CH08
76 Pages

CH08

Course Number: MGMT 000, Spring 2011

College/University: DeVry Fremont

Word Count: 18667

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CHAPTER 8 MARKETING RESEARCH: FROM CUSTOMER INSIGHTS TO ACTIONS Test Item Table by Major Section of the Chapter and Level of Learning Level of Learning Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,170 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) Test Screenings: Listening to Consumers to Reduce Movie...

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8 MARKETING CHAPTER RESEARCH: FROM CUSTOMER INSIGHTS TO ACTIONS Test Item Table by Major Section of the Chapter and Level of Learning Level of Learning Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,170 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) Test Screenings: Listening to Consumers to Reduce Movie Risks (pp. 197-199) The Role of Marketing Research (pp. 199-200) Step 1: Define the Problem (pp. 200-202) Step 2: Develop the Research Plan (pp. 202-204) Step 3: Collect Relevant Information (pp. 204-218) 7 12,171 11,13 14,15,16,17,22,23,24,28, 29,30,31,36,40,172,173 44,45,48,49,51,54,55,57,60 , 175 68,69,70,76,86,89,92,94, 100,104,107,110,114,118, 122,125,130,131,133,135, 148,149,152,153,158 18,20,32,33,34,35,39,174 19,21,25,26,27,37,38 41,43,50,52,53,59 42,46,47,56,58,61,62,63 64,67,73,79,80,81,82,83,84, 85,88,89,105,106,108,109, 113,117,121,124,132,142, 144,145,147,150,151,176, 177,178,179,180,181,182,183 160,161,162,163,164 65,66,71,72,74,75,77,78,90,91, 93,95,96,97,98,99,101,102, 103,111,112,115,116,119,120, 123,126,127,128,129,134,136, 137,138,139,140,141,143,146, 154,155,156,157,159 Step 4: Develop Findings (pp. 218-219) Step 5: Take Marketing Actions (pp. 220) Video Case: Ford Consulting Group, Inc. (pp. 222-223) 165,167,184,185 166 168,169 Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions. 40 CHAPTER 8 MARKETING RESEARCH: FROM CUSTOMER INSIGHTS TO ACTIONS Test Item Table by Learning Objective and Level of Learning Level of Learning Learning Objective Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms and Facts) 7 Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12,170,171 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 11,13 Identify the reason for conducting marketing research. Describe the five-step marketing research approach that leads to marketing actions. Explain how secondary and primary data are used in marketing. Discuss the uses of observations, questionnaires, panels, and experiments. Explain how information technology and data mining link massive amounts of marketing information to meaningful marketing actions. 14,15,16,17,22,23,24,28, 29,30,31,36,40,44,45,48, 49,51,54,55,57,60,172,173 , 175 68,69,70,76 18,20,32,33,34,35,39,41,43, 50,52,53,59,174 19,21,25,26,27,37,38,42, 46,47,56,58,61,62,63 64,67,73,79,80,81,82,83,84, 176 65,66,71,72,74,75,77,78 86,87,92,94,100,104,107, 110,114,118,122,125,130, 131,133,135 148,149,152,153,158 85,88,89,105,106,108,109, 113,117,121,124,132,142,144, 145,147,177,178,179,180,181 150,151,160,161,163,164, 165,167,182,183,184,185 90,91,93,95,96,97,98,99, 101,102,103,111,112,115, 116,119,120,123,126,127, 128,129,134,136,137,138, 139,140,141,143,146 154,155,156,157,159,162, 166 Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions. 41 CHAPTER 8 MARKETING RESEARCH: FROM CUSTOMER INSIGHTS TO ACTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 8-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL Field of Dreams and Million Dollar Baby were both movies that a. had no marketing research done before they were released. b. contained no product placement advertising. c. used subliminal advertising. d. were based on novels. e. had modifications made after marketing research was conducted on them. Register to View AnswerPage: 197 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Shoeless Joe and Rope Burns were the original titles. However, these titles confused audiences and were changed after marketing research. 8-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL Filmmakers want movie titles that use basically the same factors that make a good brand name. These include a. concise with no legal restriction. b. the use of alliteration in the title. c. subtle messages the moviegoer can learn from. d. cast approval. e. All of the above are factors that contribute to good movie titles. Register to View AnswerPage: 197 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketing research on movie titles and plots is more important than ever to get and keep consumers' attention. 42 8-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL Today's films average more than $100 million to produce and market. How do filmmakers recoup these costs? a. Movies appeal only to U.S. audiences, which will pay more to see a movie. b. Movies must generate a significant portion of their revenues from DVD sales or rentals. c. Filmmakers try to avoid multiple-episode series as these usually lose money. d. Filmmakers release the movies on exactly the same day around the world. e. Filmmakers do all of the above to recoup the costs. Register to View AnswerPage: 197 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Today's films average more than $100 million to produce and market. To recoup these staggering costs, movies must (1) appeal to both U.S. and international audiences, which now account for the majority of a movie's gross ticket sales, and (2) generate a significant portion of their revenues from DVD sales or rentals and digital downloads. Additionally, some studios try to reduce their new-movie gambles by creating a multiple-episode film series. They also stagger the global release dates to coincide with school holidays in local countries, instead of premiering their movies on the same day as the U.S. launch. 8-4 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about test screenings are true? a. 300 to 400 prospective moviegoers attend a "sneak preview" of a film before its release. b. After viewing the movie, the audience fills out a survey. c. Sometimes the movie is changed based on the results of the test screening. d. Even test screenings can't guarantee success. e. All of the above statements are true about test screenings. Register to View AnswerPage: 198 - 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Movie studios use market research to reduce their risk of losses by hiring firms like the National Research Group to conduct test screenings and tracking studies. 300 to 400 prospective moviegoers are recruited to attend a "sneak preview" of a film before its release. After viewing the movie, the audience fills out an exhaustive survey to critique the title, plot, characters, music, and ending as well as the marketing program to identify improvements to make in the final edit of the movie. The questions asked on the survey suggest specific changes, which are sometimes made based on this market research. However, even test screenings can't guarantee success. 43 8-5 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL Movie studios use tracking studies, in which prospective moviegoers are asked questions about an upcoming film release to help them forecast sales. This is an example of a. movie advertising. b. marketing research. c. tactical support. d. cross-movie research. e. movie audits. Register to View AnswerPage: 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Studios then use the data collected to forecast the movie's opening weekend box office sales; if necessary, they run last-minute ads to increase its awareness and interest--the "buzz" or word of mouth for the film. In some cases, a studio may postpone or advance a movie's release date, depending on the results for other movies scheduled for release at that time. 8-6 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL Concept tests of plots using surveys, testing of marketing campaigns, sneak previews, and tracking studies are all examples of a. marketing decision theory. b. SWOT analyses. c. marketing research techniques. d. target audience identification techniques. e. surveys of experts. Register to View AnswerPage: 197 - 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: These are all examples of marketing research methods used in the movie industry. They are used to reduce uncertainty and to improve marketing decisions. 8-7 THE ROLE OF MARKETING RESEARCH DEFINITION The process of defining a marketing problem and opportunity, systematically collecting and analyzing information, and recommending actions is called a. market decision analysis. b. statistical analysis. c. marketing research. d. SWOT analysis. e. concept testing. Register to View AnswerPage: 199 LO: 1 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--marketing research Other Location: web 44 FIGURE 8-1 8-8 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL When conducting marketing research on people attending a movie test screening, why would you ask this question before the test screening: "How old are you?" a. to find people who fit the profile of the target audience for the movie b. to find people who frequently attend movies c. to understand why the movie title should be changed d. to change aspects of some characters e. to do all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-1 shows that the action and use of this question is to find people who fit the profile of the target audience for the movie. 8-9 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL When conducting marketing research on people attending a movie test screening, why would you ask this question before the test screening: "How frequently do you pay to see movies?" a. to find people who fit the profile of the target audience for the movie b. to find people who frequently attend movies c. to understand why the movie title should be changed d. to change aspects of some characters e. to do all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-1 shows that the action and use of this question is to find people who frequently attend movies. 45 8-10 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS CONCEPTUAL When conducting marketing research on people attending a movie test screening, why would you ask this question before the test screening: "Would you recommend the movie to a friend?" a. to find people who fit the profile of the target audience for the movie b. to find people who frequently attend movies c. to understand why the movie title should be changed d. as an overall indicator of liking and/or satisfaction with the movie e. to do all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-1 shows that the action and use of this question is as an overall indicator of liking and/or satisfaction with the movie. 8-11 THE ROLE OF MARKETING RESEARCH APPLICATION Grape-Nuts was one of the first cereals Post Cereal Company ever marketed. It scores well in brand-awareness, but recently its sales have been steadily declining. Rather than assume the product was a dog, the Grape-Nuts marketing manager decided Post Cereal Company should first a. hire a consultant. b. engage in marketing research. c. spend more dollars on advertising. d. hire more salespeople. e. develop new cereals. Register to View AnswerPage: 199 LO: 1 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketing research is the process of defining a marketing problem and opportunity, systematically collecting and analyzing information, and recommending actions. Post Cereals recognized a serious marketing problem existed--sales were declining. However, it didn't know what the factors causing the decline. It needed more information to learn the cause of the sales decline and how to reverse the trends. 8-12 THE ROLE OF MARKETING RESEARCH CONCEPTUAL The broad goal of __________ is to identify and define both marketing problems and opportunities and to generate and improve marketing actions. a. advertising b. sales promotion c. publicity d. marketing research e. tactical support Register to View AnswerPage: 199 - 200 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The broad goal of marketing research is to identify and define both marketing problems and opportunities and to generate and improve marketing actions. 46 8-13 THE ROLE OF MARKETING RESEARCH APPLICATION The Book Promoters Association of Canada members recently questioned what could be done to rejuvenate the Canadian book publishing industry. Some members claimed the problem was Canadian retailers had been replaced by Wal-Marts. Others said the problem was with stodgy promotions. Still others said the problem was caused by too little money being budgeted to fund marketing programs. It was time that Canadian book publishers used __________ to save the industry. a. advertising b. sales promotion c. publicity d. marketing research e. tactical support Register to View AnswerPage: 199 - 200 LO: 1 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The Canadian publishers could use marketing research to identify and define both marketing problems and opportunities and to generate and improve marketing action. 8-14 DECISION DEFINITION A decision is a. a conscious choice to select the only possible alternative. b. a conscious choice between one positive alternative and all other negative alternatives. c. a conscious choice from among two or more alternatives. d. an unconscious choice of the alternative which presents the least amount of risk. e. an unconscious choice of the alternative which presents the greatest possible assurance of success. Register to View AnswerPage: 200 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--decision 8-15 DECISION A conscious choice made from among two or more alternatives is called a a. dilemma. b. quandary. c. decision. d. paradox. e. predicament. Register to View AnswerPage: 200 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--decision AACSB: 3 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG DEFINITION 47 8-16 DECISION MAKING The act of consciously choosing from alternatives is called a. a dilemma. b. a quandary. c. decision making. d. a paradox. e. a predicament. Register to View AnswerPage: 200 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--decision making AACSB: 3 DEFINITION 8-17DECISION MAKING DEFINITION Decision making is a. the act of consciously choosing to select the only possible alternative. b. the act of consciously choosing between one positive alternative and all other negative alternatives. c. the act of consciously choosing from alternatives. d. the act of unconsciously choosing the alternative which presents the least amount of risk. e. the act of unconsciously choosing the alternative which presents the greatest possible assurance of success. Register to View AnswerPage: 200 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--decision making 8-18 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL FIVE-STEP APPROACH TO MAKING DECISIONS Which of the following is NOT a step in the decision-making (or problem-solving) process? a. collect relevant information b. identify market research methods c. take marketing actions d. develop the research plan e. define the problem Register to View AnswerPage: 201; Fig. 8-2 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The five step marketing research approach includes define the problem, develop the research plan, collect relevant information by specifying secondary and primary data, develop findings, take marketing actions. 48 8-19 FIVE-STEP APPROACH TO MAKING DECISIONS APPLICATION Watch was a teen publication given out free to high school students, but the publication was unable to deliver the response rates to coupons or sample offers that its advertisers expected. After defining the problem, its publisher developed a research plan, gathered information from teen focus groups, analyzed the findings, and replaced Watch magazine with Fuel for boys and Verve for girls. How would a marketer judge the publisher's actions? a. Why fix something that is not broken? The magazine was still attracting some advertisers. b. It made a big deal out of a small decline--a few copy changes would have been enough. c. The approach it took was too complicated and costly to provide an effective solution to the problem. d. It took a systematic approach to analyzing the problem and responding to its advertisers' concerns. e. This publisher is using an approach that works for corporations but will just waste time for a small publisher. Register to View AnswerPage: 201; Fig. 8-2 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The five step marketing research approach includes define the problem, develop the research plan, collect relevant information by specifying secondary and primary data, develop findings, take marketing actions. People (or organizations) who do not use some kind of system--many do not--make poor decisions. The use of the five-step marketing research approach led to marketing actions that should help the magazine publisher's credibility with its advertisers. 