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Course: ANY 191, Spring 2012
School: MapĂșa Institute of...
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DISTRIBUTION ESTIMATING SAMPLING VARIANCE ; SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE PROPORTION SE= ESTIMATING RATIO OF TWO VARIANCE INTERVAL ESTIMATION CASE 1: is known, n&gt;30 (Round up to ones digit) CASE 2: is unknown, n30 ; CASE 3: n&gt;30, s= HYPOTHESIS TESTING Identify the Given 1. Hypothesis 2. of Level Significance 3. Critical Region 4. Type of Test 5. Computation 6. Decision ;...

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DISTRIBUTION ESTIMATING SAMPLING VARIANCE ; SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE PROPORTION SE= ESTIMATING RATIO OF TWO VARIANCE INTERVAL ESTIMATION CASE 1: is known, n>30 (Round up to ones digit) CASE 2: is unknown, n30 ; CASE 3: n>30, s= HYPOTHESIS TESTING Identify the Given 1. Hypothesis 2. of Level Significance 3. Critical Region 4. Type of Test 5. Computation 6. Decision ; ESTIMATING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO MEANS CASE 1: is known CASE 2: unknown CASE 3: unknown CASE 4: Paired Observation ; ESTIMATING A PROPORTION ; DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO PROPORTIONS is known ; is unknown Are known
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MapĂșa Institute of Technology - ANY - 191
MULTIVARIATEMULTIVARIATECALCULUSPartialderivativesInthisChapter:InthisChapter:11.1FunctionsofSeveralVariables11.2LimitsandContinuity11.3PartialDerivatives11.4TangentPlanesandLinearApproximations11.5TheChainRule11.6DirectionalDerivativesandtheGr
MapĂșa Institute of Technology - ANY - 191
Lesson Title: HinduismGroup Members:Leader: Espinosa, Harlan A.Members:Gonzales, Alexis Ioannes M.Valdellon, John Benedict B.Borja, Jason M.Berroy, Red D.Francisco, Noah Johndan C.Bucad, Heherson F.Cajayon, Lawrence Jerome I.Key Concepts:Type
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8/31/11BIOLOGY 142 SYLLABUS FALL 2011FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY II: ECOLOGY &amp; EVOLUTIONI. Processes of Evolution: Selection &amp; Speciation Dr. MendelsonII. Evolutionary History: Phylogeny &amp; Biodiversity Dr. OmlandIII. Intro to Ecology: Populations, Communi
UMBC - BIOL - 142
EVOLUTIONCHANGE IN ALLELE FREQUENCIES OF APOPULATION ACROSS GENERATION(S)Mendelian geneticsPre-Mendelian notions of heredityinheritance of acquired characteristicsblending inheritanceMendel studies the peaThe Pea. annual amenable to artificial f
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Mendels F3 Observationscross-fertilizeself-fertilizeMendelian geneticsF3 generation3Punnett squarePunnett squareThe Punnett square can be used to follow the alleles in a crossand predict the genotypes and phenotypes of the progenypossiblemaleg
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Mechanisms of evolution: The Hardy Weinberg equilibriumMendels F3 ObservationsExamining the relationship between allelefrequencies and genotype frequenciesat equilibrium (=no evolution is occurring)cross-fertilizeG.H. Hardyself-fertilizep = freque
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Number ofindividualsbefore selectionTypes of selectionEvolution by natural selection:the logical outcome of 3 conditions1. Individuals in the population vary inphenotype2. Variation in phenotype is heritable3. Survival and fecundity are nonrandom
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Mechanisms of evolution: mutationMECHANISMS OF EVOLUTIONMECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION(I.e., why allele frequencies of a population may change)(i.e., why allele frequencies of a population may change)1. Mutation1. Mutation point mutations transpositions
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Kin selectionKin selectionIs altruistic behavior directed toward relatives?Hypothesis:A particular altruistic behavior is a result of kin selectionBeldings Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus beldingi)! live in colonies! alarm calling- puts caller at ris
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How do new species arise?How do new species arise?SPECIATION: the process by which new species arise;causes an increase in biological diversity.CBAHow do new species arise?SPECIATION: the process by which new species arise;causes an increase in b
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Origin of LifeLIFE BEGINS!3.5 billion yaFirst known fossil life4 billion yaEarth cools; land &amp; oceans form4.55 billion yaFormation of the earth4.6 billion yaFormation of our solar system13.7 billion yaFormation of the universeOrigin of LifeLI
UMBC - BIOL - 142
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Evolu&amp;onarytheoryEvolu2onchangeinallelefrequenciesofapopula2onover2meEvolu&amp;onarytheoryEvolu2onarytheory1. Commondescent2. Naturalselec2onEvolu&amp;onarytheoryOUTLINECommondescentAlloflifeevolvedfromacommonancestorNewspecies(forms)ariseoverlongperio
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1. BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT species = group of individuals that can interbreed in natureand produce fertile offspring SPECIES = (Mayr, 1940 groups of actually or potentially interbreeding naturalpopulations that are reproductively isolated from o
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PRACTICE DRAWING CLADOGRAMSTREES CAN BE:- label cladogram with 3-5 botanical termsused for parts of a tree- BUT remember there is NO TRUNKon a phylogeny- remember to carefully label TIME going from theroot to the line of extant speciesrectangular
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10/7/11With which species did C share a common ancestormore recently?!1. Aor2. Dor3. CANT TELL!D!With which species did C share a common ancestor more recently?!(Is species C more closely related to species A or species D?) !D!C! ?!C!B!B!
