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9 Pages

### Chapter 1

Course: ECH 51, Winter 2011
School: UC Davis
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Word Count: 2526

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1 Introduction This Chapter text has been prepared for use in what is normally the first chemical engineering course in a typical chemical engineering program. There are essentially two major objectives associated with this text. The first objective is to carefully describe the axioms for conservation of mass in multicomponent, reacting systems. Sometimes these ideas are stated as, mass is conserved or mass is...

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UC Davis - ECH - 51
Chapter 2UnitsThere are three things that every engineer should understand about units. First, the fundamentalsignificance of units must be understood. Second, the conversion from one set of units to another 1 must bea routine matter. Third, one must
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Chapter 4Multicomponent SystemsIn the previous chapter, we considered single-component systems for which there was a single density, , a single velocity, v , and no chemical reactions. In multicomponent systems we must deal with thedensity of individu
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Chapter 5Two-Phase Systems &amp; Equilibrium StagesIn the previous chapter, we began our study of macroscopic mass and mole balances formulticomponent systems. There we encountered a variety of measures of concentration and here wesummarize these measures
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Chapter 6StoichiometryUp to this point we have used various forms of the two axioms associated with the principle ofconservation of mass. The species mass balance for a fixed control volumeAxiom I:ddt dV vAAVA n dA r dV ,AAA 1, 2,. N(6-1)
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Chapter 7Material Balances for Complex SystemsMost recent paradigm shifts in the mathematical analysis of physical systems are due to the use ofcomputers. In Chapter 4 we encountered the application of matrices in the formulation of material balancepr
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Chapter 8Transient Material BalancesIn Chapter 3 we studied transient systems that involved only a single molecular species. In this chapterwe extend our original study to include multicomponent, multiphase, reacting mixtures. First we introducethe co
UC Davis - ECH - 51
NomenclatureAarea, m2, absorption factorAclosed surface area of the control volume V , m2Aa (t )closed surface area of an arbitrary, moving control volume Va (t ) , m2Aearea of the entrances and exits for the control volume V , m2Ae (t )area of
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Appendix AA1 Atomic Mass of Common Elements Referred to Carbon-12 1ElementAluminumAntimonyArgonArsenicBariumBerylliumBismuthBoronBromineCadmiumCalciumCarbonCeriumCesiumChlorineChromiumCobaltCopperFluorineGalliumGermaniumGoldHafniu
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Appendix BIteration MethodsB1. Bisection methodGiven some function of x such as H ( x ) , we are interested in the solution of the equationH ( x) 0 ,x x(B-1)Here we have used x to represent the solution. For simple functions such as H ( x ) x b we
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Appendix CMatrices and Stoichiometric SchemataIn Appendix C1 we review concepts associated with matrix algebra. In Appendix C2 we illustrate howone can transform an equation to a picture in a rigorous manner, and this leads to a schema for a singleind
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Appendix DAtomic Species BalancesThroughout this text we have made use of macroscopic mass and mole balances to solve a variety ofproblems with and without chemical reactions. Our solutions have been based on the application ofAxiom I and Axiom II, an
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Appendix EConservation of ChargeIn Chapter 6 we represented the conservation of atomic species byA NNAxiom II:JA 0,RAJ 1, 2,., T(E-1)A 1and in matrix form we expressed this result asAxiom II: N11 N 21N 31.. NT 1N12N13 . N1, N 1,N 22
UC Davis - ECH - 51
Appendix FHeterogeneous ReactionsOur analysis of the stoichiometry of heterogeneous reactions is based on conservation of atomicspecies expressed asA NNAxiom II:0JA R A(F-1)A1We follow the classic continuum point of view 1 and assume that this
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Notes to CHE-2B(C) Adds/Drops/Repeaters Add only through head TA (Slava Bekker) Must attend first lab in first 30 min or you willbe dropped! TODAY ! Questions: Head TA is Slava Bekker bbekker@ucdavis.edu Tentative office hours: SLB 1064, Wed. 9-11
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
LEARNING SKILLS CENTER2205 DUTTON HALL 752-2013* Study Skills * Writing * ESL * Science * MathematicsResource Room- 2211 Dutton HallThe chemistry workshops are designed to help students by giving summaries oimportant concepts and practicing certain p
