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13 Pages

039- Refraction, Snell's Law

Course: PHYSICS 20339841, Spring 2012
School: Aarhus Universitet,...
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Word Count: 715

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and Refraction Lenses AP Physics B Refraction Refraction is based on the idea that LIGHT is passing through one MEDIUM into another. The question is, WHAT HAPPENS? Suppose you are running on the beach with a certain velocity when you suddenly need to run into the water. What happens to your velocity? IT CHANGES! Refraction Fact #1: As light goes from one medium to another, the velocity CHANGES! Suppose light...

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and Refraction Lenses AP Physics B Refraction Refraction is based on the idea that LIGHT is passing through one MEDIUM into another. The question is, WHAT HAPPENS? Suppose you are running on the beach with a certain velocity when you suddenly need to run into the water. What happens to your velocity? IT CHANGES! Refraction Fact #1: As light goes from one medium to another, the velocity CHANGES! Suppose light comes from air, which in this case will be considered to be a vacuum, strikes a boundary at some angle of incidence measured from a normal line ,and goes into water. The ratio of the two speeds can be compared. Refraction The denominator in this case will ALWAYS be smaller and produce a unitless value greater or equal to 1. This value is called the new medium's INDEX OF REFRACTION, n. All substances have an index of refraction and can be used to identify the material. Refraction Suppose you decide to go spear fishing, but unfortunately you aren't having much luck catching any fish. The cause of this is due to the fact that light BENDS when it reaches a new medium. The object is NOT directly in a straight line path, but rather it's image appears that way. The actual object is on either side of the image you are viewing. Refraction Fact #2: As light goes from one medium to another, the path CHANGES! What EXACTLY is light doing when it reaches a new medium? We don't want you to think ALL of the light refracts. Some of the light REFLECTS off the boundary and some of the light REFRACTS through the boundary. Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection Angle of Incidence > or < the Angle of refraction depending on the direction of the light Refraction Refraction Going from Air to The index of refraction, n, for air Water (vacumm) is equal to 1. The index of refraction for water is 1.33. If you are going from a LOW "n" to a HIGH "n", your speed DECREASES and the angle BENDS TOWARDS the normal Refraction Going from Water into Air The index of refraction, n, for air (vacumm) is equal to 1. The index of refraction for water is 1.33. If are you going from a HIGH "n" to a LOW "n", your speed INCREASES and the angle BENDS AWAY the normal Note: If the angles are EQUAL, then the "n" must be equal for each. The ray will pass straight through. Refraction Snell's Law A scientist by the name of Snell discovered that the ratios of the index's and the ratio of the sine of the angles are the same value! n1 sin 2 = n2 sin 1 Snell ' s Law n1 sin 1 = n2 Sin 2 Example The refractive index of the gemstone, Aquamarine, is 1.577. Suppose a ray of light strikes a horizontal boundary of the gemstone with an angle of incidence of 23 degrees from air. Calculate the SPEED of light in Aquamarine c c 3x108 n= vm = = vm n 1.577 vm = 1.90 x 10 8 m/s Calculate the angle of refraction within Aquamarine n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2 -1 (1)(sin 23) = 1.577 sin 2 sin 23 = sin ( )= 1.577 14.34 degrees Total Internal Reflection There is a special type of refraction that can occur ONLY when traveling from a HIGH "n" medium to a LOW "n" medium. Suppose we are traveling FROM water and going into air. Should the ANGLE OF INCIDENCE get TOO LARGE, the angle of refraction will EQUAL 90 DEGREES. We call this special angle of incidence the CRITICAL ANGLE, c, for that material (water in this case) Total Internal Reflection If we EXCEED the critical angle, for that material, the ray will reflect INTERNALLY within the material. We call this idea TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION. In this figure, the angle of incidence EXCEEDS the critical angle for water and the ray reflects according to the law of reflection at the boundary. So the question is , how can you calculate the critical angle? Remember, it is when the refracted ray is equal to 90 degrees The Critical Angle n1 sin c = n2 sin 2 , Sin90 = 1 sin c = n2 n1 c Example Suppose a light ray is traveling in heavy flint glass( n = 1.65) and once it strikes the boundary, enters air. Calculate the critical angle for flint glass. n1 sin c = n2 sin 2 , Sin90 = 1 n2 sin c = n1 1 1 -1 sin c = c = sin ( ) 1.65 1.65 c = 37.3 degrees
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 26: FrictionFriction is a force that always exists between any two surfaces in contact with each other. There is no such thing as a perfectly frictionless environment. Even in deep space, bits of micrometeorites will hit a moving object, causing
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 42b: First Law of ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics can be stated in several ways.At this point in the course we need to focus on what it says about energy, and gases in thekinetic theory of ideal gases.We will look at how adding he
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 42c: PV DiagramsFrom the last section, you were probably wondering what happens when we do something like add heatto a sealed cylinder.This sounds like a pretty dangerous idea if you think back to the WHMIS training you hadabout compressed gas
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 42d: Second Law of Thermodynamics &amp; EntropyThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsIf you take a can of Dr Pepper out of the fridge and walk outside on a hot summer day, you expect thedrink to get warmer as time passes. You would never expect it to get
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 54: Fluids (AP Only)FluidsThe word fluid will most often make people think about some kind of liquid. The four states of matterare solid, liquid, gas, andIn physics, fluid can refer to either a gas or a liquid.plasma. Of these four, gasesand
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 55: Archimedes' Principle (AP Only)Archimedes of Syracuse is probably one of the most important scientists andmathematicians of all time.Although he lived over 2200 years ago, he was able to make somefundamental discoveries in the study of phys
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 56: Pressure (AP Only)Although we don't think about it, we live at the bottom of a roughly 100 km deep sea of air.Air is made of molecules, so it has mass. Under the effect of gravity, it quite literally weighsdown on us every single moment of o
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 57: Pascal's Principle (AP Only)Imagine that you have a container of fluid.From what we've ;earned so far, we know that the pressure the fluid exerts on the sides of thecontainer are the same everywhere. If they were not, the fluid would no lon
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 58: Pressure in Static Fluid Columns (AP Only)If you've ever done any deep diving underwater, you'll know about the effects it has on your body.Most people get the basic idea that as you go deeper underwater, the pressure increases. It's whyit i
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 59: Principle of Continuity (AP Only)We've spent a lot of time so far looking at hydrostatics, fluids at rest.Even when we looked at problems with moving fluids (like Pascal's Principle), you would notdescribe the fluid as flowing, like water th
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
Lesson 60: Bernoulli's Equation (AP Only)Bernoulli's Equation looks at the pressure at two different locations for a moving fluid.It is really intimidating when you first see it, but it's not as bad as it might look.11P 1 g y 1 v 2= P 2 g y 2 v 212
Aarhus Universitet, Handels- og IngeniørHøjskolen - PHYSICS - 20339841
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