UMBC - BIOL - 142
The tree below contains only two useful pieces of information, one ofwhich is that:1. the three species of bacteria are more closely related to eachother than any of those species are to humans2. the H. sapiens lineage is older than the bacteria linea
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http:/www.sciencemag.org/special/neandertal/!May 2010 !Neanderthal Genome sequenced.Showed hybridization with nonAfrican Homo sapiens.!- we did not simply kill offNeanderthals!- we interbred with them, many ofus carry their genes today&quot;http:/ngm.
UMBC - BIOL - 142
MAMMALS LAST CLASS: Monotremes &amp; MARSUPIALS are incorrectly thought of as primi&lt;ve. MARSUPIAL young develop in a pouch; seems strange BUT it is misleading to think of pouches as primi&lt;ve (development in a pouch
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!&quot;#\$&quot;%#&amp;\$&quot;'&quot;!()*\$+(,'-(,\$+,*&quot;.'/0'0123104'5627'89:09;'&lt;;'=&gt;?9:@'AB6BA:C30DE'F0EBG90H'I;'=&gt;?9:@'408J04'FC'8J9K'B''60LB?J04'BJE09L6B3'E:B6BEL06?9DEM'' ' ' ' '!!&quot;#\$%#!&amp;'\$()*+,-*,./*+,012)3456178,.9):&amp;;&lt;0=&gt;?&amp;!&quot;#\$&quot;%#&amp;\$&quot;'&quot;!()*\$+(,'-(,\$+,*&quot;.'/0'0123104
UMBC - BIOL - 142
TODAY our next closest cousins MONDAY our most distant animal cousins (WEDNESDAY Themes &amp; Review) FRIDAY EXAM know each individual phylogeny we have drawn know how they all t together (study e
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ANIMAL EVOLUTION (Kingdom Animalia) Today: our most distant animal cousins. Q: Which of the following are characterisGcs of all animals? 1. mulGcellular &amp; heterotrophic 2. nervous Gssue and muscle Gssue 3. acG
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Trophic Structure Food Chains Transfer food and nutrients through dierent trophic levels Flow originates from autotrophs to heterotrophs Food Webs Feeding across mul8ple trophic levels Simplied Food Web What
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World Biome Map!&quot;#\$%&amp;'()*+#),-+.(/01+2'034%&amp;03)56(/01+2'!.17!&quot;#\$&quot;%&amp;'&quot;()*%&quot;+'(!&quot;#\$&quot;%&amp;',%&quot;-(./0123(4&amp;%/&amp;52&quot;(678*79('*(:8;(97&lt;%&quot;=/\$/'&amp;&gt;*?-(@A6BA8(=#(&quot;4&quot;?23('1%*,01*,'(3&quot;&amp;%(C*/2-(D&quot;%&gt;2&quot;E(F/'1(G&quot;=&amp;3/?0(2/H&quot;%79&amp;?*\$3-72/01'(\$&quot;?&quot;'%&amp;'&quot;+E(G/4&quot;%+&quot;(,?G&quot;%+'*%3(4
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!&quot;#\$&quot;%&amp;'&quot;()*%&quot;+'(!&quot;#\$&quot;%&amp;',%&quot;-(./0123(4&amp;%/&amp;52&quot;(678*!9('*(:8;(9!&lt;%&quot;=/\$/'&amp;&gt;*?-(@A6BA8(=#(&quot;4&quot;?23('1%*,01*,'(3&quot;&amp;%(C*/2-(D&quot;%&gt;2&quot;E(F/'1(G&quot;=&amp;3/?0(2/H&quot;%!9&amp;?*\$3-!2/01'(\$&quot;?&quot;'%&amp;'&quot;+E(G/4&quot;%+&quot;(,?G&quot;%+'*%3(4&quot;0&quot;'&amp;&gt;*?()2*%&amp;-!:6I('%&quot;(+\$&quot;=/&quot;+J+K(L#M(!%&quot;+(FJ5%*&amp;G(2&quot;&amp;4&quot;+(2*
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Climate Change and Range Expansions If ranges are only determined by climate, species should shi; their range in response to climate change Atalopedes campestris range: completely within the 4C January average minimum
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Distribu(ons Of Popula(ons Within the Range Explain how species interac1ons, environmental gradients, gene ow between central and marginal popula1ons, and gene1c characteris1cs of popula1ons can combine to limit the rang
UMBC - BIOL - 142
6,976,834,782 Es.mated Size of Human Popula.on According to the Interna.onal Programs Center, U.S. Census Bureau, 19:46 UTC (EST+5) Nov 23, 2011 6,915,857,906 05/02/11 World POPClock Projec.on h&quot;p:/www.census.gov/
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Be#ng on a comeback Proposed limits on crab harvest spawn debate By Rona Kobell April 20, 2008 Crabs in decline The crab harvest has plummeted in recent years because, scien5sts say, there are far fewer crabs to
