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SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS CA 1-3 Accounting numbers affect investing decisions. Investors, for example, use the financial statements of different companies to enhance their understanding of each companys financial strength and operating results. Because these statements follow generally accepted accounting principles, investors can make meaningful comparisons of different financial statements to assist their investment decisions. Accounting numbers also influence creditors decisions. A commercial bank usually looks into a companys financial statements and past credit history before deciding whether to grant a loan and in what amount. The financial statements provide a fair picture of the companys financial strength (for example, short-term liquidity and long-term solvency) and operating performance for the current period and over a period of time. The information is essential for the bank to ensure that the loan is safe and sound. CA 1-15 (a) The ethical issue in this case relates to making questionable entries to meet expected earnings forecasts. As indicated in this chapter, businesses concentration on maximizing the bottom line, facing the challenges of competition, and stressing short-term results places accountants in an environment of conflict and pressure. (b) Given that Normand has pleaded guilty, he certainly acted improperly. Doing the right thing, making the right decision, is not always easy. Right is not always obvious, and the pressures to bend the rules, to play the game, to just ignore it can be considerable. (c) No doubt, Normand was in a difficult position. I am sure that he was concerned that if he failed to go along, it would affect his job performance negatively or that he might be terminated. These job pressures, time pressures, peer pressures often lead individuals astray. Can it happen to you? One individual noted that at a seminar on ethics sponsored by the CMA Society of Southern California, attendees were asked if they had ever been pressured to make questionable entries. This individual noted that to the best of his recollection, everybody raised a hand, and more than one had eventually chosen to resign. (d) Major stakeholders are: (1) Troy Normand, (2) present and potential stockholders and creditors of WorldCom, (3) employees, and (4) family. Recognize that WorldCom is the largest bankruptcy in United States history, so many individuals are affected. SOLUTIONS TO CODIFICATION EXERCISES CE1-2 (a) The Codification Overview module illustrates three items (1) the topic structure (2) different methods of accessing and viewing content, and (3) a summary of the unique features of the Codification Research System.... View Full Document

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