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### lec6a

Course: FDSC 4300, Spring 2012
School: Cornell
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Word Count: 854

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means Malt malted barley. The vast majority of the grain that is malted is barley. Malt has brewing, distilling, baking and confectionary uses. Malt Other grains (mainly wheat and rye) can also be malted. In those cases the products are referred to as wheat malt or rye malt. Mostly those are used in some specialty beers and distilling. Barley is a small grain, with appearance similar to wheat and rye. It has...

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means Malt malted barley. The vast majority of the grain that is malted is barley. Malt has brewing, distilling, baking and confectionary uses. Malt Other grains (mainly wheat and rye) can also be malted. In those cases the products are referred to as wheat malt or rye malt. Mostly those are used in some specialty beers and distilling. Barley is a small grain, with appearance similar to wheat and rye. It has distinct awns (whiskers). Barley grain head small grain seed heads oats barley wheat rye Barley cultivars are classied as two-row or six-row depending on the arrangement of kernels in the grain head viewed from the end. barley eld 1 Two-row barley seeds tend to be plumper and contain more extract (mainly starch) per unit weight than six-row barley. Six-row barley, on the other hand, has a higher content of protein and enzymes per unit weight. 2-row barley 6-row barley Feed Barley vs. Malting Barley Only certain barley cultivars (varieties) are approved for malting. Even barley of these cultivars must meet certain specications. Malting barley that meets specications commands a premium price. 2-row barley 6-row barley Barley has a huge agronomic range. It can be grown from the Equator to the Arctic Circle. Barley that is not acceptable for malting is mainly used for human or animal food. U.S. Malting Barley Production Malting barley is typically a bit more circumscribed but it is grown in Australia*, Canada*, China, France*, Germany, Japan, Russia, Scandinavia, South Africa, United Kingdom, and the US among other places. *major exporters (as malt) 2-row malting barley 6-row malting barley 2 Dormancy The Malting Process Immediately after harvest, seeds are unable to grow. This prevents their sprouting at the wrong time of year and is called dormancy. Steeping Germination As time passes, seeds lose their dormancy and become capable of sprouting. Kilning The Malting Process Steeping Germination H2O barley seeds Steeping - 24-48 hours green malt steeped barley air Kilning water spray H2O 12% H2O raise moisture content air 45% H2O malt Raise grain moisture content warm air 45% H2O enzyme induction, cell wall digestion Wash grain - remove dirt, microbes 4% H2O drying, avor development Bubble air through - aid grain respiration Soaking in water with air rests 3 What are enzymes? What are enzymes? Proteins A catalyst doesnt cause a reaction to occur. The reaction would have happened anyway, but more slowly. What are enzymes? Proteins Catalysts reactants --> product A catalyst makes the reaction happen faster by reducing the activation energy needed. reactant --> product Germination - 4-6 days Induction of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (mainly -amylase, -amylase and -glucanase) Induction of protein hydrolyzing enzymes (proteases). Modication digestion - of endosperm cell walls, resulting in softening of the grain. 4 barley kernel (seed) 5 Chitted Malt Day One Day Two Day Three Day Four Day Five barley endosperm cell with starch granules ungerminated barley with intact cell walls Kilning Reduce moisture to stabilize germinated barley with degraded cell walls the starch granules are exposed Preserve enzyme activity Develop color Develop malty avor Microbial Sterilization Wet (autoclave) - requires 121C Wet vs. Dry Heat Dry (oven) - requires 400C The difference is due to energy transfer in the presence of water molecules. 