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Modelling Eects of Intraspecic Density on Per Capita Birth and Death Rates b0 b = b0 aN Rate c d0 a d = d0 + cN K Popula)on Size N (or Density) The Logis*c Equa*on Models the Eects of Density Pearl
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Character Displacement and Resource Par55oning? Have dierent species of parasitoid wasps evolved dierent breeding seasons (life history divergence) to avoid compe55on? Aphaereta sp. h&quot;p:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=IWDtC7XCnoU Lep
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Ecosystems Consist of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abio6c factors with which they interact. The dynamics of an ecosystem involve two processes: energy ow and chemical cycling. Use trop
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Earth, we have a problemEarth, We Have A ProblemWetland Ecosystemsestimated to cover&gt; 1,280million hectares worldwideWetlandsWetlandsJuvenile Stripped BassMorone saxatilisAlewife Herring - Alosa pseudoharengusBlueback Herring Alosa aestivalisB
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h&quot;p:/faculty.bemidjistate.edu/dsiems/courses/ConsBio/source%20sink%20metapopula&gt;ons.gif Universal Studios proposes to build a Spiderman theme park in one of two possible sites. As their environmental consultant you have to s
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!&quot;#\$%#&amp;'()*&amp;)&amp;+,-#&amp;(,.*/01&amp;*0),*&amp;,.&amp;)%2&amp;#34+),%&amp;'(1&amp;*(#.#&amp;*0),*.&amp;)0#&amp;*(#&amp;5)6/0&amp;7/54/%#%*.&amp;/-&amp;,%2,8,29)+&amp;\$*%#.:&amp;!;34+),%&amp;(/'&amp;7900#%*&amp;#7/+/&lt;,7)+&amp;7/%2,=/%.&amp;&gt;#:&lt;:?&amp;*(/.#&amp;)@#7=%&lt;&amp;)&lt;#!.4#7,\$7&amp;5/0*),+,*1A&amp;-)8/0.&amp;4)0=79+)0&amp;+,-#&amp;(,.*/01&amp;.*0)*#&lt;,#.&amp;!;34+),%&amp;(/'
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HUMAN EVOLUTION:WE ARE AFRICAN!1. Closest ape relatives in Africa2. DNA sequences demonstrate:- common ancestor Africa ~100-200,000 yrs.ago3. Most fossil hominids from Africa (e.g., Ardi)Q: What do the branches on a phylogenyrepresent?A: Species
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Last Class: WE ARE PRIMATESMAMMALSToday: WE AREJapan. MacaqueHumanSpider MonkeyLemurDeerQ: Are lemurs more closely related to:1. deer or 2. humans or 3. cant tell(Also: what major clades do the fourprimate species above represent?)I. Review: L
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THE TREE OF LIFE AT DIFFERENTSCALES Each of these trees is nested within the next tree, justlike a series of Russian dolls. The tree of human populations is nested within the treeof other hominids is nestedwithin the tree ofprimates is nestedwithi
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What is Ecology? What is Ecology? Scien2c study of the rela*onship between organisms and their environments Major Ecological Ques2ons: Why are certain species found in some places and not others? (what factors inue
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Community structure Includes the number, abundance, types of species Species richness: the total number of species in a community Global pa:erns in species richness Land = 1.4%, Vascular plants = 44%, Verte
UMBC - BIOL - 142
Natural SelectionPlease be ready to form a groupwith 4-5 of your nearest neighborsQuantitative (Continuous)VariationPolygenic InheritanceQuantitative = ContinuousFrequencyFrequencyDiscrete = DiscontinuousCharacter TraitsOften, anormalcurveCh
UMBC - BIOL - 142
For extant species, phylogenies CAN beused to:1. Determine which species is the OLDEST.2. Illustrate which species is the mostADVANCED.3. Show which species are PRIMITIVE.4. Infer which characteristics are ANCESTRAL.5. Measure which species are mos
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