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23 Pages

### Lecture_6_Series_1

Course: EEL 1001, Spring 2012
School: FIU
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Word Count: 842

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(J) kWh the EET1015CDirectCurrentCircuits Lecture6 Prof.YingSong Review:Energy&amp;Power Symbol Unit Definition Energy W Joules ability to do work Power P Watts (W) hp P=W/t Power in Electric Circuits (Watts Law) P = IV For power dissipated in resistors: P = I 2R V2 P= R Review:Power&amp;Energy A resistor's power rating is the maximum amount of power that the resistor can dissipate...

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(J) kWh the EET1015CDirectCurrentCircuits Lecture6 Prof.YingSong Review:Energy&Power Symbol Unit Definition Energy W Joules ability to do work Power P Watts (W) hp P=W/t Power in Electric Circuits (Watts Law) P = IV For power dissipated in resistors: P = I 2R V2 P= R Review:Power&Energy A resistor's power rating is the maximum amount of power that the resistor can dissipate without being damaged by excessive heat. Efficiency of a power supply is a measure of how well it converts ac to dc. P Efficiency = OUT PIN Horsepower is another power unit for output power only. 1 hp = 746 W http://people.sinclair.edu/nickreeder/EET114/mod06.htm Chapter5:SeriesCircuits CircuitAnalysis&Troubleshooting Circuit analysis means calculating/predicting the voltage, current, or power for any component in a circuit shown as a schematic diagram. Troubleshooting means figuring out what is wrong in a circuit that is not working correctly. The easiest way to do troubleshooting is usually to compare the measured voltages/currents to the expected values from your circuit analysis. SeriesConnection Two components are connected in series if they are connected to each other at exactly one point and no other component is connected to that point. Connection is at exactly one point. No other component is connected to that point. Example: Is R1 and R2 in series? Is R1, R3 and R4 in series? Is Vs and R4 in series? SeriesConnection SeriesConnection SeriesCircuits All circuits have three common attributes. These are: 1. A source of voltage. 2. A load. R1 3. A complete path. A series circuit is one that has only one current path. R2 VS + R3 CurrentinaSeriesCircuit Because there is only one path, the current everywhere issame. the R1 For example, the reading on the first ammeter is 2.0 mA, What do the other meters read? VS + 2.0 mA _ V R 1 + 2.0 mA _ R3 R S _ 2.0 mA + _ 2.0 mA R2 + 2 + A series circuit provides only one path for current between two points so that the current is the same through each series component. TotalSeriesResistance The total resistance of resistors in series the sum of the individual is resistors. RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn For example, the resistors in a series circuit are 680 , 1 .5 , 2 .2 . ? R V 1 680 S 12 V R 3 2 .2 k R2 1 .5 k 4.38 k Animation:totalresistance R1 R2 VS + R3 AnalyzingSeriesCircuits The total resistance is the sum of each individual resistances RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn Apply Ohm's law to the entire circuit to the find total current. IT = VS RT Individual current through each resistor is equal to the total current. IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = ... = In Apply Ohm's law to find the voltage drop across each resistance. V1 = I1 R1 V2 = I2 R2 V3 = I3 R3 . Example For the circuit given, find the current through each resistor and the voltage across each resistor. R 1 680 V S 12 V R R2 1 .5 k 3 Steps: 1. Total Resistance 2. Total Current 3. Individual Current 4. Individual Voltage 2 .2 k RT = R1 + R2 + R3 = 680 + 1.5 k + 2.2 k = 4.38 k 1. 2. 3. 4. IT = VS RT = 12 V 4.38 k = 2.74 mA I1 = I2 = I3 = IT = 2.74 mA V1 = I1 R1 = 2.74 mA x 680 = 1.86 V V2 = I2 R2 = 2.74 mA x 1.5 k = 4.11 V V3 = I3 R3 = 2.74 mA x 2.2 k = 6.03 V Animation:Currentinaseriescircuit R1 R2 VS + R3 CurrentDirection&VoltagePolarity Current has magnitude & direction Magnitude is 2.74 mA Direction: clockwise V S 12 V + - + R 1 680 R - 3 - 2 .2 k + As for conventional current flow, current comes out of the voltage source's positive terminal and goes into the voltage source's negative terminal. Voltage has magnitude & polarity To determine the polarity of a voltage across a resistor + R2 1 .5 k - VoltageDrops&VoltageRises Voltage rise: If you mentally pass through a component from its end to its + end. Voltage drop: If you mentally pass through a component from its + + nd to its end. eR 1 V S 12 V + - 680 R + R2 1 .5 k - 3 - 2 .2 k + Your imaginary trip direction will determine a particular voltage a drop or a rise. Voltagesourcesinseries Voltage sources in series add algebraically. For example, the total voltage of the sources shown is Question: 27 V What is the total voltage if one battery is reversed? 9V 9V + + 9V 9V + Voltagesourcesinseries Voltagesourcesinseries Doublesubscriptvoltagenotation Double-subscript voltage notation refers to the voltage between two points in the circuit. VAB means the voltage between point A and point B: A is regarded as the + and B is regarded as the VBA means the voltage between point B and point A: B is regarded as the + and A is regarded as the - Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) The sum of all the voltage drops around a single closed path in a circuit is equal to the total source voltage in that closed path. R1 Typically, your imaginary trip is CLOCKWISE R2 VS + R3 VS = V1 + V2 + V3 KVL applies to all circuits, but you must apply it to only one closed path. In a series circuit, this is (of course) the entire circuit. Online animation
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