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Course: STAT 1000, Fall 2011
School: Pittsburgh
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Word Count: 5327

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23 Nancy Lecture Pfenning Stats 1000 Chapter 11: Testing Hypotheses About Proportions Recall: last time we presented the following examples: 1. In a group of 371 Pitt students, 42 were left-handed. Is this significantly lower than the proportion of all Americans who are left-handed, which is .12? 2. In a group of 371 students, 45 chose the number seven when picking a number between one and twenty &quot;at...

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Pittsburgh - STAT - 1000
Lecture 26Nancy Pfenning Stats 1000Chapter 12: More About Confidence IntervalsRecall: Setting up a confidence interval is one way to perform statistical inference: we use a statistic measured from the sample to construct an interval estimate for the un
Pittsburgh - STAT - 1000
Lecture 29Nancy Pfenning Stats 1000Reviewing Confidence Intervals and Tests for Ordinary One-Sample, MatchedPairs, and Two-Sample Studies About MeansExample Blood pressure X was measured for a sample of 10 black men. It was found that x = 114.9, s = 10
Pittsburgh - STAT - 1000
Lecture 32Nancy Pfenning Stats 1000Chapter 16: Analysis of VarianceExample Suppose your instructor administers 3 different forms of a final exam. When scores are posted, you see the observed mean scores for those 3 different forms-82, 66, and 60-are no
Pittsburgh - STAT - 1000
Lecture 33Nancy Pfenning Stats 1000Chapter 16: Analysis of VarianceLast time, we wanted to test if the difference among 3 observed mean test scores-82, 66, and 60-could be easily enough attributed to chance variation: H0 : 1 = 2 = 3 vs. Ha : not all th
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
33-658, 758 Quantum Computation and Information Spring Semester, 2012 Assignment No. 1. Due Tuesday, January 24 In the future all assignments will be posted at the COURSE WEB SITE: http:/www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/33-658 = http:/quantum.phys.cmu.edu/QCQI/
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
33-658, 758 Quantum Computation and Information Spring Semester, 2012 Assignment No. 2. Due Tuesday, January 31 READING: BORN = &quot;Stochastic Quantum Dynamics I. Born Rule&quot; Course web site CQT = Griffiths, Consistent Quantum Theory MEASURE = &quot;Measurements&quot;
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
33-658, 758 Quantum Computation and Information Spring Semester, 2012 Assignment No. 3. Due Tuesday, February 7 ANNOUNCEMENT. There will be an hour exam on Tuesday afternoon, February 21, beginning at 3:00 pm (usual class hour). It is closed book, closed
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
33-658, 758 Quantum Computation and Information Spring Semester, 2012 Assignment No. 4. Due Tuesday, February 14 ANNOUNCEMENT. There will be an hour exam on Tuesday afternoon, February 21, beginning at 3:00 pm (usual class hour). It is closed book, closed
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
33-658, 758 Quantum Computation and Information Spring Semester, 2012 Assignment No. 5 (Not to be turned in) ANNOUNCEMENT. There will be an hour exam on Tuesday afternoon, February 21, beginning at 3:00 pm (usual class hour). It is closed book, closed not
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd113Hilbert Space Quantum MechanicsRobert B. Griffiths Version of 17 January 2012Contents1 Introduction 1.1 Hilbert space . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Qubit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Physical interpretation of vectors 1.4 Incompatible properti
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd122MeasurementsRobert B. Griffiths Version of 2 Feb. 2010 References: CQT = Consistent Quantum Theory by Griffiths (Cambridge, 2002) QCQI = Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang (Cambridge, 2000).Contents1 Introduction
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
Classical Information TheoryRobert B. Griffiths Version of 12 January 2010Contents1 Introduction 2 Shannon Entropy 3 Two Random Variables 4 Conditional Entropies and Mutual Information 5 Channel Capacity 1 1 3 4 6References: CT = Cover and Thomas, Ele
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd181Quantum Information TypesRobert B. Griffiths Version of 6 February 2012 References: R. B. Griffiths, Types of Quantum Information, Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 062320; arXiv:0707.3752Contents1 Introduction 2 Information Types 2.1 Definition . . . . .
