The Art of Thinking 10e_Ch05
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The Art of Thinking 10e_Ch05

Course: HUM111 HUM111, Winter 2010

School: University of Phoenix

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PART II Be Creative W hat is the greatest difficulty people have in thinking about problems and issues? The standard answer is the difficulty of evaluating the various solutions and choosing the best one. In some cases, this may be true. But two other difficulties are equally troublesome: identifying problems and issues before they become crises, and getting beyond common, unoriginal solutions to creative...

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is PART II Be Creative W hat the greatest difficulty people have in thinking about problems and issues? The standard answer is the difficulty of evaluating the various solutions and choosing the best one. In some cases, this may be true. But two other difficulties are equally troublesome: identifying problems and issues before they become crises, and getting beyond common, unoriginal solutions to creative ones. The first chapter in this part introduces the creative process. The other chapters expand this introduction, showing you how to search for challenges, express and investigate problems and issues, and produce many and varied solutions. By the end of Part II, you will have developed a proactive approach to problems and issues and learned how to ISBN 1-256-46689-1 stimulate your imagination. The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 5 The Creative Process Have you heard any of these sayings: Creativity cant be learned, The way to be creative is to ignore traditional ways of doing things, It takes a high IQ to be creative, Taking drugs enhances a persons creativity, or Creativity is related to mental illness? Theyve all been around for a long time. But guess what? Theyre all wrong. This chapter sets the record straight about creativity. It also details the characteristics of creative people, provides an overview of the creative process, and offers a strategy you can use to develop and apply your untapped creative potential. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 T he human mind, as we have seen, has two phases. It both produces ideas and judges them. These phases are intertwined; that is, we move back and forth between them many times in the course of dealing with a problem, sometimes several times in the span of a few seconds. To study the art of thinking in its most dynamic form would be difficult at best. It is much easier to study each part separately. For this reason, we will focus first on the production of ideas (Chapters 5 through 9) and then turn to the judgment of ideas.* Although everyone produces and judges ideas, the quality of the effort varies greatly from person to person. One individual produces a single common or shallow idea for each problem or issue and approves it uncritically, whereas another produces an assortment of ideas, some of them original and profound, and examines them critically, refining the best ones to make them even better. The terms creative thinking and critical thinking, as we will use them throughout the remaining chapters, refer to the latter kind of effort. *Because it is impossible to separate the two completely, minor elements on judging will be included in our treatment of creativity, and vice versa. 95 The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 96 Chapter 5 The Creative Process KEY FACTS ABOUT CREATIVITY Before the mid-1950s, creativity received little scholarly attention. Then one researcher examined more than 121,000 listings of articles recorded in Psychological Abstracts during the previous 23 years. He found that only 186 articlesless than two-tenths of one percent of the totalhad any direct concern with creativity.1 Since that finding, interest in creativity has increased considerably, and many books have been published on the subject.2 Researchers have examined the lives of creative achievers, probed the creative process, and tested creative performance in every conceivable circumstance and at every age level. Researchers efforts have helped deepen our understanding of creativity and overcome the many misconceptions that for so long went unchallenged. You have undoubtedly been exposed to some of these misconceptions and therefore have developed some false impressions about what creativity is and how it works. Replacing those false impressions with facts is an important first step in developing your creative potential. The facts that follow are the most important ones. Some we mentioned briefly in Chapter 1. All are worth returning to and reflecting on from time to time. Doing Your Own Thing Is Not Necessarily a Mark of Creativity For many people, George F. Kneller observes, being creative seems to imply nothing more than releasing impulses or relaxing tensions. . . . Yet an uninhibited swiveling at the hips is hardly creative dancing, nor is hurling colors at a canvas creative painting.3 Creativity does involve a willingness to break away from established patterns and try new directions, but it does not mean being different for the sake of being different or as an exercise in self-indulgence. It is as much a mistake to ignore the accumulated knowledge of the past as it is to be limited by it. As Alfred North Whitehead warned, Fools act on imagination without knowledge; pedants act on knowledge without imagination.4 Being creative means combining knowledge and imagination. Creativity Does Not Require Special Intellectual Talent or a High IQ The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 The idea that highly creative people have some special intellectual ability lacking in the general population has been widely accepted for centuries. When the IQ test was devised, that idea was given new currency, and anyone who achieved less than a genius-level score (135 and above) was considered to have little or no chance for creative intellectual achievement. However, when researchers began studying the lives of creative people and comparing IQ test performance with creativity test performance, they made two discoveries. They found that creativity depends not on the possession of special talents, but on the use of talents that virtually everyone has but most have never learned to use. In addition, they found that the IQ test was not designed to measure creativity, so a high score is no indication of creative ability, and a low score, Key Facts About Creativity 97 no indication of its absence. In fact, they found that the great majority of creative achievers fell significantly below the genius level.5 The Use of Drugs Hinders Creativity Although many people seem determined to resist this fact, it has long been acknowledged by those who have studied creativity. If liquor and other drugs have been such a boon to original thought, one researcher asks, why hasnt the corner saloon produced more creative achievers? No one, as yet, has answered this question satisfactorily. Nor is anyone likely to. The reason drugs harm creativity, Brewster Ghiselin explains, is that their action reduces judgment, and the activities they provoke are hallucinatory rather than illuminating. What is needed, he argues, is not artificial stimulation of the mind, but increased control and direction.6 The use of drugs and liquor as stimulants is sometimes part of a larger misconception that might be termed the bohemian mystique. This misconception is the notion that a dissipated lifestyle somehow casts off intellectual restraints