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14 CHAPTER 3: CELLULAR FORM AND FUNCTION Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 3 investigates the next level in the organizational hierarchy of the organism: the cells organelles, membranes, cytoskeleton, and inclusions. These cell parts are organized from aggregations of different types of polymers: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The chapter encompasses a discussion of the functions of each of the major organelles as well as that of the plasma membrane. The author details many aspects of the functions of the cell membrane, especially cross-membrane transport mechanisms. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: the historical development of the cell theory; modern insights into the cell theory as these have accompanied technological improvements; the components of the plasma membrane and their functions, especially phospholipids and proteins; the nature and functions of the glycocalyx, cytoskeleton, and cell surface extensions; passive mechanisms for cross-membrane transport particularly diffusion, osmosis, channels, facilitated diffusion, and carriers; the concept of second messengers is introduced; active transport mechanisms, including symport and antiport systems, cotransport, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and exocytosis; and the functions in brief of the organelles such as the nucleus, ribosomes, Golgi complex, lysosomes, mitochondria, and centrioles. Transparencies Topics for Discussion 1. What are the different patterns of cross-membrane transportation? 2. How will the particular cross-membrane transport mechanism vary depending upon whether a material is water soluble, fat soluble, or insoluble? 3. List some everyday examples of diffusion.... View Full Document

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