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
ProbabilitiesRobert B. Griffiths Version of 12 January 2010 References: Feller, An introduction to probability theory and its applications, Vol. 1, 3d ed (Wiley 1968). See Introduction, Ch. I, Ch. V DeGroot and Schervish, Probability and Statistics, 3d e
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd322Unitary Dynamics and Quantum CircuitsRobert B. Griffiths Version of 23 January 2012Contents1 Unitary Dynamics 1.1 Time development operator T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Particular cases . . . . .
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
Stochastic Quantum Dynamics I. Born RuleRobert B. Griffiths Version of 25 January 2010Contents1 Introduction 2 Born Rule 2.1 Statement of the Born Rule . . . 2.2 Incompatible sample spaces . . . 2.3 Born rule using pre-probabilities 2.4 Generalizations
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd342Histories and ConsistencyRobert B. Griffiths Version of 31 January 2012Contents1 Histories 1.1 Classical stochastic processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Quantum histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd352Dense Coding, Teleportation, No CloningRobert B. Griffiths Version of 8 February 2012 References: NLQI = R. B. Griffiths, &quot;Nature and location of quantum information&quot; Phys. Rev. A 66 (2002) 012311; http:/arxiv.org/archive/quant-ph/0203058 QCQI =
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
qitd421Correlations, Ensembles, Density OperatorsRobert B. Griffiths Version of 2 Feb. 2010Contents1 Correlations, Classical and Quantum 2 Conditional States 3 Ensembles 4 Density Operators 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
Pittsburgh - PHYS - 3101
Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 062320; arXiv:0707.3752Types of Quantum InformationRobert B. GriffithsDepartment of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incomp
UVA - BIOE - 6421
Cell Culture Results Cells Cultured on PDMS Substrates (Plus-signshaped structure)Tissue EngineeringBioMEMS ShortcourseDr. Bruce K. GalePeg Scaffold PDMS cell culture scaffold Pegs with height 5 microns,diameter 10 microns Pegs spaced 20 microns
UVA - BIOE - 6421
Overview of the Photolithography ProcessSurface PreparationCoating (Spin Casting)Pre-Bake (Soft Bake)AlignmentExposureDevelopmentPost-Bake (Hard Bake)Processing Using the Photoresist as a Masking FilmStrippingPost Processing Cleaning (Ashing)Wa
UVA - BIOE - 6421
Phenolic Resins - 2OHO+CHHformaldehydephenolEE-527: MicroFabricationOHH2COHOHH2CH2CPositive PhotoresistsbakeliteO+HHwaterR. B. Darling / EE-527Phenolic Resins - 3R. B. Darling / EE-527Advantages of Positive PhotoresistsOHO+
UVA - BIOE - 6421
Tips for Effective Poster PresentationsThrough the process of trial and error, scientific societies and veteran poster presenters havecome up with the following rules of thumb for effective poster presentations.1. Prepare a banner in very large type co
UVA - MSE - 2090
MSE 209: Introduction to the Scienceand Engineering of MaterialsSpring 2010 MSE 209 - Section 1Instructor: Leonid ZhigileiMonday and Wednesday, 08:30 9:45 amOlsson Hall 009MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials ScienceChapter 1, Introduction1MSE 209
UVA - MSE - 2090
Syllabus:From atoms to microstructure: Interatomicbonding, structure of crystals, crystal defects,non-crystalline materials.Mass transfer and atomic mixing: Diffusion,kinetics of phase transformations.Mechanical properties, elastic and plasticdefor
UVA - MSE - 2090
Structure Subatomic level (Chapter 2)Electronic structure of individualatoms that defines interaction amongatoms (interatomic bonding). Atomic level (Chapters 2 &amp; 3)Arrangement of atoms in materials(for the same atoms can havedifferent properties,
UVA - MSE - 2090
Types of MaterialsLet us classify materials according to the way the atoms arebound together (Chapter 2).Metals: valence electrons are detached from atoms, andspread in an 'electron sea' that &quot;glues&quot; the ions together.Strong, ductile, conduct electri
UVA - MSE - 2090
Chapter Outline Review of Atomic StructureElectrons, protons, neutrons, quantum mechanics ofatoms, electron states, the periodic Table Atomic Bonding in SolidsBonding energies and forces Primary Interatomic BondingIonicCovalentMetallic Secondary