and opens the mind to new ideas. Eliot Dole Hutchinson offers an assessment that most researchers would endorse: Narrow streets, shabby studios, undisciplined living, and artistic ballyhoo about local color may all have their place in pseudo artistry, but they have little to do with genuine creation. Nor is the necessary creative freedom clearly associated with them at all. Bohemianism squanders its freedom, returns from its hours of dissipation less effective. Creative discipline capitalizes its leisure, returns refreshed, reinvigorated, eager.7 Creativity Is an Expression of Mental Health ISBN 1-256-46689-1 One common image of the creative person is reinforced by a number of low-budget horror films. That image depicts a wild-eyed mad scientist, shuffling nervously around a laboratory, rubbing hands together evilly and drooling. Many people really believe the image: They view creative person and lunatic as near synonyms. They are wrong. In the following passage, Harold H. Anderson summarizes a leading psychological view concerning the relative sanity of creative people. (Endorsers include such respected thinkers as Erich Fromm, Rollo May, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, J. P. Guilford, and Ernest Hilgard.) The consensus of these authors is that creativity is an expression of a mentally or psychologically healthy person, that creativity is associated with wholeness, unity, honesty, integrity, personal involvement, enthusiasm, high motivation, and action. There is also agreement that neurosis either accompanies or causes a degraded quality of ones creativity. For neurotic persons and persons with other forms of mental disease [who are, at the same time, creative] such assumptions as the following are offered: that these persons are creative in spite of their disease; that they are producing below the achievements they would show without the disease; that they are on the downgrade, or that they are pseudo creative, that is, they may have brilliant original ideas which, because of the neurosis, they do not communicate.8 The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 98 Chapter 5 The Creative Process CHARACTERISTICS OF CREATIVE PEOPLE Studies of creative achievers have identified a number of characteristics they share.9 The following characteristics are among the most prominent. Creative People Are Dynamic Unlike most people, creative people do not allow their minds to become passive, accepting, unquestioning. They manage to keep their curiosity burning, or at least to rekindle it. One aspect of this intellectual dynamism is playfulness. Like little children with building blocks, creative people love to toy with ideas, arranging them in new combinations, and looking at them from different perspectives. It was such activity that Isaac Newton was referring to when he wrote, I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding . . . a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.10 Einstein was willing to speculate further. He saw such playfulness as the essential feature in productive thought.11 But whatever the place of playfulness among the characteristics of creative people, one thing is certain: it provides those people a richer and more varied assortment of ideas than the average person enjoys. Creative People Are Daring For the creative, thinking is an adventure. Because they are relatively free of preconceived notions and prejudiced views, creative people are less inclined to accept prevailing views, less narrow in their perspectives, and less likely to conform with the thinking of those around them. They are bold in their conceptions, willing to entertain unpopular ideas and seemingly unlikely possibilities. Therefore, like Galileo and Columbus, Edison and the Wright brothers, they are more open than others to creative ideas. Their daring has an additional benefit: It makes them less susceptible to face-saving than others. They are willing to face unpleasant experiences, apply their curiosity, and learn from those experiences. As a result, they are less likely than others to repeat the same failure over and over. Creative People Are Resourceful The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 Resourcefulness is the ability to act effectively and to conceptualize the approach that solves the problemeven when the problem stymies others and the resources at hand are meager. This ability is not measured by IQ tests, yet it is one of the most important aspects of practical intelligence. One dramatic example of this quality was reported in Scientific American more than half a century ago. A prisoner in a western state penitentiary escaped but was recaptured after a few weeks. The prison officials grilled him for days. Where did you get the saw to cut through the bars? they demanded. In time, he broke down and confessed how he had managed to cut the bars. He claimed he had picked up bits of Characteristics of Creative People 99 twine in the machine shop, dipped them in glue and then in emery, and smuggled them back to his cell. Night after night for three months, he had sawed the one-inch-thick steel bars. The prison officials accepted his explanation, locked him up, and made sure he never visited the machine shop again. That, however, is not the end of the story. One dark night about three and a half years later, the man escaped again, and the prison officials found the bars cut in exactly the same manner. Though he was never recaptured, the way he escaped is legendary in the underworld. Hed lied about using material from the machine shop the first time. He had been much more resourceful than that. He had used woolen strings from his socks, moistened them with spit, and rubbed them in dirt on his cell floor.12 Creative People Are Hardworking All problems, states William Gordon, present themselves to the mind as threats of failure.13 Only people who are unwilling to be intimidated by the prospect of failure, and who are determined to succeed no matter what effort is required, have a chance to succeed. (Even for them, of course, there is no guarantee of success.) Creative people are willing to make the necessary commitment. It was that commitment Thomas Edison had in mind when he said, Genius is 99 percent perspiration and 1 percent inspiration; so did George Bernard Shaw when he explained, When I was a young man I observed that nine out of ten things I did were failures. I didnt want to be a failure, so I did ten times more work. Part of creative peoples industriousness is attributable to their ability to be absorbed in a problem thoroughly and to give it their undivided attention. But it is derived, as well, from their competitiveness, which is unlike most peoples in that it is not directed toward other people but toward ideas. They take the challenge of ideas personally. Lester Pfister was such a person. He got the idea of inbreeding stalks of corn to eliminate weaker strains. He began with 50,000 stalks and worked by hand, season after season. After five years, he had only four stalks left, and he was destitute. But he had perfected the strain.14 Where others would have succumbed to frustration and disappointment, he persevered because he was unwilling to accept defeat. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 Creative People Are Independent Every new idea we think of separates us from other people, and expressing the idea increases the separation tenfold. Such separation is frightening, especially to those who draw their strength from association with others and who depend on others for their identity. Such people are not likely to feel comfortable entertaining, let alone expressing, new ideas. They fear rejection too much. Creative people are different. This is not to say that they dont enjoy having the acceptance and support of others or that the possibility of losing friends doesnt bother them. It means that however much they may want acceptance and support and friendship, they dont need them the way others do. Instead of looking to others for approval of their ideas, they look within themselves.15 For this reason, they are less afraid of appearing eccentric or odd, are more self-confident, and are more free to speak and act independently. The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 100 Chapter 5 The Creative Process Knowing these five characteristics can help you develop your creative potential if you are willing to make the effort to acquire themor if you already possess them, to reinforce them. It is never an easy task; old habits resist replacement. But even modest progress will make a difference in the quality of your thinking. APPLYING CREATIVITY TO PROBLEMS AND ISSUES The two broad applications of creativity that are of special concern to us are solving problems and resolving controversial issues. The terms problem and issue overlap considerably. Both refer to situations that challenge our ingenuity, situations that have no readily apparent, satisfactory remedy. But an issue has an additional characteristic. It tends to divide people into opposing camps, each sure that it is right and the opposition wrong. The most important ways to apply creativity to problems and issues include taking a novel approach, devising or modifying a process or system, inventing a new product or service, finding new uses for existing things, improving things, and inventing or redefining a concept. Lets look at some examples of each. Taking a Novel Approach The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 D. B. Kaplans, a Chicago delicatessen, approaches menu writing with its tongue well in cheek (and in some cases, in the sandwich). Items include Tongue Fu, the Italian Scallion, Chive Turkey, Ike and Tina Tuna, Dr. Pepperoni, the Breadless Horseman, Annette Spinachello, and Quiche and Tell. The ingredients are as creative as the names. Humane Society inspectors who found two dogs in a closed car in brutal 92-degree heat used a novel approach in dealing with the dogs owners. They offered them an alternative to being charged with cruelty to animals: spend an hour inside the closed car themselves in the same heat the dogs endured, while the dogs spent the hour in the air-conditioned Humane Society building.16 A judge in a Michigan divorce court took a novel approach to the issues of custody and the right to live in the family home. He awarded the house to the children until the youngest reached 18. The parents would take turns living in the house and paying the bills. (Both parents lived in the area, so this housing arrangement was workable.)17 To instill in students a sense of obligation to help those in need, Tulane University Law School set the unusual graduation requirement of performing at least 20 hours of volunteer legal work for the poor.18 The city of Venice, Italy, sits on a number of small islands in an Adriatic lagoon and has long been subject to periodic flooding. Now there is reason to fear that the rising sea level will eventually flood the city. The most publicized and widely accepted proposal to prevent this disaster is to build 78 moveable, hollow gates at the entrance to the lagoon. These gates could be filled with air and caused to rise up, preventing rising waters from flooding Venice. Not Applying Creativity to Problems and Issues 101 everyone accepts this novel plan, however. Some scientists say the gates design is based on outdated tide tables, and thus the gates would eventually have to be replaced. And environmentalists have raised concerns about the increased pollution the gates could cause. Devising or Modifying a Process or System The Dewey decimal system and the Library of Congress system are two techniques that were invented for classifying books. (Even more basic to learning, of course, is the invention known as the alphabet.) Several decades ago, a new surgical procedure was devised for combating periodontal disease and making it possible for people to keep their teeth throughout their lives. The procedure involves cutting back diseased gum tissue and scraping accumulated plaque from the teeth. (Left untreated, periodontal disease can cause teeth to loosen and fall out.) Over the years, several procedures have been developed for determining the health of a fetus. Both amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling involve the extraction of amniotic fluid; ultrasound involves the bouncing of sound waves off the fetus to form an image. Between the 1880s and the 1980s the principal tool of criminal investigation was the fingerprint. Today it is DNA testing. Every individual who ever lived has his or her own distinctive genetic makeup. A strand of hair or a spot of urine, saliva, or semen left at a crime scene can be compared with a DNA sample of a suspect and be a significant factor in determining guilt or innocence. Reacting to widespread criticism of the 1988 presidential campaign as superficial, a member of Congress from Indiana, Lee Hamilton, proposed a change in the traditional debating format. His idea was to have each candidate speak alone for an hour, presenting his or her ideas on a single issue and responding to in-depth questioning by a panel of experts. The presentations would be videotaped simultaneously for sequential televising at a later time.19 (Unfortunately, the idea has not been implemented in subsequent presidential campaigns.) ISBN 1-256-46689-1 Inventing a New Product or Service In 1845, a man needed money quickly to pay a debt. What can I invent to raise some money? he thought. Three hours later, he had invented the safety pin. He later sold the idea for $400. Virtually all the products we use every day have similar, though perhaps less dramatic, stories. The hammer, the fork, the alarm clock, the electric blanket, the toothpaste tube, the matchbookthese and thousands of other products first occurred as ideas in a creative mind. And new ideas are occurring every day. One you may not have heard of is Graffiti Gobbler, a chemical compound that can remove ink or paint from wood, brick, or steel.20 The laundromat, the car wash, and the rent-a-car agency are examples of successful services that have been invented. When the rent-a-car service became quite expensive, some enterprising people invented rental services providing older, high-mileage cars in good working condition. (One such agency is called Rent-a-Wreck; another, Rent-a-Heap.) A public-spirited psychiatrist invented a The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. by Published Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 102 Chapter 5 The Creative Process service for insomniacs called Sleepline that offers an eight-minute recorded message (Sleep is coming . . . slower . . . deeper . . .) to help people sleep.21 The way people view movies changed when companies such as Blockbuster and Hollywood Video were created. But those companies were challenged when Netflix and similar services made it possible to receive DVDs first through the mail and then directly and without delay over the Internet. Finding New Uses for Existing Things No matter how old something is, new uses can always be devised for it. Consider how many kinds of