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last Two Lectures First Law of Thermodynamics Heat Capacities allow calculations ofenergy transfer as heat Work is a mode of energy transfer Enthalpy is a state function that relatesto the potential for heat transfer atconstant pressure.Example: w
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last LecturePhase ChangesCalculate the total heat needed to change18 g (1 mol) of ice at - 25 C to vapor at125 C.Csp(Ice) = 2.09 J/gCHfus = 6.01 kJ/molCsp(Water) = 4.184 J/gCCsp(Vapor) = 1.84 J/gC Hvap = 40.7 kJ/moloStep 1-heating of ice from -2
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Review: Last Lecture Surface Forces and wetting Viscosity Vapor Pressures Simple phase diagrams (Liquid-Vapor)Vapor Pressure Dynamic equilibrium always some vaporliquid vapor Vapor pressure: gas pressure above liquid (volatilelots)Vapor Pressure
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Review of the Previous Lecture Bonding covalent electron-pair bonds ionic bonds = Coulombic forces betweenions. dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds Van der Waal's forces; London forces Phase DiagramsCovalently Bonded Solidsm.p=3500CNetwork soli
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
The Critical PointFIGURE 12-22Attainment of the critical point for benzeneSolid structures, unit cells andatom packing; ch. 12There are these particularlyimportant concepts:1) Unit cells2) They can contain partialatoms.3) The coordination number
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
The special four points.ch. 13; Last Lecture Solutions, concentration scales Enthalpy of solution Lattice Enthalpy Hydration EnthalpyCrystal Formation and Lattice EnergyThis is theenthalpy offorming thecrystal fromgaseous ions.EFDCAHfoLa
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
The old test outside Rm. 370.Review Session, 176 Everson.The 4 points.Last Lecture Concentration Scales Henry's Law for partitioning of a gas to asolvent Raoults law - P = Xsolvent Popure Fractional DistillationRaoult's Law describes an idealsol
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Fritz Haber's life is among the mostcompelling and tragic in science.yet half of the people on the planet owe their lives to him.Chapter 15: Principles of Chemical EquilibriumDynamic Equilibrium Equilibrium two opposing processes takingplace at equa
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Average59.32853828Standard Deviation14.88497596Dynamic Equilibrium Chemical reactions Forward processN2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Reverse process2NH3(g) N2(g) + 3H2(g)Disequilibrium, QEquilibrium, KeqEquilibrium Constant Mathematical construct Rea
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last Time Equilibrium; K Equilibrium constant Concentration Kc Pressure Kp Hess like law to manipulate K Disequilibrium and Reaction Quotients Q versus KLast time: Pure Liquids and Solids Equilibrium constant expressions do not containconcentrat
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last Time ICE Tables and initial conditions. fixed-volume calculations are easier the calculation requires moles if the volumechanges during the reaction. the Kp calculation requires moles if the numberof gas moles differs on each side of theequili
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Review-BronstedLowry Bases A base is a proton (H+) acceptor An acid is a proton (H+) donorConjugate Acids and BasesNH3(aq) + H2O(l) baseacidNH4+(aq) + OH(aq)idsete ac gate baanjug conjucoNH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHNH4+ + OH NH3 + H2Oacidbasecon
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last Time Autoprotolysis Kw = 11014 Concentration scales pH and pOH('p' means the negative logarithm in base ten) Types of acids and basesConjugate Acids/Bases Consider the following reactions:acid(base) (conjugate acid)base(acid)conjugate base
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Lecture Last Time Factors that determine acidity pH calculations Percent ionizationToday's Lecture-Calculations.Review:How to do pH Calculations #1 Determine:(1) if it is a strong or weak acid or base, and(2) if it is at high concentration relativ
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Midterm 2Friday Feb 25thRooms to be announced.Chemical equilibriumAcids and BasesAdditional Aspects of Acids and BasesSample midterm posted outside of Room 370, Chemistry.Bronsted-Lowry Theory: An acid is a proton H+ donor A base is a proton H+ a
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
First, a story from Science, to give you guys aboost half-way through the quarter.Thomas Midgeley madetwo stunning technicaladvances:1) He replaced ammoniain refrigerators, making themsafer and allowing vaccinations.2) He increased the efficiency
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Exam Feb. 25;1213141516171819202122January 31 Chemical EquilibriumFebruary 2Acids and BasesFebruary 4Acids and BasesFebruary 7Acids and BasesFebruary 9Acids and BasesFebruary 11Acids and BasesFebruary 14Acids and BasesFebruary 16
