Adolescent Psychology
94 Pages

Adolescent Psychology

Course: BIOL 2160, Spring 2012

School: LSU

Word Count: 23149


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Class Notes Test 1 Quick tips: Read the book; before or after class Come to class if you will pay attention No exams are cumulative (3 exams) Articles get them online REQUIRED FOR CLASS Tips on how to study Go to her office hours Fridays after class till 12 Email for appointment Tests: Book/lectures are fair games Look to Moodle for the grading scale for articles Geary's rubric located on Moodle Helps guide you...

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Notes Class Test 1 Quick tips: Read the book; before or after class Come to class if you will pay attention No exams are cumulative (3 exams) Articles get them online REQUIRED FOR CLASS Tips on how to study Go to her office hours Fridays after class till 12 Email for appointment Tests: Book/lectures are fair games Look to Moodle for the grading scale for articles Geary's rubric located on Moodle Helps guide you for the article for helping to critique it Will lose points for mistakes Extra Credit: DUE BEFORE APRIL 27TH Selfreflection Essay: Super easy Don't go past a page Double spaced Research Participation (Due May 1st) Sign up survey Try signing up early How to study: Get active with material Reorganize material Summarize relate to your own life Don't study the day before the test 15:59 Preview before class skim the slides Just know what we are going over Chapter One: Adolescent is.. The period after puberty begins and before adult roles are taken on Culturally constructed A fairly new term, coming into common usage in the early 20 th century Adolescence: A Cultural Construct Almost all cultures recognize "adolescence" as a life period 18 is considered an adult, but in other cultures it is considered much earlier Brief History in Western Culture: Ancient Greece (Plato) Infancy (birth7) The infants mind is too undeveloped to learn much Not really focusing on education, not normal for todays society Childhood (714) Education should focus on sports and music Adolescence (1421) Capacity for reason allows for study of science and math Plato vs. Aristotle Aristotle thought of children as animals Children's Crusade Walked from Germany to Jerusulm Used children to see holy sites Children were seen as innocent and powerful Most were teenagers and taken advantaged of Killed and raped 15001890 Life Cycle Service Faded during the Industrial Revolution Teenagers became more free and there were more problems Hangouts like YMCA developed Age of Adolescence: 18901920 Contributing Factors: 1. Legislation prohibiting child labor 2. Compulsory education before this point you didn't have to go to school, now it is a requirement 3. Adolescence as a distinct field of scholarship 1890 5% look up statistics for kids in school G. Stanley Hall First man in US to earn a degree in Psych Child Study Movement research to better the lives of children and adolescents. Children became a focus. Recapitulation development of an individual reenacts evolution of human species. This is a theory and not believed now. Scholars have discredited it. Storm and Stressupheaval and disorder is a normal part of adolescent development Upheaval seen in teenagers is apart of development The Storm and Stress People were in agreeing with this Anna Freud: "to be normal during the adolescent period is by itself abnormal." It is normal to have this in adolescent, a lot of frequent mood changes, much more likely to switch moods than a child and an adult, greater conflict with parents. Adolescence: From Hall's Time to Our Time 1900: 1424 years 2000: 1018 years From 1900 to 1970, initial age of menarche has declined (from 1512.5 years) Better health care and eating is the reason why there is a drop in the menarche First signs of puberty begin about two years prior to menarche 18 is an arbitrary line in our cultural that is when schooling ends Emerging Adulthood is the age of.... Identity explorations In college you are exploring your options that you can take on with work Instability Exploring can lead to unsure thoughts. Career, marriage, kids, Selffocus Less reliant on your parents Feeling inbetween Kind of in between adult and teenage Possibilities Ability to hope and great expectations First time away from parents in college and troubled homes, this is the time people can start their own lives. "Do you feel that you've reached adulthood?" Most feel like they aren't adults Is 25 a good upper age boundary for the end of emerging adulthood? Should be finished undergrad, putting it up any higher may be weird Transition to Adulthood: American Style Legally an adult at age 18 Seen as an individual Characterized by Individualism: Accepting responsibility for oneself Making independent decisions Becoming financially independent Idea: Care for yourself, independence Compared to Collective culture: Care about other family members and others A lot of other cultures when you become an adult, not just caring for yourself, but you need to care for the people in your family Make money for the family The Transition to Adulthood: Other perspectives Israel completing military service Argentina being able to support a family financially South Korea being able to support their parents financially Individualism & Interdependence In traditional cultures, marriage marks the transition to adulthood Explain this in terms of values of individualism vs. collectivism or interdependence In this culture, we as Americans have a negative outlook on collectivistic cultures Communism is not collectivism, but we have a huge view of seeing this together. THEY ARE NOT THE SAME Applying Standards of the Scientific Method Hypotheses finding an answer to an important question that emerges from theory or previous research Sampling choosing participants to represent the population of interest Choose based off representation Procedure the way the study is conducted and data is collected Methods strategies for collecting data Methods and procedures go together. Way you collect to get the data In psychology, we say it needs to come from a theory or previous research question. In psychology we do sampling as well. Research Issue: Sampling a Population A researcher surveys young adults in a drug rehabilitation program to find out about the frequency of drug use among American urban adolescents. She determines that 100% of the young adults in the sample have used drugs. Can we generalize this sample across the entire population? Explain and discuss. Need to sample across the board and not just one specific place, this will lead to more accurate results. Research Issue: Informed Consent A researcher wants to observe adolescents in their "habitat." She goes to a school and hangs out, taking pictures and talking to students about their lives. The adolescents do not know she is a researcher. Is this an ethical way of conducting research? Explain and discuss in terms of informed consent. Need to tell and inform people what we are doing. Research Issue: Reliability & Validity You have a 50 pound weight that has been tested on a NASA scale. You put it on your bathroom scale and it reads 45 pounds. You weigh it five more times, each yielding a result of 45 pounds. Is your scale a reliable measure? Is your scale a valid measure? Explain. Yes reliable it obtains same results every time Not valid not accurately measuring the weight Reliability: Gives you same result every time measured Validity: measuring what it says it measures. Research Method Insert slide Correlation versus Causation Example: In a study, physical exercise was found to be related to happiness. The more people exercised the happier they tended to be. Correlation when you find a relationship between two things The more calories you eat, the fatter you get. Relationship does not mean they do not rely on one another. Relationship between pirates decrease and global warming. Not ok. Correlation between ice cream sales go does up so does crime rate. Just a relationship. Direct increase or direct decrease Bronfenbrenner's System Really popular model in adolescent Theory of development Trying to include everything possible in a child's development Girl/Guy discrimination Microsystem: Family, school, peers, often time, active participation Mesosystem: connection between system Exosystem:societal institutions that helps us Macrosystem: Broad system of cultural beliefs and values Chronosystem: changes over time, parents get a divorce 4 Aspects of a Good theory Should explain everything it should, but as simply as possible. Further future research, by saying "wait, I have this theory." Should be able to research the question Should be able to modify or change the theory Brongenbrenner's Importance Cultural beliefs and values are the basis for many of the other conditions of children's development First theory The importance of historical changes as influences on development Children and adolescents are active participants in their development, not merely the passive recipients of external influences SubSaharan Africa As the 21st century begins, it is plagued by numerous serious problems including chronic poverty, war, and an epidemic of HIV/AIDS Africa has been described as a "rich continent whose people are poor" Diamonds in Africa, but we take the resources Living standards in Africa have declined over the past 50 years and an increasing number of young people live in poverty War is also a frequent part of life for Africans The AIDS epidemic affects young people in three ways Many are forced into deeper poverty by their parents' death Young Africans will become AIDS victims themselves They will be required to assume leadership of their families Northern Africa & Middle East The Muslim religion is the predominant influence on all aspects of cultural life Three key issues face young people of this region in the 21st century: Strength of Islam This strength varies from countries with strict adherence (Kuwait) to countries with a semblance of democracy (Morocco) Patriarchal family relationships The father's authority in the family is to be obeyed unquestioningly Position of women Have a long tradition of keeping tight control over women's appearance and behaviour India The main issues facing young people in India will be: School versus work One of the few countries that does not have compulsory education and therefore many young people are illiterate (especially girls in rural areas) The tradition of early arranged marriages In the past, children were often married before reaching puberty, and even now about half of India's young people marry in their teens Caste system People are believed to be born into a particular caste based on their moral and spiritual conduct in their previous life this system determines a person's status in Indian society Rights of women Has a long tradition of holding women to be of inferior status from birth onward Asia Some of the major issues affecting young people are: The tradition of filial piety This means that children are expected to respect, obey, and revere their parents (especially the father) Arranged marriages and dating Parents choose a mate for their children This remains a strong tradition even in cultures that have become highly industrialized Intense pressure at the secondary school level The Confucian tradition places strong emphasis on education this leads to high pressure in school Rights of women Females have fewer rights and opportunities than males Latin America Two key issues for young people are: Political stability Sources of instability include military coups followed by military dictatorships, communist revolutions, and civil wars between communist and anticommunist forces Economic growth Despite having great natural resources, the countries of Latin America have not prospered economically Unemployment among adults is high and unemployment among young people is even higher The West The principal issues for young people in the West are: Education Educational opportunities are not evenly distributed in most Western Countries (across ethnic groups) Some argue that Western countries produce far more college graduates than the economy really needs Unemployment Unemployment among the young is a serious problem in the U.S. and most European countries Immigrants Most countries have been tolerant and accepting of immigration however when anti immigrant acts do occur they tend to be committed by groups of young workingclass men in their late teens and early twenties Risk behavior Young people in the West are more likely to engage in behavior that holds risks for their health (e.g. automobile fatalities, homicide, and suicide) Globalization Increasing worldwide technological & economic integration. Connects different parts of the world at increased rates Increasingly makes cultures more similar to one another. Bicultural identities becoming increasingly common. The Urban Rural Split Urban Pros: Greater access to education and health care Lots of people living in poverty Cons: More likely to be subject to exploitation by adults in prostitution and industrial labor Rural Pros: More likely to have the support and care of a stable extended family Cons: Less likely to attend school Key Chapter Terms 1. Adolescence and emerging adulthood is culturally constructed and varies among cultures. 2. Adolescence emerged in its modern form circa 18901920. 3. Emerging Adulthood is the period from 1825. 4. The scientific method includes a variety of strategies for studying adolescence and emerging adulthood. 5. One of the reasons predicting the future for young people is difficult is that each generation takes the material for life provided by their culture and reshapes it in unique ways. 6. In adolescence, young people gain greater autonomy from their families and a deeper sense of what their capabilities are as individuals. 7. In emerging adulthood, young people often move out of their parents' household and into the world on their own. Chapter 2: Biological Foundations Puberty Derived from the Latin word `pubescere' which means to "grow hairy" The body undergoes a biological revolution that dramatically changes the adolescent's anatomy, physiology, and physical appearance Preparing yourself for human reproduction The Endocrine System System that regulates the production of hormones and gets hormones going Hormonal changes actually begin because of fat cells. Fat cells produce leptin that provides the signal to the hypothalamus. Being obese as a tween can affect how quickly to go into puberty. Gradually increases production of gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) GnRH affects the pituitary gland Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropins Pituitary gland releases gonadotropins Gonadotropins stimulate development of gametes in body Sperm (Male) and Eggs (Female) Increase in GnRH affects the pituitary gland Gonadotropins influence production of sex hormones Sex Hormones Testosterone Males Estradiol Females All males and females have these hormones, but when you hit puberty it rises higher during puberty time. (Difference in hormone production). Endocrine System System that adjusts the hormones During puberty it makes sure that it is at the right level When sex hormones are at the optimal level, the body has to say that it is ok and stops creating it, so it prevents too much Reaches the "set point" like a thermostat "Set point" when sex hormones reach an optimal level and the hypothalamus reduces GnRH Physical Growth during Puberty Girls reach the peak point before boys Girls are about 2 years before boys In 5th grade girls are taller than boys, but guys catch up eventually Grow Spurts Not all parts of the body grow at the same pace Asynchronicity in growth explains the "gangly look" in early adolescence The extremities is the first parts that grow Muscle Mass and Body Fat Prior to puberty boys and girls are very similar in muscle mass During puberty, body fat increases more for girls than for boys Unfortunately in our society this is looked down upon. Girls start getting self conscience now. Adolescent Obesity Rates Obesity can contribute to an early onset of puberty If you have more fat you will reach puberty earlier. About 80% of obese adolescent are obese adults. US is obese because we like fast food, bigger portions, not enough physical activity. Computer/TV/Video games isn't a huge factor, because worldwide people use technology. Cultural Expectations In many cultures, gender differences exist for physical activity Girls are sometimes discouraged from participating in sports (not conforming to "feminine" stereotypes) Female jock vs. Female pep club Boys are more likely to exercise during adolescence This gender difference contributes to differences in athletic performance between adolescent boys and girls Puberty brings on more fat for females, and they don't feel like working out in adolescence Gender differences is based on athletics too. Boys tend to practice and workout more than girls Emerging Adults Reaction time is slower in emerging adulthood? No, Reaction time is actually faster in the early twenties than at an other time of life. Grip strength in men peaks in emerging adulthood? Yes, and followed by a steady decline Cardiac output peaks at 18 years of age? No, peaks at 25 Basically all saying we are healthier around our 20s than teenagers. Girls may not work out as teenagers, but once you realize your metabolism slows down, you start working out more. Physical Functioning in Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood is the period of the life span with the least susceptibility to physical illness ... but that's not the whole story Lifestyles of many emerging adults often include a variety of factors that undermine health such as Poor nutrition Lack of sleep Stress of juggling school/work/multiple jobs Automobile accidents are the leading cause of death among emerging adults in the United States Homicide is another common cause of death in the U.S. during emerging adulthood Rates of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, are highest in the early twenties Sex Characteristics Boys: Primary Sex Characteristics: Production of sperm Development of sex organs Secondary Sex Characteristics: Hair growth in pubic areas, underneath arms, chest, face, shoulders, and back Skin becomes rougher Sweat glands increase production Girls: Primary Sex Characteristics: Production of eggs Development of sex organs Secondary Sex Characteristics: Hair growth in pubic areas, underneath arms, and a slight amount of facial hair Skin becomes rougher Sweat glands increase production Slight enlargement of breasts known as breast buds The Facts about Females... Women are born with about 400,000 immature eggs in each ovary; this drops to 80,000 by puberty We don't develop new eggs ever Once a girl reaches her first menstrual period (menarche), one egg develops into a mature egg (ovum) about every 28 days Females release about 400 eggs over the course of their reproductive lives The Facts about Males... Males have no sperm in their testes when they are born