8-20 DEFINE THE PROBLEM CONCEPTUAL When the researchers at Fisher-Price get children to play at its state-licensed nursery school in East Aurora, New York and watch the children use, and abuse, its toys, the researchers are in which stage of the five-step marketing research approach? a. determining the target market. b. collecting relevant information. c. defining the problem. d. defining the alternatives and uncertainties. e. developing and implementing the plan. Register to View AnswerPage: 201; Fig. 8-2 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Step one in the marketing research approach is to define the problem, in this case, to determine whether to market old or new toy designs. 49 8-21 DEFINE THE PROBLEM APPLICATION Several years ago, SwissAir made some unwise investments to pay for a planned expansion. As a result, the company had to make some cost-cutting moves that alienated its customers. Eventually the company declared bankruptcy, regrouped, and found itself able to resume business. Its board of directors recently announced that the company would resume flying if it could prove that the airlines could regain at least 75 percent of its lost customers. It decided to allot $50,000 to determine the probability that its former customers would fly on the airline again and what methods requiring little or no money could be used to increase that probability. This description represents which stage in the marketing research approach? a. define the problem b. develop the research plan c. collect relevant information d. develop findings e. take marketing actions Register to View AnswerPage: 201; Fig. 8-2 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Step one defines the problem precisely, sets the research objectives, and identifies resulting marketing actions suggested by the research. 8-22 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES DEFINITION Research objectives are the a. restrictions placed on potential solutions by the nature of the research. b. criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solutions to the research. c. goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. d. conjecture about factors or situations that simplify the problem enough to allow it to be solved using the proposed research. e. specific goals an organization seeks to achieve and by which it can measure its performance. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Research objectives are specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. 8-23 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES DEFINITION During the marketing research process, __________ are the specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. a. measures of success b. research objectives c. marketing research plans d. decisions e. definitions Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: Research objectives are specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. 50 8-24 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES DEFINITION What is the marketing research term for the specific, measurable goals the decision-maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research? a. research risks b. research objectives c. research uncertainties d. research decisions e. research definitions Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Research objectives are specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. 8-25 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES APPLICATION Several years ago, SwissAir made some unwise investments to pay for a planned expansion. As a result, the company had to make some cost-cutting moves that alienated its customers. Eventually the company declared bankruptcy, regrouped, and found itself able to resume business. Its board of directors recently announced that the company would like to resume flying. Before resuming flying, SwissAir needed to determine what percentage of its former customers it could expect to return to the airline. If not enough former customers were willing to use SwissAir again, the resumption of flights would not be profitable. The determination of the percentage of returning patrons that would be needed to resume operation is an example of a(n) a. research risk. b. research objective. c. research uncertainty. d. research decision. e. research definition. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Research objectives are specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. In this case, the decision maker is trying to determine how many customers will return. 51 8-26 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES APPLICATION Since Procter & Gamble Co. acquired Old Spice in 1990 it has moved the brand from an inconsequential one to a powerhouse. P & G set a(n) __________ for Old Spice to become the nation's leading deodorant and antiperspirant for men. a. research objective b. constraint c. assumption d. measure of success e. alternative Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Research objectives are specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. In this case, the decision maker is trying to determine the extent to which a change in the marketing plan will change the brand's market share. 8-27 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES APPLICATION Which of the following is a typical marketing research objective? a. Determine how to increase sales revenue for Diet Coke by 10 percent within a year. b. Discover whether consumers that buy Pampers are aware of gender-specific disposables. c. Find out why the new line of plus-size clothing is not selling well. d. Determine whether to offer a new & improved version of an existing product. e. All of the above are typical marketing research objectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Other Location: web Rationale: Research objectives are specific, measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research. In this case, the decision makers are trying to determine how to increase sales revenue, whether consumers are aware of gender-specific disposables, why the new line of plus-size clothing is not selling well, and whether to offer a new & improved product. 8-28 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH __________ provide(s) ideas about a relatively vague problem. a. Research objectives b. Measures of success c. Exploratory research d. Descriptive research e. Causal research Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--exploratory research DEFINITION 52 8-29 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DEFINITION __________ involve(s) trying to find the frequency that something occurs or the extent of a relationship between two factors. a. Research objectives b. Measures of success c. Exploratory research d. Descriptive research e. Causal research Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--descriptive research 8-30 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DEFINITION __________ involve(s) trying to find the extent of a relationship between two factors. a. Research objectives b. Measures of success c. Exploratory research d. Descriptive research e. Causal research Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--descriptive research 8-31 CAUSAL RESEARCH DEFINITION __________ involve(s) trying to determine the extent to which the change in one factor changes another one. a. Research objectives b. Measures of success c. Exploratory research d. Descriptive research e. Causal research Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--causal research 8-32 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Which of the following is a main type of marketing research? a. exploratory b. expressive c. explanatory d. expressive e. eloquent Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: The three main types of marketing research are exploratory research, descriptive research, and causal research. AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 53 8-33 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES An interview is an example of which type of marketing research? a. descriptive b. explanatory c. exploratory d. causal e. concrete CONCEPTUAL Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Exploratory research provides ideas about a relatively vague problem. Interviews are a type of exploratory research. 8-34 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES CONCEPTUAL Obtaining data on the number of households that buy a particular product is an example of which type of marketing research? a. descriptive b. explanatory c. exploratory d. causal e. concrete Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Descriptive research generally involves trying to find the frequency that something occurs or the extent of a relationship between two factors. Obtaining data on the number of households that buy a particular product is descriptive research. 8-35 SET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES A test market is an example of which type of marketing research? a. descriptive b. explanatory c. exploratory d. causal e. concrete Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Causal research tries to determine the extent to which the change in one factor changes another one. Experiments and test markets are examples of causal research. CONCEPTUAL 54 8-36 MEASURES OF SUCCESS Measures of success are a. the goals the decision-maker seeks to achieve in solving a problem. b. criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solutions to a problem. c. approaches that can be used to collect data or solve the problem. d. very difficult to quantify. e. also called consumer differentiators. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--measures of success DEFINITION Other Locations: web APPLICATION 8-37 MEASURES OF SUCCESS Which of the following statements represents a possible measure of success in the "define the problem" stage of the marketing research process? a. You have three weeks and $10,000 to determine if it is going to be profitable to serve breakfast on weekdays or not. b. If three year olds like this, then it stands to reason four-year olds will like it even more. c. If observations show that children like Toy A more than Toy B in terms of hours spent playing with it, then we will move ahead with making Toy A. d. Let's identify the most cost effective method of advertising. e. Use mail questionnaires, not focus groups. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Measures of success are criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solutions to the problem. Hours spent playing with Toy A and Toy B are the measure of success for determining which toy to produce. 8-38 MEASURES OF SUCCESS APPLICATION When Home Depot entered the Quebec market, two percent of the population was aware of the retail chain. To determine how effective its advertising was in the first 18 months of its presence in the Canadian province, it conducted awareness research for a second time. Prior to conducting the research, it was decided that if at least 50 percent of the population were aware of the Home Depot brand that it would continue its present advertising program. This is an example of a(n) a. objective. b. constraint. c. assumption. d. measure of success. e. barrier to entry . Register to View AnswerPage: 201 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Measures of success are criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solutions to the problem. The results of the survey showed that more than 80 percent of the Quebecois had become aware of Home Depot so the advertising program was continued. 55 8-39 MEASURES OF SUCCESS CONCEPTUAL One test of whether marketing research should be done is a. whether different outcomes will lead to different marketing actions. b. whether different outcomes will lead to the unrelated marketing actions. c. using a jury of executive opinion to interpret the data. d. agreeing to take action only if the decision is unanimous. e. if top management has the final say on actions taken after research is completed. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: One test of whether marketing research should be done is if different outcomes will lead to different marketing actions. If all the research outcomes lead to the same action-- such as top management sticking with the former result regardless of what the research suggests, the research is useless and a waste of money. 8-40 MEASURES OF SUCCESS DEFINITION Effective decision makers develop specific __________, which are criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solutions to the problem. a. standards of accuracy b. measures of success c. measures of variability d. limits of consideration e. limits of probability Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--measures of success 8-41 DEVELOP THE RESEARCH PLAN Other Location: SG CONCEPTUAL After defining the problem, the next step in the marketing research process is to a. develop the research plan. b. evaluate the results. c. examine the alternatives. d. enumerate the uncertainties. e. experiment. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The second step of the five-step marketing research approach is to "Develop the Research Plan." This involves (1) specifying the constraints on the marketing research activity, (2) identifying the data needed for marketing decisions, and (3) determining how to collect the data. 56 8-42 DEVELOP THE RESEARCH PLAN APPLICATION The retail mall owner told the marketing researcher, "We have the option of staying open late twice a week, or opening up an hour early every day. We need to know which will be most profitable since we cannot do both. The decision must be made in 11 weeks, and we only have $10,000 budgeted for this research project." In which stage of the marketing research process would this statement have been made? a. define the problem b. develop the research plan c. collect relevant information d. develop findings and recommendations e. take marketing actions Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Other Location: web Rationale: The second stage of the research process is Develop the Research Plan. During the development of the research plan, constraints on the research activity, such as a length of 11 weeks and a budget of $10,000, would be specified. 8-43 SPECIFY CONSTRAINTS What are two common constraints in marketing problem solving? a. limitations on the time and money available b. limitations of personnel and office space c. limitations on access to upper and middle management d. limitations of the thinking and creativity of the firm's advertising agency e. government regulations and rights to privacy Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The constraints in a decision are the restrictions placed on potential solutions to a problem. Common constraints in marketing problems are limitations on the time and money available to solve the problem. 8-44 SPECIFY CONSTRAINTS DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL The restrictions placed on potential solutions to problem solving include limitations on time and money available. These restrictions are determined by the problem and are called a. dependent variables. b. regulations. c. risks. d. constraints. e. decision factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--constraints AACSB: 3 57 8-45 SPECIFY CONSTRAINTS DEFINITION The __________ in a decision are the restrictions placed on potential solutions to a problem. a. dependent variables b. constraints c. rules d. risks e. factors Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--constraints 8-46 SPECIFY CONSTRAINTS AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG APPLICATION DirectProtect is an insurance provider that uses telemarketers rather than insurance agents to sell its insurance and to deal with claims. It wants to introduce its product into new markets, but before it does so, it wants to have a prediction of how successful its sales efforts will be. The marketing research firm conducting the research study has six months to gather, analyze its data, and present them to DirectProtect. The required time frame is an example of a a. dependent variable. b. regulation. c. risk factor. d. constraint. e. decision factor. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Constraints are the restrictions placed on potential solutions to a problem. Common constraints in marketing problems are limitations on the time and money available to solve the problem. In this case, the marketing research firm had six months to present to DirectProtect. 8-47 SPECIFY CONSTRAINTS APPLICATION Penningtons Superstore specializes in plus-size fashions for women. It thought it recognized a marketing opportunity in plus-size junior clothes and was considering adding a line of teen plus-sizes to its 117 stores. Before doing so, it contracted with a marketing research firm to make sure that the teen plus-size market was a viable one. It told the research company it needed to have the results of its study by September so it could introduce the line in the following March if the market was viable. By requiring the results of the study by September, Pennington created a(n) __________ for the research firm. a. study factor b. constraint c. assumption d. measure of success e. risk factor Register to View AnswerPage: 202 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Constraints are the restrictions placed on potential solutions to a problem. Common constraints in marketing problems are limitations on the time and money available to solve the problem. In this case Penningtons put a time constraint on the research firm. 58 8-48 CONCEPTS In the world of marketing, __________ are ideas about products or services. a. concepts b. notions c. perceptions d. impressions e. theories Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--concepts AACSB: 3 DEFINITION 8-49 NEW-PRODUCT CONCEPT DEFINITION A picture or verbal description of a product or service a firm might offer for sale is known as a(n) a. hypothesis. b. proposition. c. new-product concept. d. alternative. e. opportunity. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--new-product concept 8-50 NEW-PRODUCT CONCEPT CONCEPTUAL Fisher-Price managers developed a(n) __________ for the Chatter Telephone that involved adding a noisemaker, wheels, and eyes to the basic telephone. a. vision b. alternative c. hypothesis d. new-product concept e. opportunity Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: A new-product concept is a picture or verbal description of a product or service the firm might offer for sale. 59 8-51 METHODS DEFINITION The approaches that can be used to collect data to solve all or part of a marketing research problem are called a. market research proposals. b. marketing strategies. c. marketing tactics. d. SWOT analyses. e. methods. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--methods 8-52 METHODS AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG CONCEPTUAL Sampling and statistical inference are known as special __________, which are vital in marketing to solve all or part of a problem. a. systems b. styles c. manners d. modes e. methods Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Sampling and statistical inference are defined as special methods vital to marketing. 8-53 METHODS CONCEPTUAL The Journal of Marketing Research and the Journal of Marketing provide a. the latest data on consumer sales. b. the latest data on marketing expenditures. c. summaries of research methods and techniques valuable in addressing marketing problems. d. an in-depth list of marketing positions and opportunities. e. all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Some periodicals and technical journals such as Journal of Marketing Research and Journal of Marketing summarize methods and techniques valuable in addressing marketing problems. 60 8-54 SAMPLING The process of selecting representative elements from a population is called a. hypothesis generation. b. sampling. c. questionnaire research. d. experimental research. e. probability extrapolation. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--sampling AACSB: 3 DEFINITION 8-55 PROBABILITY SAMPLING DEFINITION Using precise rules to select a research sample such that each element of the population has a specific known chance of being selected is called a. nonprobability sampling. b. probability sampling. c. extrapolation. d. statistical inference. e. criteria sampling. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--probability sampling 8-56 PROBABILITY SAMPLING APPLICATION To create a sample using __________, a marketing researcher might say, "Put all of the 10,000 names through the computer, and select every hundredth name to put on the mailing list to receive a survey." a. nonprobability sampling b. probability sampling c. extrapolation d. statistical inference e. criteria sampling Register to View AnswerPage: 203 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: In probability sampling, precise rules are used to select a sample such that each element of the population has a specific known chance (one percent in this case) of being selected. 61 8-57 NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING DEFINITION Using arbitrary judgments to select the sample so that the chance of selecting a particular element may be unknown or zero is called a. nonprobability sampling. b. probability sampling. c. extrapolation. d. statistical inference. e. criteria sampling. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--nonprobability sampling 8-58 NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING APPLICATION A small retailer wanted to know whether people preferred additional morning or evening hours of operation. To collect the data the owner stood outside the shop and stopped the first 25 people who walked by. This is an example of a. nonprobability sampling. b. probability sampling. c. extrapolation. d. statistical inference. e. criteria sampling. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Nonprobability sampling is the selection of a sample using arbitrary judgments so the chance of selecting a particular element may be unknown or zero. By selecting the first 25 people who walked by many customers and non-customers have been arbitrarily excluded. This has introduced a bias that makes it dangerous to draw conclusions about the population from this geographically restricted sample. 8-59 NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about nonprobability sampling is most true? a. Many members of the population may be excluded. b. A limited time to collect data is available. c. A limited budget to collect data is available. d. Bias will be introduced. e. All of the above are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: When time and budget are limited, researchers may opt for nonprobability sampling. Many members of the population under study may be excluded, thus introducing bias that makes it dangerous to draw conclusions about the population from the sample. 62 8-60 STATISTICAL INFERENCE DEFINITION The method of __________ involves drawing conclusions about a population from a sample taken from that population. a. nonprobability sampling b. probability sampling c. extrapolation d. statistical inference e. criteria sampling Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--statistical inference 8-61 STATISTICAL INFERENCE APPLICATION The method of __________ involves drawing conclusions about every woman who wears a size 14 or larger in a particular zip code from a representative sample of 250 women who wear a size 14 or larger. a. probability sampling b. nonprobability sampling c. random sampling d. statistical inference e. interpolation Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The method of statistical inference involves drawing conclusions about a population (women who wear a size 14 or larger in a particular zip code) from a sample (250 women who wear a size 14 or larger) taken from that population. 8-62 STATISTICAL INFERENCE APPLICATION The National Health Interview Survey is conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. By examining information gathered from sampling it was able to announce that 14.1 percent of all Americans lacked healthcare insurance. To make this statement the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had to use a. bifurcated variables. b. no constraints. c. holistic sampling. d. statistical inference. e. interpolation. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Statistical inference is used to draw conclusions about a population (the universe of all people about which one wishes to generalize--Americans) from a sample (some elements of the universe--a smaller set of Americans) taken from that population. 63 8-63 STATISTICAL INFERENCE APPLICATION A company is interested in producing self-stick decorative posters. It draws a probability sample of high school students who currently have one or more standard posters on their walls, to try to make generalizations about what all students similar to these want in posters. This is an example of a. sensitivity analysis. b. single source data. c. extrapolation. d. statistical inference. e. criteria sampling. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 2 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Statistical inference is used to draw conclusions about a population (the universe of all people, stores, or salespeople about which they wish to generalize--high school students who hang standard posters on their walls) from a sample (some elements of the universe--the probability sample of these type of students) taken from that population. 8-64 COLLECT RELEVANT INFORMATION CONCEPTUAL After defining the problem and developing the research plan, the next step in the marketing research process is to a. collect relevant information. b. develop findings and recommendations. c. take marketing actions. d. plan the budget. e. identify the constraints on the process. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The third step in the five-step marketing research approach is Collect Relevant Information. 8-65 COLLECT RELEVANT INFORMATION APPLICATION GI Design is a small copper manufacturing studio, which designs and builds items such as fountains and tabletops made from copper. Greg, the owner, knew he had a problem of how to increase sales and profits, and developed a research plan to determine what landscape architects and interior designers wanted in copper furnishings and dcor and the appropriate price for these items. He decided to interview representative designers as part of this process. Greg was in the __________ step of the market research process. a. solving the problem b. developing the research plan c. collecting relevant information d. developing findings and recommendations e. taking marketing actions Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Step 3 in the marketing research decision process is to collect enough relevant information to make a rational, informed marketing decision. Greg was about to do this by interviewing designers to see what price to charge for items they prefer. 64 8-66 COLLECT RELEVANT INFORMATION APPLICATION Penningtons Superstore, which specializes in plus-size fashions for women, wanted to see if it should add a line of plus-size junior wear. The following statement reflects which step in the marketing research process? "To see which is more effective, offering products for this market in our current stores or opening separate stores targeted directly to the teenage market, let's distribute questionnaires to current shoppers and solicit their opinions, set up some focus groups with plus-size teens, and locate any relevant secondary research." a. define the problem b. develop the research plan c. collect relevant information d. develop findings and recommendations e. take marketing actions Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Step 3 in the five-step marketing research process is to collect enough relevant information to make a rational, informed marketing decision. In this case, the information will be collected using surveys, focus groups, and relevant secondary research. 8-67 DATA The two main types of data are a. independent and dependent. b. primary and secondary. c. conceptual and factual. d. extraneous and experimental. e. measurable and non-measurable. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: Data, the facts and figures related to the problem, are divided into two main parts: secondary data and primary data. 8-68 DATA __________ are the facts and figures related to the problem. a. Knowledge b. Data c. Variables d. Concepts e. Marketing recommendations Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--data LL: 1 AACSB: 3 DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL 65 8-69 SECONDARY DATA DEFINITION Secondary data are the a. facts and figures that are newly collected for the project at hand. b. facts and figures obtained by watching people mechanically rather than in person. c. facts and figures obtained by asking people questions. d. facts and figures that have already been recorded before the project. e. conclusions developed from information obtained from a representative sample of a population. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--secondary data 8-70 PRIMARY DATA Facts and figures that are newly collected for a project at hand are called a. internal secondary data. b. external secondary data. c. primary data. d. observational data. e. tertiary data. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--primary data 8-71 SECONDARY DATA AACSB: 3 APPLICATION AACSB: 3 Other Location: web DEFINITION Red Carpet Baby!, a children's accessory and toy store, uses U.S. Census information to determine the number of families with children under age 5 in its market area. It is using __________ research. a. proprietary b. primary c. secondary d. observational e. experimental Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Secondary data are facts and figures that have already been recorded before the project such as the U.S. Census data that is being used. 66 8-72 INTERNAL SECONDARY DATA APPLICATION All of the following are examples of internal secondary data EXCEPT a. Nielsen ratings reports for Minneapolis purchased by an organization. b. an organization's income statement and balance sheet for the current year. c. customer lists generated by the organization's marketing information system. d. studies conducted three years ago by the firm's market research department. e. monthly sales and customer contact reports developed by the organization's sales manager. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: Alternative A is an example of an external secondary data source, which came from outside the firm. Internal secondary data have already been collected and exist inside the business firm or other organization. 8-73 INTERNAL SECONDARY DATA CONCEPTUAL When a marketing researcher uses a collection of reports, financial statements, and surveys from different departments within her firm, she is using a. primary data. b. internal secondary data. c. external secondary data. d. sensitivity analysis. e. nonprobability data. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Internal secondary data have already been collected and exist inside a business firm or organization. 8-74 EXTERNAL SECONDARY DATA APPLICATION When Karsh & Hagan Advertising Agency uses information found in Nielsen Reports, published by the A.C. Nielsen Company, to plan television-advertising schedules for its clients, it is relying on __________ data. a. internal proprietary b. external primary c. external secondary d. observational e. internal secondary Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Secondary data are facts and figures that have already been recorded before the project at hand. External secondary data are published data from outside the organization such as that provided by the A.C. Nielsen Company. 67 8-75 EXTERNAL SECONDARY DATA APPLICATION According to research conducted by Canadian cultural anthropologists, Canadians place a high importance on personal relationships. This leads them to be extremely reluctant to buy through an impersonal medium like a telephone. For an insurance company that was hoping to sell insurance through telemarketers, this research would be an example of a. an objective. b. external secondary data. c. an assumption. d. internal data. e. a dependent variable. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: External secondary data are published data from outside the organization. In this case the data comes from a research study conducted by Canadian cultural anthropologists. 