nails, nuts, bolts, and brushes have been developed from the original ideas. Even the water bed, a relatively new variation on the bed, has been given a new use: to simulate the warmth and protection of the womb for premature babies.22 In some cases, apparently useless objects can be put to good use. For example, a St. Louis barber combines hair clippings with peat and other substances to form an unusually rich potting soil that he believes may help restore droughtravaged soil in parts of Asia and Africa. And at least one college student devised a use for empty beer and soda cans: He punched holes in the top and bottom, ran heavy cord through them, and hung the cans in close rows as window curtains. Agricultural crops have long been used for unusual purposes. Cotton lint, for example, is used to manufacture explosives, and ground-up tobacco is used for insecticide. Scientists have also found new uses for the largest surplus crop in the United States: corn. These uses include de-icing materials, adhesives, disposable bottles, and biodegradable garbage bags. Such creative ideas promise to reduce dependency on oil imports and to reduce pollution.23 New uses for the computer and the laser continue to multiply, such as this one that combines the two: A Cleveland firm markets a computer device that measures a person for a suit of clothing and then forwards the information to a factory where lasers cut the fabric.24 Improving Things Far more patents are issued each year for improvements in existing things than for new inventions. There is a very good reason. Nothing of human invention is perfect; everything can be made better. Consider the development of the light, from the prehistoric torch to the latest flashlight, or that of the camera and the automobile. Developments in the telephone, for example, include call block, call trace, priority call, return call, repeat call, and caller ID, as well as the many variations of the cell phone. Each of these features was developed in response to a particular need that was not being met by the existing equipment. The use of creativity to improve things is nowhere more evident than in the computer industry. Every few months a significant breakthrough is announced in hardware or software, and minor improvements are constantly being made. We tend to regard the many concepts that help us think and deal with reality as fixed and eternal. Yet that is not so. Concepts are invented, just as products and services are. The concepts of taxation and punishing criminals, for example, may The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 Inventing or Redefining a Concept Stages in the Creative Process 103 be very old, but they were once new. Numerous other concepts are relatively recent. It is hard to imagine how mathematics could even be used without the concept of zero. Yet that concept, in the sense of a number, was invented in India around A.D. 500.25 Similarly, the concept of the corporation originated in the sixteenth century, and our ideas of progress and worldly success in the seventeenth. The concept of the zip code is very recent. The concept of childhood we are familiar withas a stage of innocence with its own special characteristicsdates back only a few centuries. Before then, children were treated as little adults. The historian J. H. Plumb writes: Certainly there was no separate world of childhood [in earlier times]. Children shared the same games with adults, the same toys, the same fairy stories. They lived their lives together, never apart. The coarse village festivals depicted by Bruegel, showing men and women besotted with drink, groping for each other with unbridled lust, have children eating and drinking with the adults.26 STAGES IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS Being creative means more than having certain traits. It means behaving creatively, addressing the challenges we encounter with imagination and originality. In short, it means demonstrating skill in applying the creative process. Although authorities disagree over the number of stages in this processsome say three, others say four, five, or seventhe disagreement is not over substantive matters. It is merely over whether to combine activities under one heading or several. There is no real disagreement about the basic activities involved.27 For ease in remembering and convenience of application, we will view the creative process as having four stages: searching for challenges, expressing the particular problem or issue, investigating it, and producing a range of ideas. Each of these stages will be the subject of a separate chapter, but a brief overview of the process will enable you to begin using it right away. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 The First Stage: Searching for Challenges The essence of creativity is meeting challenges in an imaginative, original, and effective way. Often, challenges need not be sought out; they come to you in the form of obvious problems and issues. For example, if your roommate comes home night after night at 2 or 3 A.M., crashes into the room, and begins talking to you when you are trying to sleep, you neednt be very perceptive to know you have a problem. Or if you find yourself in the middle of a raging argument over whether abortion is murder, no one will have to tell you that you are addressing an issue. However, not all challenges are so obvious. Sometimes, the problems and issues are so small or subtle that very few people notice them; at other times, there are no problems and issues at all, only opportunities to improve existing conditions. Such challenges arouse no strong emotion in you, so you will not find them by sitting and waitingyou must look for them. The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 104 Chapter 5 The Creative Process The first stage of the creative process is the habit of searching for challenges, not at one specific time, but constantly. Its importance is reflected in the fact that you can be creative only in response to challenges that you perceive. The Second Stage: Expressing the Problem or Issue The objective in this stage is to find the best expression of the problem or issue, the one that will yield the most helpful ideas.* A problem properly stated, noted Henry Hazlitt,28 is partly solved. Because different expressions open different avenues of thought, it is best to consider as many expressions as possible. One of the most common mistakes made in addressing problems and issues is to see them from one perspective only and thus to close off many fruitful avenues of thought. Consider the prisoner deciding how to escape from prison. His first formulation of the problem was probably something such as How can I get a gun and shoot my way out of here? or How can I trick the guards into opening my cell so I can overpower them? If he had settled for that formulation, he would still be there (where he belonged). His ingenious escape plan could have been devised only as a response to the question How can I cut through those bars without a hacksaw? Often, after expressing the problem or issue in a number of ways, you will be unable to decide which expression is best. When that happens, postpone deciding until your work in later stages of the process enables you to decide. The Third Stage: Investigating the Problem or Issue The objective of this stage is to obtain the information necessary to deal effectively with the problem or issue. In some cases, this will mean merely searching your past experience and observation for appropriate material and bringing it to bear