UVA - MSE - 2090
Some simple calculationsThe number of atoms per cm3, n, for material of density d(g/cm3) and atomic mass M (g/mol):n = Nav d / MGraphite (carbon): d = 2.3 g/cm3, M = 12 g/moln = 61023 atoms/mol 2.3 g/cm3 / 12 g/mol = 11.5 1022atoms/cm3Diamond (carb
UVA - MSE - 2090
Electrons in Atoms (IV)ElementAtomic #Hydrogen1Helium2Lithium3Beryllium4Boron5Carbon6.Neon10Sodium11Magnesium12Aluminum13.Electron configuration1s 11s 2(stable)1s 2 2s 11s 2 2s 21s 2 2s 2 2p 11s 2 2s 2 2p 2.Argon.Krypto
UVA - MSE - 2090
Bonding Energies and ForcesPotential Energy, UrepulsionrInteratomic distance r0attractionequilibriumThis is typical potential well for two interacting atomsThe repulsion between atoms, when they are brought closeto each other, is related to the
UVA - MSE - 2090
Ionic Bonding (I)Ionic Bonding is typical for elements that are situated atthe horizontal extremities of the periodic table.Atoms from the left (metals) are ready to give up theirvalence electrons to the (non-metallic) atoms from the rightthat are ha
UVA - MSE - 2090
Covalent Bonding (I)In covalent bonding, electrons are shared between themolecules, to saturate the valency. In this case theelectrons are not transferred as in the ionic bonding,but they are localized between the neighboring ionsand form directional
UVA - MSE - 2090
Secondary Bonding (I)Secondary = van der Waals = physical (as opposite tochemical bonding that involves e- transfer) bonding resultsfrom interaction of atomic or molecular dipoles and isweak, ~0.1 eV/atom or ~10 kJ/mol.+_+_Permanent dipole moment
UVA - MSE - 2090
Bonding in real materialsIn many materials more than one type of bonding isinvolved (ionic and covalent in ceramics, covalent andsecondary in polymers, covalent and ionic insemiconductors.Examples of bonding in Materials:Metals: MetallicCeramics: I
UVA - MSE - 2090
Chapter OutlineHow do atoms arrange themselves to form solids? Fundamental concepts and language Unit cells Crystal structuresFace-centered cubicBody-centered cubicHexagonal close-packed Close packed crystal structures Density computations Types
UVA - MSE - 2090
Metallic Crystal StructuresMetals are usually (poly)crystalline; although formationof amorphous metals is possible by rapid coolingAs we learned in Chapter 2, the atomic bonding in metalsis non-directional no restriction on numbers orpositions of nea
UVA - MSE - 2090
Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) Crystal Structure (I)Atom at each corner and at center of cubic unit cellCr, -Fe, Mo have this crystal structureMSE 2090: Introduction to Materials ScienceChapter 3, Structure of solids11Body-Centered Cubic Crystal Structur
UVA - MSE - 2090
FCC: Stacking Sequence ABCABCABC.Third plane is placed above the holes of the first planenot covered by the second planeMSE 2090: Introduction to Materials ScienceChapter 3, Structure of solids16HCP: Stacking Sequence ABABAB.Third plane is placed d
UVA - MSE - 2090
Polycrystalline MaterialsAtomistic model of a nanocrystalline solid by Mo Li, JHUMSE 2090: Introduction to Materials ScienceChapter 3, Structure of solids21Polycrystalline MaterialsSimulation of annealing of a polycrystalline grain structurefrom ht
UVA - MSE - 2090
Chapter OutlineCrystals are like people, it is the defects in them whichtend to make them interesting! - Colin Humphreys. Defects in Solids0D, Point defectsvacanciesinterstitialsimpurities, weight and atomic composition1D, Dislocationsedgescrew
UVA - MSE - 2090
Point Defects: VacanciesVacancy = absence of an atomfrom its normal location in aperfect crystal structureVacancies are always present in crystals and they areparticularly numerous at high temperatures, when atomsare frequently and randomly change t
UVA - MSE - 2090
Solids with impurities - Solid SolutionsSolid solutions are made of a host (the solvent ormatrix) which dissolves the minor component(solute). The ability to dissolve is called solubility.Solvent: in an alloy, the element or compoundpresent in greate
UVA - MSE - 2090
Composition ConversionsFrom Weight % to mass per unit volume (g/cm3):C1wtC1 = wtC1C2wt+12C2wtC2 = wtC1C2wt+12C1 and C2 are concentrations of the first and secondcomponents in g/cm3Average density &amp; average atomic weight in a binary alloy