8-76 EXTERNAL SECONDARY DATA Published data from outside the organization are called __________ data. a. proprietary b. external primary c. external secondary d. internal primary e. external primary Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: External secondary data includes published data from outside the organization such as U.S. Census reports, trade association studies and magazines, business periodicals, and internet-based reports. 8-77 EXTERNAL SECONDARY DATA APPLICATION DEFINITION Which of the following is an example of external secondary data? a. a survey by the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture b. government statistics from the Department of Commerce c. statistics from the Wall Street Journal about the stock market d. specialized on-line computerized databases such as LexisNexis e. All of the above are examples of external secondary data. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: External secondary data is published data from outside the organization. 68 8-78 EXTERNAL SECONDARY DATA APPLICATION The Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information on topics from how many dairies there are in the U.S. to how much broccoli was eaten per person in 2010. This service provides a. internal primary data. b. nonprobability sampling tools. c. internal secondary data. d. external secondary data. e. external primary data. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: External secondary data is published data from outside the organization. 8-79 DATA SERVICES CONCEPTUAL Several marketing data services provide comprehensive information on household demographics and lifestyle, purchases, TV viewing behavior, and a. magazine and newspaper subscription rates. b. recreational activities like tennis and golf. c. responses to promotions like coupons and free samples. d. attendance at religious services, theater, and the like. e. ethnicity, culture, class, and first language. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Several data services provide comprehensive information on household demographics and lifestyle, product purchases, TV viewing behavior, and responses to coupon and free-sample promotions. Their principal advantage is the ability of one service to collect, analyze, interrelate, and present all this information. 8-80 ADVANTAGES OF SECONDARY DATA Two important advantages of secondary data are a. they are inexpensive and up-to-date. b. they are up-to-date and supply all relevant categories of information. c. they are usually inexpensive and save time. d. they are tailor-made to your specifications and relatively inexpensive. e. none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Two important advantages of secondary data are (1) the tremendous time savings if the data have already been collected and published or exist internally and (2) the low cost, such as free or inexpensive census reports. CONCEPTUAL 69 8-81 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SECONDARY DATA CONCEPTUAL A general rule of thumb among marketing researchers is to use __________ first and then collect _________. a. external secondary data, internal secondary data b. internal primary data, external primary data c. primary data, secondary data d. secondary data, primary data e. primary data, external secondary data Register to View AnswerPage: 205 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Other Location: web Rationale: Secondary data are less expensive and less time consuming. Furthermore, a greater level of detail is often available through secondary data, especially U.S. Census Bureau data. 8-82 GOING ONLINE CONCEPTUAL Information in on-line databases through the Internet divide into two categories: (1) indexes to articles in periodicals, and (2) a. primary data. b. statistical or financial data on markets, products, and organizations. c. observational data. d. internal statistical data. e. probability sampling data. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Information contained in online databases available via the Internet consists of indexes to articles in periodicals and statistical or financial data on markets, products, and organizations that are accessed either directly or via Internet search engines or portals through keyword searches. 8-83 GOING ONLINE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about on-line databases is true? a. On-line databases can be accessed via the Internet. b. Information in on-line databases is divided into two categories: (1) indexes to articles and (2) statistical and financial data. c. Some on-line databases are restricted to users who have paid a subscription fee. d. Online databases can be accessed directly or via Internet search engines. e. All of the above statements about on-line databases are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Information contained in online databases available via the Internet consists of indexes to articles in periodicals and statistical or financial data on markets, products, and organizations that are accessed either directly or via Internet search engines or portals through key word searches. Some of the online databases are accessible only if a user has paid a subscription fee. 70 8-84 GOING ONLINE CONCEPTUAL Online databases such as ProQuest and LexisNexis Academic provide information a. that relate to consumer activities. b. from periodicals. c. that has been excerpted from books. d. that applies to sports and lifestyles. e. from the U.S. Census Bureau. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 3 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: On-line databases of indexes, abstracts, and full-text information from journals and articles include LexisNexis Academic and ProQuest. 8-85 PRIMARY DATA CONCEPTUAL Observing people and asking them questions are the two principal ways to obtain a. primary data. b. internal secondary data. c. external secondary data. d. experimental independent variables. e. nonprobability data. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The two principal ways to collect new or primary data for a marketing study are by (1) observing people; and (2) asking them questions. 8-86 OBSERVATIONAL DATA DEFINITION Observational data are a. facts and figures newly collected for the project at hand. b. facts and figures obtained by watching people mechanically or in person. c. facts and figures obtained by asking people questions. d. facts and figures that have already been recorded before the project. e. conclusions developed from information obtained from a representative sample of a population. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--observational data 8-87 OBSERVATIONAL DATA AACSB: 3 DEFINITION Facts and figures obtained by watching, either mechanically or in person, how people actually behave are called __________ data. a. questionnaire b. observational c. hypothetical d. problematical e. secondary Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--observational data 71 AACSB: 3 8-88 OBSERVATIONAL DATA CONCEPTUAL Nielsen Media Research collects national TV ratings by using a "people meter." This box is attached to TV sets, VCRs, cable boxes, and satellite dishes in over 9,000 homes across the country. It has a remote that operates the meter when a viewer begins and finishes watching a TV program and transmits the viewing information to Nielsen Media Research. Nielsen Media Research is collecting __________ in this way. a. internal secondary data b. questionnaire c. sensitivity data d. external secondary data e. observational data Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Watching, either mechanically or in person, how people actually behave is the way marketing researchers collect observational data. Nielsen Media Research uses observational data. 8-89 OBSERVATIONAL DATA The purpose of Nielsen's A2/M2 Initiative is to a. "follow the video" of 21st century viewers. b. measure all types of TV viewing behavior. c. measure video on demand viewing behavior. d. measure Internet-delivered TV shows. e. to do all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 207 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The purpose of Nielsen's A2/M2 Initiative is to "follow the video" of 21 st century viewers. New "active/passive" people meter technology will measure all types of TV viewing behavior from a variety of devices and sources: DVR, VOD, Internet-delivered TV shows on computers via iTunes, streaming media, mobile media devices (cell phones, iPods, etc.) as well as outside the home in bars, fitness clubs, airports, etc. 8-90 OBSERVATIONAL DATA APPLICATION CONCEPTUAL Fisher Price watches young children play with their toys to determine if and how various toys should be changed or improved. Fisher Price is collecting __________ data. a. observational b. questionnaire c. interview d. on-site e. focus group Register to View AnswerPage: 206 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Observational data are facts and figures obtained by watching, either mechanically or in person, how people actually behave. Fisher Price watches the children play to collect facts about their toys. 72 8-91 PERSONAL OBSERVATION APPLICATION Shelly, the manager of a large grocery store, was concerned. She had received complaints from several customers who said they had been treated rudely by clerks at the store. In order to determine whether or not her clerks were indeed rude, Shelly hired a team of marketing researchers. The researchers posed as customers shopping in the store, but were actually taking notes and recording the actions of the store clerks. Later, Shelly reviewed those notes. The research notes Shelly reviewed were a form of __________ data. a. secondary b. developmental c. observational d. national e. conceptual Register to View AnswerPage: 208 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Some research questions are not readily answered via experimental or survey methods. When the behavior of people might change if they were aware their behavior was being studied, more subtle methods are necessary. In this instance, the store clerks would be unlikely to treat a customer rudely if the clerks were aware that their actions were being studied. The researchers in the example engaged in observational research and their notes, which were later reviewed by the store manager, served as observational data. 8-92 MYSTERY SHOPPER DEFINITION __________, posing as customers, are paid to check on the quality of a company's products and services and write a detailed report on the experience. a. client actors b. mystery shoppers c. secret customers d. customer spies e. customer actors Register to View AnswerPage: 208 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--mystery shopper AACSB: 3 73 8-93 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH APPLICATION Best Western International, Inc., a national hotel chain, paid couples to videotape themselves as they spent three to seven days on a cross-country trip. From this, Best Western found that women usually decide when to pull off the road and where to stay. These couples were encountering the hotel rooms in a "natural use environment," and so providing __________ research to Best Western. a. secondary b. developmental c. alternative d. ethnographic e. conceptual Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Ethnographic research is an observational approach in which anthropologists and other trained observers seek to discover subtle emotional reactions as consumers encounter products in their "natural use environment," such as in their home, car, or hotel. 8-94 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA DEFINITION The facts and figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes, awareness, intentions, and behaviors are called a. questionnaire data. b. secondary data. c. primary data. d. observational data. e. statistical inferences. Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--questionnaire data 8-95 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA AACSB: 3 APPLICATION Research and media firm Youth Culture published Watch magazine, a teen publication given out free to high school students, but the publication was unable to deliver response rates to coupons or sample offers that its advertisers expected. Youth Culture handed out surveys to learn how students felt about the publication. Feedback indicated teen boys and girls were demanding very different things from the publication. This feedback was the gleaned from __________ data. a. questionnaire b. internal secondary c. external secondary d. observational e. panel Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: Questionnaire data are the facts and figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes, awareness, intentions, and behaviors. In this case the teens were asked about Watch magazine. 74 8-96 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA APPLICATION When Marine Midland Bank sent market researchers with surveys door-to-door in the neighborhoods of their branch banks to ask people with savings accounts why they did not also have checking accounts and credit cards with Marine Midland, they were gathering __________ data. a. questionnaire b. secondary c. intercept d. observational e. nonprobability Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Questionnaire data are the facts and figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes, awareness, intentions, and behaviors. Marine Midland collected information about behavior using surveys and obtained questionnaire data. 8-97 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA APPLICATION The Belsen interview is a means of pretesting media surveys. It gathers facts and figures by asking people about their attitudes, beliefs, and awareness of various media. With this technique, the respondent is interviewed twice--first by an interviewer using the proposed survey and then by a different interviewer, who asks questions about the survey itself. The Belsen interview uses __________ data. a. questionnaire b. secondary c. intercept d. observational e. synergistic Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Questionnaire data are the facts and figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes, awareness, intentions, and behaviors. The Belsen gathers interview facts and figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes, beliefs, and awareness--a form of questionnaire data. 75 8-98 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA APPLICATION DirectProtect is an insurance provider that uses telemarketers rather than insurance agents to sell its insurance and to deal with claims. It wants to introduce its product into new markets, but before it does so, it wants to have a prediction of how successful its sales efforts will be. One of the first things researchers did was to invite a group of eight people with insurance in to talk about home and auto insurance with a moderator. One of the purposes of this exploratory research was to gather information about the group members' attitudes toward insurance and their awareness of DirectProtect. While additional research still needs to be done, the marketing researchers were able to use a focus group to gather __________ data. a. hypothetical b. generative c. evaluative d. questionnaire e. experiential Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Questionnaire data are the facts and figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes, beliefs, interests, and awareness. 8-99 INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS APPLICATION When Marine Midland Bank sent market researchers door-to-door in the neighborhoods of their branch banks to talk to people with savings accounts and discuss with them why they did not also have checking accounts and credit cards Marine Midland researchers were using __________ to collect data. a. individual interviews b. secondary interviews c. intercept interviews d. observational data collection e. nonprobability sample collection Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Individual interviews are conducted by a single researcher asking questions of one respondent. Marine Midland collected information about behavior by discussing the topic with its customers in individual interviews. 