on the current problem. In others, it will mean obtaining new information through fresh experience and observation, interviews with knowledgeable people, or your own research. (In the case of the prisoner, it meant closely observing all the accessible places and items in the prison.) The Fourth Stage: Producing Ideas *In the case where there is no real problem or issue but only an opportunity to improve an existing condition, you would treat the situation as if it were problematic, saying, for example, How can I make this process work even more efficiently? The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 The objective in this stage is to generate enough ideas to decide what action to take or what belief to embrace. Two obstacles are common in this stage. The first is the often unconscious tendency to limit your ideas to common, familiar, habitual responses and to block out uncommon, unfamiliar ones. Fight that tendency by keeping in mind that however alien and inappropriate the latter kinds of responses may seem, it is precisely in those responses that creativity is to be found. The second obstacle is the temptation to stop producing ideas too soon. As we will see in Chapter 9, research has documented that the longer you continue producing ideas, the greater are your chances of producing worthwhile ideas. Or as one writer puts it, The more you fish, the more likely you are to get a strike. There is one final matter to be clarified before you will be ready to begin practicing the creative process: How will you know when you get a creative idea? By what characteristics will you be able to distinguish it from other ideas? Applications 105 A creative idea is an idea that is both imaginative and effective. That second quality is as important as the first. Its not enough for an idea to be unusual. If it were, then the weirdest, most bizarre ideas would be the most creative. No, to be creative an idea must work, must solve the problem, or must illuminate the issue it responds to. A creative idea must not be just uncommonit must be uncommonly good. This is the standard you should apply when looking over the ideas you produced. When you have produced a generous number of ideas, decide which seems to be the best. Sometimes that will be a single idea; other times it will be a combination of two or more ideas. At this point your decision should be tentative. Otherwise, you will be tempted to forgo the valuable critical thinking process by which ideas are evaluated. WARM-UP EXERCISES 5.1 Four friends have a large garden in the following shape. They want to divide it into four little gardens the same size and shape, but they dont know quite how to do this. Show them. 5.2 How many uses can you think of for old socks, stockings, or panty hose? Be sure to guard against setting unconscious restrictions on your thinking and to resist the temptation to settle for too few ideas. 5.3 Every change of season brings a new clothing fashion for men, women, and children. Invent as many new fashions as you can. (If you wish, you may include out-of-date fashions in your list, as long as they have not been popular in recent years.) Observe the cautions mentioned in Exercise 5.2. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 APPLICATIONS 5.1 For each of the following problems, apply stages two through four of the creative process. Record all your thoughts as they occur, and be prepared to submit them to your instructor. When you have finished with the last stage, state which of your solutions is best and briefly explain why. The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 106 Chapter 5 The Creative Process a. Barney has early classes five days a week. Yet he has attended few of them because he just cant seem to wake up in the morning. If he doesnt find a solution to his problem soon, hell surely flunk out of college. b. The campus library has been losing articles from magazines and even pages from expensive books. Irresponsible students just tear them out, hide them in their book bags, and walk out of the library. But yesterday a student was caught leaving with ripped-out pages. Some of the library staff favor making an example of her by expelling her from school and pressing criminal charges against her. Others favor merely charging her for the mutilated books. c. Virtually every building with a public bathroom has a graffiti problem. Even when the messages are not offensive, they create maintenance problems. d. Shoplifting cuts deeply into store owners profits. Owners and managers would welcome a solution to this problem. e. Many elderly and handicapped people live lonely lives. No longer active in careers, they are often forgotten by former associates and neglected by family and friends. Many lack transportation to community affairs. 5.2 Think of the most unpleasant task you ever had to do. Use your creativity to make it more pleasant. Follow the directions given at the beginning of Application 5.1. 5.3 Think of your biggest pet peeve about other people, the thing they do that aggravates you most. Use your creativity to reduce or eliminate that aggravation. Follow the directions given at the beginning of Application 5.1. 5.4 Some people seem to believe that criticizing a black president makes one a racist? Is this a reasonable belief? Does the race of the one doing the criticizing make a difference? Why or why not? Construct a definition of racism that eliminates the confusion about such matters. ISSUE FOR EXTENDED ANALYSIS Following is a more comprehensive thinking challenge than the others in the chapter. Analyze and respond to it, following the instructions for extended analysis at the end of Chapter 1. Also, review The Basis of Moral Judgment and Dealing with Dilemmas in Chapter 2. Outsourcing means exporting jobs overseas. The best-known instances of outsourcing are in the manufacturing sectorfor example, most athletic shoes and many articles of clothing are made in Third-World or developing countries. Less The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 THE ISSUE: OUTSOURCING U.S. JOBS Issue for Extended Analysis 107 well-known instances are in the technical and professional sectorsfor example, computer technical support is done largely in India. Many Americans consider this a betrayal of American workers; others believe it is a boon to the economy; all agree it is the wave of the future. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 THE ESSAYS Outsourcing Is Unfair By Kalif Ali They called it free trade when it started a few decades ago. The idea was that outsourcing low-paying jobs like assembling garments would bring prosperity to Third-World countries and help us sell more of our goods overseas. The promise was that our higher-paying jobs would not be affected. But that promise was quickly forgotten. The flow of high-paying jobs out of America is increasing. A Forrester Research study estimates that by 2020 almost 3.5 billion more jobs, most of them white-collar and representing over $130 billion, will be outsourced. At this very moment millions of jobs in machine tooling, steel processing, computer services, banking, medical services, aircraft design and manufacturing, insurance, graphic design, and engineering are performed offshore. Call for computer assistance, and youll likely speak to someone in India. Go for an X-ray or an MRI, and it will be read by a radiologist in Japan or the Philippines. The list of countries participating includes Canada, China, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Burma, Hong Kong, Mexico, and Panama. Some of