6 Kilning (24-36 hours) First stage (free drying) - Moisture evaporates from grain surface; air on (entering kiln) 50-60C; moisture ~42% => 10-15%. Second stage - Moisture migrates from interior to surface; air on 65-75C; moisture => ~5%; some enzyme inactivation. Final stage (curing) - pale lager malt air on ~80C; pale ale malt ~100C; color and avor formation; malt moisture => 4%. Malt Color Formation Caramelization Sugar-sugar reactions Melanoidin formation Reducing sugar - amino acid reactions Malt Flavor Formation Roasted, malty & nutty avors, dimethyl sulde (DMS) precursors. Many compounds are produced by breakdown of products of reducing sugaramino acid reactions. These include aldehydes, oxygencontaining ring compounds, sulfurcontaining compounds, amines, nitrogencontaining ring compounds, and phenolics. 6-row barley 6-row malt 7 The Process for Specialty Malts Steeping Germination High Temperature Kilning Kilning of some specialty malts (e.g. Munich malt) involves applying more heat than for a pale malt and heating earlier. Roasting A separate operation, roasting, can be applied to green malt (germinated barley), kilned malt or even unmalted barley. This results in dark color formation and special avor formation. Specialty Malt Production steeping germination roasting green malt kilning roasting pale malt roasting Its not burned, its blackened. 8 Dark malts have reduced or nonexistent enzyme activity, so are only used as a low percentage of the total malt. That also necessitates lower adjunct levels. e.g. A bock beer might derive its very dark color from 10% caramel malt and 1% black malt. Other Uses for Malt Distillers malt Baking (malt our) Confectionary Malted milk Effects of the Malting Process Color Flavor Texture Composition Major Contributions of Malt to Beer Yeast Nutrition lipids, amino acids, simple sugars Flavor malt avors Color colored compounds Foam foam-active protein Processing Aid husk forms lter bed for lautering Processing difculties gel proteins, beta-glucans Physical instability haze-active protein, polyphenols Tasting Coors Original Killians Irish Red Ithaca Nut Brown Ale Guinness Stout 9
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Cornell - FDSC - 4300
B r e w in g is th e p r o c e s s o f m a k in g b e e r .Introduction to BrewingK a rl J . S ie b e rtB e e r e n c o m p a s s e s b o th :a le s ( t o p fe r m e n te d ) a n dla g e r s ( b o tto m fe r m e n te d ) .Brewing Raw Materials Malt
Cornell - FDSC - 4300
From Classical to Renaissance2000 AD0 BCE2000 BCRomanChampagne2Greece1Egypt8,000YearsCaucasiaMesopotaniaGlassCorksWood4000 BC6000 BCTimeline for Wine HistoryFS 430FS 430AlchemyChemical SciencePerceptionChampagne DevelopmentRoman
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!&quot;#$%&amp;!&quot;'()*+&amp;)*&amp;,-%&amp;.)*+%&quot;&amp;/#0%1234566&amp;7'8%1&amp;9&amp;2:6;&amp;,'*1&amp;'&lt;&amp;+&quot;#$%1=2&gt;'*1,#*,)*&amp;.&quot;#*02F-%&amp;F#E@'&quot;&amp;G&quot;',-%&quot;12?-#&quot;@%1&amp;.'A&quot;*)%&quot;2!'@B&amp;C%#@&amp;D)*%&quot;E2H&quot;I&amp;J%@1'*&amp;C-#A@)1&amp;2NY Grape &amp; Wine Industry! Over 300 wineries! ~37,000 acres ofvineyards! Over 4 mill
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Refresher: how many wine labelsapproved each year in US?The Chemistry of TerroirGavin SacksFDSC 4300The Unofficial 1st Law of Wine Flavor ChemistryIf two wines served under identicalconditions can be distinguished sensoriallytastetaste,sight,sm
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0. \Last Name_ First Name_ Net ID _1. The term Golden Ratio refers to what?a. The amount of gold one amphora of wine cost.b. The dimensions of Greek classical architecture.c. The amount of pine resin which the ancient Greeks added to their wines.d.