and do not produce any until they reach puberty The average age that sperm production begins (spermarche) is approximately 12 years old Boys produce sperm in astonishing quantities there are between 30 and 500 million sperm in the typical male ejaculation, which means they produce millions of sperm everyday The Order of Pubertal Events Different for girls and guys Girls happens 2 years before guys Look at the timeline in the slideshow Pubertal Caveat Virtually all studies considered in the order of pubertal development have been conducted with White adolescents in the West Three studies demonstrate the variations that may exist in other groups Worthman, 1987 Lee, Chang, and Chan, 1963 HermanGiddens et al., 1997; 2001 Kikuyu culture in Kenya Boys show the first physical changes of puberty before their female peer A reversal of the Western pattern African American Girls Many Black girls were found to begin developing breast buds and pubic hair considerably earlier than White girls Based on ethnicity At age 8 nearly 50% have become developing, where American girls have only 15% Chinese Girls Pubic hair began to develop in most girls about 2 years after the development of breast buds and only a few months before menarche In sharp contrast to the Western studies, which found pubic hair and breast buds developed together about 2 years before menarche Culture and Pubertal Timing Overall, secular trend there have been a downward in the age of menarche has occurred in every Western country for which records exist This way because of food and nutrition Downward Secular Trend of Menarche Puberty begins earlier in cultures where good nutrition and medical care are widely available Illness and thinness tend to inhibit the development of body fat resulting in delayed puberty Advances in food production have enhanced nutrition and therefore puberty has come sooner Tanner's Longitudinal Research on Pubertal Development Followed the same boys and girls and took notes and pictures over time looking at puberty changes over time that were from low SES and foster care. He looked how it changed over time and body parts began to form, when growth spurts were as well. Low SES children wont have the same results as those children from the wealthier families. Different ethnicities, but more were Caucasian. Age of Menarche and SES The starting of menstruation does also play off of the income and the race. US females start earlier than other countries Cultural Responses to Puberty: Rituals Traditional Cultures 68% of cultures had puberty rituals for boys Typically rituals require the young man to display courage, strength, and endurance The rituals are often violent, requiring boys to submit to and sometimes engage in bloodletting of various kinds; don't think that all are violent (blood letting in some countries) 79% of cultures had puberty rituals for girls Menarche is the pubertal event that is most often marked by ritual Cultural views are mixed as to whether menstrual blood is an omen or a positive sign of fertility Globalization has been credited with the decline in frequency of these rituals. People are meshing cultures and then we loose rituals. RITUALS ARE MORE COMMON FOR FEMALES. Females in some countries go through 4 days of rituals where they live in rituals, a lot goes into this ceremony. Welcoming into womanhood, people bring her gifts, she heals her visitors, said to be a positive ritual. They are given pins to wear in their hair. One done in the US is slowly dying down. Men receive hats during their rituals. How do parentadolescent relations change at puberty? Conflict increases Closeness decreases not surprising, not the case for everyone Parents and adolescents seem less comfortable in each other's presence teens are striving for their independence. What is it about reaching puberty that causes parentchild relations to change? The answer is uncertain. Various explanations have been proposed, centering mostly on how the biologically based incest taboo between parents and children becomes activated once children reach sexual maturity, resulting in more distant relationships. Geary said this is bogus. Less distancing between parents and teens in traditional cultures. Closer to mother than father, more conflict with mother. Frequency of Adolescent Mother Touching and Talking Observed the parents and coded every time the daughter/son talking/touching with the mother. What they find is that the touching over time it really decreases. Touching could be to groom them, help them up when they fall. Talking increases and reaches a peak around 1114 for daughters. When a child is younger, the parents communicate more through touch. Menarche: Cultural Views American Culture: Positive or Ambivalent Some cultures hold negative views, so experience can be negative & scary If your culture is negative, you are more likely to be negative Discussing menarche before it occurs greatly affects if a girl views menarche as positive or negative. The start of menarche starts at the age when the mom started menarche. Semanarche Males first ejaculation Not often studied due to connotation with masturbation and negative view in our society! Early Maturation Girls The effects of early maturation are especially negative for girls. Early maturing girls are at risk for a variety of problems: Depressed mood Negative body image Eating disorders go along with negative body image Substance use Delinquency School problems Conflicts with parents This is a problem for early maturation because if you mature a little earlier you have a shorter, heavier appearance. In our society that is not ok and looked down by the media. If a girl is maturing earlier, is more curvier and could have negative image and could result in eating disorders. Based on research less Latina and African American girl has less curvier bodies. Girls that develop earlier, boys that start to notice them can start getting into substance use and delinquency Late Maturation Girls Late maturing girls have few of the problems that earlymaturing girls have Although they can suffer from: Teasing Negative body image (during the years when other girls have begun to develop) However, by their late teens they tend to have a more favorable body image than other girls They are more likely to end up with the lean body build that tends to be regarded as attractive in Western majority cultures Early Maturation Boys The effects of early maturation tend to be positive for boys Early maturing boys have: More favorable body image Higher popularity Play sports better, look better Not everything is favorable; they tend to be involved in: Substance use Delinquency Early sexual activity More positive for boys because physically developing for sports. Considered more attractive to girls. Late Maturation Boys Late maturing boys show evidence of problems Compared with boys who mature "on time," late maturing boys have higher rates of: Alcohol use Delinquency Lower grades in school A lot of boys who aren't maturing at the same time will be made fun of because they are short and not as muscular. All of these Early and Late maturation is based on the Western countries Theory of Genotype Environment Interactions NatureNurture Debate Genotype: A person's inherited genes According to the theory Both genotype and environment make essential contributions to human development Genotypeenvironment interactions take three forms: Passive Evocative Active Part of theory that is important: they are saying basically genetics affect our development, but we create our own environment. But it is kinda like Bonfenbreener where children are active in choosing their own environment. GenotypeEnvironment Interactions Interaction: Passive occur in biological families when parents provide both genes and environment. Both are intermingled. Daughter is an artist, is it because she has a good environment or that the dad is an artist? Seen more in younger children Evocative occur when a person's inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in their environment Child likes to read more books because parents give them more book, this may lead to them being smarter. Person is effecting how others treat that person. Takes place throughout the lifespan Active occur when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics Child asks for books for his birthday This all is based off of ages and how culture is portrayed. Unravelling genotype environment interactions Is it really genetics or environment? Adoption studies These studies avoid the problem of passive genotypeenvironment effects because one set of parents provided the adolescent's genes but a different set of parent provided the environment Child good at guitar, but the adopted father is good at the guitar. This could just be because of the environment. Chapter Ideas Hormonal changes lead to changes in physical functioning and to development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. Emerging adulthood is a time of peak physical functioning for most people. Cultures influence the experience of puberty through: nutrition and medical care that affect pubertal timing; rituals that give meaning to pubertal changes; and information. According to genotypeenvironment interactions theory, environmental and genetic influences are difficult to separate, as in some ways genes shape the environment. During adolescence and emerging adulthood, greater autonomy allows young people to seek out environmental influences that will enhance their inherited abilities. The typical age of puberty has declined steeply in industrialized countries over the past 150 years; the first evident changes of puberty take place between 1012. Parents are often unsure of when or how to talk to children about puberty and sex. School officials are often equally unsure about what to communicate to children. Adolescent peers exchange information among themselves, but what they tell each other is not always accurate or healthy. Adolescents often experience their biological changes with limited information about what is happening to them. Chapter 3 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Old theory Children of different ages think differently As you get older a 3 year old thinks one way than a 12 year old. Changes in cognitive development proceed in distinct stages (e.g. discontinuous) Each person's cognitive abilities are organized into one coherent mental structure Organization of the thinking abilities into one pattern His approach is known as the cognitivedevelopmental approach (he looks at how cognition changes with age) Thinking over time, looking how thinking changes with age. The driving forces behind development from one stage to the next is maturation Maturation Piaget: maturation is an active process (Children seek out information in the environment that matches the maturity of their thinking). An 8 year old cant learn what a 13 year old can...a lot of people disagreed with this. In contrast with other theories: Behaviorism views the environment as acting on the child through rewards and punishments. One of the most well known psychology theories. A lot of our therapies are based on behaviorism. Piagetian Schemas Schemes a way we organize information in our brain Helps in everyday life Flowers how do you know that it is a flower? Well you know flowers have petals, grow from ground or trees, have leaves...this helps you say "hey that's a flower" Assimilation new information is altered to fit an existing scheme Accommodation entails changing the scheme to adapt to the new information Adding new information from before Example: Dog Scheme Child knows dogs: have fur, 4 legs, are pets, and come in different sizes, colors, breeds, etc. Assimilation: Child sees a new breed of dog. Child adds this new breed to their already existing scheme (child already knows they come in different breeds). Accommodation: Child learns some dogs have jobs. This new information changes the scheme to add previously unknown information. Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development In a certain age you are in a certain stage Sensorimotor: 02 Cognitive development involves learning how to coordinate activities of the senses with motor activities Preoperational: 27 Capable of representing the world symbolically (e.g. language, pretend play) Concrete Operations: 711 Become more adept at using mental operations which leads to a more advanced understanding of the world Formal Operations: 1115+ Allows adolescents to reason about more complex tasks and problems involving multiple variables Able to problem solve a lot better Formal Operations: Abstract thinking: think in terms of symbols, ideas, & concepts Complex Thinking: takes into account multiple connections & interpretations; perceive multiple aspects of a situation, not just the obvious Metacognition: thinking about thinking Or thinking what others are thinking. Thinking about your own thinking about studying, you need to be testing yourself. Limitations of Piaget's Theory The stage of formal operations has been the most critiqued and modified over time Most people don't agree with this, has been the most modified over time The limitations of Piaget's theory of formal operations fall into two categories: Individual differences in the attainment of formal operations Cultural basis of adolescent cognitive development Limitations Individual Differences A great range of individual differences exist in how much people use formal operations Even in emerging adulthood and beyond, a large proportion of people use formal operations inconsistently or not at all Study showed: adolescents who have had courses in math and science tend to exhibit more formal operational thought Concrete operations are sufficient for most daily tasks and practical problems; too taxing to use formal operations when they aren't necessary! Limitations Cultural Basis Piaget's tests of formal operations didn't account for differences across cultures at first. Doesn't take into account cultures don't experience the same thing Formal operations may be a universal potential, but the form it takes in each culture is derived from the kinds of cognition requirements people face. Not taking into account the culture is not fair. ...Beyond Piaget Piaget's research has inspired theories of cognitive development beyond formal operation known as: PostFormal thinking Pragmatism practicality Reflective Judgment Pragmatism: Involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of reallife situations Cognitive development in the early twenties is distinguished from adolescent development by a greater recognition and incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking Dialectical Thought Similar to pragmatism Realizing that problems don't have one simple solution, and several solutions may have merit (despite contradictions) Even when you have a bunch of solutions and pros and cons. Emphasized more in some cultures that others: Chinese vs American College Students Chinese cultures try to understand both and then reconcile it **Reflective Judgment The capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments Multiple solutions and look at the evidence on both sides and try to see which one is correct. Perry (1970; 1999) investigated reflection in adolescence and emerging adulthood which included: (stages) Dualistic thinking lowest stage, black and white, true and false Multiple thinking see 2 or more sides to every story Relativism point where you recognize several points of view, but you start to compare which one has more merit. Commitment commit yourself to the view and which one is more valid. You have facts to back up your decision which side you take. Formal Operations is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reflective thinking. We do this a lot with religion and abortion. This skill does not develop automatically in a person. It is taught to people. It is a very good skill to have. Information Processing Views cognitive change as continuous gradual and steady Focus is on the thinking processes that exist at all ages Original model for this approach was the computer The computer analogy was used to break down human thinking into separate capacities of attention, processing, and memory Information Processing Approach Recent models have moved away from a simple computer analogy and recognized the brain is more complex than any computer Componential approach: SENSORY MEMORYthings you hear, look at right now If you pay attention to it, it goes into shortterm/working memory Working memory keeping something in your brain for a short time and remembering it Long term repetition, some things may go straight from information to straight to long term memory Normal path is: information, sensory, attention, short term, long term Information Processing Approach Begins with stimulus information that goes into our sensory memory We forget most stimuli (what we see, hear, touch...) If we pay attention to it, it may go to shortterm/working memory or longterm memory If you are out on a picnic you have a lot of stimuli going on. (wind, scenery, auditory information) Sustained attention attention over time gets better over ages There are different kinds of attention in society Selective attention you pay attention to just one thing Divided attention paying attention to more than one thing at a time; trying to talk on the phone and drive at the same time, listening to a teacher and taking notes; sometimes good sometimes bad Information Processing Approach ShortTerm Memory (STM): holds information for ~30 seconds; limited capacity 2 Types: Input/Storage & Working Memory usually can hold about 7 units of information plus or minus 2. (59 is the average range) LongTerm Memory (LTM): holds information indefinitely; unlimited capacity, age makes long term memory better. Schemas flowers, dog example When we see something and connect with it, it makes it easier to remember it in the long term memory Processing Information Speed Adolescents are faster than children at processing information There is an increase in speed of processing from age 10 through the late teens Automaticity This is how much cognitive effort the person needs to devote to processing the information Adolescents show greater automaticity of processing than preadolescents Automaticity depends more on experience than on age alone Driving you have to think about it the first time, now it comes naturally. Initially you need to think a lot of the cognitive effort, but now it doesn't take any effort at all. This is not dependent on age alone, but more on experience. Limitations of the Information Processing Approach Reductionism Breaking up a phenomenon into separate parts to such an extent that the meaning and coherence of the phenomenon as a whole becomes lost Holistic Perspective Informationprocessing scholars have lost the holistic perspective that characterized Piaget's work Computer Analogy Computers have no capacity for selfreflection, no awareness of how their cognitive processes are integrated, organized, and monitored which leaves the analogy insufficient and inadequate Keating on Critical Thinking Adolescence provides the potential for critical thinking in several ways: A wider range of knowledge is available in longterm memory across a variety of domains The ability to consider different kinds of knowledge simultaneously is increased More metacognitive strategies are available for applying or gaining knowledge (i.e. monitoring one's own comprehension) Critical thinking skills do not develop automatically! Not something everyone is just able to do, it requires skill. Education will help you with these thinking skills, but our education doesn't help promote this, instead we teach you facts. (dates, events, people on tests) Critical thinking requires a basis of skills and knowledge obtained in childhood along with an educational environment in adolescence that promotes and values critical thinking Critical thinking is not just memorizing it, but making an analogy of it. When reading a news story, you never know if they are telling the truth, being able to critical think and tell the difference and know the BS and tell which information is accurate or not. The American educational system does a poor job of promoting critical thinking. Decision Making Can adolescents make good decisions? Implications for the legal system, there are societal information for this research. Behavioral Decision Theory, Decision making involves: Identifying your choices Identifying consequences of each choice Evaluating the good and bad of the consequences Assessing the likelihood of the consequence Integrating information to make a decision Most studies comparing late adolescents and young adults show no difference between the decision making processes they use! However, adolescents ability to choose the best option may be affected by social factors (situation they are in, peer presence). Social Cognition Social cognition is the term used to describe the way we think about other people, social relationships, and social institutions Two Aspects of Social Cognition 1. Perspective Taking Selman's research You are egocentric as a child, you are more concerned by yourself. 