the companies are American; others are multinational corporations, many based in America. All are obsessed with maximizing profits. Their greed has driven millions of Americans who had well-paying jobs into minimum-wage jobs or unemployment. Lost, too, are their health Outsourcing Is Fair By Louie Lefebvre For more than half a century, labor unions have had enormous power in America. In the beginning, they used that power to establish fair working conditions, pay schedules, and health and retirement benefits. But after achieving equity for their workers, they kept demanding more and more considerations from management. The unreasonableness of their demands is a main cause of the outsourcing phenomenon. The unions depict corporate executives as greedy monsters totally without conscience or compassion. In reality, they are no different from the rest of us, except that the challenges they face are greater. They must control the costs and maintain work standards so that they can meet the often formidable challenge of international competition. Far from being their own bosses, they are answerable to their customers, who want the highest value at the lowest price, as well as to their stockholders, who want a profit on their investments. Consider the case of Sudhakar Shenoy, CEO of Information Management Consultants, Inc., who had a choice of paying over $3 million for a job that could be done in India for less than $400,000. He chose India, as would any reasonable person. To do otherwise would have been a violation of his companys trust. Critics complain that outsourcing puts Americans out of work, but that The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 108 Chapter 5 The Creative Process insurance and retirement benefits. Taken together, these developments have created a massive burden on American taxpayers. The impact on the countries receiving the American jobs is not much better. Because there are no labor unions and often no governmental regulations, workers often work in unsanitary sweatshops for 14 or 15 hours a day. The pay is meager and health care and retirement plans are nonexistent. In many cases, even children are forced to work in these slave-like conditions. Far from being a boon, free trade and outsourcing of labor have proved to be a blight on rich and poor nations alike. is a one-sided perspective. From the view of the other country, people are being employed. True, they may make only $2 a day compared with the $50 a day their American counterparts might make. But that $2 may be two or three times the average wage of other workers in their country. Moreover, that two dollars multiplied by millions of workers creates capitalism in entire countries and makes freedom and democracy possible. We Americans value those things for ourselves. Why should we deny them to others? Outsourcing is a central feature of the new global economy, and that economy is here to stay. American workers had better come to terms with that fact and find a way to live with it. CLASS DISCUSSION ANNE: My main concern with outsourcing is that companies tend to choose the lowest-bidding countries; and those countries pay the lowest wages and have the worst working conditions. Many engage in child labor and even slave labor. Those practices are wrong, and American consumers should not be forced to support them. We should refuse to profit from other peoples misery. GIOVANNA: Im sure the abuses you mention exist in other countries. They may even exist in our own. I agree we should make our concerns known. But we shouldnt ignore the greater benefits offered by outsourcing. MARTIN: Some complain that computer manufacturers outsource The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-256-46689-1 their technical support operations to India. But Im glad they do. Ive had occasion to speak to many Indian technicians and have always found them polite, informed, and eager to help. Thats more than I can say for many American technical support people. Issue for Extended Analysis 109 GIOVANNA: People talk about buying American, but when it comes to their actual purchases, they arent willing to pay the higher prices for American-made products. And I cant really blame them for bargain shopping. MARTIN: I dont know whether the unions are at fault, as Louis Lefebvre says. But I do know that the current salaries and generous benefits being paid to American workers are making it increasingly difficult for American companies to compete in world markets. ANNE: I cant see any merit in the wholesale abandonment of American workers. It seems to me that they have a right to keep their jobs, particularly if theyve given 10, 20, or more years of faithful service to their employers. Its immoral to force them into unemployment or minimumwage positions. The government should take control of the situation and prevent this travesty. MARTIN: Competition has made America great. In countries that have replaced it with a government-controlled economy, the result has been chaos. That is why the old Soviet Union no longer exists. No, the only way for American companies to meet the challenge of world competition is to continue outsourcing. If they try to maintain their American workforces, theyll eventually go out of business, have to lay off all their workers, and cease to contribute to the U.S. tax base. I cant see that as a solution for Americans. BENJAMIN: Outsourcing seems to be a mixed blessing. On the positive ISBN 1-256-46689-1 side, it enables people in poor countries to raise their standard of living and thus reduces social unrest throughout the world. On the negative side, it causes Americas standard of living to decline. Americans may be unenthusiastic about that fact, but from a global perspective, it is a worthwhile trade-off. The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought, Tenth Edition, by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. Published by Pearson. Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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University of Phoenix - HUM111 - HUM111
CHAPTER4Be a Critical Reader,Listener, and ViewerYou may be thinking, This chapter doesnt apply to me. I have notrouble comprehending the messages I read, hear, and see. But thischapter isnt about basic comprehension. It is about analyzing andevalu
University of Phoenix - HUM111 - HUM111
PARTIBeAwareEvery man takes the limits of his own field of vision forthe limits of the world, wrote philosopher ArthurSchopenhauer. The wider a persons field of vision, of course,the deeper and more accurate his or her grasp of everydayexperience
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak Patel AnnouncementsAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical Engineering C programming intro + pointersShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Programming LanguagesC Compilation ProcessShwetak N. Pate
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak Patel AnnouncementsAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical Engineering C programming (continued)Shwetak N. Patel - EE 472Pointers2dereferencingPointer - just a variable that holds a
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak Patel Finish C programmingAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical Engineering Data structures, bitwise operationsShwetak N. Patel - EE 472StructsStructsStudent example:Structs in C a
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsDr. Shwetak PatelAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical EngineeringAgenda Critical regions Semaphores Lab 3 questions Midterms resultsShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Page 12Mars Pathfinder 1997Multitaskin