8-100 INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS DEFINITION Which of the following is a definition of individual interview surveys? a. facts and figures obtained by watching people b. greatest ability to probe and ask complex questions, given these questions are on a written questionnaire to be filled out by the interviewee c. greatest opportunity for interviewer bias d. interviewee clips photos from magazines that describe the idea e. a single researcher asking questions of one respondent Register to View AnswerPage: 209 LO: 4 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--individual interviews 76 8-101 FOCUS GROUP APPLICATION The Minnesota Twins, a professional baseball team, wanted to develop creative ways to boost sagging attendance at their ball games. The Twins hired a moderator who, after every home game during the month of July, led informal discussions with groups of 6 to 10 fans to find out what they did and did not like about the baseball team. The discussions were tape recorded and videotaped so that researchers could review the data at a later date and in more detail. What are such informal research discussions called? a. experiments b. secondary data c. focus groups d. research experiments e. in-depth interviews Register to View AnswerPage: 210 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: In order to generate more specific research questions or to clarify a marketing problem, many marketers conduct focus groups. Focus groups are defined as informal sessions with 6 to 10 current, past, or potential customers in which a discussion leader, or moderator, asks their opinions about the firm's and its competitors' products, how they use these products, and special needs they have that these products don't address. Often videorecorded and conducted in special interviewing rooms with a one-way mirror, these groups enable marketing researchers and managers to hear and watch consumer reactions. 8-102 FOCUS GROUP APPLICATION DirectProtect is an insurance provider that uses telemarketers rather than insurance agents to sell its insurance and to deal with claims. It wants to introduce its product into new markets, but before it does so, it wants to have a prediction of how successful its sales efforts will be. One of the first things researchers did was to invite in a group of eight people with insurance to talk about home and auto insurance. Their conversation was recorded and later analyzed to determine if there were any differences between customers from different countries. This was an example of a(n) a. experiment. b. mechanical observation. c. focus group. d. research experiment. e. in-depth interview. Register to View AnswerPage: 210 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: In order to generate more specific research questions, the researchers asked general questions to identify consumers' likes and dislikes. Focus groups are defined as informal sessions with 6 to 10 current, past, or potential customers in which a discussion leader, or moderator, asks their opinions about the firm's and its competitors' products, how they use these products, and special needs they have that these products don't address. Often video-recorded and conducted in special interviewing rooms with a one-way mirror, these groups enable marketing researchers and managers to hear and watch consumer reactions. 77 8-103 FOCUS GROUPS APPLICATION A publishing company sponsors an informal one-time-only session with seven college instructors who use a given text. The instructors meet with a moderator who asks their opinions about the textbook, its study guide, and the product's competition. This is an example of a(n) a. jury of executive opinion. b. consumer panel. c. focus group. d. research experiment. e. in-depth interview. Register to View AnswerPage: 210 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Focus groups are informal sessions in which six to ten past, present, or prospective customers are directed by a discussion leader or moderator, to identify what they do and don't like about the firm's products and its competitors' products, how they use the products, and special needs they have that the products don't address. Often video-recorded and conducted in special interviewing rooms with a one-way mirror, these groups enable marketing researchers and managers to hear and watch consumer reactions. It is not a panel of any kind because it meets only once. 8-104 FOCUS GROUPS DEFINITION A marketing research approach that uses a discussion leader to interview 6 to 10 past, present, or prospective customers is called a. a depth (or individual) interview. b. an experiment. c. a focus group. d. a small group dynamics session. e. secondary data collection. Register to View AnswerPage: 210 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--focus groups AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG 78 8-105 IDEA GENERATION METHODS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is a way to identify elusive consumer tastes or trends before the consumer has recognized them? a. use "fuzzy front end" techniques b. have consumers take a photo of themselves every time they snack c. have teenagers complete a drawing d. hire "cool hunters" e. All of the above methods are ways to identify elusive consumer tastes or trends. Register to View AnswerPage: 210 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Finding "the next big thing" for consumers has become the obsession for consumer product firms. Marketing researchers have come to rely on techniques that are far more basic than more traditional individual or focus group interviews. These "fuzzy front end" methods attempt to identify elusive consumer tastes or trends far before typical consumers have recognized them themselves. Having consumers take a photo of themselves every time they snack, having teenagers complete a drawing, and hiring "cool hunters" are three types of "fuzzy front end" methods. 8-106 IDEA EVALUATION METHODS CONCEPTUAL When deciding whether to use personal mail, telephone, e-mail, fax, or Internet surveys, the marketing researcher must balance a. time against travel expenses. b. cost against expected quality of obtained information. c. interviewer bias against least respondent anonymity. d. least anonymity for the respondent against a single researcher asking questions. e. interviewer bias against a single researcher asking questions. Register to View AnswerPage: 211 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Idea evaluation methods often involve conventional questionnaires using personal, mail, telephone, e-mail, fax, or Internet surveys of a large sample of past, present, or prospective consumers. In choosing between these alternatives, the marketing researcher must balance cost against the expected quality of information obtained. 8-107 MALL INTERCEPT INTERVIEWS Mall intercept interviews are a. impersonal data collection methods in strip shopping malls. b. personal interviews of consumers visiting shopping centers. c. interviews with mall management about shopper behavior. d. interviews with mall security about shoplifting. e. telephone interviews with consumers about their shopping center habits. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--mall intercept interviews DEFINITION 79 8-108 MALL INTERCEPT INTERVIEWS CONCEPTUAL A disadvantage of mall intercept interviews is a. their high cost. b. their inflexibility. c. that they are not conducted face-to-face. d. that the people selected may not be representative of the targeted consumers. e. All of the above are disadvantages of mall intercept interviews. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Mall intercept interviews are personal interviews of consumers visiting shopping centers. The high cost of reaching respondents in their homes has led to a dramatic increase in the use of mall intercept interviews. These face-to-face interviews reduce the cost of personal visits to consumers in their homes while providing the flexibility to show respondents visual cues such as ads or actual product samples. A critical disadvantage of mall intercept interviews is that the people selected for the interviews may not be representative of the consumers targeted for the interviews, giving a biased result. FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 1 8-109 OPEN-ENDED QUESTION Question 1 in Figure 8-6 illustrates which type of question format? a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. close-ended d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: An open-ended question allows respondents to express opinions, ideas, or behaviors in their own words without being forced to choose among alternatives that have been predetermined by a marketing researcher. CONCEPTUAL 80 8-110 OPEN-ENDED QUESTION DEFINITION A(n) __________ allows respondents to express opinions, ideas, or behaviors in their own words without being forced to choose among alternatives that have been predetermined by a marketing researcher. a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. close-ended d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--open-ended question 8-111 OPEN-ENDED QUESTION "Why do you smoke?" is an example of which type of question? a. Likert scale b. fixed alternative c. dichotomous d. open-ended e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: This is an example of an open-ended question. An open-ended question allows respondents to express opinions, ideas, or behaviors in their own words without being forced to choose among alternatives that have been predetermined by a marketing researcher. 8-112 OPEN-ENDED QUESTION APPLICATION APPLICATION Before opening six Torrid plus-size-only retail stores that cater to women aged 15-30, a great deal of information was gathered to determine what types of items should be carried, the image of the store, its advertising, etc. Which of the following is an example of an openended question that might have been asked? a. Do you wear a size 14 or larger dress? b. How old are you? c. Would you shop at a store that only sold plus-size clothing? d. What is your self-image? e. Do you think the stores should use bright- or subtle-colored fixtures? Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: This is an example of an open-ended question. An open-ended question allows respondents to express opinions, ideas, or behaviors in their own words without being forced to choose among alternatives that have been predetermined by a marketing researcher. 81 FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 2 8-113 DICHOTOMOUS QUESTION Question 2 in Figure 8-6 illustrates which type of question format? a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. close-ended d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 2 is an example of a dichotomous question, the simplest form of a fixed alternative question that allows only a "yes" or "no" response. 8-114 DICHOTOMOUS QUESTION DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL A(n) __________ question is the simplest form of a fixed alternative question that allows only a "yes" or "no" response. a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. close-ended d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--dichotomous question 8-115 DICHOTOMOUS QUESTION APPLICATION "Have you been to a dentist within the past 6 months? ___Yes ___No?" is an example of which type of question? a. Likert scale b. semantic differential c. dichotomous d. open-ended e. closed-ended Register to View AnswerPage: 212 213 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: This question is an example of a dichotomous question, the simplest form of a fixed alternative question that allows only a "yes" or "no" response. 82 8-116 DICHOTOMOUS QUESTION APPLICATION A survey asked the question "Have you used toothpaste in the last twelve months? _____ Yes _____ No" The results of this question show that 92.6 percent of the people in New York City have used toothpaste in the last twelve months and 87.2 percent of people in Los Angeles have used toothpaste during the same period. This information was gathered by using which type of question? a. open-ended b. dichotomous c. holistic d. evaluative e. Likert scale Register to View AnswerPage: 212 213 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: This question is an example of a dichotomous question, the simplest form of a fixed alternative question that allows only a "yes" or "no" response. FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 3 8-117 CLOSED-END QUESTION Question 3 in Figure 8-6 illustrates which type of question format? a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. closed-end d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 3 is an example of a closed-end or fixed alternative question, which requires respondents to select one or more response options from a set of predetermined choices. CONCEPTUAL 83 8-118 CLOSED-END QUESTION DEFINITION A(n) __________ question requires respondents to select one or more response options from a set of predetermined choices. a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. closed-end d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--closed-end question 8-119 CLOSED-END QUESTION APPLICATION Before opening six Torrid plus-size-only retail stores that cater to women aged 15-30, a great deal of information was gathered to determine what types of items should be carried, the image of the store, its advertising, etc. Which of the following is an example of a closed-end question that might have been asked? a. Why would you want to shop at a store that carries plus-size clothing? b. In what ways might you be uncomfortable shopping at a plus-size-only retailer? c. Would you be interested in buying the Torrid merchandise on the Internet? ___Yes ___No d. What type of person would shop at Torrid? e. None of the above questions is an example of a closed-ended question. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 213 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Alternative C is an example of a dichotomous question, the simplest form of a closed-end or fixed alternative question that allows only a "yes" or "no" response. 8-120 FIXED ALTERNATIVE QUESTION APPLICATION The type of question you are answering right now is an example of a(n) _____ question. a. Likert scale b. fixed alternative c. dichotomous d. open-ended e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212 213 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Alternative B is an example of a fixed alternative question, which requires respondents to select one or more response options from a set of predetermined choices (a multiple-choice question!) 84 FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 5 8-121 SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE Question 5 in Figure 8-6 best illustrates which type of question format? a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. Likert d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 5 is an example of a semantic differential scale, a five-point scale in which the opposite ends have one- or-two-word adjectives that have opposite meanings. 8-122 SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL A(n) __________ scale is a five-point scale in which the opposite ends have one- or two-word adjectives that have opposite meanings. a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. Likert d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--semantic differential scale 85 8-123 SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE What kind of question is the following? "Place an X in the space that describes your feelings about this test." Easy __ __ __ __ __ Difficult Fair __ __ __ __ __ Unfair a. b. c. d. e. Likert scale semantic differential scale dichotomous question open-ended question sensitivity analysis question APPLICATION Register to View AnswerPage: 212 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: This question is an example of a semantic differential scale, a five-point scale in which the opposite ends have one- or-two-word adjectives that have opposite meanings. FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 6 8-124 LIKERT SCALE Question 6 in Figure 8-6 best illustrates which type of question format? a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. Likert d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 213; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 6 is an example of a Likert scale, in which the respondent indicates the extent to which he or she agrees or disagrees with a statement. CONCEPTUAL 86 8-125 LIKERT SCALE DEFINITION A(n) __________ scale is one in which the respondent indicates the extent to which he or she agrees or disagrees with a statement. a. dichotomous b. open-ended c. Likert d. attitudinal e. semantic differential Register to View AnswerPage: 213 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--Likert scale 8-126 LIKERT SCALE What type of scale is the following? "Check your degree of agreement with the following statement: Marketing is an interesting subject. ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree" a. b. c. d. e. Likert scale semantic differential scale dichotomous question open-ended question attitudinal question AACSB: 3 APPLICATION Register to View AnswerPage: 213 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: This question is an example of a Likert scale, in which the respondent indicates the extent to which he or she agrees or disagrees with a statement. 87 FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 7 8-127 SCALE RATIONALE APPLICATION Which of the following statements most likely explains why Question 7 in Figure 8-6 was included in the Wendy's survey? a. Wendy's wanted to know how many people eat at home while watching TV. b. Wendy's wanted to know if billboards and other media types were important sources of information to consumers when they decide where to eat. c. Wendy's wanted to understand how often consumers see flyers. d. Wendy's wanted to check newspaper circulation in the cities in which it does business. e. All of the above are reasons that Wendy's included this question in the survey. Register to View AnswerPage: 213; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 7 is an example of a closed-end question that gets at importance of the listed media. This information helps Wendy's to know the sources of information used in making decisions about fast-food restaurants. Based on this information Wendy's can best develop promotional vehicles that will reach the targeted segment. 88 FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 8 8-128 SCALE RATIONALE APPLICATION Which of the following statements most likely explains why Question 8 in Figure 8-6 was included in the Wendy's survey? a. Wendy's wanted to know how often people eat at its competitors. b. Wendy's wanted to know how often people eat at Wendy's. c. Wendy's wanted to compare how often people eat at Wendy's versus how often people eat at McDonald's. d. Wendy's wanted to compare how often people eat at Wendy's versus how often people eat at Burger King. e. All of the above are reasons that Wendy's included this question in the survey. Register to View AnswerPage: 213; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 8 is an example of a closed-end question that gets at behavior or usage. This information helps Wendy's to know how it stacks up to competitors; that is, how often do the respondents eat at Wendy's versus McDonald's and Burger King. 89 FIGURE 8-6, QUESTION 9 8-129 SCALE RATIONALE APPLICATION Which of the following statements most likely explains why Question 9 in Figure 8-6 was included in the Wendy's survey? a. Wendy's wanted to know if both men and women eat there. b. Wendy's wanted to know why people have children under age 18 living at home. c. These personal and household characteristics can be useful in trying to segment the fast-food market. d. Wendy's wants to know how much people make so it knows whether it should take credit cards for purchases. e. All of the above are reasons that Wendy's included this question in the survey. Register to View AnswerPage: 213; Fig. 8-6 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Question 9 is an example of a closed-end question that gets at personal or household characteristics, which can be used in trying to segment the fast-food market. 8-130 PANEL DEFINITION A sample of consumers or stores from which researchers take a series of measurements is called a(n) a. experiment. b. jury of executive opinion. c. panel. d. survey of experts. e. focus group. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 Rationale: Text term definition--panel LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Other Location: web 90 8-131 PANEL DEFINITION A __________ is a sample of consumers or stores from which researchers take a series of measurements. a. representative group b. jury of executive opinion c. panel d. survey of experts e. focus group Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 Rationale: Text term definition--panel 8-132 PANEL LL: 1 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL A disadvantage of a __________ is that the marketing research firm needs to recruit new members continually to replace those who drop out. a. representative group b. jury of executive opinion c. panel d. survey of experts e. focus group Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Other Location: web Rationale: One disadvantage of panels is that the marketing research firm needs to recruit new members continually to replace those who drop out. These new recruits must match the characteristics of those they replace to keep the panel representative of the marketplace. 8-133 EXPERIMENT DEFINITION Data obtained by manipulating factors under tightly controlled conditions to test cause and effect is an example of a. questionnaire data. b. nonprobability sampling. c. an experiment. d. a panel. e. a model. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--experiment AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG 91 8-134 EXPERIMENT A test market for a new Kellogg's cereal is an example of a. hypothesis generation. b. a deviation test. c. an experiment. d. observational data creation. e. a focus test. APPLICATION Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: An experiment uses data obtained by manipulating factors under tightly controlled conditions to test cause and effect. A test market is offering a product for sale on a limited basis in a defined area to help decide the likely effectiveness of potential marketing actions. So a test market is really a kind of marketing experiment to reduce risks. 8-135 DRIVERS In marketing experiments which of the following is an example of a driver? a. special promotions b. distribution c. the price d. product features e. All of the above are examples of sales drivers. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 Rationale: Text term definition--drivers 8-136 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE LL: 1 AACSB: 3 APPLICATION DEFINITION GI Designs, a copper furniture manufacturer, increased the price on copper table tops by 20 percent for three months to see what the effect would be on the sales of these tops. The price increase is the __________ in this three-month experiment. a. forgotten characteristic b. dependent variable c. independent variable d. decision task e. hypothesis Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The price increase was the causal condition (independent variable) that was manipulated by the experimenter to see if there would be a change in sales (dependent variable). 92 8-137 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE APPLICATION When Procter & Gamble Co. acquired the Old Spice brand it decided to reposition the brand by using different advertising to see whether sales would then increase. The new advertising is the __________ in this experiment. a. dependent variable b. independent variable c. hypothesis d. extraneous variable e. error variable Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The advertisement in the study served as the independent variable and the sales of the product served as the dependent variable. 8-138 DEPENDENT VARIABLE APPLICATION GI Designs, a copper furniture manufacturer, increased the price on copper tabletops by 20 percent for three months to see what the effect would be on the sales of these tops. The change in sales is the __________ in this three-month experiment. a. forgotten characteristic b. dependent variable c. independent variable d. decision task e. hypothesis Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The price increase was the causal condition (independent variable) that was manipulated by the experimenter to see if there would be a change in sales (dependent variable). 93 8-139 DEPENDENT VARIABLE APPLICATION Eppie's Used Cars wanted to discover whether straight discounting worked better than a free gift. It ran two different television commercials on alternate Wednesdays. Commercial A offered 20 percent off Blue Book price for any 4-wheel-drive vehicle on the lot while Commercial B offered a free tent with the purchase of any 4-wheel-drive vehicle at Blue Book price. The offer was the __________ variable. How many people responded to each type of offer is called the __________, and would suggest whether straight discounting or a gift incentive was the better strategy for increasing traffic. a. marketing; dependent variable b. dependent ; independent variable c. market size; independent variable d. independent; dependent variable e. dependent; marketing variable Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The price increase or the free tent was the causal condition (independent variable) that was manipulated by the experimenter to see if there would be a change in sales (dependent variable). 94 8-140 DEPENDENT VARIABLE APPLICATION A market researcher showed a new brand of blue jeans to several groups of college students and asked the students to rate the quality of the jeans. Two weeks later, the researcher showed the same college students a television advertisement featuring super model Cindy Crawford wearing the new brand of jeans. The marketer asked the students to once again rate the quality of the jeans. The marketer predicted that after viewing the advertisement, the students' ratings of the new jeans would be more positive than their original ratings. In this experiment, students' ratings of the new blue jeans served as the a. dependent variable. b. independent variable. c. outside factor. d. secondary data. e. none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The researcher was making a comparison between ratings of the quality of the blue jeans--before and after the advertisement. The advertisement in the study served as the independent variable and the ratings of the product served as the dependent variable. The researcher introduced a change in the environment (the advertisement) and then measured the accompanying change in the student ratings (dependent variable) of the product quality. 8-141 DEPENDENT VARIABLE APPLICATION When Procter & Gamble Co. acquired the Old Spice brand it decided to reposition the brand by using different advertising to see whether sales would then increase. The possible sales increase is the __________ in this experiment. a. dependent variable b. independent variable c. hypothesis d. extraneous variable e. error variable Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The advertisement in the study served as the independent variable and the sales of the product served as the dependent variable. 95 8-142 DEPENDENT VARIABLE CONCEPTUAL When conducting marketing experiments, the dependent variable can often describe any of the following EXCEPT a. actual purchase behavior. b. preferences in taste tests. c. attitudes highly correlated to actual purchase behavior. d. marketing mix variables. e. behavioral intentions. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The change in behavior (or its surrogates, such as preferences, attitudes, or intentions) is what constitutes a dependent variable. Marketing mix elements are independent variables that are manipulated to determine whether changes in purchase behavior result. 8-143 INDEPENDENT, DEPENDENT VARIABLES APPLICATION As marketing vice president of Health Care Services, Inc., you are in charge of developing an experiment to test the hypothesis that increasing the number of salespeople assigned to a territory will increase sales of health care services in the territory. Which experiment will do this best? a. manipulating the independent variable of sales and assessing the impact by measuring the dependent variable of satisfied customers of health services b. manipulating the independent variable of salespeople assigned to a territory and assessing the impact by measuring the dependent variable of sales of health services c. manipulating the independent variable of sales and assessing the impact by measuring the dependent variable of sales people of health services d. manipulating the independent variables of sales and salespeople and assessing the impact by measuring the dependent variable of satisfied customers of health services e. manipulating the independent variable of satisfied health service customers and assessing the impact by measuring the dependent variable of salespeople assigned Register to View AnswerPage: 214 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interest--sometimes called the marketing drivers-- are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. The increase in number of salespeople assigned to a territory was the causal condition (independent variable) that was manipulated by the experimenter to see if there would be a change in sales (dependent variable). 96 8-144 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA CONCEPTUAL Compared with __________ data, two disadvantages of __________ data are that the latter is usually far more time consuming and more expensive to collect. a. secondary; primary b. primary; secondary c. differential; observational d. sample; population e. open-ended; closed Register to View AnswerPage: 215 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Secondary data consist of information that has been recorded prior to the research at hand. Primary data consist of facts and figures that are newly collected for a current project. The main disadvantages of primary data are that it is usually far more costly and time consuming to collect than secondary data. 8-145 PRIMARY DATA CONCEPTUAL The best way to find information that is specific to the problem being studied is to a. collect primary data. b. collect internal secondary data. c. collect external secondary data. d. perform a sensitivity analysis. e. use probability sampling. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Primary data are those facts and figures, which are new and are collected for the first time for the project at hand. Compared with secondary data, primary data have the advantage of being more specific to the problem being studied. 97 8-146 PRIMARY DATA APPLICATION You are the product manager for a new children's cold breakfast cereal. Its proposed brand name is Barney, named after the popular, purple dinosaur of the PBS children's television show Barney & Friends. Barney cereal is positioned as a health-oriented, fun, and socially positive cereal that consists of natural whole grains and fruit-sweetened, Barney-like purple dinosaurs that provide children with more than the 100 percent recommended daily allowance of vitamins A, B, and C. To ascertain the cereal's appeal among prospective buyers, which of the following would be a primary data collection method to help you make marketing decisions regarding the new Barney brand cereal? a. You personally, via a one-way mirror, watch the reactions of 10 different groups of 6 to 10 children eating bowls of the new Barney cereal with its purple dinosaurs. b. You conduct 30 in-depth personal interviews with parents of children to identify the attitudes and purchase intentions of these parents relative to the new Barney cereal and the "I love you, you love me" advertising theme patterned after the television show. c. You send 10,000 trial boxes of Barney cereal to randomly selected households with children in Peoria, IL (a national test market for consumer products) along with a business reply, postage-paid postcard to obtain the reactions of these households to the cereal. d. You contract with major supermarket chains in Phoenix, AZ (a major consumer products test market) to stock 10,000 standard-size boxes of Barney cereal on their shelves. You also contract with InfoScan, a consumer product sales tracking service, to determine the effect of a test marketing campaign consisting of ads on Saturday morning children's programs aired locally in Phoenix, coupons in the local Phoenix newspapers, and a direct mailing to all households with children in the Phoenix market. e. All of the above are methods using primary data collection. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 - 216 LO: 4 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The two principal ways to collect new or primary data for a marketing study are by (1) observing people, and (2) asking them questions. 98 MARKETING DASHBOARD 8-147 USING MARKETING DASHBOARDS CONCEPTUAL In the marketing dashboard graph shown above which brand has the highest sales? a. A b. B c. D d. E e. Super Snack Bar Register to View AnswerPage: 215 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The graph shows the brands based on the buying rate and US household penetration. The brand with the highest penetration and highest buying rates is brand A, so it has the highest sales. 