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Productive Designing & Satisfying Work Who does what? HRM The Big Picture St ra te g y lI a eg L s ue ss Focus of This Section: 2 important HR activities: 1. Job Analysis Analyzing jobs within an organization to gather relevant information about the tasks that workers perform 2. Job Design (Work design) Assigning and coordinating work tasks among employees Reconfiguring or redesigning existing jobs to improve them (efficiency, motivation) Many times, these HR activities revolve around a workflow analysis Work Flow Analysis The process of analyzing the tasks necessary for production of service or product ACTIVITY what tasks are required? OUTPUT - product/service - how measured? Raw Inputs - material - information Equipment - facilities - systems People - knowledge - skills - abilities Inputs Processes Outputs Logic of WFA Begin from the end Knowledge of desired outputs crucial for remaining elements Product/service, quality, quantity Work processes adapted to outputs Job analysis and design, role assignment and differentiation, organizational structure Goal is to maximize efficiency/productivity "Lean production" Inputs based on required processes Equipment, raw materials, worker KSAs Job Analysis Systematically collecting information about the tasks that workers perform on a specific job Job = Collection of tasks Goal: Defining a job in terms of its component tasks/duties and the knowledge or skills required to perform them A job analysis tells us What tasks are performed on the job The situation in which they are performed The worker qualities needed to perform the work A job analysis describes a job, not a person Job analysis is one of the most vital HR activities Basis for almost all other HR functions Uses of JA Information 1. Tells us what should be done on the job Performance appraisal, training programs 2. Reveals what is needed to be successful on job Employee selection, training programs 3. Indicates problems with the design of a job Job redesign 4. Determine the worth of a job to the organization Job evaluation 5. Necessary for human resource planning Match skills of workers with requirements of job opportunities 6. Outcomes of a Job Analysis Job description Describes the activities (tasks, duties, responsibilities TDRs) completed on the job as well as the general environment within which the job is performed Job Specifications The "people requirements" of the job KSAOs deemed necessary to perform the job Sample Job Description Job Title: Maintenance Mechanic General Description of Job: General maintenance and repair of all equipment used in the operations of a particular district. Includes the servicing of company used vehicles, shop equipment, and machinery used on job sites. 1. Essential duty (40%) Maintenance of Equipment Tasks: keep maintenance log, regularly check gauges... 2. Essential duty (40%) Repair of Equipment Tasks: Inspection for repairs needed, decision to repair... 3. Essential duty (10%) Testing and Approval Tasks: Approve equipment for use on job.... The Job Analysis Process Selecting Job Agents 3 Sources of JA Information 1. Job incumbents Knowledge of correct way to do job (Shortcuts?) Accurate assessment of time spent and hazards What they say they do vs. what they actually do 2. Supervisors Knowledge of job, "Big picture" understanding Accurate assessment of importance of TDRs 3. Trained Job Analysts Specificity of information Reality Check... "I am in charge of maintaining the office wide mail system on a daily basis." Reality: Opened the door to employee mailroom every morning "I am in charge of making sure that all work in this office is done correctly." Reality: Proofread memos coming out of the office. "I am in charge of computer operations in the office." Reality: Turned on all of the computers in the office when he arrived in the morning. Methods for Collecting JA Information 1. Interview 2. Questionnaires 3. Direct Observation 4. Work Diaries Specific Job Analysis Techniques Task analysis inventory Data on TDRs collected from subject matter experts (SMEs) SMEs then asked to rate TDRs Frequency, importance, difficulty, consequences of errors, etc. Tasks grouped into similar functions to give overall sense of what job focuses on Detailed and concrete, but job specific Critical Incidents Technique Examples of effective and ineffective job behaviors are collected Themes or categories of behavior identified Identifies most important activity categories on the job Common Job Analysis Techniques Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) 187 items describing work general behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics Rated along relevance, frequency, and importance Information input, mental processes, work outputs, relationship with others, job context, other job characteristics 6 dimensions of jobs Generic, but can be applied across jobs Common Metric System (CMS) 2077 items, 80 dimensions (Required? Frequency? Importance?) Job Analysis Techniques Functional Job Analysis Task statements generated & rated by SMEs on 3 dimensions Data Does task require the use of cognitive resources in handling information, ideas, and facts? 0 = Synthesizing, 7 = Serving Does task require use of interpersonal resources? 0 = Mentoring, 8 = Taking instructions Does task require the use of physical resources? 0 = Precision working, 6 = Feeding People Things Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT 1991) Developed by Department of Labor using FJA 920.687082 DENTAL FLOSS PACKER Assembles dental floss packages: Mounts dental floss cutter in container top, using jig, and locks cutter in place, using cap. Cuts away excess floss from roll, using scissors. Positions roll in bottom half of container and mounts cutter top. Threads end of dental floss through cutting mechanism. Places completed unit in shipping container. The O*NET Occupational Information Network Replaced DOT in 1998 Focuses on more general occupations than specific job titles 1000 occupations vs. 12000 jobs Describes job in terms of: Experience requirements (training & licensing) Worker requirements (KSAs) Occupational requirements (TDRs, organizational & work context) Also provides salary info Legal Issues in Job Analysis Job analysis is not optional! Analysis should be in writing Experts should be included in JA Collect enough data to be sure results are accurate Must specifically identify TDRs Should focus on minimum KSAs necessary for Competency Modeling Some companies have moved towards competency modeling instead of job analysis Focuses on a broader set of characteristics that workers need to effectively perform their jobs Competencies Tend to be more "big picture" and strategic Tends to be less specific and more general Not competing approaches, should be complementary Job Design Defining how work will be performed and what tasks are part of a given job Deciding what tasks will be grouped together to define the duties for a specific work position Redesign = Changing or reassessing task groupings to create new sets of duties 4 general approaches: Mechanistic Motivational Biological PerceptualMotor Mechanistic Job Design Simplest way to structure work to maximize efficiency Jobs are highly specialized and differentiated Simple jobs Automated whenever possible Minimize costs Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management (1911) Time and motion studies: Identify single, best way The science of shoveling Simple as possible, reducing HR needs Focus on physical capabilities and limitations Selection based on T&M studies Not popular with workers (downsizing, repetitious jobs) Motivational Job Design Goal: Make job as motivating as possible (resulting in efficiency or productivity) Response to mechanistic approach Most of these systems involve making the job more complex, not less Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) and Motivational Potential Scores (MPS) Job Characteristics Model Core job dimensions Skill variety Task identity Task significance Critical psychological states Experienced meaningfulness of work Outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance Autonomy Experienced responsibility for outcomes of work High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism and turnover Feedback Knowledge of results of work activities Application of JCM Job enlargement Job extension & rotation Job enrichment Empowering employees, decision making Selfmanaged work teams Flexible work schedules Reduced workfamily conflict Flextime Other Job Design Approaches Biological Design Ergonomic considerations Seeks to minimize physical strain (and possibly increase efficiency) Biomechanics, work physiology, occupational safety and health Not optional (OSHA), complements other approaches Perceptual Job Design Focus on mental capabilities and limitations Jobs should not exceed capabilities of workers Reduce mental workload of job (air traffic controllers) Conclusions Job analysis and job design are critical to organizational success Often ignored: boring and tedious Should be tailored to organizational mission and strategy ... 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