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsDr. Shwetak PatelAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical EngineeringAgenda Final Exam Review Careers in Embedded Systems Optimization Strategies Final Demo LogisticsShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Page 12Fi
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak Patel Pulse Width ModulationComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical Engineering FreeRTOS Midterm review Lab 3 overview Drone tutorialShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)Vary the width
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsDr. Shwetak PatelAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical EngineeringAgenda Finish TCP/IP and Sockets I2C Lab 4 Next time: Careers, Startups,Optimization, Final exam reviewShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Page
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsClass logisticsDr. Shwetak PatelTTH 12:30am-2:20pmAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical EngineeringEE 054, Lab: EE 345Class website:http:/abstract.cs.washington.edu/~shwetak/classes/ee472Shwetak N. P
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsDr. Shwetak PatelAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical EngineeringAgenda Lab 3 Finish semaphores Working outside the processor The Local and Remote ModelsTCP/IPShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Page 12Sema
Washington - EE - 472
SynchronizedNon-preemptiveRound RobinA) P=2ms, C = 233usB) P=4ms, C = 233ustaskb()cfw_compute for CSleep(3);C) P=1ms, C = 100usPre-emptive PriorityPre-emptive Round Robin
Washington - EE - 472
EE472OSScheduler Diagramming WorksheetAB44C
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak PatelAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical Engineering Lab ReportsReports Tasks and Threads Scheduling Algorithms AnalysisShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Lab ReportsLab Reports Make su
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak Patel Sheduler diagrammingAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical Engineering Class reviewShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Shwetak N. Patel - EE 472Scheduling algorithms24Questions? More c
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsAgendaDr. Shwetak Patel Lab 2 overview Operating System Tasks Threads Interrupts SchedulingShwetak N. Patel - EE 472Embedded SoftwareOperating System Execute a specialized program2 Makes your life easier! Perform calc
Washington - EE - 472
EE 472 Embedded SystemsDr. Shwetak PatelAssistant ProfessorComputer Science & EngineeringElectrical EngineeringAgenda Engineering Design Cycles Structured Design Unified Modeling Language (UML)Shwetak N. Patel - EE 472Page 12Why care about the
Washington - EE - 472
Deadlocks IntroductionIn multitasking or multiprogramming system Several processes can compete for finite number of resources A process requests resources If not available process placed in wait state If resources never become available Process remains w
Washington - EE - 472
Troubleshooting and Debugging PiecesHardware Software Drawings and source codeHardwareMajor Components Parts Power System Power supplies Ground Reset System Clocks and Timing Inputs and Outputs Parts Check clocking (orientation) on all parts Semiconduc
Washington - EE - 472
IntroductionEmbedded systems Continue pervasive expansion into Vast variety of electronic systems and products Have difficulty identifying any products Not incorporating embedded processor In one form or another Different kinds of computing We identify t
Washington - EE - 472
Interfacing to the Outside World IntroductionThere are variety of ways and reasons to talk to outside world Consider first kinds of devices we may want to interface to For embedded systems tasks include Measuring Controlling Interacting with other subsys
Washington - EE - 472
Memory Management IntroductionIn embedded systems memory management is concerned with the following Managing process stack(s) Allocation of memory Static Partition of memory Code Data System Dynamic Allocation of memory resources for processes When manag
Washington - EE - 472
System Performance AnalysisIntroductionPerformanceMeans many things to many peopleImportant in any designCritical in real time systems1 ns can mean the difference between systemDoing job expectedFailurePerformance MeasuresSimply put performance
Washington - EE - 472
Pointers and Memory AddressesPointersUsed to hold memory addressesmyDatao3000myData1 myData24000 4200myDatan5000Oxford Consulting, Ltd1Pointers and Memory AddressesDeclare and initialize an integer variableint j = 3;This allocates 16 bits of
Washington - EE - 472
Real Time Kernels and Operating SystemsIntroductionTypical embedded system solves a complex problemBy decomposing it into a number of smaller simpler piecesThat work together in an organized waySuch pieces called tasksWith multiple tasks system call
Washington - EE - 472
The Design Process IntroductionAs we've learned Embedded systems are pandemic From handful of computers few years ago Now literally count in billions Days of ubiquitous computing not too far in future Encountering embedded computers in daily lives Increa
Washington - EE - 472
Structured Design Ideas Behind Structured DesignStructured design is a disciplined approach to design of Computer systems and software Comprised of following 5 aspects 1. Used definition of problem to guide definition of solution 2. Seeks to attack compl
Washington - EE - 472
Systems, the Design Process and ModelsObjectiveIn design must look at things from many points of viewCustomerFinances the developmentDirectlyIndirectlyBest design of little value if no one to buyWhat kinds of things do we need to considerLooking
Washington - EE - 472
Tasks and Intertask CommunicationIntroductionMultitasking / Multithreading systemSupports multiple tasksAs weve notedImportant job in multitasking systemExchanging data between tasksSynchronizing tasksSharing resourcesLets now examine these issue
Washington - EE - 472
UML- a Brief LookUML grew out of great variety of ways Design and develop object-oriented models and designs By mid 1990s Number of credible approaches reduced to three Work further developed and refined By 1997 version 1.1 of UML Submitted and accepted
Washington - EE - 271
Boolean Algebra Introduction to RelationsWe identified earlier Hierarchy from symbols to knowledge Levels connected by relations Will now begin to discuss such relations Simplest relation is unary These really don't make much sense We have noted numbers
Washington - EE - 271
Introduction to Circuit Analysis Getting StartedWe analyze circuits for several reasons Understand how they work Learn how to design from other people's work Debug our own designs Troubleshoot circuit or system that may have failedObserve these are same
Washington - EE - 271
Arithmetic and ALUIntroductionThe ability to perform arithmetic computationsCritical task for computerDuring course of our studiesWill examine how to implement four basic functionsAddSubtractMultiplyDivideLets look at each of theseWell begin wi
Washington - EE - 271
Combinational Logic Part 1We've looked at expressing logical relations in Tabular form Equation form Graphical form Have seen how to simplify Boolean equations Have looked at a couple of basic gates AND OR NOT Let's now look at combinational circuitry in
