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Course: PHY 303K phy 303k, Spring 2012
School: University of Texas
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124 Physics Spring 2012 Document #19: Cycle 4 Review Sheet Part 2 page 1 of 3 PHYS 124: Cycle 4 Review Sheet Part 2: Physical Optics Geometric vs. Physical Optics: The study of Optics divides neatly into two regimes, depending on the size of the wave compared to the optical elements of the system: If the wavelength of the light is small compared to the any dimension of the system, we can ignore the details of...

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124 Physics Spring 2012 Document #19: Cycle 4 Review Sheet Part 2 page 1 of 3 PHYS 124: Cycle 4 Review Sheet Part 2: Physical Optics Geometric vs. Physical Optics: The study of Optics divides neatly into two regimes, depending on the size of the wave compared to the optical elements of the system: If the wavelength of the light is small compared to the any dimension of the system, we can ignore the details of the wave itself, and treat the light as a simple ray that moves in a straight line from one position to another. We call this regime Geometrical Optics. In this case, we use the technique of ray tracing to follow the path of the light ray as it reects and refracts through optical components. item If the wavelength of the light is comparable to or larger than any dimension of the system, we cannot ignore the details of the wave. In this case phenomena the light may diffract and/or interfere. This regime is called Physical Optics. To deal with this, we usually apply Huygenss Principle. Principle of Superposition and Interference When two waves encounter each other in a medium, they simply add together at each point in the medium. This summing results in the effect we call interference. If one wave overlaps a second wave, and both waves are displacements in the same direction, then the increased amplitude is called constructive interference. If on the other hand the displacements are opposite, the waves cancel each other out at just the point of overlap, and we have destructive interference. Note that the property of interference is unique to waves. Huygenss Principle and Diffraction Make sure you have a clear understanding of Huygenss Principle. Basically any point on a wave front can be considered as a point source of that wave. This results in the interesting effect called diffraction which is the property that waves tend to bend around sharp corners. Like interference, diffraction is a physical property that is unique to waves. Youngs Double Slit experiment: Be sure that you understand this experiment and what it means. Here is a diagram showing how the experiment works. Physics Spring 124 2012 Document #19: Cycle 4 Review Sheet Part 2 page 2 of 3 wave crests Wall Constructive interference at circles: maxima (bright) minima (dark) Study Figure 24.7 on page 1107 of Reese which can be used to derive the positions of maxima (bright fringes) and minima (dark fringes) on a target: m = d sin 1 (m + ) = d sin 2 (maxima) (minima) Single Slit Diffraction A single slit will also result in a diffraction interference pattern, due to the sharp edges on either side of the slit. However, this will not be as distinct as the patter for a double slit. For subtle reasons the single slit equation gives the position of the minima not the rst maxima according to m = d sin Physics 124 Spring 2012 Document #19: Cycle 4 Review Sheet Part 2 page 3 of 3 Diffraction Grating By going to multiple slits we set up a diffraction grating. The maxima are much more tightly positioned. The position of the maxima are given by the same equation as for the double slit: m = d sin (maxima) Since the angle to the maxima is wavelength dependent, the grating gives a nice dispersion effect which is to say it breaks white light up into the rainbow of colors. For either Double Slit or a Diffraction Grating, you should be able to determine the position of maxima on a target at a given distance, when a source of light of a given wavelength is imposed. Polarization Since light is a transverse wave, the electric eld may oscillate in any plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. If we dene a reference angle for this, then the plane angle relative to the reference is called the polarization angle for a single coherent wave. We say the wave is polarized in a particular plane. Most sources of light are unpolarized. This corresponds to generating waves at a variety of polarization angles. A polaroid lter allows only the component of an electromagnetic wave that is aligned with the direction of the lter. Since the intensity of the light is proportional to the square of the amplitude, we can write an expression for the transmission of polarized light through a polaroid lter: I = I0 cos2
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University of Texas - PHY 303K - phy 303k
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UGA - MATH - 2260
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UGA - MATH - 2260
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Math 2260 HW #13Due 10:10 AM Friday, April 13Reading: Hass 9.99.10Problems: Do the assignment HW13 on WebWork.1
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UGA - MATH - 2260
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UGA - MATH - 2260
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UGA - MATH - 2260
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