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Announcements Review Session-Thursday5-6 pm; 176 Everson Rooms are the same as for Midterm #1 There is an exam with answers postedoutside Rm 370. There are old examswithout answers on SmartSite.The Common-Ion Effect This is a manifestation of Le C
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
120Count10080Mean: 66.2Standard Deviation: 13.9604020001020304050Score60708090100Another Scientific Pep Talkto Start the Last Section of 2-BNopeSalk,live virus?John Enders, English and Germanic LanguageMajor. Later a Virologist
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Previous Lecture1) Strong acid/Strong Base Titrationsequivalence point at pH=72) Weak Acid/Strong Base Titrationsequivalence point pH&gt;73) Strong Acid/Weak Base Titrationsequivalence point pH&lt;7Strong Acid/Weak BaseWith your acid you must titrate awa
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last Lecture:1) Solubility Products (Ksp) describe equilibriumbetween a solid and its constituent ions.2) Complexes form between some of thereleased metals and strong ligands also insolution.3) These complexes cause more solid todissolve by sequest
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
Last Thoughts on Solution Equilibria-'activities' are thermodynamicconcentrationsIn your solution.aCa 2+ A standard state:[Ca[Ca2+]2+ o]Ionic strength and activities 'I' is a measure of total dissolved chargesin a solution. These charges shie
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
These Final Exam rooms are not the same as for the Midterms.Spontaneous Change:Entropy and Free EnergyNatural changes are spontaneousNonspontaneous processes can only be made togo by meddling.Courtesy: drippingblood.comEntropy and the Boltzmann Equ
UC Davis - CHEM - 2B
These Final Exam rooms are not the same as for the Midterms.First Law of Thermodynamicsis that energy is conserved energy is neither created nor destroyed. it can be transferred between the systemand surroundings. it can be transformed (work to heat
UC Davis - ENG - 45
ENG 45Properties of MaterialsMWF 11.00-11.50am106 WellmanProf. Klaus van Benthem(benthem@ucdavis.edu)3098 Bainer HallOffice hours:Mondays, 2.00-3.30pm3098 Bainer HallENG 45 Fall 2010Goals Give an overview over concepts of materialsscience Cl
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Lab management: Enoch Leung (encleung@ucdavis.edu) Mondays, 3-4pm, 163 Kemper Hall Lecture TA Wyatt Musnicki (wjmusnicki@ucdavis.edu) Tuesday, 2-3pm, RMI 2221 Classes of Materials Metals (strong, deformable, ) Ceramics (inorganic, brittl
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Classes of Materials: Polymers Composites Semiconductors Atomic Bonding Atomic number Atomic mass/weight, isotopes Avogadros Number: NA= 6.023*1023 /mol= 6.023*1023 amu/g Example: number of atoms per volume UNITS!ENG 45 Fall 2010Ioni
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Homework #1: this coming Wednesday! Primary &amp; secondary bonding Ionic Bonding Attractive Coulomb force( Z1q )( Z 2 q )FC k02aZ1, Z2: valence of ionNa+: ZNa=1Cl-: ZCl=-1 Repulsive forceFR e / Paulis principleENG 45 Fall 2010Coordi
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Nobel Prize in Physics 2010ENG 45 Fall 2010Nobel Prize in Physics 2010graphenebuckey ballCNTgraphiteENG 45 Fall 2010GrapheneENG 45 Fall 2010 Ionic bondingSynopsis Bond length: Fc+FR=0 a =a0 a0: sum of ionic radii Coordination number (CN): la
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Nobel Prize in Physics Graphene High (bonding) strength in plane, butsignificantly weaker out of plane 100 times stronger than steel Bonding Energies: negative for forming bonds (energy is released) positive for breaking bonds (energy is
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Crystalline StructureRegular and repeating stacking of atomsUnit cells: building blocks7 Crystal system filling 3D space14 crystal lattices stacking of atoms Lattice positions hkl Fractions of unit cell dimensions Lattice translations Mu
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Homework: DUE TODAY @1pm 50% penalty until tomorrow @1pm 1st Midterm A-Q: 106 Wellman R-Z: 1130 Bainer Hall BccOpen book:Schackelford textbook onlyCalculatorNo smartphones, internet, etc. APF=68% Fcc APF=74% ABCAB stacking Hcp AP
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis 1st Midterm A-Q: 106 Wellman R-Z: 1130 Bainer HallOpen book:Schackelford textbook onlyCalculator!No smartphones, internet, etc. CsCl Structure Looks like bcc 2 ions per lattice point Simple, but not very common NaCl 2 fcc lattices in
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Diffusion:materials transport in a concentration gradient Rate processes:Arrhenius plot, activation energies Substitutional Diffusionmigration of atoms by diffusion of vacancies Which three parameters that control substitutionaldiffusion?