8-148 DATA & INFORMATION DEFINITION __________are facts and figures, whereas __________is/are distilled facts and figures whose interpretation leads to marketing actions. a. data, information b. information, data c. data, explanation d. information, explanation e. reports, a concept Register to View AnswerPage: 216 LO: 5 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--data and information 99 8-149 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEFINITION __________ involves operating computer networks that collect, store, and process data. a. Data mining b. Environmental scanning c. Information technology d. E-marketing e. Computerization Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Key term definition--information technology 8-150 INFORMATION SYSTEM An information system contains several key elements, including a. queries. b. internal databases. c. models. d. external databases. e. all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 217; Fig. 8-8 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketing researchers and managers use information technology to turn information into action. The key elements of an information system include queries, models, internal and external databases that are used to deliver results to the manager. 8-151 INFORMATION SYSTEM Which of the following is a key element of today's information systems? a. databases b. primary data c. data mining d. drivers e. marketing actions Register to View AnswerPage: 217; Fig. 8-8 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketing researchers and managers use information technology to turn information into action. The key elements of an information system include queries, models, internal and external databases that are used to deliver results to the manager. CONCEPTUAL CONCEPTUAL 100 8-152 DATA WAREHOUSE DEFINITION Databases form the core, or __________, where a firm's ocean of data is collected and stored. a. data vault b. data warehouse c. data depot d. data storehouse e. data stockroom Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 1 Rationale: Text term definition--data warehouse 8-153 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AACSB: 3 DEFINITION When a marketing manager begins asking "what if" questions to determine how changes in a factor like price or advertising affect marketing results like sales or profits, she is performing a(n) __________ analysis. a. marketing b. environmental c. structured d. profitability e. sensitivity Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Text term definition--sensitivity analysis 8-154 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS APPLICATION The marketing manager at Popular Electronics must determine a price for a new model of portable CD player. He will use the company's information system to determine how the manufacturer's suggested retail price might affect total sales revenues. This type of analysis is called a. database management. b. database training. c. sensitivity training. d. sensitivity analysis. e. financial analysis. Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketers can also use sensitivity analysis to query the database with "what if" questions to determine how a hypothetical change in a driver like advertising or price can affect sales. 101 8-155 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS APPLICATION Red Carper Baby!, a children's accessory and toy store, is considering expanding the size of the store. The manager queries the database to understand how a change in square footage might impact sales. She is performing a(n) __________ analysis. a. 80/20 b. break-even c. environmental scanning d. situational e. sensitivity Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketers can also use sensitivity analysis to query the database with "what if" questions to determine how a hypothetical change in a driver like advertising or price can affect sales. 8-156 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS APPLICATION If a marketing manager queries a strategic information system to determine the effect of three different levels of price for a new product, she is using a(n) _____ analysis. a. 80/20 b. break-even c. environmental scanning d. situational e. sensitivity Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketers can also use sensitivity analysis to query the database with "what if" questions to determine how a hypothetical change in a driver like advertising or price can affect sales. 8-157 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS APPLICATION Which of the following is NOT an example of a "what if" type question that might be asked by a marketing manager as part of a sensitivity analysis? a. What effect would a 50 percent increase in magazine advertising have on sales of Tresses shampoo? b. What would be the effect of getting a new supplier of raw plastic for our line of paperweights? c. What effect would a 10 percent reduction in price have on the profitability of our line of pocket knives? d. What would be the effect of expanding our market coverage to include New York and Pennsylvania? e. What would be the effect of smaller serving sizes on sales of our turkey and roast beef dinner specials? Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Marketers can also use sensitivity analysis to query the database with "what if" questions to determine how a hypothetical change in a driver like advertising or price can affect sales. Alternative b would be asked by a manufacturing manager or engineer and involves a non-marketing decision. 102 8-158 DATA MINING DEFINITION __________ is the term that describes the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. a. Fact disclosure b. Information extraction c. Variable analysis d. Database management e. Data mining Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 1 Rationale: Key term definition--data mining 8-159 DATA MINING AACSB: 3 Other Location: web APPLICATION Through the use of __________, a catalog retailer might determine that customers who purchased silver frames would also have a high probability of buying vintage hat pins. As a result, its sales representatives were instructed to offer a special price on hat pins when a customer places an order for a silver frame. a. fact disclosure b. information extraction c. variable analysis d. database management e. data mining Register to View AnswerPage: 217 LO: 5 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Data mining is the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. The focus is on finding statistical links about consumer purchasing patterns (those that buy silver frames would have a high probability of buying vintage hat pins) that suggest marketing actions (encouraging the sales representatives to offer a special price on hat pins). 8-160 DEVELOP FINDINGS CONCEPTUAL Once a marketer researcher has defined the problem, developed the research plan, and collected the relevant information, what needs to be done next? a. set budgets b. determine target market c. select segmentation strategy d. analyze data and present findings e. determine if there is a planning gap between desired findings and actual findings Register to View AnswerPage: 218 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Step 4 of the marketing research approach is "Develop Findings," which includes "analyze the data" and "present the findings." 103 FIGURE 8-9a 8-161 PRESENT THE FINDINGS CONCEPTUAL Figure 8-9a indicates that a. the number of Tony's pizzas per household is flat to slightly increasing over the b. c. d. e. period 2005-2008. annual sales of Tony's pizzas is increasing over the period 2005-2008. children are eating more pizzas. households with more members are eating more pizza, which drives this sales increase. Figure 8-9a shows that all of the above statements are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 218 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-9a shows Tony's Pizza Annual Sales. This shows the annual growth of the Tony's Pizza brand is stable but virtually flat from 2005 through 2008. 104 FIGURE 8-9b 8-162 PRESENT THE FINDINGS CONCEPTUAL Figure 8-9b shows that a. annual sales of Tony's Pizzas decreased over the period 2005 to 2008. b. average annual sales per household of Tony's Pizzas decreased over the period 2005 to 2008. c. average sales have dropped from 3.4 million to 3.1 million units. d. sales to households with children declined over the period 2005 to 2008. e. smaller households bought less pizza over the period 2005 to 2008. Register to View AnswerPage: 218 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-9b shows that average annual sales per household have declined from 3.4 to 3.1 units over the period 2005 to 2008. 105 FIGURE 8-9c 8-163 PRESENT THE FINDINGS CONCEPTUAL Figure 8-9c shows that a. Tony's Pizza sales to households with 5 or more people decreased over the period 2005 to 2008. b. Households with 5 or more people bought the most Tony's Pizza over the period 2005 to 2008. c. Tony's Pizza sales to single-person households have remained relatively steady from 2005 to 2008. d. Tony's Pizza sales to households with 2 people have remained relatively steady from 2005 to 2008. e. All of the above statements are true according to Figure 8-9c. Register to View AnswerPage: 219 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-9c shows all of the choices in the question. 106 FIGURE 8-9d 8-164 PRESENT THE FINDINGS CONCEPTUAL Figure 8-9d shows that a. Tony's Pizza sales to households with some children between the age of 13 and 17 decreased over the period 2005 to 2008. b. Tony's Pizza sales to households with children between the age of 6 to 12 decreased over the period 2005 to 2008. c. Tony's Pizza sales to single-person households have remained relatively steady from 2005 to 2008. d. Tony's Pizza sales to households with no children under 18 have declined from 2005 to 2008. e. All of the above statements are true according to Figure 8-9d. Register to View AnswerPage: 219 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Figure 8-9d shows that average annual sales per household with children ages 612 have declined over the period 2005 to 2008. 8-165 TAKE MARKETING ACTIONS The last step in the marketing research process is to a. execute the program. b. examine the alternatives. c. experiment. d. take marketing actions. e. enumerate the decision factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 220 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The marketing research approach includes 5 steps the last of which is "Take Marketing Actions." At this point you make and implement the recommendations and evaluate the results. 107 CONCEPTUAL 8-166 TAKE MARKETING ACTIONS APPLICATION Market researchers have delivered findings to Ocean Spray's product manager: (1) "cranberry" is not part of the language outside the U.S. and Canada and (2) the British like juice in boxes, not bottles. The British have a dry sense of humor and a sense of adventure. Like many other people the British are also concerned about staying healthy. How can she use these facts to take marketing actions in an advertising campaign that will encourage consumers in the United Kingdom to try the new cranberry juice drink? a. Appeal to the British sense of humor while emphasizing the taste of cranberry juice by showing a small cranberry labeled "actual size" and a huge cranberry labeled "actual taste." b. Use a picture of the cranberry juice drink in a box so that consumers will know what to look for--and see that it's not in a bottle. c. Appeal to the British sense of adventure and travel by using a picture taken on Cape Cod, where Ocean Spray cranberries grow. d. Appeal to green and health-conscious consumers by providing information about vitamin content and the absence of any artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives. e. All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 220 LO: 5 LL: 3 AACSB: 3 Other Location: SG Rationale: Ocean Spray's marketing manager increased the chance of success of cranberry juice in international markets by understanding systematic research and implementing its recommendations. The advertisement is witty, shows the box and typical beach near cranberry bogs, and uses copy about the healthful qualities of cranberry juice. 8-167 TAKE MARKETING ACTIONS CONCEPTUAL The evaluation process is the final stage of the marketing research process. The two main tasks performed in the evaluation process are to a. compare the market share and industry growth rate. b. evaluate the decision and the decision process. c. compare generated revenue to past performance and projected performance. d. enumerate the decision factors and evaluate the results. e. evaluate the results and initiate a new decision process. Register to View AnswerPage: 220 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Other Location: web Rationale: There are two aspects of the evaluation process: (1) Evaluate the decision itself, which usually involves comparing actual results with plans and taking corrective action if necessary, and (2) evaluate the decision process used which may involve changing the activities in one or more of the steps used in reaching a decision. 108 8-168 VIDEO CASE: FORD CONSULTING CONCEPTUAL The raw data that Ford Consulting Group (FGC) sort and compile on a daily basis from sources such as ACNielsen's ScanTrack and Information Resources' InfoScan come from a. observational research. b. grocery store scanner data. c. statistical inferences. d. multiple-source data. e. experiential research. Register to View AnswerPage: 222 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: The information used most often for sales and promotion analysis comes from places like ACNielsen's ScanTrack and Information Resources' InfoScan (IRI) that summarize sales data from grocery stores and other outlets that scan purchases at the checkout. 8-169 VIDEO CASE: FORD CONSULTING CONCEPTUAL When preliminary research discovers that a client's product is not selling well in the northeast region of the U.S., the next step would be to a. attempt to explain why sales are lower in the northeast. b. determine measures of objectives. c. locate marketing research constraints. d. use statistical inference to explain the lower sales. e. determine the size and composition of the sample survey. Register to View AnswerPage: 222 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 Rationale: Table 1 indicates that Tony's performance is weakest in the northeast region (e.g., 3% change in volume). The next step would be to attempt to explain why sales are lower (one explanation is that distribution is lower in the northeast at 93%). 