1. Benchmark for performance 2. Motivational factor II. Drawbacks: 1. Too much is detrimental 2. Provide only contingent, sincere, feedback F. Drawbacks of Punishment I. Punishment works! 1. But: a. Choke under pressure Arouses fear of failure Paralysis by analysis b. Acts as a reinforcer: gives athletes attention that isn't necessarily positive c. Hinders the learning of skills G. Guidelines for Using Punishment I. Be consistent: punish the star for the same infractions as the bench warmer II. Punish behavior: don't imply they are a bad person III. Allow athlete's input: everyone is on board with punishments for certain infractions (missing curfew, drugs, etc.) and the punishments don't change IV. Do not use physical activity: associating physical activity with something bad, negative emotion transfers to something you look forward to doing...also, the physical activity doesn't have to do with fixing the mistake V. Make sure punishment not seen as reward VI. Do not embarrass in front of team (do not punish while playing) 1. Don't want the athlete to be afraid of failing, paralysis by analysis 2. Don't want them to feel like they have a character flaw Lecture 6-2 A. Implementing Behavioral Programs I. Target the behaviors II. Define the targeted behaviors: what do you want the athlete to do? III. Record the behaviors: what is the athlete doing Provide right/wrong? IV. meaningful feedback: how can things be improved? V. State the outcomes clearly: where did you start, where are you now, where do you want to be? VI. Tailor the reward system to eventually be internally driven: tap the pride B. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motives I. Intrinsic: 1. Strive inwardly to be competent and self-determining 2. Participate for the love of the sport II. Extrinsic: 1. Strive to achieve rewards from other people or things 2. Participate for the love of stuff III. Is the interaction between the two additive or undermining? Lecture 6-3 A. The Interaction of the Two I. Additive Property 1. A combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards is ideal II. Undermining 1. The more extrinsically motivated the person becomes, the less intrinsically motivated they become III. Key 1. The perception of the external reward B. Does extrinsic motivation undermine intrinsic? I. Deci & Ryan 1. Controlling aspect 2. Informational Aspect C. Cognitive Evaluation Theory I. Controlling Aspect 1. Decreases intrinsic motivation 2. People feel controlled by the reward 3. The reason for participating resides outside of the person II. Informational Aspect 1. Can either decrease or increase intrinsic motivation 2. Increases if it provides positive information about competence 3. Decrease if decreasing feelings of competency III. The way intrinsic motivation is influenced is dependent on the perception of the reward D. Examples From Sport I. Scholarships 1. Informational aspect as a confirmation of competence 2. But: 1. The controlling aspect of the scholarship becomes overbearing II. Success and Failure 1. High informational value of competence especially for males 2. Amount of influence also depends on the focus the subjective vs objective outcome E. Increasing Intrinsic Motivation I. Provide for successful experiences II. Give rewards contingent on performances III. Use verbal and non-verbal praise IV. Vary content and sequence of drills: gives everyone the chance to demonstrate competence V. Involve participants in decision making: avoiding sense of doing things because you have to VI. Set realistic performance goals F. Flow I. A holistic sensation when people feel they are totally involved in an activity 1. Essential elements: 1. Complete absorption in the activity 2. Merging action and awareness 3. Loss of self-consciousness 4. Sense of control 5. No extrinsic goals 6. Effortless movement 2. Flow state vs. the zone 1. Flow state doesn't necessarily involve success or high level performance, while the zone involves major success G. Controllability of Flow States I. Research with athletes indicates that they cannot control flow II. Athletes do report that they can increase the probability of flow occurring H. How do we achieve flow? I. Positive mental attitude II. Positive precompetitive and competitive affect III. Maintaining appropriate focus: task relative focus IV. Physical readiness I. Flow Zone I. II. Low skill level, high challenge is bad; high skill and low challenge is also bad III. Jimmy Johnson flow video

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