UVA - MSE - 2090
Where do dislocations come from ?The number of dislocations in a material is expressed as thedislocation density - the total dislocation length per unitvolume or the number of dislocations intersecting a unitarea. Dislocation densities can vary from 1
UVA - MSE - 2090
Interaction between dislocations and grain boundariesMotion of dislocations can be impeded by grain boundaries increase of the force needed to move then(strengthening the material).Grain boundary present a barrier to dislocation motion: slipplane dis
UVA - MSE - 2090
Atomic VibrationsThermal energy (heat) causes atoms to vibrateVibration amplitude increases with temperatureMelting occurs when vibrations are sufficient to rupturebondsVibrational frequency ~ 1013 Hz (1013 vibrations persecond)Average atomic energ
UVA - MSE - 2090
Chapter OutlineDiffusion - how do atoms move through solids?Diffusion mechanismsVacancy diffusionInterstitial diffusionImpuritiesThe mathematics of diffusionSteady-state diffusion (Ficks first law)Nonsteady-State Diffusion (Ficks second law)Facto
UVA - MSE - 2090
Diffusion FluxThe flux of diffusing atoms, J, is used to quantifyhow fast diffusion occurs. The flux is defined aseither the number of atoms diffusing through unit areaper unit time (atoms/m2-second) or the mass of atomsdiffusing through unit area pe
UVA - MSE - 2090
Nonsteady-State Diffusion: Ficks second lawCC=Dtx 22Ficks second law relates the rate of change of compositionwith time to the curvature of the concentration profile:CCxCxxConcentration increases with time in those parts of thesystem where
UVA - MSE - 2090
Diffusion Temperature Dependence (II)b = logD0a=y = ax + bQd2.3Rx = 1/TGraph of log D vs. 1/T has slop of Qd/2.3R,intercept of log DoQd 1 log D = log D0 2.3R T log D1 log D 2 Qd = 2.3R 1 T1 1 T2 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science
UVA - MSE - 2090
Diffusion: Role of the microstructure (I)Self-diffusion coefficients for Ag depend on the diffusionpath. In general the diffusivity if greater through lessrestrictive structural regions grain boundaries, dislocationcores, external surfaces.MSE 2090:
UVA - MSE - 2090
Chapter OutlineMechanical Properties of MetalsHow do metals respond to external loads?Stress and StrainTensionCompressionShearTorsionElastic deformationPlastic DeformationYield StrengthTensile StrengthDuctilityToughnessHardnessOptional read
UVA - MSE - 2090
Stress-Strain BehaviorElastic PlasticElastic deformationReversible: when the stressis removed, the materialreturns to the dimensions ithad before the loading.StressUsually strains are small(except for the case of someplastics, e.g. rubber).Plas
UVA - MSE - 2090
Elastic Deformation: Poissons ratioUnloadedLoadedyx= =zzMaterials subject to tension shrink laterally. Thosesubject to compression, bulge. The ratio of lateral andaxial strains is called the Poisson's ratio . Sign inthe above equations shows th
UVA - MSE - 2090
Tensile StrengthIf stress = tensile strength is maintainedthen specimen will eventually breakStress, fracturestrengthNeckingTensile strength: maximumstress (~ 100 - 1000 MPa)Strain, For structural applications, the yield stress is usually amore
UVA - MSE - 2090
Elastic Recovery During Plastic DeformationIf a material is deformed plastically and the stress is thenreleased, the material ends up with a permanent strain.If the stress is reapplied, the material again respondselastically at the beginning up to a n
UVA - MSE - 2090
Chapter OutlineDislocations and Strengthening MechanismsWhat is happening in material during plastic deformation?Dislocations and Plastic DeformationMotion of dislocations in response to stressSlip SystemsPlastic deformation insingle crystalspolyc
UVA - MSE - 2090
Interactions between dislocationsThe strain fields around dislocations cause them tointeract (exert force on each other). When they are inthe same plane, they repel if they have the same sign(direction of the Burgers vector) and attract/annihilateif
UVA - MSE - 2090
Slip in single crystals - critical resolved shear stressWhen the resolved shear stress becomes sufficiently large,the crystal will start to yield (dislocations start to movealong the most favorably oriented slip system). The onsetof yielding correspon