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Interdiffusion of 2 materials Ficks first law:cJ x Dx Ficks second lawc 2c D 2txENG 45 Fall 2010Solution to Ficks 2nd lawENG 45 Fall 2010Error functionENG 45 Fall 2010ENG 45 Fall 2010
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Housekeeping Midterm #2: Wednesday, Nov. 17, 2010 A-Q: 106 Wellman R-Z: 2016 Haring Chapters 4-7 Homework #2: due this Friday @ 1pm Homework #3: issued this Friday Prof Groza will teach 11/5 11/10 (3 lectures)ENG 45 Fall 2010Synopsis Examples a
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Housekeeping TODAY: Homework #3 is due at 1pm Voluntary Discussion: 1.00-3.00 pm(1007 Kemper Hall) Office hours (next week): Tuesday 1-2.30pm 2nd midterm: Wednesday, 11/17/2010, 11.00-11.50 am Chapters 5-8 A-Q: 106 Wellman R-Z: 2016 Haring Open b
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis (1/2) Laboratory Average score 70 But: very high scores (&gt;85) and very low scores (&lt;55) Follow instructions by TAs! Units, units units, Appropriate abstracts, plots, description of results,discussion Old-style lab reports are no longer a
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Midterm #218100%16FrequencyCumulative %Frequency141280%60%10840%Max = 50Average = 36.6STD = 8.1Min= 064220%00%26 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50PointsEstimate: Add both midterm results Average @ 73.2 15.6ENG 45 Fall 2010Midte
UC Davis - ENG - 45
SynopsisHomework #4: due Monday after Thanksgiving!Office hours: TODAY 3.00-4.30pmPhase DiagramsDegrees of freedom Temperature Pressure Composition Gibbs Phase RuleF CP2universalF C P 1Neglecting pressureENG 45 Fall 2010Gibbs on Solid Soluti
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Phase Diagrams Lever Rule Mass and composition of phases uponpercipitation x m + x m = x (m +m) Microstructure Formation Solid solution EutecticENG 45 Fall 2010Eutectic w/o SSENG 45 Fall 2010Eutectic w/ limited SSENG 45 Fall 2010Exa
UC Davis - ENG - 45
SynopsisAll lecture notes are updated on SmartsiteRecordings are pendingHomework #4 due todayFinal ExamDecember 7, 2010: 10.30am 12.30pmK-Z: 106 WellmanA-J: 1130 Hart HallChapters 1-10 (only what was covered) Phase diagramsSolid solutionsEutect
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis Final ExamDecember 7, 2010: 10.30am 12.30pmK-Z: 106 WellmanA-J: 1130 Hart HallChapters 1-10 (only what was covered) Discussion session (Q&amp;A) December 2, 2010, 5pm-7pm 163 Kemper Hall Kinetics Phase diagrams plus time Phase transformati
UC Davis - ENG - 45
Synopsis (1/2) Final ExamDecember 7, 2010: 10.30am 12.30pmK-Z: 106 WellmanA-J: 1130 Hart HallChapters 1-10 (only what was covered)Results will be posted on Smartsite View your ExamThursday, 12/9/2010; 4-5pm163 Kemper HallLast point requests for
University of Iowa - NURSING - 96:139
THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWACOLLEGE OF NURSINGMATERNITY NOTESParent-Child Theory096:139The University of IowaIowa City, IowaThe nature of the learning in nursing may require the viewing and discussion of sexually explicitmaterials.Copyright 2001 by THE
University of Iowa - NURSING - 96:139
THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWACOLLEGE OF NURSINGMATERNITY NOTESParent-Child Theory096:139The University of IowaIowa City, IowaThe nature of the learning in nursing may require the viewing and discussion of sexually explicit materials.Copyright 2001 by THE