Quiz_2_Study_Guide
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Quiz_2_Study_Guide

Course Number: HIUS HIUS 212, Spring 2012

College/University: Liberty

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PHSC 210 QUIZ 2 (WEEK 4) STUDY GUIDE Students: Please concentrate your studies in the following areas. Questions for Quiz #2 will come principally from this material. Lutgens and Tarbuck Textbook: Rocks (Chapter 2) Be able to name and describe the three main rock types found in the earths crust (i.e., igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic). Have a basic understanding of the rock cycle....

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210 QUIZ PHSC 2 (WEEK 4) STUDY GUIDE Students: Please concentrate your studies in the following areas. Questions for Quiz #2 will come principally from this material. Lutgens and Tarbuck Textbook: Rocks (Chapter 2) Be able to name and describe the three main rock types found in the earths crust (i.e., igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic). Have a basic understanding of the rock cycle. Know how crystal size (i.e., texture) in igneous rocks is related to cooling history. If an igneous rock contains vesicles, what does this indicate about where it was formed (i.e., intrusive vs. extrusive) and its grain size (i.e., fine-grained vs. coarse-grained)? Know the basic differences between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Be able to describe the following igneous rock textures: fine-grained, vesicular, coarsegrained, glassy, and porphyritic. Know the basic differences between granitic (felsic) igneous rocks and basaltic (mafic) igneous rocks. Which is found in abundance is oceanic crust? Which is found in abundance in continental crust? Know which igneous rock is popular as a building material. Know the differences between mechanical and chemical weathering. Be able to define and discuss each. In what type of climate does chemical weathering predominate? In what type of climate does mechanical weathering predominate? Know the different physical processes that mechanically weather rock material (e.g., frost wedging, sheeting, biological activity). Likewise, be able to identify the processes that chemically weather rock material (e.g., oxidation, decomposition (in the presence of acid), hydrolysis (in the presence of water)). Know the differences between detrital and chemical sedimentary rocks. How much of the earths outermost 10 miles is composed of sedimentary rocks? What physical property is used principally to classify detrital sedimentary rocks? Name some common minerals found together in detrital sedimentary rocks. Name the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock found on earth. What are evaporite deposits? Where do these typically form? Where do coal beds typically form? In terms of sedimentary rocks, define these terms: lithification, cementation, strata, and fossils. What is metamorphism? Name and describe the two basic types of metamorphism (i.e., contact and regional). Be able to identify the agents of metamorphism. Name the rocks formed from the metamorphism of each of the following: o Quartz sandstone o Limestone o Shale Be able to describe following the in terms of physical properties: slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss. PHSC 210 What is foliation in metamorphic rocks? Know the differences between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic textures. Be able to give examples of each (i.e., gneiss is foliated; quartzite is non-foliated; etc.). Landscapes Fashioned by Water (Chapter 3) What is mass wasting? What force is primarily responsible for mass wasting? Have a basic understanding of the hydrologic cycle. Know the various loads in a river (i.e., dissolved load, suspended load, and bed load). What size particles are typically carried in each type of load? Be able to define these terms: stream discharge, stream gradient, longitudinal profile. At the bend in a river, erosion typically occurs where (i.e., on the inside or outside of the bend)? Where does deposition occur? Know the difference between stream capacity and stream competence. Define base level. What is the ultimate base level? In terms of stream erosion, what is the difference between a V-shaped valley (youthful and eroding well above base level) and wide river valleys with meandering rivers (older and eroding very close to base level)? Be able to define the following terms: floodplain, cutoff, oxbow lake, cut bank, natural levee, and point bar. Know and be able to describe the four basic stream drainage patterns (i.e., dendritic, radial, rectangular, and trellis). In what types of geologic conditions do each tend to form? Which is the most common? Know the difference between an aquifer and an aquitard. Know the different zones of groundwater (i.e., zone of saturation, unsaturated zone, belt of soil moisture). Be able to describe each (generally). What is the water table? Know the difference between porosity and permeability in soil/rock. Understand and be able to define the following: hot springs, geysers, cone of depression, and groundwater drawdown. In most cases, from where does the heat come to power hot springs and geysers? Hot springs are most numerous in what region of the U.S.? What is an artesian well? Under what geologic conditions are these wells found? Karst topography describes topography that evidences the erosional effects of groundwater. What are some topographic evidences of karst topography? In what rock type does karst topography typically form? Know the difference between stalactites and stalagmites. Where do they form (i.e., in the zone of saturation or the unsaturated zone)? How do sinkholes form?
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