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1.Surname: \First Name:NetID (ex. Mtk47) _Food Science (VIEN) 4300 Prelim #1, Feb. 21, 2012Multiple Choice Answer SheetFor each question, neatly write the letter of the alternative you think is the most correct in thebox directly below the question
Cornell - FDSC - 4300
Last Name_ First Name_ Net ID _All answers, including bonuses need to be on answer sheet. Questionsanswer sheet and wine/beer logs need to be turned in up front.1) A chef is simmering two beef stews, one prepared with a red Bordeaux win
Cornell - FDSC - 4300
34. \ 1)2)3)4)Last Name_ First Name_ Net ID _ Answers in bold Which of the following is the most effective way to prevent tannin build up during a wine tasting so that you can consistently judge tannin
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
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Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
1. Suppose that f(x) = sin x for 0 x /2. (a) Sketch this probability density function. (b) Give an acceptance rejection algorithm for generating samples of a random variable with probability density function f. (c) Use your algorithm and the random number
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Page 1ORIE 580Score:Name: _out ofThis exam is open class notes. Hand-held calculators are allowed, but computers are not. There are 4 questions. Answer all 4 questions. Good luck!1. (22 points) In a certain service system, customers arrive according
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Project-Related Assignment Data Analysis Due by Nov. 11, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall.Hand in a single assignment for your project group with the names of all group members. Show all relevant calcula
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
k 0 1 2 3Pcfw_Y=k k \times Pcfw_Y=k 0.15625 0 0.21875 0.21875 0.28125 0.5625 0.34375 1.03125 Ecfw_Y 1.8125
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 1Due by Sep. 14, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. Please note that this homework deviates from our announced schedule in the syllabus and it is due on a Wednesday. 1. The probab
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ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 1Question 1 a) Note that the largest value Y can take is 4 and the smallest value Y can take is 0. Therefore, 0 if y &lt; 0 FY (y) = Pcfw_Y y = Pcfw_X 2 y = Pcfw_- y X y if 0 y 4 1 if y &gt; 4 To compute th
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 2Due by Sep. 16, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. 1. a) A company selling oil operates a storage tank to serve 20 customer locations dispersed around the country. The monthly de
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
S1P(D1&lt;S1) P(D2&lt;S2) S2 S1+S2 1030 0.953355 0.9964808 420.52516 1450.5252 1040 0.9646494 0.9848137 396.83059 1436.8306 1050 0.9735962 0.9757638 388.24436 1438.2444 1060 0.9805664 0.9688278 383.35337 1443.3534 1070 0.9859071 0.9635796 380.2224 1450.2224 10
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 2Question 1 a) Let D be the total customer demand in a month. Since sum of independent normally distributed random variables is normally distributed, D N (20 60, 20 202 ) N (1200, 8000) We want to fin
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Question 3 a) We have, EX 1 / 2 , since X in uniformly distributed over [0,1],E 1 /(Y 1) 2 11 1 1 dy (1 y ) 1 1 / 2 2 0 0 ( y 1)Then,1 EZ E X /(1 Y ) 2 EX E 1 /(Y 1) 2 . 4 We also have,EX 1 2x3 x 1 dx 3 021 41 1/ 3 ,011 E /(Y 1) 1 1 dy 4 3
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 3Due by Sep. 23, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. Please show your work and clearly mark your answers. Make sure that your spreadsheet printouts are properly formatted and label
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580 / 5580 / 5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 3 Question 1a) Fraction of the points that fall under the curve = Area under the curve / Area of the square = b) The following sheet computes the number of points required in cell G10.A 1 2 3 4 5
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
rep. x y 1 0.490681844 2 0.602051131 3 0.618362974 4 0.871731029 5 0.979280374 6 0.670817975 7 0.425408864 8 0.549773457 9 0.586245062 10 0.998009056 11 0.242490262 12 0.041423501 13 0.377360645 14 0.941011039 15 0.567694577 16 0.5153139 17 0.873013848 18
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 3Question 3. A set of 50 trial runs indicates that we should choose N = 683. (You may observe a different value, due to randomness.) 683 production runs yield the confidence interval [3.270, 3.363]. (
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
rep. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50outcome from box 1 2 3 4 6 8 7 1 4 5 5 5 8 7 5 7 5 5 5 1 5 1 7 1 4 1 6 6 1 6 3 5 1 5 7 7 5 6 7 8 3 4 4 2 2 8
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 4Due by Sep. 30, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. If you are taking ORIE 5581, then you can turn in this homework assignment by Oct. 3, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
m a c n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 4Question 1. The c.d.f of X is F (x) =eax1 ln(x) - a du = (b - a)u b-afor ea x eb . We now compute the inverse of F (): u= Thus, The algorithm is: 1. Generate U U [0, 1]. 2. Return X = ea e(b-a)u
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 5Due by Oct. 7, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. Please show your work and clearly mark your answers. Make sure that your spreadsheet printouts are properly formatted and labele
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
