FUNGI1
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FUNGI1

Course Number: BIOL 351, Fall 2011

College/University: Texas A&M

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BIOL 351 Fall 2011 Fungi Study Questions 1) What are the characteristics that distinguish fungi from other groups of eukaryotic organisms? a. Spore-bearing, absorptive nutrition, lack of chlorophyll, can reproduce sexually and asexually, chemoorganotrophs, not photosynthetic, secrete digestive enzymes and take up small soluble products, unique cell wall (polysaccharides, chitin, NAM polymers). 2) What does the...

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351 BIOL Fall 2011 Fungi Study Questions 1) What are the characteristics that distinguish fungi from other groups of eukaryotic organisms? a. Spore-bearing, absorptive nutrition, lack of chlorophyll, can reproduce sexually and asexually, chemoorganotrophs, not photosynthetic, secrete digestive enzymes and take up small soluble products, unique cell wall (polysaccharides, chitin, NAM polymers). 2) What does the term monophyletic mean? How does it apply to the fungi? a. Monophyletic refers to organisms that arose from a single common ancestor. Fungi are thought to be monophyletic, arising from a common ancestor with oomycetes (water molds) and myxomycetes (slime molds). 3) Explain how fungi obtain nutrients from the environment? a. Fungi obtain nutrients from dead organic material by releasing degradative enzymes into the environment and absorb the soluble products (osmotrophy). 4) What role do fungi play in recycling of nutrients in the environment? a. Fungi are decomposers; they degrade complex organic materials in the environment to simple organic compounds and inorganic molecules (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) which can utilized by other living organisms. 5) Fungi are commonly divided into two morphological classes: yeasts and molds. Describe the morphology of each Yeast: class. a. Fungus grows as single cell b. Mold: Grow as filaments (hyphae); mycelia is the collection of several hyphi 6) Describe the growth of a filamentous fungus. a. Filamentous fungus grows at the tip. Products from all cells are sent to the tip and nutrients are moved by molecular motor. 7) During asexual growth, yeasts multiply through binary fission or budding. What mechanisms of asexual reproduction have been observed among filamentous fungi? a. Fragmentation and asexual spores. 8) What is the relationship between a hyphae and a mycelium? BIOL 351 Fall 2011 Fungi Study Questions 9) What two polysaccharides are common components of fungal cell walls? In addition to polysaccharides, what other macromolecule is found in the fungal cell wall? 10) Many fungi do not have cholesterol in their plasma membranes. What molecule is present instead of cholesterol? 11) Name two fungal cellular processes that are the targets of antifungal drugs. Why are these good targets? 12) What are the functions of the vacuole in fungal cells? 13) What are dimorphic fungi? 14) What environmental signals are known to influence whether a dimorphic fungus grows as a yeast or a mold? 15) What are mycorrhizal fungi? What nutrient(s) do they obtain from their symbiotic partners?

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