109 CHAPTER 8 TURNING MARKETING INFORMATION INTO ACTION SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS 8-170 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: TEST SCREENINGS How do movies use marketing research? Answer: Studios producing and marketing films emphasize marketing research at different stages in the motion picture development process. Some examples of this market research include: concept tests of plots (before production starts), sneak previews of completed films, and awareness tests before and after the movie release. These research activities are designed to reduce uncertainty and to improve marketing decisions. Page: 198 - 199 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL CONCEPTUAL 8-171 MARKETING RESEARCH DIFFICULTIES Good marketing research requires great care especially because of inherent difficulties in asking consumers questions. What are the three basic problems faced by marketing researchers when trying to assess consumers' willingness to buy products or services with which they are not familiar? Answer: Inherent difficulties in asking the consumer questions involve the following: Consumers do not really know whether they would buy a product they have never thought about before; they do not recognize the advantages and disadvantages. Even if they know the answer to a survey question, they might not want to reveal it; this is particularly true of questions that are personal in nature, and/or that involve the respondent's status. If respondents do state a preference for a presumed behavior, it is not necessarily what they would really do in the buying situation; they might think that is what they would do or they might just tell the interviewer what they think he or she wants to hear, so as not to hurt feelings or they might stretch the truth so the interviewer will think more highly of them. Page: 200 LO: 1 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 110 8-172 MARKETING RESEARCH DECISION PROCESS What are the five steps in the marketing research process? Answer: The systematic approach is based on five steps: Define the problem. Develop the research plan. Collect relevant information. Develop findings. Take marketing actions. Page: 201; Fig. 8-2 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 DEFINITION 8-173 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES DEFINITION What are the three kinds of research that are used depending on the type of problem to be solved? Answer: Three kinds of research include: Exploratory research provides ideas about a relatively vague problem. Descriptive research generally involves trying to find the frequency that something occurs or the extent of a relationship between two factors. Causal research tries to determine the extent to which the change in one factor changes another one. Page: 201 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 8-174 MEASURES OF SUCCESS Explain why measures of success are important to effective decision makers and give an example of one. Answer: Measures of success are criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solutions to a problem. Different research outcomes--based on the measure of success--lead to different marketing actions. For example, if a measure of success were the total time children spent playing with each of two telephone toys, the results of observing them would lead to clear-cut actions-either keep the toy as it is if the children play with the old toy design longer, or change the toy if the children play with the new toy design longer. [This example is from the text. Students may describe other examples.] Page: 202 LO: 2 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 111 8-175 PROBABILITY VERSUS NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING Explain the difference between probability and nonprobability sampling. DEFINITION Answer: Probability sampling uses precise rules to select the sample such that each element of the population has a specific known chance of being selected. Nonprobability sampling uses arbitrary judgments to select the sample so that the chance of selecting a particular element may be unknown or zero. Page: 203 - 204 LO: 2 LL: 1 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 8-176 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA What is the basic difference between primary and secondary data, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Answer: Secondary data are facts and figures that have already been recorded before the project at hand, whereas primary data are facts and figures that are newly collected for the project. Secondary data should be used first, before collection of primary data. Two primary advantages of secondary data are: tremendous time savings because the data have already been collected and published and the relatively low cost. A greater level of detail is often available through secondary data, and industry data is usually more complete than data collected by private organizations. On the other hand, secondary data may be out of date, a good example being U.S. Census data that is collected at ten-year intervals. Furthermore, the definitions and categories might not be quite right for a particular project. And, finally, because secondary data are collected for another purpose, they may not be specific enough for particular needs. In the latter case, it might be necessary to collect primary data, which should be specific to the particular project or program for which the data collection is designed. Compared with secondary data, primary data have the advantage of being more specific to the problem being studied. The main disadvantages are that primary data are usually far more costly and time consuming to collect than secondary data. Page: 204,205,215 LO: 3-4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 112 8-177 PRIMARY DATA CONCEPTUAL The principal ways to collect new or primary data for a marketing study are by observing people and by asking them questions. Give two examples of each type. Answer: Observing people includes watching, either mechanically or in person, how people actually behave. For example, Nielsen ratings use TV boxes to monitor what people watch. Mystery shoppers are another example. Asking people questions can be done using questionnaire data, which asks people about their attitudes, awareness, intentions, and behaviors. It can also be done using in-depth individual interviews. Focus groups are another way of asking people, which involves informal sessions of 6 to 10 past, present, or prospective customers in which a leader asks their opinions. Page: 206 - 210 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 8-178 SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL, LIKERT SCALES What is the difference between a semantic differential scale and a Likert scale? Answer: Both are used with fixed alternative questions. The semantic differential scale is a five point scale in which the opposite ends have one- or two-word adjectives that have opposite meanings. The respondent indicates the extent to which he or she agrees or disagrees with a statement that is presented in a Likert scale. Page: 213 8-179 PANELS LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL What is a panel? How is it used in marketing research? What disadvantage is associated with its use? Register to View Answerpanel is a sample of consumers or stores from which researchers take a series of measurements. Unlike a focus group, members of panel are members over long periods of time. The information gathered from panels is used to tell marketing researchers if consumers change their behavior over time. A disadvantage is that the marketing research firm needs to recruit new members continually to replace those who drop out. The new recruits must match the characteristics of those they replace to keep the panel representative of the marketplace. Page: 214 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 113 8-180 EXPERIMENTS CONCEPTUAL Briefly explain what a marketing experiment is. Include the definitions of dependent and independent variables and examples of each. Answer: An experiment involves obtaining data by manipulating factors under tightly controlled conditions to test cause and effect, an example of causal research. The interest is in whether changing one of the independent variables (a cause) will change the behavior of the dependent variable that is studied (the result). In marketing experiments, the independent variables of interestsometimes called the marketing drivers--are often one or more of the marketing mix elements, such as a product's features, price, or promotion. The ideal dependent variable usually is a change in purchases of individuals, households, or organizations. Page: 214 8-181 DRIVERS Briefly explain what a product or brand "driver" is. Give three examples. Register to View Answerproduct or brand "driver" is a factor that influences buying decisions of a household or organization and, hence, sales. These drivers include both the controllable marketing mix factors like product and distribution, as well as uncontrollable factors like competition and the changing tastes of households or organizational buyers. Other drivers include advertising, price, and special promotions. Page: 216 LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL LO: 4 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 8-182 INFORMATION SYSTEM ELEMENTS List the elements of an information system used to help answer marketing questions. Answer: An information system used to satisfy an organization's needs for marketing information includes the marketing researcher at a desktop computer, queries of the system, models to analyze, organize, and present data, the computer and communication network, consisting of external and internal databases. Page: 217; Fig. 8-8 8-183 DATA MINING What is data mining and why is it used in marketing research? Answer: Data mining is the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. Data mining is used to find statistical links about consumer purchasing patterns that suggest marketing actions. Page: 217 LO: 5 LL: 2 114 AACSB: 3 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 8-184 DECISION PROCESS CONCEPTUAL Why can't a marketing manager's decision-making stop when he or she has chosen the best alternative to solving a problem? Answer: Effective marketing research doesn't stop with findings and recommendations--someone has to identify the marketing actions, put them into effect, and monitor how the decisions turn out, which is the essence of taking marketing actions--Step 5 in the Marketing Research Decision Process. Page: 220 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 CONCEPTUAL 8-185 DECISION PROCESS There are three actions a marketing manager must take in the final stage in the marketing research process. What are they? Answer: Make action recommendations. Implement the action recommendations. Evaluate the results. When evaluating the results, it is important to evaluate the decision itself and to evaluate the decision process used. Page: 220 LO: 5 LL: 2 AACSB: 3 115

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The way I would explain web 2.0 to someone who has not taken a course on information systems is as follows, the term web 2.0 is commonly associated with web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user centered desi
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Bookstores By Jasmyne CarsonAmazon.com bookstoreAmazon is a music store and a bookstore. Amazon sells anything from music, to books, to many other things.What Amazon.com does to compete with other book sellersAmazon uses the internet to sell music, bo
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Axia College MaterialAppendix B Picture the Supply ChainComplete the chart below by outlining the digital content supply chain at Warner Bros. Entertainment. Upstream Component (sourcing/procurement) Internal Component (packing/assembly manufacturing) D
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Axia College MaterialAppendix B Picture the Supply ChainComplete the chart below by outlining the digital content supply chain at Warner Bros. Entertainment. Upstream Component (sourcing/procurement) Filmmakers are using digital cameras. Internal Compon
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Jasmyne Carson Week 1 due day 3 xcom 285 Technology has changed the face of business communications just by using various types of information systems. It is communicating less to the public and more to the individuals. Businesses today use every availabl
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Xcom 285 week 4 due day 5 Jasmyne Carson I chose to do an outline it is much easier for me to do and to comprehend the material.PLANNING Examine the task or the issue at hand Examine the audience Collect information and the facts on the issue or task Su
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Xcom 285 week 6 due day 5 Jasmyne Carson One of the main differences between group communication and individual communication would be group communication is generally focused on an entire group of three or more people where as individual communication is
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Jasmyne Carson Pixies outfitters 606 meadow lane Sugar plum IL, 62401 Mr.James Tucker, Manager P.O. BOX 5150 Jonesborough IL, 53964 Subject: There is a change in the store operations Dear Mr. Tucker, I would like to start by saying that we all appreciate
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Pixies outfitters 606 meadow lane Sugar plum IL, 62401MEMOSeptember 19, 2011 To: Employees From: Jasmyne Carson Subject: Upcoming changes in store operations Our company is making several changes to the operating structure to compete with rising operati
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BUSINESS WRITING PORTFOLIO JASMYNE CARSON AXIA COLLEGE XCOM 285REFLECTION The ways I would use the new communication techniques in my future classes and in my future career would be I now know how to listen more attentively. I now know that in order to s
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To: Christine Carson < CarsonCHristine@gmail.com From: Jasmyne Carson < Carson_Jasmyne.publicrelations@pixiesoutfitters.com Subject: New Store Hours CC: all.cunsumers@pixiesoutfitters.com Dear Valued consumer, Beginning October 23, 2011 we will be changin
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There are so many reasons that employees might get a promotion or have higher job position opportunities. One of the main reasons is having a higher education than other employees. The employees with a bachelor's degree have a better chance at higher job
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After reviewing both sides of the arguments I have decided to stand by my decision to be completely FOR privacy policies and rules. I say that because if the rules were not in place then nothing would get done. To be more specific if the cell phone rules
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The ways I would use the new communication techniques in my future classes and in my future career would be I now know how to listen more attentively. I now know that in order to solve a problem you have to be willing to solve it what I mean by that is if
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The technological advancements that were discussed in the article "superhero in the cubicle" were blogging. Chatting, voicemail, email, instant messaging, and wiki. The two communication types that I have chosen to compare and contrast would be email and
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XCOM 285 Essentials of Managerial CommunicationAxia College MaterialAppendix B Audience-Focused Communication MatrixUse the matrix to complete the information. Write 3-4 sentences for each item. What are some audience characteristics you need to consid
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XCOM 285 Essentials of Managerial CommunicationAxia College Material JASMYNE CARSONAppendix C Cross-Cultural Communication MatrixUse the matrix to complete the country information. Write 3-4 sentences for each item. Access the Business Around the Wor
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Axia College Material Jasmyne CarsonAppendix D E-mail EtiquetteRead the following e-mails. For each e-mail: Describe any content and formatting errors found. Determine if the content is appropriate for a workplace setting. If it is, explain why. If not,
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Axia College MaterialAppendix GUse the Submission Checklist to ensure that you included every assignment. Click in the box to mark each item as complete once you have completed the final version of each document. You will submit the Submission Checklist
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The main principle that I have chosen that will influence my decision is principle number four which states that people respond to incentives. The example I am providing is this, when people respond to incentives they are more likely to purchase that cert
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The good that I have chosen is oranges. Oranges are used for orange juice, eaten by them selves and oranges are also used in different things like baking items you can use the zest from oranges. Oranges are a very good source of vitamin C. Oranges also ha
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The event that I have chosen to write about would have to be the technology boom of the 1990's. The reason I have chosen this is because I have lived through the technology boom. In the beginning of the technology boom there was a very high demand for the
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Market structures, there are four structures in the characteristics in the market is known as perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. In the report, I will sum up each market structure and explain what they are and how they
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The FED, that is the Federal Reserve System, is often referred to as the FED. HUD, That is the Housing and Urban Development. FHA, FEMA, DHS, and a bunch of others. Purchase a home now is a good idea, rates are low, the market is about bottomed out and ba
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Money is any object that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of valu