Washington - EE - 271
Combinational Logic Part 2We've been looking at simple combinational logic elements Gates, buffers, and drivers Now ready to go on to larger blocks MSI - Medium Scale Integration or Integrate Circuits Encapsulate standalone piece of functionality Types A
Washington - EE - 271
AddressingAs we've noted data and instructions Stored in memory So far we've assumed to simple addressing Without going into detail Let's now look at addressing in a bit more detail Most computers today support variety of forms of addressing Several desi
Washington - EE - 271
Troubleshooting and Debugging PiecesHardware DrawingsHardwareMajor Components Parts Power System Power supplies Ground Reset System Clocks and Timing Inputs and Outputs Parts Check clocking (orientation) on all parts Semiconductor devices Integrated ci
Washington - EE - 271
Finite State Machines IntroductionLet's now begin to formalize our analysis of sequential machines Powerful methods for designing machines for System control Pattern recognition Etc. Such devices form basis for control Most modern computing and control s
Washington - EE - 271
Motivatio n State Reduction Implement FSM with fewest possible states Least number of flip flops Boundaries are power of two number of states Fewest states usually leads to more opportunities for don't cares Reduce the number of gates needed for implement
Washington - EE - 271
Array Logics and VLSI DesignIntroductionArray logics begin to move into LSI world Key strength Take advantage of regularity in Combinational logic Certain kinds of memory elements State machines With regularity Ability to optimize geometry Layout of dev
Washington - EE - 271
Hardware HistoryFirst Generation The early machines Abacus to Babbage to Jacquard Programming Second Generation - 1940 First electronic ENIAC J.P. Eckert and J. Mauchly Moore school and University of Pennsylvania Other important names of the time John Vo
Washington - EE - 271
AddressingAs we' noted data and instructions ve Stored in memory So far we' assumed to simple addressing ve Without going into detail Let' now look at addressing in a bit more detail s Most computers today support variety of forms of addressing Several d
Washington - EE - 271
Representing InformationOur first step in moving inside computerUnderstand how to represent informationWay that computer can understandMust be able to expressNumbersSymbols or charactersLettersControlComputers represent information as collections
Washington - EE - 271
Hardware HistoryFirst Generation The early machines Abacus to Babbage to Jacquard Programming Second Generation - 1940 First electronic ENIAC J.P. Eckert and J. Mauchly Moore school and University of Pennsylvania Other important names of the time John Vo
Washington - EE - 271
The Memory Hierarchy IntroductionTerminology Access time Time to access a word in memory Specifies the read or write time Note these may be different The memory may be organized as Bits, bytes, or words Cycle time Time from the start of one read until th
Washington - EE - 271
Sequential MachinesIntroductionLogic devices examined so farCombinationalOutput function of input onlyOutput valid as long as input trueChange input change outputComputers also need devices capable ofStoring data and informationPerforming mathema
Washington - EE - 271
Basic Timing IssuesWe've looked at timing issues in combinational logic Let's now examine timing issues we must deal with in sequential circuits The fundamental timing issues we considered then apply here as well Rise / Fall Times Propagation delay Race
Washington - EE - 271
Verilog Overview - The Verilog Hardware Description Language IntroductionAs we know circuits and systems we are developing today Growing in capability and complexity Yesterday a sketch on a piece of paper and a handful of parts Sufficient to try out a de
Khulna University - BBA - 4203
ASSIGNMENT 1Part 11. None of the following statements are correct. Identify the error and correct the statement.a) A household's current savings includes its current purchases of corporate stock as well asprior holdings of corporate stock and its curr
Columbia Southern - BBA - BBA 3210
Review Test Submission: Unit I AssessmentQuestion 1Page 2 of 64oIn general, when there is a conflict in law between a statutory rule and a common law rule which rule wiSelected Answer:The statutory ruleCorrect Answer:The statutory ruleResponse Fe
Saginaw Valley - CHEM - 102B
Studying for ChemistryActivities that can help you learn chemistrySuccessfully: Attend class regularly Get help from instructor during office hours or go toTutoring Center SE 257 Study and work problems every day Dont wait until the night before th
Saginaw Valley - CHEM - 102B
Atoms: The Greek Idea~384 B.C.E., Aristotle:All matter iscomposed of 4elements, and allmatter is continuous,not atomistic.Atoms: The Greek Idea~ 450 B.C.E., Leucippus andDemocritus Atomos: Point atwhich matter can no longer besubdivided.Lavois
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Chapter 1Preliminaries to HumanCommunicationWeek 1Benefits, Forms and PurposesSelf projectionBuilding relationshipsInterviewing solicitation/disclosureTask performanceInform and influence audiencesMass media techniques/functionFormsIntraperson
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Unit3SelfConceptWeek3SenseofSelfWhileselfreflectionandevaluationmayseemunnecessaryandrevealnothingmorethantheobvioustoyouitwillrevealselftruthandawareness.Theself=socialproductofwhowethinkweare,whoothersthinkweare,andwhowethinkothersthinkweare.S
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Chapter 4PerceptionWeek 4PerceptionInfluences how we understand situations, otherpeople and ourselves. It is limited by ourexperiences, culture, and exposure to things in ourenvironment.What we think we know or to be true may not beaccurate.(CIR
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Unit 5Verbal MessagesWeek 2Triangle of MeaningThoughtMeaningDifferentexists due toexperienceslead toour owndifferentreferences.WordThinginterpretations.Meanings are in people, not in words.Meaningful MessagesAre dependent on:peoplecont
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Unit 5Verbal MessagesWeek 2Triangle of MeaningThoughtMeaningDifferentexists due toexperienceslead toour owndifferentreferences.WordThinginterpretations.Meanings are in people, not in words.Meaningful MessagesAre dependent on:peoplecont
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
NonverbalCommunicationChapter6NonverbalcommunicationMessagesandresponsessentandreceivedwithoutwords.Canbeintentionalorunintentional.MixedmessagesoccurswhenwordsandactionscontradicteachotherFunctionsofNonverbalReinforcement/ComplementationReinforc
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Chapter 7Listening, Feedback andCritical ThinkingWeek 6Some Stats p. 178l 42-53percent of our communicative time islistening.l Mostpeople estimate that they listen with 75percent accuracy and retaining 75 percent ofwhat they hear. In actuality
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
RelationshipsBy nature, humans are social creatures and no matter how little of themwe haveor how dysfunctional they may be, relationships are important andunavoidable.We can start them. We can end them. They can be good. They can bebad. Nomatter w
Saginaw Valley - COMM - 105A
Chapter 9 Relationships inContextEmotional IntelligenceThe ability to motivate oneself to controlimpulses to recognize and regulate onesmoods, to empathize, and to hope.Uncertainty Reduction TheoryWhen we initially meet someone,uncertainty charact