2. Adolescent egocentrism Elkind's research Perspective Taking Is the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others Selman's theory of perspective taking is based on a stage approach that children and adolescents go through Some start at 11 years old, but by 20 years old some haven't even realized this. The egocentrism of childhood gradually develops into the mature perspectivetaking ability of adolescence Perspective Taking: Adolescence In early adolescence (ages 1012) children become capable for the first time of mutual perspective taking Perspective Taking: Adolescence In late adolescence children become capable of social and conventional perspective taking Adolescents come to realize that their social perspectives and those of others are influenced not just by their interaction with each other but also by their roles in the larger society By late adolescence you realize that your society affects your beliefs Having better perspective taking helps make friends better and you treat others with respect Theory of Mind A recent concept related to perspective taking is the concept of theory of mind: the ability to attribute mental states to one's self and others, including beliefs, thoughts, and feelings (Kuhn, 2000). Most research has been on young children, looking at how they first develop an understanding that others have a mental life independent from their own (Lillard, 2007). Researchers are beginning to address adolescence.... This is seen a lot with autism Children with autism do not develop theory of mind the same time as other children, if ever. You can do the test with them, but it helps you realize that they haven't had a theory of mind by whatever age. Essential the researcher has a puppet and says "Princess Penelope has a ball and places it in the green bag and leaves. Princess Penelope leaves the room, and you place it in the blue bag. Princess Penelope comes back and what bag does she look in?" The child will not realize that Princess Penelope will look in the bag she last put the ball in which is the green bag. Adolescent Egocentrism Type of egocentrism in which adolescents have difficulty distinguishing their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about the thoughts of others. Imaginary Audience Results from adolescents' limited capacity to distinguish between their thinking about themselves and their thinking about the thoughts of others When we walk into class late, and the teacher is already lecturing you think that everyone is going to notice you. Teenagers think this process more than adults do. Personal Fable The belief in an imaginary audience that is highly conscious of how you look and act leads to the belief that there must be something special or unique about you Because so many people are paying attention to you, you think that there is something more unique about you. Optimistic Bias A concept related to the personal fable Comes from health psychology research The tendency to assume that accidents, diseases, and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves Both adolescents and adults have an optimistic bias with regard to health risk behaviour Adolescents tend to have a stronger optimistic bias than adults Optimistic Bias: Smoking Strong majorities of both adolescents and adults, both smokers and nonsmokers, believed that smoking is addictive and deadly "for most people" The Psychometric Approach: Intelligence Testing Attempting to understand human cognition by evaluating cognitive ability with intelligence tests is known as the psychometric approach The first intelligence test was developed in 1905 by a French psychologist named Alfred Binet It was just 30 items and assessed performance in areas such as memory and abstract thinking Louis Terman of Stanford University made some of the most important revisions to the original test and the test is now known as the StanfordBinet This test results in an overall score called the IQ (intelligence quotient) Other widely used tests include: 1) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCIV); and 2) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISIV). Geary gives the Wechsler test Sample Test Questions: WISC Verbal subtests: Vocabulary: What is a computer? Starts out really easy, like what is a cow? Child must answer with any description Similarities: In what way are a guitar and flute alike? Performance subtests Block Design Matrix Reasoning Verbal/Performance highly related to IQ Absolute vs. Relative Performance Relative performance on IQ tests is very stable For example, people who score higher than average in childhood tend to score higher than average as adolescents and adults Absolute performance on IQ tests is not as stable For example, absolute scores on Verbal subtests generally improve from age 16 to 38 Not as stable, scores on subtest. Essentially the raw score you are getting (verbal subtests). Notice how absolute scores on Verbal subtests generally improve from age 1638. Performance peaks at mid twenties, but will go back down as you get a little older. Check out the graph that illustrates this "absolute" point Problems with Intelligence Tests English Verbal Will not give test to people who cant speak, there are non verbal tests out there Biased Content Written by white men White boys do better The point that intelligence tests prove, is that it is biased and you cant do well on them Intelligence Distinctions Fluid Intelligence Refers to mental abilities that involve speed of analyzing, processing, and reacting to information These are the kinds of abilities tapped by the Performance subtests on IQ tests This kind of intelligence peaks in emerging adulthood Crystallized Intelligence Refers to accumulated knowledge and enhanced judgment based on experience Subtests like Information, Comprehension, and Vocabulary assess this kind of intelligence This kind of intelligence tends to improve through the twenties and thirties Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Includes eight types of intelligence Linguistic (language) Logicalmathematical (reasoning, computational skill) Spatial (thinking 3dimensionally) Musical Bodilykinesthetic (dancers/athletes excel in this) Naturalist (understand natural phenomena) Interpersonal (understanding/interacting w/ others) Intrapersonal (selfunderstanding) Facts about Brain Development By age 6, the brain is 95% of adult size The thickening of synaptic connections occurs during two timeframes: Prenatal through 18 months of age When puberty begins (ages 1012) This thickening is known as overproduction or exuberance and is when there is in increase in synaptic connections in the brain During overproduction is a ton of synapse, more than you need, then eventually synaptic pruning. Brain Development Synaptic Pruning The overproduction of synapses is whittled down considerably Between the ages of 12 and 20, the average brain loses 7 to 10% of its gray matter This is good: it's the brain's way of becoming more efficient. Only keep the synapses that are used most often. Myelination The process of creating a myelin sheath (blanket of fat) over the main part of the neuron Functions to increase the speed of electrical signals Cerebellum Historically thought to be involved in only basic functions, such as movement Recent research has shown that it continues to grow in adolescence through emerging adulthood and is important to higher functions (e.g. math, social skills, humor) Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory According to this theory, cognitive development is inherently both a social and cultural process It is social because children learn through interactions with others and require assistance from others in order to learn what they need to know It is cultural because what children need to know is determined by the culture they live in Vygotsky's Most Influential Ideas Zone of Proximal Development Is the gap between what adolescents can accomplish alone and what they are capable of doing if guided by an adult or a more competent peer Scaffolding Refers to the degree of assistance provided to the adolescent in the zone of proximal development Scaffolding should gradually decrease as children become more competent at a task Example: Need a lot of help to weave a basket, cant just pick up the process. You need someone to help guide you along the way. Building on Vygotsky's Legacy Barbara Rogoff has extending Vygotsky's theory with the idea of Guided Participation Refers to the teaching interaction between two people as they participate in a culturally valued activity This guidance is "the direction offered by cultural and social values, as well as social partners" Despite the rise of a cultural approach to studying psychology, far more research is conducted using the cognitivedevelopmental, information processing, and psychometric approaches, which don't account for cultural influences in cognitive development. Chapter 4: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Cultural Beliefs are... Norms and moral standards of a culture. Standards of rights and wrongs that set expectations of behavior. In every society, everyone does them, if you don't do them then people look at you differently. In an elevator you would face the doors, this is a norm. Rooted in Symbolic Inheritance beliefs, "ideas and understandings, both implicit and explicit, about persons, society, nature and divinity" Hardcore beliefs. "What happens after you die" Also include role expectations (What you are suppose to do based off of your gender society): Gender Age Social Class/Status Mr./Mrs. Uniforms doctors wear the same attire Discussion Stop Why do adolescents become increasingly aware of their cultural roles and what is expected of them? Starting to be more aware of schools, better friendship groups Cognitive capacity of abstract ideas Self reflect You need an A in school to get into college, you need good grades to get a good job, etc. Socialization... The process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of their culture Different outcomes: Self regulation ability to comply with social norms Regulate to fit in with society, fitting in and not sticking out. Not about peer pressure, more about what side of the street you stand on etc. Role preparation roles in work, gender, and institutions such as marriage and parenthood Cultivation of sources of meaning "What's important?" "Whats to be lived for?" Cultural Values Individualism Independence Self expression Broad socialization bigger influence from friends, media Western Independent Self Collectivism Obedience Conformity Narrow socialization socialization is limited to your family and direct proximity Eastern Interdependence Difference being where the importance lies. Keep in Mind: Cultures' belief systems are not "pure types" There are individual differences in any culture Diversity also exists within individuals Socialization: Broad and Narrow Cultures define the range and focus of acceptable personal variation or individual differences How ok is it that you can deviate from the norm? Beliefs, political, materialistic views Cultures differ in the degree of restrictiveness they impose Especially important and can extend through adulthood Narrow socialization is to collectivism as Broad socialization is to individualism Socializations: Sources Friends your amount of personality comes from your friends more than your family School interaction with teachers Community/Workplace Neighborhood Roles you develop Legal system Curfews Age of driver liscences Media Family Does diminish some in adolescence Socialization: "The Law" Adolescent socialization amongst Australian Aborigines involves ritual teaching of a set of cultural beliefs known as "The Law": Moral precepts for conducting interpersonal relationships, e.g., marriage, sexual relationships, gender roles Explanation of how the world began Instructions for rites of passage "The Law" is a set of guidelines about relations between individuals, society, and divine forces "The Law" is premised upon collectivistic beliefs Globalization has dramatically affected the relationship between adolescents and "The Law" Socialization: "Middletown" Study 1 (Lynd and Lynd, 1929) Life in a typical American community Study 2 (Caplow et al., 1982) Same community, 50 years later Based on the results Loyalty to the church was high in 1928 Obedience was high in 1928 Strict obedience is "do what I say now" Difference in the trend in Middle town, in one point socialization was narrow in the 1920s. Defining Custom Complex Like dating Customary practice and the beliefs, values, sanctions, rules, motives and satisfactions associated with it In 1998, scholars place the custom complex at the center of cultural psychology, which examines human development from a perspective combining psychology and anthropology Simply put: typical practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs that provide the basis for the practice It isn't a set of rules, it is the underlining basis Defining Ontogenic Ontogenic: something that occurs naturally as part of maturing; it is driven by innate processes, not environmental stimulation or cultural practice. Goes back to nature and nurture Cultural Beliefs in Multicultural Societies Living in America Majority and Minority Cultures Research has shown that cultural beliefs of American minority cultures tend to be less individualistic and more collectivistic than the beliefs of the American majority culture. This trend is also present in many other countries with a majority and minority culture present. Majority most people identify with Even though we saw America is an individualistic culture, we are a continuum and everyone falls in different areas. Trends are identified pretty early on in adolescence Discussion Stop What happens when the socialization young people experience is not consistent across sources? Consider Feldman's study of adolescents living in the USA and Australia who have emigrated from China. How might the length of time lived in the new culture (i.e., first or second generation) influence cultural beliefs? Cultural Differences: Family as Residential Unit The more years that your family is in the US no matter where you were born, means that you will become a more individualistic Religious Beliefs are Cultural Beliefs Your beliefs have a view on society Virtually all cultures have religious beliefs of some kind, and they are diverse across cultures. Often tell how the world began and what happens when we die. Typically contain prescriptions for 3 outcomes of socialization roles, selfregulation, sources of meaning. Typically specify a code for behavior. Generally, adolescents and emerging adults in industrialized societies are less religious than those in traditional cultures. Industrialized societies are highly secular: based on nonreligious beliefs and values. However, Americans are more religious than people in most other industrialized countries, though adolescents spend less time in religious activities and tend to be less educated on their religious doctrine. Good outcomes of those who are highly religious, African American adolescent are less likely to participate in alcohol/drug use/depression, more volunteer work, etc. Religious Beliefs and Cognitive Development Fowler's Stage Poeticcoventional faith Early adolescence Communion Individuatingreflective faith late adolescence/ emerging adulthood Questioning beliefs, more individualized faith Moral Development (Piaget) Piaget observed children play games and practice and discuss rules Two Stages Based on cognitive development Heteronomous Morality (ages 47) "You can't change the rules! The rules were made by mother." Rules are fixed, made by authority figures. Autonomous Morality (reached at age 1012) "I dropped the glass by accident, that wasn't as bad as when Julie tore up her book because she was mad." Rules were made by social convention, looking at the circumstances and not as important as just looking at the outcome of it. Moral Reasoning (Kohlberg) Kohlberg presented his participants with hypothetical moral dilemmas, asked them to make a judgment and explain their reasons for their decision. Whether a person judged the actions of the main character in the dilemma as right or wrong was not important. Rather, his* reasoning for the judgment was key to determining the stage of moral reasoning. Interesting footnote: Kolhberg's research began with a study of 72 boys aged 10, 13, and 16 He was wondering why they were right or wrong in the moral dilemma. Kohlerg's Moral Reasoning Stages Copy the chart in the powerpoint slide 22 People normally stop at stage 3 or 4 Stages depend on socioeconomic status, for better education and intelligence Gender Critique (Gilligan) Kohlberg only studied males at first, then females; he found that females were not as advanced in moral reasoning. Gilligan believes his stages are biased towards males and their "justice orientation." She proposed females use a "care orientation" in moral reasoning, which is just as valid. Cultural Critique Shweder believed Kohlberg's system was biased in favor of the "Western elites" (rich, intelligent men) Shweder believes people don't reach level 5/6 often because they are based on a specific culture. Shweder compared American and Indian children on moral beliefs and found they learn the beliefs of their culture early on, but don't necessarily agree with those of another culture. Worldviews Approach Know that it is a set of cultural beliefs and what it means to be a human and how human problems should be addressed. Understanding that we have a bunch of cultures and what is right and wrong in a cultural depends on that cultural. Worldviews Approach: 3 "Ethics" Autonomy individual is primary moral authority having right to do as they wish as long as their behavior does no harm to others Community responsibilities and roles in family and community are basis for moral judgment Divinity individual is a spiritual entity subject to the prescriptions of divine authority. Political Beliefs (Adelson) Adelson's Hypothetical Dilemma: "Imagine that a thousand men and women, dissatisfied with the way things are going in this country, decide to purchase and move to an island in the Pacific where they must devise laws and modes of government." Wanted to see how peoples thinking was. Found that peoples political views met their level of thinking. Emerging Adults' Political Movement Based on US, Canada, Western Europe; comparing emerging adults to older adults. Voting rates and involvement in political parties is low. Believe what political parties do is irrelevant to them. Skeptical of politicians. HOWEVER, more likely to be members of specific organizations (environment, against racism, etc.) than older adults. Also, more often involved in extreme political movements. Extreme Political Movements 9/11 attacks were planned by older adults, but emerging adults executed the attacks Collapse in communism in Eastern Europe was initiated by emerging adults. Why involved? More independent and less to stop them (no spouse/kids, away from parents); also exploring their identity. Exam Review Bring a pencil Bring a scantron (small) Be Familiar with the following: Endocrine System Effects of early maturation Sampling Problems with research on puberty Assimilation vs accommodation Automaticity/processing speed in adolescents Relationships between puberty rituals and globalization The Law GenotypeEnvironment Interaction Pragmatism Adolescent Egocentrism Custom Complex Adolescent Psychology Book Notes 15:59 Adolescence is a cultural construction, not simply a biological phenomenon. Puberty the set of biological changes involved in reaching physical and sexual maturity is universal, but takes place for young people everywhere, although with differences in timing and in cultural meanings. Adolescence period of the life course between the time puberty begins and the time adult status is approached, when young people are preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture. Adolescence in Western Cultures: A Brief History In ancient Greece (4th and 5Th centuries B.C.), the source of so many ideas that influenced Western history, both Plato and Aristoltle viewed adolescence as the third distinct stage of life, after infancy (birth to age 7) and childhood (ages 7 to 14). Their beliefs: adolescence is 1421 Both viewed adolescence as the stage of life in which capacity for reason first developed. In about 1500, young people in European societies took part in lifecycling service Lifecycling service a period in their late teens and 20s in which young people from the 16th to the 19th century engaged in domestic service, farm service, or apprenticeships in various trades and crafts. Involved moving out of the family household and into the household of a "master" to whom the young person was in service for a period lasting (typically) 7 years. More common in men, common in US in the colonial period in New England Life cycling service faded during the 18th19th century, due to the farm industry fading and more industrial economy taking over In cities without family or community ties, in the 18 th19th century rates of crimes increased as well as premarital sex, alcohol use increased. In response to this new institutions of social control developed religious associations, literacy societies, YMCAs, YWCAs The success of this was due to the monitoring of adults and soon their was a decrease in all the rates Youth prior to the late 19th century, the term used to refer to persons in their teens and early twenties 18901920 US and other Western countries were crucial in establishing the characteristics of modern adolescence Key changes during these years included: Adolescent Psychology Book Notes 15:59 the enactment of laws restricting child labor new requirements for children to attend secondary school the development of the field of adolescence as an area of scholarly study "Age of Adolescence" it marked a more distinct separation between adolescence as a period of continued schooling and adulthood as a period that begins after schooling is finished Work of G. Stanely Hall and the beginning of the study of adolescence as a distinct field of scholarship Obtained a Ph. D. in psychology first Founder of American Psychological Association Served as the first president of Clark University First initiators of the child study movement in US Child Study Movement late 19th century group, led by G. Stanely Hall, that advocated research on child and adolescent development and the improvement of conditions for children and adolescent in the family, school and workplace Wrote "Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education" Recapulation nowdiscredited theory that held that the development of each individual recapulates the evolutionary development of the human species as a whole. Storm and stress theory promoted by G. Stanley Hall asserting that adolescence is in evitably a time of mood disruptions, conflict with parents and antisocial behavior. What happened between Hall's time and our own to move scholars' conceptions of adolescence forward chorologically in the life course? Decline that took place during the 20th century in the typical age of initiation of puberty. Menarche (a girl's first menstruation) started early than in prior times The median age of menarche declined steadily between 1900 and 1970 before leveling out, so typical age is 12.5 When adolescence ends is by social change: the growth of secondary school attendance to a normative experience for adolescents in the US and other Western countries. Ending adolescence at age 18 Emerging adulthood period from roughly ages 18 to 25 in industrialized countries during which young people become more independent from parents and explore various life possibilities before making enduring commitments 5 characteristics of emerging adulthood: 1. The age of identity explorations Adolescent Psychology Book Notes 15:59 2. The age of instability 3. The selffocused age 4. The age of feeling in between 5. The age of possibilities Does not exist in all cultures "Storm and Stress" Debate One of Stanely Hall's ideas, still debated today According to Hall it is normal for adolescence to be a time of considerable upheaval and disruption Normally happens in industrialized societies It is reflected along three types of difficulties during the adolescent period: Conflict with Parents Mood disruptions Risk behavior (such as substance and crime) The Transition to Adulthood Adolescence is generally viewed as beginning with the first noticeable changes of puberty. The end of adolescence is marked by the age of 18, when people end their secondary school education and begin exploratory activities that characterize emerging adulthood. But what marks the end of emerging adulthood? The answer varies based on cultures. Cross Culture Themes In studies young people from their early teens to their late 20s agreed that the most important markers of the transition from adolescence to adulthood are: Accepting responsibility for oneself Making independent decisions Becoming financially independent The top criteria all three have similarities: Individualism cultural belief system that emphasizes the desirability of independence, selfsufficiency, and self expression. Collectivism a set of beliefs asserting that it is important for persons to mute their individual desires in order to contribute to the wellbeing and success of the group (duties and obligations to others) Cultural Variations Adolescent Psychology Book Notes 15:59 In addition to the top three criteria for adulthood that have been found across cultures accepting responsibility for oneself, making independent decisions, and becoming financially independent studies have found distinctive cultural criteria as well. What about traditional cultures? Do they have different ideas about what marks the beginning of adulthood, compared to industrialized societies? Anthropologists have found that in virtually all traditional, non Western cultures, the transition to adulthood is clearly and explicitly marked by marriage. Marriage is seen as the key transition to adulthood because they prize the collectivistic value of interdependence more highly than the individualistic value of independence. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory According to Bronfenbrenner, five key levels or systems play a part in human development: Microsystem immediate environment, the settings where people experience their daily lives. This is where the person's direct interactions and relationships take place. Relationships include with each parent, siblings and extended family, peers, teachers, other adults, etc. Mesosystem network of interconnections between the various microsystems. Exosystem societal institutions that have indirect but potentially important influences on development. These institutions include schools, religious institutions and media. Macrosystem broad cultural beliefs and values, and the economic and governmental systems that are built on those beliefs and values. Chronosystem refers to changes that occur in developmental circumstances over time, both with respect to individual development and to historical changes. Chapter 2 Book Notes Chapter 2 Biological Foundations 15:59 Although adolescence is a culturally constructed period of life, the biological changes of puberty are a central part of development during adolescence in all cultures. Culture influences the timing of biological events, and cultures respond in a variety of ways to the biological changes that signify adolescents'' attainment of physicaland sexual maturity. The Biological Revolution of Puberty Puberty the changes in physiology, anatomy, and physical functioning that develop a person into a mature adult biologically and prepare the body for sexual reproduction. These changes result from events that occur in the endocrine system during puberty. The Endocrine System Endocrine system a network of glands in the body. Through hormones, the glands coordinate their functioning and affect the development and functioning of the body. These glands release hormones into the blood stream, and the hormones affect the development and functioning of the body. The normal changes of puberty begin in the hypothalamus, a bean sized structure located in the lower part of the brain, beneath the cortex. To initiate puberty, the hypothalamus begins gradually to increase its production of GnRH. The increase in GnRH begins in middle childhood, at least a year or two before even the earliest bodily changes of puberty. What causes the hypothalamus to increase GnRH production? Evidence indicates that increase occurs once a threshold level of body fat is reached. Fat cells produce a protein, leptin, that provides the signal to the hypothalamus. The increase in GnRH affects the pituitary gland, a gland about half an inch long located at the base of the brain. The ovaries and testes are known as the gonads, or sex glands. With respect to pubertal development, the most important estrogen is estradiol and the most important androgen is testosterone. Estradiol and testosterone are produced in both males and females, and throughout childhood the levels of these hormones are about the same in boys and girls. By the midteens, estradiol production is about eight times as high in females as it was before puberty, but only about twice as high for males. Chapter 2 Book Notes 15:59 Physical Growth During Puberty One of the earliest signs of puberty for both girls and boys is the adolescent growth spurt. Adolescent growth spurt the rapid increase in height that takes place at the beginning of puberty Girls mature about 2 years ahead of boys. Until the growth spurt begins, throughout childhood boys are slightly taller on average than girls of the same age. Girls become taller on average for about 2 years in adolescence, from age 1113. However, the earlier maturation of girls contributes to their smaller adult height, because the adolescent growth spurt also marks the beginning of the end of growth in height. Girls reach final heights around 16 compared to boys at 18 years old. Higher levels of testosterone also contribute to a higher average final height in boys. A certain amount of asynchronicity in growth during this time explains why some adolescents have a "gangly" look early in puberty, as some parts of their body grows faster than others. The extremities feet, hands, and head are the first to hit the growth spurt, followed by the arms and legs. Some parts of the head grow more than others. The torso, chest, and shoulders are the last parts of the body to reach the growth spurt and therefore the last to each the end of their growth. In addition to the growth spurt, a spurt in muscle growth occurs during puberty, primarily because of the increase in testosterone. Boys experience greater increases in muscle growth due to testosterone Levels of body fat also surge during puberty, buy body fat increases more for girls than for boys. Muscle to fat ratio for boys is 3:1, where girls is 5:4. Chapter 2 Book Notes 15:59 Other sex differences occur during puberty. Hips are wider in girls, shoulders are wider in boys In both boys and girls, the heart becomes larger during puberty on average it weight almost doubles. In the lungs, vital capacity increases. Vital capacity the amount of air that can be exhaled after a deep breath, which increases rapidly during puberty, especially for boys. Before puberty boys and girls are about equal in strength and athletic performance, but during puberty boys overtake girls and the difference remains throughout adulthood. Obesity has become a major health problem in industrialized countries and is becoming a problem in developing countries as well. Obesity is defined as weighing 20% or more above the maximum healthy weight height, for males, and 25% more for females. Rates are highest in US. The problem is especially severe among African Americans and Latinos, whose obesity rates in adolescence are about 50% higher than the rate for whites. Obese adolescents have higher leptin levels, so it may be that increased obesity had contributed to the earlier onset of puberty among African American and Latino girls in recent decades. What is responsible for weight gain rise in US? The fact that we eat more fastfood, exercise less, increase in soft drinks and snacking in schools and heredity. We watch the same amount of TV and video games as other countries so this isn't a factor. Primary Sex Characteristics Primary sex characteristics involve the production of eggs and sperm and the development of the sex organs Secondary sex characteristics other bodily changes of puberty, not including the ones related directly to reproduction. Increases in sex hormones at puberty cause eggs to develop in the ovaries of females and sperm in males. Once a girl reaches menarche and begins having menstrual cycles, one egg develops into a mature egg, or ovum every 28 days or so. Females release about 400 eggs over the course of their reproductive lives. The first production of sperm in boys is called spermarche, and takes place on average around 12. Cultural Responses to Puberty: Puberty Rituals Puberty has been marked with rituals in many cultures through history as the departure from childhood and the entrance into adolescence, particularly in traditional cultures. Chapter 2 Book Notes 15:59 For girls, menarche is the pubertal event that is most often marked by ritual. It initiates a month of ritual throughout a woman's reproductive life. Puberty in males do not focus on a particular biological event comparable to menarche for females, but for the rites of males nevertheless share some common characteristics. They typically require the young man to display courage, strength and endurance. Some of the rituals for men have been violent, requiring them to submit to and sometimes engage in bloodletting of various kinds. Book Notes Chapter 3 Cognitive Foundations 15:59 Cognitive development changes over time in how people think, how they solve problems, and how their capactities for memory and attention change Piaget's theory describes general changes in mental structures and problemsolving abilities that take place during childhood and adolescence. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Concluded that age differences in patterns of wrong answers reflected differences in how children of various ages thought about the questions. Older children not only know more than younger children, he decided, they also think differently. He believed that as adolescents you go through different thought stages. Stages a period in which abilities are organized in a coherent, interrelated way Cognitive development approach approach to understanding cognition that emphasizes the changes that take place at different stages. According to Piaget, the driving force behind development from one stage to the next is maturation. Maturation process by which abilities develop through genetically based development with limited influence from the environment. Sensorimotor (Age 02) Learn to coordinate the activities of the senses with motor activities Ex: watching an object as it moves across your field of vision, such as reaching out to grab the object Preoperational (Age 27) Capable of symbolic representation, such as in language, but limited ability to use mental operations Ex: using a broom to represent a horse Concrete Operations (Age 711) Capable of using mental operations, but only in concrete, immediate experience; difficulty thinking hypothetically Ex: they understand that if you take water from one glass and pour it into a taller, thinner glass, the amount of water remains the same Formal Operations (1115/20) Capable of thinking logically and abstractly, capable of formulating hypotheses and testing them systematically; thinking is more complex and can think about thinking (metacognition) Book Notes Chapter 3 15:59 Ex: pendulum problem Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning Piaget's term for the process by which the formal operational thinker systematically tests possible solutions to a problem and arrives at an answer that can be defended and explained Piaget proposed that the active construction of reality takes place through the use of schemes, which are structures for organizing and interpreting information. Two processes involved in schemas: new Assimilation information is altered to fit an existing scheme Book Notes Chapter 3 15:59 Accommodation changing the scheme to adapt to the new information Abstract Thinking thinking in terms of symbols, ideas, and concepts Adolescents become capable of engaging in discussion about politics, morality, and religion in ways they could not when they were younger because with adolescence they gain the capacity to understand and use the abstract ideas involved in such discussions. Metacognition "thinking about thinking", enables adolescents to learn and solve problems more efficiently. First it develops in adolescents and continues to develop in emerging adulthood and beyond. In Piaget's theory, once formal operations is fully attained, cognitive maturation is complete. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of reallife situations. Reflective judgment another cognitive quality that has been found to develop in emerging adulthood, is the capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments. Multiple thinking emerging adults believe there are two or more sides to every story, two or more legitimate views of every issue, and that it can be difficult to justify one position as the only true or accurate one. In this stage people tend to value all points of view equally. Relativism by early twenties multiple thinking develops into this. They are able to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view. Stage of commitment end of college years they reach this stage, in which they commit themselves to certain points of view they believe to be the most valid, while being open to reevaluating their views if new evidence is presented to them. Dualistic thinking often see situations and issues in polarized terms an act is either right or wrong, with no in between; a statements is either true or false, regardless of the nuances or the situation to which it is being applied. The InformationProcessing Approach Viewed as continuous, meaning gradually and steady Attention: Information process begins with a stimulus information that is seen through the senses Short term memory memory for information that is currently your focus, it has limited capacity and retains information for about 30 seconds or less. Working memory "mental workbench" where you keep information as you are working on it. It is where you analyze and reason about information in the course of making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language. Book Notes Chapter 3 15:59 Long term memory memory for information that is committed to longerterm storage, so that you can draw on it again after a period of time when your attention has not been focused on it. The capacity for longterm memory is unlimited, and information is retained indefinitely. Mnemonic devices (memory strategies), such as organizing information into coherent patterns. Automaticity degree of cognitive effort a person needs to devote to processing a given set of information Depends more on experience than on age alone. Closely related to speed and to working memory capacity. The more automatic a cognitive task is, the faster you are able to do. Ex: you may be able to read a magazine while you watch TV, but you probably find it harder to fill out your tax forms while watching TV. Practical Cognition: Critical Thinking and Decision Making Critical thinking thinking that involves not merely memorizing information but analyzing it, making judgments about what it means, relating it to other information, and considering how it might be valid or invalid. Critical thinking promotes gaining knowledge of a topic because it leads to a desire for underlying explanations, and gaining knowledge of a topic makes critical thinking possible because it makes relevant knowledge available for analysis and critique. Behavioral decision theory theory of decision making that describes the decision making process as including (1) identifying the range of possible choices; (2) identifying the consequences that would result from each choice; (3) evaluating the desirability of each consequence; (4) assessing the likelihood of each consequence; and (5) integrating this information Theory of mind ability to attribute mental states to one's self and others, including beliefs, thoughts, and feelings. Adolescent egocentrism type of egocentrism in which adolescents have difficulty distinguishing their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about the thoughts of others Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Chapter 5 Gender Clarifying the Difference Gender Refers to the social categories of male and female "social categories" Sex Refers to the biological status of being male or female Traditional Cultures From Girl to Woman Girls typically work alongside their mothers from an early age (67 years of age) Girls typically maintain a close relationship with their mothers During adolescence the "world contracts for girls" Girls endure new restrictions observed for women Girls have narrower socialization at adolescence because their budding (KNOW THIS!) Example: Chinas (1991) Looked at adolescence for females in a Mexican village Virginity before marriage is highly prized, so girls who used to have more freedom, come under more strict control when reach puberty. Very limited contact with boys from ages 1016 Traditional Cultures From Boy to Man Boys typically have less contact with their families and more contact with peers During adolescence the "world expands for boys" Boys enjoy new privileges reserved for men For boys, manhood is something that has to be achieved Achieving Manhood For boys the attainment of manhood is often fraught with peril and carries and definite and formidable possibility of failure In Spanish, called "flojo" Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 In most cultures an adolescent boy must demonstrate three capacities before he is considered a man: 1. Provide show skills that are economically useful 2. Protectshow he can contribute to protecting his family 3. Procreate must gain some degree of sexual experience before marriage Male and Female Circumsicision Males: Commonly done in infancy in many cultures Completed in adolescence in other cultures Usually no longlasting physical effects or problems Females: Often involves removal of clitoris/and or labia Physical effects: severe bleeding is common, infection very possible, chronic pain when urinating or masturbating, problems increase during childbirth, and sexual intercourse is less pleasurable Girls in American History Four areas where the lives of adolescent girls were narrowly constricted: 1. Occupational Choice was ok to be a nurse, seamstress, but it was best for them to be at home and a house wife. That is what gender stereotype said would be best. This has changed a lot over time. 2. Intellectual Work unhealthy to think too much, too much was considered to have an influence on our menstruation system. Girls were considered "too weak" to work. Girls on farms worked a lot more, mirror a traditional culture. 3. Sexuality very restricted for females in American history. In 18th and 19th century not allowed to have premarital sex. 1920s not too worried about females losing their virginity. 1940s women were informed about menarche about sex education before menarche 4. Physical Appearance 1920s girls were told to shave underarms and legs. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Attracted at times were slim and lean; boyish figure 1950s big breasts and curvy women were seen as more attractive Three Manhood Transformations Communal Manhood (17th and 18th centuries) The focus on gender expectations for adolescent boys was on preparing to assume adult role responsibilities in work and marriage Traditional cultures, men learning some kind of profession SelfMade Manhood (19th century) Males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood Focus on self control Passionate Manhood (20th century) Passionate emotions such as anger and sexual desire became regarded more favorably as part of the manhood ideal Selfexpression and selfenjoyment replaced selfcontrol and selfdenial as the paramount virtues Men are very much independent Society and cultural favored that men should be sexual and have the desire. It was ok for me to be aggressive and desirable. Becoming more individualistic, learning to be a man and also have passion about it. Gender Intensification Hypothesis Psychological and behavioural difference between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of the intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed roles Gender intensification occurs especially for adolescents who are exposed to socialization pressures to conform to traditional gender roles Changes in Gender Attitudes in the U.S. 19772006 Started to favor equality a lot more as far as gender roles go as men and women. What we are seeing is that back in the 70s less than half disagreed with this. People are saying men and women agree they can be great politicians. Gender roles are changing over time and women are being seen as equal Females have a much harder getting ahead in any field because females are the ones to be expected to take care of the kids, so lesser paying jobs. Family, Peers, and School Differential Gender Socialization Socializing boys and girls according to different expectations Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Family, friends, teachers all have opinions Puts baby in color (boys in blue, girls in pink) to decide gender Creates an understanding of `appropriate' behaviors for males and females Not appropriate for a male infant to wear a tutu Differential socialization most often results from how parents and teachers were socialized Reflects a culture's beliefs about gender Parents and teachers may do this without even thinking consciously about what they are doing Most girls still go into gender specific professions. Nursing, teaching Professor of math, science, engineering paid more attention to the males. Magazines...a special issue Magazines, more than any other medium, display the most obvious focus on gender socialization, especially for adolescent girls Physical appearance is stressed as being of ultimate importance Have to look if you're a female. There is also an intense focus on how to be appealing to boys Several studies have found that magazines promote gender socialization. What you are suppose to look like and behave. Content distribution of three teen magazines Ladies need to be fashionable Don't be healthy, just look good Health articles are almost all on weight lost and control Doesn't include advertisements Make up 50% of magazines, all clothes, cosmetics and weight lost programs Problems with Gender Socialization Girls Develop negative body image Dieting in adolescence due to focus on thinness Extreme: eating disorders Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Ridicule of overweight girls Boys Expected to be verbally aggressive Often insulting manhood (wimp, pussy...etc) Get physically aggressive when necessary Aggression establishes social hierarchies, with those on the bottom suffering humiliation Contributes to: risky driving, vandalism, fighting, and crime. Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender Gender is a fundamental way of organizing ideas about the world Age 3 Understand themselves as being either male or female Age 4 or 5 Indentify things as appropriate for either males or females Self socialization Age 6 to 10 Perceptions of gender become less rigid Understand sports and music, not worrying much about gender Age 12 to 16 Perceptions of gender become more rigid gender intensification As adolescents become more capable of reflecting on these issues, they become more concerned with compliance to gender norms for themselves and others Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny The Bem Sex Role Inventory Describes traits regarded by most members of the American majority culture as being masculine or feminine Most widely used measure of gender role perceptions A crossnational study of young people in 30 countries found similar gender role perceptions with remarkable consistency Androgyny The term used for the combination of masculine and feminine traits in one person Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Advocates of androgyny have argued that being androgynous is better than being either masculine or feminine because an androgynous person has a greater repertoire of traits to draw on in their daily lives Advocates point to research that show androgynous children are more flexible and creative than other children (Hemmer and Klieber, 1981) Androgynous women are better at saying "no" to unreasonable requests (Kelly et al., 1981) This is better than being super masculine and super feminine Gender Roles in American Minority Groups African American Women Female role contains a variety of characteristics that reflect the difficult challenge that Black women have faced historically which include Self reliance Assertiveness Perseverance Black adolescent girls tend to have higher selfesteem and are less concerned with physical appearance than White girls African American Men Have been frequently subjected to insults to their manhood, from their status as property during slavery to being denigrated as "boys" no matter what their age (in some parts of the United States) Economic conditions in many American cities make it difficult for Black men to fill the traditional "provider" aspect of the male role As a consequence of these humiliations, according to some scholars, many young Black men adopt extreme characteristics of the male role in order to declare their masculinity in spite of the discrimination they experience Recent movements by young Black men: emphasize responsibility and diligence; volunteer with young African American boys as mentors. Gender Roles in American Minority Groups Latino Women Gender roles have been highly traditional until recently, much along the lines of the traditional culture The role of women was concentrated on caring for children, taking care of the home, and providing emotional support for the husband Women have been taught to emulate the Virgin Mary by being submissive and self denying Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 NOW: Latina women more commonly employed and a Latina feminist movement has emerged. Movement seeks to keep the traditional values AND extend available options for Latina women and girls. Latino Men The role of men has been guided by the ideology of machismo which emphasizes males' dominance over females Men are expected to be the undisputed head of the household and to demand respect and obedience from their wives and children The traditional aspects of manhood are strong among Latinos to provide for a family, protect the family from harm, and procreate a large family Gender Roles in American Minority Groups Asian Americans are subjected to media stereotypes. Females: exotic and submissive. Males: intelligent, but poor at sports and not as masculine. Gender Stereotypes in Emerging Adulthood Stereotype Occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group Gender Stereotypes Attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or female Example: Boys love trucks Example: Girls are shy Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences Even when there is a statistically significant difference between males and females, for most characteristics there is nevertheless more similarity than difference between genders Most human characteristics fall into a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION where a small proportion of people rate much higher; a small proportion rate much lower; but most people fall somewhere in the middle The Bell Curve: Looking at math and gender Persistence of Gender Differences Gender schemas tend to shape the way we notice, interpret, and remember information according to our expectations about genders Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Social Roles Theory Social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different capabilities Differential gender socialization leads males and females to develop different skills and attitudes which leads to different behaviors the differences in behavior seem to confirm the appropriateness of the different roles. Gender and Globalization Adolescent girls today have opportunities that were unknown to women in previous eras of Western history The proportion of females in fields such as medicine, business, and law are considerably higher than 20 years ago However, women tend to earn less money than men even when they are doing similar work Gender equality still has a long way to go! In countries outside the West, adolescent girls have much less in the way of educational and occupational opportunities In most developing countries, adolescent girls are considerably less likely than boys to go to a secondary school As traditional cultures proceed toward economic development, they may offer more opportunities for girls As economies become more developed and complex, brain matters more than brawn and men's physical advantage ceases to matter in work women may have more opportunity for different gender roles Chapter 6 Part 1 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach The Self Selfreflection in Adolescence Enhanced cognitive capacity in adolescence means that adolescents change in their selfconceptions, selfesteem, and their emotional understanding Asking themselves what kind of person they are? Etc More able to understand abstract ideas Culture and the Self Broad socialization Promote independent, individualistic self Encourage selfreflection Selfesteem valued highly tons of articles on this Seen in American culture Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Narrow Socialization Interdependent self Needs and interests of others (i.e. groups) take precedence over self esteem The term "selfesteem" was first coined by William James, an American, in the late 19 th century Childhood vs. Adolescence More based on Western culture As a child more likely to describe themselves on more concrete terms Concrete: I have a dog named Jake and a brother named Silas. I'm good at sports, but not so good at school. Trait focused: I'm complicated. I'm sensitive, outgoing, popular and tolerant. I can be shy in some circumstances. I can also be selfconscious, even obnoxious when I'm upset....I have a positive view of humankind.... The Self in Adolescence The capacity for abstract thought means an adolescent can distinguish between: Actual self "Who I am" Possible selves "who I might become" Ideal self "Who I would like to be" Feared self "who I dread becoming" Never be like this when Im older Teenagers start to do this at the developmental period Who they are and who they want to be ideally may lead to a depressed mood Helps and motivates us to become who we want to be More complex The formal operational ability to perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea mean that selfunderstanding becomes more complex in adolescence. "False self" Adolescents are more likely to show a false self with a dating partner Show real self to their friends, in between with their parents Clarifying the Difference Selfesteem Refers to a person's overall sense of worth and wellbeing American phenomenium Selfconcept Refers to the way a person views and evaluates herself or himself (Also selfimage or selfperception) Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Development and Self esteem Research has found declines in selfesteem during early adolescence, then increases in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. On the other hand, the degree of decline in selfesteem should not be exaggerated... Self esteem only decreases slightly in early adolescence Theory: Decrease: imaginary audience Peers are using sarcasm and not nice to each other Increase: people start to care less Self esteem differs in ethnic groups Selfesteem: defining aspects Baseline self esteem Stable, enduring sense of worth and wellbeing Barometric self esteem Fluctuating sense of worth and wellbeing as one responds to different thoughts, experiences, etc., through the course of a day Adolescent Selfimage: Eight Domains Scholastic Competence Social Acceptance Athletic Competence Physical Appearance Job Competence Romantic Appeal Behavioral Conduct Close Friendship Constructing Ideas Which of Harters eight aspects of selfimage would you expect to be most important in adolescence? Physical Appearance Influences on Selfesteem Feeling accepted by parents and peers School success increases self esteem Selfesteem in Emerging Adulthood More comfortable with your body Emotional Self: Experience Sampling Method Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 "Beeper" studies in which adolescents are beeped at random times during the day and asked to record their emotional state Adolescents record feeling "selfconscious" and "embarrassed" 23 times more than adults Adolescents are "moodier" than preadolescents Adolescents experience more negative moods than preadolescents Older adolescents were less volatile (fewer extremes) in emotions than younger adolescents Identity: Erik Erikson's Theory Identity an individual's perceptions of their character, abilities, beliefs, values, relations with others, and how their life fits into the world. When he developed the theory, he actually studied Native American culture, therapist for WWII Erikson (19021994) drew on experience as a teacher, psychoanalyst, ethnographer, & therapist Developed comprehensive theory of human development across the life span Primary focus was adolescence, the time of greatest influence on identity development Identity, Erikson, and Crisis Each life period is characterized by a particular development issue or "crisis" For each issue or crisis, there is a developmentally healthy path and an unhealthy path Crisis in infancy is "trust vs. mistrust" the healthy path is establishing secure trust with care provider, the unhealthy path is mistrust (results from a failure to establish a secure sense of trust) Identity "Crisis" in Adolescence Crisis has been equated with "Exploration" Identity Achievement vs. Identity Confusion Identity Achievement healthy path when trying to achieve identity, establishing a clear and definite sense of who you are and how you fit into the world around you Identity Confusion Failure to form a stable and secure identity Keep in Mind Achieving identity involves exploration sifting through life choices, trying out possibilities, and ultimately making commitments. More Identity Exploration Psychosocial Moratorium: a period when adult responsibilities are postponed as young people try on various possible selves Identity formation is founded partly on identifications made in childhood Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 For example, children identify with parents Adolescents reflect on identifications and decide which they want to embrace Some develop a negative identity deliberately embrace what society sees unacceptable. It fosters negative outcomes, they see strange and different. Identity Research: James Marcia Inspired by Erikson's theory, Marcia constructed the Identity Status Interview that classified adolescents into one of four identity statuses Insert table on slide 5 Four Identity Statuses Diffusion Don't care, not positive, low self esteem, worst outcomes Predictive of later psychological problems "I'm not worried about what to do after school... who cares." Moratorium Explore to options, but don't commit to anything One of the best outcomes "I want to be a marine biologist... no, a lawyer... no, a hairdresser like my best friends' mom." Foreclosure Haven't explored different options, but made a commitment to one specific options. Some negatives, some positive High on conformity and obedience Not all bad for everyone "I never had to think about what to do; I'm taking over the farm from Dad." Achievement The best way to go about identity status, you have explored and committed to the ones you prefer Best outcome for teenagers, informed decision "After studying in Peru, I realize I cannot work for a large corporation; I am going to be a nurse." Postmodern Critique The identity status model has recently come under increasing criticism as narrow and outdated The postmodern identity is composed of diverse elements that do not always form a unified "self" Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Postmodern identity changes across contexts and changes continuously throughout the life course "narrow and outdated" not something everyone can choose where they fit in the four boxes. Ethnic Identity Phinney came up with this idea How much you identify with your ethnic group There are 4 ways people of different ethnic identities can respond to being apart of the group Ethnic Identity: Examples Bicultural At least two cultures, pretty positive Origin and majority culture Best of both worlds, person is accepting both cultures "Being both Mexican and American is the best of both worlds. You have different strengths you can draw on in different situations." Assimilated Rejects their traditional culture Seen in immigrants, less interested in traditional culture where family came from "I don't really think of myself as Asian American, just as American." Separated Actively reject majority culture, result of prejudice and discrimination Common with African American community "I am not part of two cultures. I am just Black." Marginal Negative connotation, reject the culture you came from and are not accepted by majority culture Common with Native Americans "When I'm with my Indian friends, I feel White and when I'm with my White friends, I feel Indian. I don't really feel I belong with either of them." More common for people to go through these stages if part of the ethnic minority. Globalization and Hybrid Identity Hybrid Identity integrating local culture with elements of global culture More exposed to global cultures Many young people around the world develop a bicultural identity in relation to the global culture. Expanding of their own cultural and sense of self. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 An increase in the pervasiveness of identity confusion/ marginalized identity Hard to adjust for teenagers The Self, Alone American adolescents spend about oneforth of their time alone Developmental appropriate for teens to be alone Being alone can be constructive, a time for reflection Social Loneliness when people feel they lack sufficient social contacts and relationships Not an intimate with friends, more on the quality with people Emotional Loneliness when people feel they lack sufficient closeness and intimacy Super popular girl or guy in movies that act like they have no friends Keep in Mind... Being alone does not imply loneliness and being with others does not imply the absence of loneliness. Chapter 7 Family Relationships Family Systems Approach Popular with a lot of therapists, understanding whole family function To understand family functioning one must understand how each relationship within the family influences the family as a whole The family system is composed of a variety of subsystems Family Systems Approach Two key principles: Each subsystem influences every other subsystem in the family A change in any family member or family subsystem results in a period of disequilibrium until the family system adjusts to the change Disequilibrium good or bad will effect the whole family example: parents fighting may affect each relationship with the adolescent Example: reaching adolescent and striving for independence, moving out as an emerging adult will each cause imbalance, parent changing jobs, divorce, etc. 3 Aspects of Family System that affect adolescent development: 1. Parents at midlife 2. Sibling Relationships 3. Extended Family relationship Parents' Development during Midlife Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 For most parents, their children's development during adolescence and emerging adulthood overlaps with their own development during midlife Why is this the case? Median age of marriage and first childbirth in industrialized societies is quite high (mid to late 20s) If adolescence begins about age 10, this means that most parents are nearly age 40 when their first child enters adolescence Is There a "Midlife Crisis"? Not negative, some is pretty positive For many, some don't have a mid life crisis, they have a good part of their life. For many people midlife is the prime of life Job satisfaction peaks Job status and power peaks Earning power increases (financial security) Marital problems decline Marital satisfaction increases Gender roles become less restrictive (in western and nonwestern cultures) People's personalities tend to become more flexible and adaptive Adolescents' increased autonomy may be welcomed by parents ... but that's not the whole story Midlife is overall a satisfying and enjoyable time of life for many adults. Most parents deal quite will with adolescents moving out: "empty nest syndrome" is not really a common thing. Midlife Crisis? Did you know? For men in bluecollar professions that require physical strength and stamina, job performance becomes more difficult to sustain and job satisfaction declines Only about one fourth of divorces take place after age 40, but midlife divorces tend to be even more emotionally and financially difficult Most are not hankering for a divorce after 40. Emotionally and financially after 40 a divorce takes a bigger toll. Blue Collar jobs mechanics, etc Midlife divorce especially difficult for women. While most adults do NOT have a midlife crisis, those that do tend to negatively impact their relationship with their adolescent. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 The physical labor is too hard on older men's body. Sibling Relationships Five common patterns in adolescents' relationships with siblings 1. Caregiver relationship very common, mentor towards a younger sibling. Common towards an older and younger in traditional cultures. 2. Buddy relationship Very few siblings that are friends and enjoy being together. 3. Critical relationship High level of conflict and teasing between brother and sister. 4. Rival relationship competing against one another 5. Casual relationship not necessarily fighting or getting along. These types are more than just one of these choices. Casual when older and rival when younger. Abt 80% of Americans have a sibling (also found this stat in other industrialized countries) Caregiver: one sibling serves as a sort of parent figure; most common b/t older sister and young sibling Buddy: friends, enjoy being together Critical: high level of conflict and teasing Rival: compete against one another Casual: relationship is not emotionally intense, and have little to do with one another Relationships often combine 2 or more of these patterns. Adolescence often means less time at home, and less conflict with siblings. However, overall, siblings are who adolescents have the most conflict with out of all relationships. Siblings are a good source of emotional support for most people, but adolescents usually closer to friends and parents. Protective factor during a divorce can cause increased conflict but siblings, BUT also increased emotional support but the adolescents and siblings Extended Family Relationships American Majority Culture: Adolescents' contact with extended family members is relatively infrequent Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Extended family members often live many miles away American adolescents have significantly less contact with extended family than those in European countries due to distance An exception to this occurs among adolescents in divorced families who tend to have increased contact with grandparents, especially maternal grandfather Maternal grandfather may step up to help fill the Dad role emotionally and sometimes economically Extended Family Relationships Traditional Cultures: Young men generally remain in their family home after marriage; young women move into their husband's home Children typically grow up in a house that includes parents, siblings, grandparents and often uncles, aunts, and cousins; more contact with extended family Similar patterns of closeness to grandparents have been found among adolescents in American minority cultures (Asian American, Mexican American, African American) Either in same home or same community Typical pattern in much of India and China Found that adolescents feel close to grandparents and their daily contact with gparents matches that of parents. Feel close, likely because the grandparent is not the disciplinarian. In cultures with extended living adolescents feel very close to their grandparents as they do their families. Parenting Styles Parenting Stylekind of practices parents exhibit in relation to their children, and the effects of those practices. Parenting has been described in terms of two dimensions: Demandingness (i.e., control) The degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require their children to comply with them "These are my rules and you will follow them" Expected not to fight in the store, hold hands if don't comply. Responsiveness (i.e., warmth) The degree to which parents are sensitive to their children's needs and the extent to which they express love, warmth, and concern for their children Adolescent Psychology Gender Interaction: Demandingness and Responsiveness Look at chart on slide 14 AuthoritarianWorst Set strict rules and not explain them Not good when parenting Wont gain teenage respect AuthoritativeBest Highly demanding and respectiveness Set clear rules and make teens follow them VERY GOOD Also letting teenagers know you respect them and love them Setting guidelines when teenagers "effs up" the consequences aren't that big. Disengaged Don't set rules and don't let kids know you love them They are the ones that work a lot and not interact a lot Permissive No guidelines no expectations for child Minimize time and emotion with parents and children Require very little with their children Express little attachment at all "Go to bed, see you in the morning" no emotion towards children Not a great way to do parenting American Parenting Styles What beliefs are reflected in the parenting styles? Research on child rearing goals shows that American parents tend to value independence highly as a quality they wish to promote in their children 15:59 Authoritarian parenting clearly discourages independence but the other three parenting styles reflect parents' beliefs that it is good for adolescents to learn autonomy Authoritarian parents encourage autonomy in positive way: through discussion and give and take Permissive and Disengaged not so positive: through the absence of any restraint and without parental guidance. Adolescent Outcomes by Parenting Styles Adolescent Psychology Gender Look at chart on slide 17 Which appears best? Authoritative!!! 15:59 Inconsistency of parenting style between parents is also negative. Inconsistency between parenting styles lead to lower selfesteem and poor school performance compared to those whose parents were both authoritative or permissive. Authoritative People with authoritarian often times are more dependent, forced to follow somebody else's will. Also, passive and more conforming. If they have a boss who is emotionally abusive the chances of someone to take charge is less because they were treated like this from their parents. Permissive children tend to be irresponsible, conforming and immature Disengaged impulsive, delinquent, early sex, drugs. Starting out with the behavior and hang out with wrong crowd A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects Reciprocal or Bidirectional Effects Adolescents not only are affected by their parents but also affect their parent in return Complexity of Siblings Most research on the effects of parenting styles involves only one adolescent per family The few studies that have included more than one adolescent per family have shown that adolescent siblings within the same family often give very different accounts of what their parents are like toward them Example: an aggressive adolescent may evoke authoritarian parenting bc parent can't discuss with adolescent w/o argument or being ignored. A mildtempered adolescent may evoke passive parenting bc don't feel the need to lay down rules when the teen stays out of trouble for the most part. The way an adolescent perceives the parenting effects their outcome. If they see parent as authoritative, have better outcomes, but other sibling might feel they were authoritarian and have related neg outcomes. Idea here: parents hold belief on how child shld be raised (style), BUT this is affected by the teen themselves, too. Parenting Effects: A complex Picture Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Differential Parenting Parents' behavior often differs toward siblings within the same family Nonshared Environmental Influences Differential parenting can result in nonshared environmental influences, meaning that the adolescents experience quite different family environments and the consequences of these differences are evident in adolescents' behavior and psychological functioning Study on 720 families, and found siblings treated differently, and how they are treated affected their outcomes. Parenting in Other Cultures The most striking difference in parenting styles is how rare the authoritative parenting style is in nonWestern cultures Parents expect that their authority will be obeyed, without question and without requiring an explanation The role of the parent carries greater inherent authority than it does in the West Parents are not supposed to provide reasons why they should be respected and obeyed This is true for many industrialized AND nonindustrialized countries outside of the US Does NOT mean they are authoritarian. Many families are high in demand and obedience, more so that seen in authoritative parenting, BUT also have very close relationships with their children and teens. They do NOT fit into the categories provided. Not often what we consider a "close relationship": less likely to praise and give open affection and love, BUT, have close relationships Traditional Parenting: Examples A term proposed to describe the kind of parenting typical in traditional cultures High in responsiveness and high in a kind of demandingness that does not encourage discussion and debate Expects compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs supporting the inherent authority of the parental role Very important to look at cultural context when looking at parenting styles and outcomes of teens. Attachment theory Attachments between parents and children have an evolutionary basis in the need for vulnerable young members of the species to stay in close proximity to adults who will care for and protect them. Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1980) Two types of attachment (Ainsworth, 1967, 1982): Adolescent Psychology Gender Secure attachment: Infants use the mother as a `secure base from which to explore' but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened Insecure attachment: 15:59 Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort or consolation Secure Attachment: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Secure attachment to parents in adolescence is related to a variety of favorable outcomes Effects on Adolescents Higher selfesteem and wellbeing Better psychological and physical health Closer relationships with friends and romantic partners More autonomous and selfreliant Effects on Emerging Adults Higher educational and occupational attainment Lower psychological problems Lower drug use Secure attachments also mean that an adolescent should feel close to their parents, but still grow a healthy sense of autonomy. ParentAdolescent Conflict G. Stanley Hall Anna Freud Both researchers made it sound as though it was universal and inevitable that ALL adolescents rebel against their parents and that ALL parents and adolescents experience intense conflict for many years ParentAdolescent Conflict Studies in the 1960s (dispelling the stereotype of `storm and stress') found that most adolescents like, trust, and admire their parents disagreements are usually about minor issues (e.g. hairstyle, curfew) Adolescents and their parents agree on many of the most important aspects of their views of life Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Conflict...Did you know? Conflict with parents increases sharply in early adolescence and remains high for several years Conflict in adolescence is especially frequent and intense between mothers and daughters It is only in late adolescence and emerging adulthood that conflict with parents diminishes substantially Conflicts per Minute Between Mother and Son Longitudinal study, watched mothers and sons interact on videotape 5 different times Reasons for Conflict in Early Adolescence Biological Changes Adolescents become bigger and stronger physically, making it more difficult for parents to impose their authority by virtue of their greater physical presence Cognitive Changes Increased abilities for thinking abstractly and with more complexity make adolescents better arguers and it becomes more difficult for parents to prevail quickly in arguments with their children Culture and Conflict with Parents Conflict is not universal or "natural" Biological and cognitive changes take place among adolescents in all cultures Parentadolescent conflict is not typical in all cultures Culture can take the raw materials of nature and shape them in highly diverse ways Conflict in Traditional Cultures It is rare for parents and adolescents to engage in the kind of frequent, petty conflicts typical of parentadolescent relationship in the American majority culture Reasons: Economic: In nonindustrialized traditional cultures, family members tend to rely a great deal on each other economically Culture: Cultural beliefs about parental authority and the appropriate degree of adolescent independence Economic: the family needs each other, the kids for parental provided necessities and the parents for labor, so harmony is much more important. Culture: More important than economics. Also, less conflict possibly because independence is not as valued and so adolescents don't need to strive for this as much. This prepared adolescents in the west for autonomy, but in traditional cultures, that autonomy is not really needed or desired. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Independence that defines American culture that is much less important in traditional cultures. Parents and Emerging Adults Relationships between parents and emerging adults improve once the young person leaves home Emerging adults report greater closeness and fewer negative feelings toward their parents after moving Those at least an hour away by car from their parents reported highest levels of closeness to their parents valued their parents' opinions most highly Those who remained home reported poorest relations with their parents in these respects Living at Home in the US Most emerging adults move out of their parents' home in their late teens About 30% stay home through their early twenties Staying at home is more common among Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans than among White Americans About 40% of American emerging adults "return to the nest" at least once Living at Home in Europe Emerging adults tend to live with their parents longer than in the U.S. European university students are more likely than American students to live at home Emerging adults who don't attend university may have difficulty finding or affording an apartment European cultural values emphasize support within the family while allowing young people substantial autonomy Historical Change: Patterns over Two Centuries Lower birth rate Today the average number of children is 2 In 1800, women in the U.S. had an average of 8 children Longer life expectancy Up until 1900, the average life expectancy was about 45 Now the average human life expectancy is over 70 and still increasing Movement from rural to urban residence As recently as 1830, 70% of children lived in farm families Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 By 1930, this figure had dropped to 30% Today it is less than 2% With 8 children, older children were more likely to help and be caregivers. The Changing Functions of the Family The family in our time has mainly emotional or affective functions: to provide love, nurturance, and affection Slide 37 We go to school and churches to gain other functions Family is important for affective function. Family used to provide most functions. Now it's mostly just love and nurturance that the family provides! Historical Change: The last 50 Years Divorce Rate Nearly half of the current generation of young people are projected to experience their parents' divorce by the time they reach their late teens SingleParent Households Mothers represent 90% of custodial parents Custodial one that stays and provides for the children There has also been a rise in the proportion of children born outside of marriage 2040% grow up with biological parents DualEarner Families Employment among women with schoolaged children has increased from about 25% to over 75% Both parents are working Women increasing rights to work after WWII and increase in education. Family life has changed dramatically even over the last 50 years. Singleparent homes also as a result of divorce. (custodial parent is the parent who lives with the kids following divorce) GRAPH for Divorce rates GRAPH for dualearner families Changes in Divorce Rates Due to the Great Depression. Believed there was a decrease due to economic concerns Americans have one of the highest divorce rates of any country in the world. Over of those who divorce remarry, so over of young people live with a step family. Children with Working Mothers Proportion of children with mothers in the labor force Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Part of this is because mothers have to work if in single parent home. Also, because women now have the opportunity to work. Effects of Divorce Young people whose parents have divorced are at higher risk for a wide variety of negative outcomes: Behavior problems Psychological distress Lower academic achievement Higher rates of drug and alcohol use Initiation of sexual intercourse at an earlier age Depression and withdrawal Anxiety Less likely to attend college Anxiety and depression are more common when child has a problem with parent conflict and "loyalty" twds a parent. Adolescents show fewer negative effects than younger children. Effects of Divorce In emerging adulthood, the effects of parental divorce are evident in: Greater problems in forming close romantic relationships Wariness of entering marriage Their determination to avoid divorce A lot will not trust in marriage relationships The risk of divorce is higher for young people from divorced families Family structure Family Process Outcomes are more dependent on family process than family structure Effects of Divorce: Family Process Factors Exposure to conflict between parents Exposure to parents' conflicts, more than the specific event of divorce, is especially damaging Effects on parenting practices Divorce is stressful and painful to most of the adults who experience it, and it affects their role as parents By age 15, adolescents live about 400 miles from their father Important that there are consistent household rules and parents stay civil. Increases in economic stress Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Money is tight in motherheaded households Income in motherheaded households drops by an average of 4050% However, not all people have a poor time with divorce. The above factors can affect the outcome. Parent conflict also has negative effects on kids from nondivorced families. In fact, if came from a lowconflict divorce, often found to be better off than coming for a high conflict, but intact, family. Parenting practices: mother often has to deal with so much more that becomes less consistent, more permissive. May become a confidant to one or both parents, which is hard, bc have to hear about other parent. Contact with father often decreases after the divorce and continues to decrease as child ages. How to help? Parents should keep it civil; consistency bt households; divorce mediation is now common to minimize conflict. Effects of Remarriage Adolescents typically take a turn for the worse when their mothers remarry Divorce younger children have a negative affects Adolescents in stepfamilies have a greater likelihood of: Depression Anxiety Conduct disorders Lower academic achievement Engaging in delinquent activities Girls tend to have an especially negative reaction to their mothers' remarriage Don't know why girls' reactions are more negative. Proposed that may have become closer with mom and this I threatened with remarriage. Some of these are problems that occur even more for teens in remarried families than in divorced families. Remarriage is just another new thing to adjust to and can be quite stressful. Effects of Single Parenthood As with divorce, adolescents in nevermarried, singleparent households are at greater risk for: Low school achievement Depression Anxiety Substance use Early initiation of sexual activity Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 African American families have a long tradition of extended family household, and an extended family structure has been found to provide important assistance to single parent families. However, many nevermarried singleparent homes produce children who are well adjusted. Just depends on family process and such. Also, may have extended family to help, which improves outcome. Effects of DualEarner Families The Effects of dualearner families depend on the gender of the adolescent Both mother and father working Effects on Girls Often quite positive Tend to become more confident Have higher career aspirations Effects on Boys More negative than for girls More arguments with mothers and siblings Poorer school performance for boys in middle and uppermiddleclass families Many studies find no difference in quantity and quality of time mother spends with her children! Boys' academic performance is NOT affected if one parent works full and the other part time. Risks come in when adolescents are not supervised, so the number of hours worked really matters. Abuse in the Family Abused Adolescents Tend to be more aggressive in their interactions with peers More likely to engage in antisocial behavior and substance use More likely to be depressed and anxious Perform more poorly in school Factors Related to Physical Abuse Abusive parents more likely to have been abused themselves Family stresses or problems in parents' lives Parents tend to be poorly skilled at parenting Rates of abuse are hard to establish, bc a lot of cases go unreported. Physical abuse is more commonly done to adolescents than younger children. More common to boys than girls. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Remember, MOST ppl physically abused by parents will NOT abuse their own children. Sexual Abuse Sexually Abused Adolescents Have difficulty trusting others and forming intimate relationships Experience depression, high anxiety, and social withdrawal May become either highly avoidant of sexual contact or highly promiscuous Higher risk for psychological disorders, substance abuse, suicidal thoughts and behaviors Sexual Abusers Feel inadequate in their relationships with adults Prefer to seek sexual satisfaction from children, who are easier to control Sexual abuse often begins right before adolescence and continues throughout. 10% of American college students had been sexually abused by family member More common to girls than boys More likely to be committed by stepfathers than father. Important for recovery: mother's support after disclosure of sexual abuse. Running Away from Home About 1 million adolescents run away from home each year in the U.S. About of these are "throwaways" their parents forced them to leave Adolescents who run away have often experienced high conflict with their parents Many have experienced physical or sexual abuse Adolescents who run away tend to be highly vulnerable to exploitation Characteristics of adolescents who run away: Involved in criminal activitiy Use illicit drugs Had problems at school Had psychological difficulties More likely to be gay or lesbian Often run away within 50 miles of parent's home, and stay with a friend or relative. Run away to escape, BUT leads to many problems. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Exploited: robbed, physically or sexually assaulted, malnourished. Use "survival sex" to get food and other needs. Also may resort to stealing and end up in jail. Drug use becomes common and many think of and attempt suicide. Street Children around the World As many as 100 million street children worldwide Why children are on the streets: Family dysfunction Overcrowded homes Poverty War Family breakdown due to AIDS Parental substance abuse Physical and/or sexual abuse Often work as: shoe shiners, vendors, beggars, or car cleaners. Can form gangs with other children on street. Sought out as prostitutes bc thought to have less chance for disease. Key Chapter Ideas In the family systems approach each subsystem influences the others, and change creates disequilibrium requiring adjustments. Adolescents in industrialized countries generally have higher conflict with siblings than in other relationships. In traditional cultures, a caregiver relationship between siblings is most common. The two key dimensions of parenting styles focused on by scholars are demandingness and responsiveness. Authoritative parenting is generally related to positive outcomes for adolescents in the American majority culture. Key Chapter Ideas A "traditional" parenting style that combines responsiveness with a stricter form of demandingness is most common in nonWestern cultures. Attachments to parents are related to young people's functioning in numerous ways. Autonomy and relatedness in relationships with parents are compatible rather than competing qualities. Conflict between parents and children tends to be highest during early adolescence. Parentadolescent conflict tends to be lower in traditional cultures as the parent role holds greater authority and there is greater economic interdependence. Chapter 8 Friends and Peers Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Clarifying the Difference Peers People who are about the same age Friends People with whom you develop a valued, mutual relationship Family and Friends in Adolescence Time spent with family decreases. 28 minutes per day with parents Time spent with friends increases. 103 minutes per day with friends. A lot more freedom increases the trend. You become more dependent on friend opinions Adolescents' Moods They are moodier Mood of adolescents are more positive on the weekends then weekdays Who do adolescents talk to? Adolescents are more likely to talk to their friends about opposite sex relationships, views on sex and attitudes towards marriage. They talk to their parents about career goals, plans/hopes for future, and how well they are doing in school. Why do they talk to their friends? Feel like friends are understanding and are similar to their friends. Parents are still in a guiding role. Studies show that secure attachment with parents it will be the same with their friends as well. Parents will encourage or decourage friendships Ask why they hang out with the friends Teens are happiest when they are with their friends Friends can also be the worst of times due to fighting Family and Friends in Traditional Cultures Pattern of increasing time spent with peers, decreasing time spent with parents More likely to have substantial gender differences in terms of family relationships; girls closer to family than boys. Even in cultures where most adolescents attend school, the social and emotional balance tilts toward family My friend is... Late adolescents and emerging adults describe their closest relationship: Friendly (focus on shared activities) Intimate (focus on affection, emotional attachment) Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Integrated (combines friendly and intimate) Uninvolved (focus on neither shared activities nor intimacy) Biggest diff in relat. in adol vs childhood is intimacy: adol share more personal knowledge, thoughts, and feelings. Adol find loyalty and trust much more important than younger kids. Younger children say good friends do the same things (play basketball), older say they listen, understand, etc. Gender and Intimacy Females More intimate friendships than boys More likely to place higher value on talking together as a friendship component Important to bond and relate to friendships Males Tend to have less intimate friendships than girls More likely to emphasize shared activities as the basis of friendships Why do adolescents become friends? Similarity in: Age Gender Educational orientation Media and leisure preferences Participation in risk behavior Ethnicity Not strongly related to friendships in younger childhood, but in adolescents Tension between ethnic groups Peer Pressure or Friends' Influence? When people talk about "peer pressure," they really mean friends' influence. We usually think of this as a negative thing, pressuring into drug use, risky behavior, etc. BUT friends also discourage risky behavior and provide emotional support during stressful times. Friends can have a positive or negative influence on friends Research Issue: Friends' Influence on Risk Behavior Finding: A correlation exists between rates of risk behavior for adolescents and their friends Can we conclude that adolescents' behavior is influenced by their friends? Why or why not? Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Research Issue: Limitations 1. Selfreport Adolescent egocentrism may be associated with adolescents' perceiving more similarity between themselves and others than actually exists 2. Selective Association People tend to choose friends that are similar to themselves (not influence, just similarity) Correlation could be those that are similar are spending more time together, it goes up Friends: Support and Nurturance Informational Support "What should I do? Should I ask Jimi to go out with me?" advice and guidance Instrumental Support "Thanks for helping me with my math homework" help with tasks or chores Companionship Support "Let's go to the game together that way we can sit together. I don't know anyone at Riverdale High." Relaying on companions for activities and social support Esteem Support "Don't worry about it, you're the best guitar player here. You'll win the songwriting contest next time." Emotional support or making them feel better when things don't go well More a teenager has support and nurturance less likely to suffer from depression or other psychological problems Opposite gender friendships is good too Having one good friend is incredibly important Discussion Stop Emerging Adult How would you explain the decline in leisure activities with friends that Osgood and Lee (1993) found between ages 1828? Think about your own experiences. Clarifying the Difference Cliques Small groups of friends who know each other well, do things together, and form a regular social group Crowds Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Larger, reputationbased groups of adolescents who are not necessarily friends and do not necessarily spend time together Changes in crowd structure during Adolescence Grits study The rednecks Crowds: Developmental changes Only in school where majority are the same ethnicity Middle School (Grades 68) Less differentiated (two main groupsthe incrowd and the out crowd) Early High School (Grades 910) Become more differentiated More influential Later High School (Grades 1112) Become yet more differentiated More niches for people to fit in Less hierarchial and less influential Using Sarcasm and Ridicule in Crowds and Cliques Promotes dominance hierarchy (higher status cliques dish out a lot, but receive little) Part of why it happens: Reduces nonconformity and increases group cohesion (ex. Monkey shirt) Directed at outsiders, clarifies group boundaries Eases anxiety by directing attention to others In other cultures, directed at adults, reinforces community standards Relational Aggression Nonphysical forms of aggression: Gossiping Spreading rumors Snubbing Excluding Harms others by damaging relationships Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Covert, indirect form of aggression common amongst girls In traditional Cultures... There is often only one adolescent peer crowd in the community The peer crowd is less strictly agegraded (variety of ages in the crowd) Dormitory Life: adolescents sleep and spend leisure time in a separate dwelling, and typically work and eat meals with parents during the day Men's House Life: male adolescents live together with widowed or divorced men in a multiage dormitory arrangement Peer crowd is less important in developing their identity in traditional cultures Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood Stage 1: Samesex cliques Stage 2: Boys' and girls' cliques spend some time together Stage 3: Gender cliques break down as clique leaders form romantic relationships Stage 4: Other clique members follow suit Stage 5: Males and females pair off into more serious relationships Time Spent in OtherSex Groups or Pairs Research backs this theory of people are hanging out with same sex earlier on and percentages increase over time Popularity in Adolescence: Sociometry Sociometry: a research method in which students rate the social status of other students Social Skills: qualities most often associated with popularity and unpopularity (popular: humorous, friendly, cheerful) Unpopularity: Two Types Rejected Neglected Both are being unpopular reduces their chances of inclusion in the kinds of social interaction that would help them develop social skills Aggression is NOT always associated with unpopularity Controversial students, high in aggressiveness, may be strongly liked AND strongly disliked by different people Popular people are wanted to be around Not all people who are "Nerds" do not lack social skills Once given a label you cant "shake" the label Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Interventions for Unpopularity Neglected Learning the social skills needed for making friends Rejected Learning how to control and manage anger and aggressiveness Bullying: 3 Elements Aggressionverbal or physical Repetition pattern over time Same kid getting targeted Not uncommon to their be a hierarchy bullying Power Imbalance peer status Cyberbullyingvia electronic means, mainly internet and texting. Relationsional aggression Not so obvious Youth Culture: Three Components Image dress, hairstyle, tattoos, other aspects of appearance Demeanor distinctive forms of gesture, gait, posture Argot certain vocabulary and way of speaking Generate examples of the three components from your days as an adolescent, from the media, from past generations, etc... Technological Change Youth Culture Post figurative Culture Youth learn from their elders (e.g., traditional methods of farming) Co figurative Culture Learning from both elders and peers Pre figurative Culture Chant teaches her grandmother how to use the Internet Chapter 9 Love and Sexuality Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Dating and Relating Dating emerged because of cars and such Started in the 20s and changed a lot of 60s and 70s Womens movement helped changed Teens now are more likely to go out in mixedgender groups without any specific pairing up. Boys and girls may go out simply as friends Prior to Women's movement, dating was much more formalized and gender roles were much more sharply drawn in the west. In non western cultures, less dating because of sexual intentions Teen Dating Rates Tanner Stage 3 See dramatic increase over time Teens are dating more when they are older Males date when they are younger Physical development doesn't matter By 11th grade, teens are in some sort of relationship The Developmental Course of Adolsecent Love Love relationships among American adolescents tend to follow a developmental sequence of four steps: Adolescents in samegender groups go to places where they hope to find othergender groups Adolescents take part in social gatherings arranged by adults, such as parties & school dances Mixedgender groups arrange to go to some particular event together, such as a movie Adolescent couples begin to date as pairs in activities such as movies, dinners, concerts, and so on Why Adolescents form Love Relationships Recreation Fun and enjoyment Learning Becoming more skilled at dating interactions Status Impressing others according to how often and whom one dates Adolescent Psychology Gender Companionship Sharing pleasurable activities with another person Intimacy Establishing a close emotional relationship with another person Courtship Seeking someone to have as a steady partner Constructing Ideas: Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood Romantic relationships tend to change as adolescents enter emerging adulthood What quality do emerging adults look for? (different between males and females) Status Older males: inner qualities Females: inner qualities the whole time: communication, commitment Dating Scripts Proactive Script Males tend to follow this type of script Includes Initiating the date Deciding where to go Controlling the public domain (driving the car) Initiating sexual contact Reactive Script Females tend to follow this type of script Focuses on: Private domain (grooming and dress) Responding to the male's gestures in the public domain Responding to his sexual initiatives Sternberg's Theory of Love 15:59 Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Different types of love involve combining three fundamental qualities of love in different ways These three qualities are: Passion Involves physical attraction and sexual desire Intimacy Feelings of closeness and emotional attachment Commitment The pledge to love someone over the long run Passion Infatuation Type of love Liking Intimacy alone Really close friends or family members Empty love Commitment alone Old couple love Apply to arranged marriage Romantic love Intimacy and passion Say when "in love" Companionate love Intimacy and commitment Infatuation Physiological Look on chart on slide 11 Know them Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Applying Sternberg to Adolescence In most adolescent love relationships, commitment is either missing or highly tentative The absence of longterm commitment in adolescence means that there are two principal types of adolescent love: infatuation and romantic love Keep in Mind ..... In industrialized countries, people are not likely to get married until they are in at least their mid to late twenties Under these circumstances, it is understandable that adolescents' love relationships would not involve commitment as much as passion or intimacy Adolescent Passion in NonWestern Culture Of 186 traditional cultures representing 6 distinct geographical regions around the world, it was found that there was evidence that young people fell passionately in love in all but one of the cultures However... this does not mean that young people in all cultures are allowed to act on their feelings of love On the contrary... romantic love as a basis for marriage is a fairly new cultural idea Falling in Love Consensual validation People like to find in others an agreement, or consensus, with their own characteristics Finding this consensus supports, or validates, their own way of looking at the world People of all ages tend to have romantic relationships with people who are similar to them in characteristics such as: Intelligence Social class Ethnic background Religious beliefs Physical attractiveness Attachment styles Attachment styles between lovers have been found to resemble the parentchild attachment styles Secure Characterized by emotional support and concern for the partner's wellbeing Anxiousambivalent Characterized by overdependence on the romantic partner along with insensitivity to the partner's needs Anxiousavoidant Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Involve keeping emotional distance from the romantic partner and inhibiting self disclosure Model of Adolescent Love Initiation Phase First tentative explorations of love; usually superficial, brief, and often fraught with anxiety, fear, and excitement Status Phase Begin to gain confidence in their interaction skills with potential romantic partners Remain acutely aware of the evaluations of their friends and peers Affection Phase Come to know each other better and express deeper feelings Beginning to engage in more extensive sexual activity Bonding Phase (usually occurs in emerging adulthood) The romantic relationship becomes more enduring and serious partners begin to discuss the possibility of a lifelong commitment When Love Goes Bad Aren't a lot of studies Personal Fable and Egocentrism play a role in how people feel about breaking up Idea that what you are experiencing as an adolescent these feelings about breaking up will never end. It can contribute to the amount of unhappiness or depression Emerging Adults Breaking Up Two year study of 200 college couples: 45% of the couples had broken up Those who had broken up reported lower levels of intimacy and love were less likely to be similar on characteristics such as age, SAT scores, and physical attractiveness were less balanced (one partner indicated substantially more commitment to the relationship than the other) Women were more likely to end the relationship Rejected men tended to be lonelier, unhappier, and more depressed than rejected women Rejected men found it harder than rejected women to accept the end of the relationship and to stay friends 2/3 of college women reported romantic harassment of wanting to get back together with their ex. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 More common in relationships of controlling behavior Discussion Stop 90% of people in most societies eventually marry Choosing a Marriage Partner The Study: 10,000 young people in 37 countries from all over the world (Africa, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, & North and South America) Importance of a marriage partner The Findings Highest Ranking Mutual attraction High Rankings Dependable character Emotional stability and maturity Pleasing disposition Lowest ranking Religious and political backgrounds Low Rankings Good financial prospects Having a lot of money KNOW THAT CHASITY IS IMPORANT WITHIN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE EASTERN CULTURES!!!! Not important in the west; finland, france, etc Arranged Marriages Although romantic love is found in all cultures, it is not considered the proper basis of marriage in all cultures Marriage has more often been seen as an alliance between two families rather than as the uniting of two individuals The most important considerations in an arranged marriage is the other family's status, religion, and wealth Globalization is having an effect on how young people are beginning to value individual choice and the pursuit of happiness Today in most eastern cultures the "semi arranged marriage" is the most common practice Arranged marriage commitment comes first arrangement comes second. Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Cohabitation In the US as well as Northern Europe, cohabitation before marriage is now experienced by at least twothirds of emerging adults The percentage is highest in Sweden where nearly all young people cohabitate before marriage In the US, cohabitation tends to be brief and unstable In contrast, cohabitating couples in European countries tend to stay together as long as married couples Cohabitating will lead to marriage even when it shouldn't Adolescent Sexual Activity Look at slide Ethnic Differences The proportion of high school students in grades 912 who had intercourse is: Lowest for White adolescents (44%) Somewhat higher for Latino adolescents (52%) Highest for African American adolescents (67%) Research has indicated that Asian Americans are considerably less likely to engage in sexual activity in adolescence compared with any other major American ethnic group Cultural Beliefs and Adolescent Sexuality Restrictive cultures: Strong prohibitions on adolescent sexual activity before marriage Strict separation of boys and girls May include the threat of physical punishment, public shaming, or death for premarital sex Usually more restrictive for girls than boys Semirestrictive cultures: Prohibitions against premarital sex exist but are not strongly enforced and are easily evaded If pregnancy results from premarital sex, adolescents often forced to marry Permissive cultures: Encourage and expect adolescent sexuality Sexual behavior encouraged even in childhood Sexual Scripts Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Different cognitive frameworks for understanding how a sexual experience is supposed to proceed and how sexual experiences are to be interpreted Examples: Boys are expected to "make the moves" Girls set the limits on how far the sexual episode is allowed to progress Very stereotypical Sexually Active Adolescents Characteristics of nonvirgins Similar selfesteem as virgins Similar overall life satisfaction as virgins More likely to be early maturing Tend to have lower levels of academic performance and academic aspirations Tend to be more liberal politically and less religious Adolescents who have sex early (<15 years) Early users of drugs and alcohol More likely to be from single parent households More likely to have grown up in poverty Sexual Harrassment Includes a wide range of behaviors from mild harassment, such as name calling, jokes, and leering looks, to severe harassment involving unwanted touching or sexual contact It is estimated that over half of American women will experience sexual harassment at some time during their professional life Date Rape is one form of sexual harassment that takes place when a person, usually a woman, is forced by a romantic partner, date, or acquaintance to have sexual relations against her will 15% of adolescent girls and 25% of emerging adult women have experienced date rape Alcohol plays a big part in date rape on college campuses Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents The degree of confusion and anxiety is often multiplied They are exposed almost entirely to heterosexual models of dating, love, and sex The "presumption of heterosexuality" is part of their socialization from parents, friends, school, and media It is important to note: Adolescent Psychology Gender 15:59 Distinguishing between having homosexual experiences and having a sexual orientation is important A high percentage of adolescents and emerging adults (predominantly males) report some kind of sex play but only about 2% of adolescents become adults with a primarily homosexual orientation It is during adolescence that most gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) people become fully aware of their sexual orientation Coming out In most Western cultures, GLB adolescents commonly engage in the process of coming out Involves a person's recognizing his or her own sexual identity and then disclosing the truth to friends, family, and others Homophobia Fear and hatred of homosexuals Because of this phenomenon, coming to the realization of a GLB identity can be traumatic for many adolescents TEST QUESTIONS: Parenting styles Feared and ideal self False self Types of manhood Selfsocialization One question specifically, but be familiar with it (answer option) Effects of androgyny on males and females Sternberg's Types of love Intimacy etc Psychometric categories Rejected, controversial, and popular Parent Adolescent Relationship Trends Types of Sibling Relationships Test is harder, because she can curve it Very similar to the first test Know how to apply the information Adolescent Psychology Gender Chris is a 15 year old... know the information well enough When Love Goes Bad Chapter 6 Part 2 15:59