0 0 0.1 0 0.2 0 0.3 0 0.4 0 0.5 0 0.6 0 0.7 0 0.8 0 0.9 0 1 0 1.1 0.0570938 1.2 0.1155 1.3 0.1746563 1.4 0.234 1.5 0.2929688 1.6 0.351 1.7 0.4075313 1.8 0.462 1.9 0.5138438 2 0.5625 2.1 0.6074063 2.2 0.648 2.3 0.6837188 2.4 0.714 2.5 0.7382813 2.6 0.756 2
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 5Question 1. a) See the attached spreadsheet. b) We have to pick M such that M max f (x).x[1,3]From the figure in the accompanying spreadsheet, it is easy to see that picking M = 0.8 would do the jo
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 6Due by Oct. 14, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. Please show your work and clearly mark your answers. Make sure that your spreadsheet printouts are properly formatted and label
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 6Question 1. a) Choose m = 220 , a = 37 and c = 1. Following Theorem 1 in the course packet, m and c are relatively prime; the only prime divisor of m is 2 and 2 divides a - 1; since m is divisible by
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
m a c n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Homework Assignment 7Due by Oct. 28, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. Please show your work and clearly mark your answers. Make sure that your spreadsheet printouts are properly formatted and label
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
sample no data 1 1.586991 2 0.80424 3 1.306066 4 1.914143 5 1.491877 6 1.066779 7 0.10835 8 0.269911 9 0.467812 10 0.728315 11 1.087621 12 1.544785 13 1.923091 14 0.690195 15 0.675287 16 0.242779 17 1.381955 18 0.574386 19 1.634966 20 0.600252 21 1.977602
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580/5581 Solutions for Homework Assignment 7Question 1. The likelihood function is L() = e- X1 e- X2 e- Xn e-n (X1 +X2 +.Xn ) . = . X1 ! X2 ! Xn ! X1 !X2 ! . . . Xn !We will maximize ln L(): ln L() = -n + (X1 + X2 + . . . Xn ) ln() - ln(X1 !X
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Homework Assignment 8 Due by Nov. 4, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall.1. Consider a two-server queueing system, where the customers arriving into the system join a single queue, wait for their turn, rece
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Homework 8 Solution Set Question 1 a) State of the system B1: Server 1 busy B2: Server 2 busy N: Number of customers in the system (including the customers in the servers) Events Arrival Departure from server 1 Departure from server 2 b) Arrival event at
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Homework Assignment 9 Due by Nov. 18, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. 1. Sit&amp;Relax Co. manufactures customized chairs. The orders for chairs arrive according to a Poisson process with rate 1/60 minutes-
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Solutions for Homework Assignment 9PROBLEM 1:* * * * Formatted Listing of Model: * * C:\Documents and Settings\Huseyin\Desktop\sitandrelax.MOD * * * * Time Units: Distance Units: Minutes Feet* * Locations * * Name -order_queue cut sand s
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Homework Assignment 10 Due by Nov. 29, 11:00 am, in the drop-box located on the second floor of Rhodes Hall. 1. The customer service call-center of a small company has a single operator that works from 6 am until 6 pm. The customer calls ar
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Solutions to Homework Assignment 101. a) The text description for the model is given below. One way of modeling this problem is to assume that all customers are &quot;lost&quot; when they arrive in the system. When a customer gets to the front of th
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Homework Assignment 11You are not expected to turn in this assigment. We will post solutions for this assignment a few days before the exam. 1. Suppose that each of three jobs is to be processed by either of a pair of identical machines. L
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
ORIE 4580/5580 Solutions for Homework Assignment 11Question 1: Using policy 1, the first machine starts at time 0 with the job that takes the longest processing time and finishes this job at maxcfw_T1, T2, T3. The second machine starts at time 0 with the
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Not using common random numbers: T1 T2 T3 Completion 1 (C1) 2.5702628 0.1874993 0.4230211 2.5702628 0.6105204 2.570263 0.1563222 0.0859429 1.2651002 1.2651002 0.2422651 1.2651 1.0266018 0.0010862 0.0881583 1.0266018 0.0892445 1.026602 0.295584 0.2415862 1
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Question 1. Let X1, X2, . be i.i.d. random variables with common variance 2. Define the sample variance as 1 n 2 sn ( X i X n )2 , n 1 i 1 where X n denotes the regular sample mean. Show that the expectation of sample variance is equal to 2. Question 2. A
Cornell - ORIE - 4580
Ivy Tech Community College - ENG - 111
Madness in College Athletics Isn't Confined to MarchThe basketball arena is packed with a sellout crowd of over 13,000 cheering fans. The televisioncameras capture the game for the entire nation. A horn blares, and the game, which wassupposed to be a b
Ivy Tech Community College - ENG - 111
Athletic BurnoutAthletic staleness and burnout is a big problem for many of todays athletes whether they are atthe amateur or professional level. The good thing about this problem that ends up in total andcomplete physical and emotional exhaustion is t
Ivy Tech Community College - ENG - 111
The Importance of Adequate Carbohydrate ConsumptionSeverely restricting carbohydrates is not healthy and offers little advantages in terms of fat loss.Consumers of low carbohydrate products are often deceived into believing all low carbohydrateproducts