ch21
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ch21

Course Number: BSC BSC 1010, Fall 2010

College/University: FIU

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ch21 1. Charles Darwin argued that evolution is accomplished by the process of natural selection. Which of the following is not important to the concept of natural selection? A. Most organisms are capable of producing more offspring than typically survive. B. Phenotypic variation that an organism acquires in its lifetime is passed on to its offspring. C. Phenotypic variation exists within populations. D....

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Charles ch21 1. Darwin argued that evolution is accomplished by the process of natural selection. Which of the following is not important to the concept of natural selection? A. Most organisms are capable of producing more offspring than typically survive. B. Phenotypic variation that an organism acquires in its lifetime is passed on to its offspring. C. Phenotypic variation exists within populations. D. Phenotypic variation can influence reproductive success. E. Phenotypic variation within a species is due in part to inherited characteristics. 2. Natural selection varies the shape of the beaks among Darwin's finches in response to: A. the available food supply. B. the available nest building material supplies. C. the availability of potential mating partners. D. the presence of ectoparasites on their feathers. E. the need to improve their feather preening abilities. 3. Which one of the following observations was not important in the studies done on the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) by Peter and Rosemary Grant to verify Darwin's selection hypothesis? A. Considerable variation existed in the bill size and shape in this finch. B. During the 30-year period of the study, the dryness of climate varied considerably. C. The medium ground finch showed assortive mating according to bill size and shape. D. Bill shape (depth) varied with the dryness of the year. E. Offspring were similar to parents in bill size and shape. 4. In studying the medium ground finch on Daphne Major, the Grants noted that each generation of finches had beaks: A. B. C. D. 5. best suited for their parents' environment. best suited for their current environment. smaller than those of the previous generation. larger than those of the previous generation. Which aspect of natural selection is illustrated by figure 21.1b? A. Variation must exist in the population. B. Variation among individuals must be genetically transmissible to the next generation. C. Variation among individuals leads to differences in lifetime reproductive success. D. More individuals are produced each generation than the environment can support, resulting in competition for survival. 6. Industrial melanism is a term A. describing the color change induced by living in industrialized areas. B. explaining that the darker moths have higher mutation rates because of industrialization. C. describing the evolutionary process in which initially light-colored organisms become dark as a result of natural selection. D. explaining that the darker moths having higher reproductive success because of their pigmentation. E. describing the widespread implementation of pollution controls. 7. The evidence for industrial melanism as being due to an increase in the dark allele was provided from field tests carried out by A. Kettlewell. B. Lamarck. C. Darwin. D. Tutt. E. Wallace. 8. The shape of the beaks of Darwin's finches and industrial melanism are often cited as examples of the process of _______________ leading to evolutionary change. A. artificial selection B. coevolution C. intelligent design D. founder effect E. natural selection 9. Natural selection has favored the dark form of the peppered moth in areas subject to severe air pollution, perhaps because on darkened trees moth-eating birds see them less easily. As pollution abated, the light forms were favored because A. they were less visible after the lichens returned. B. of migration from more polluted areas. C. of mutation. D. they were preyed on more. E. of a bottleneck effect. 10. Industrial melanism involving the peppered moths (Biston sp.) is cited as an example of natural selection that has been observed in the last one hundred years. Recall that the peppered moth exhibits two distinct morphological types with dark and light colored wings. Which of the following statements about changes in these two types of moths as a result of industrial melanism is true? A. The dark forms are selected against in nonpolluted forests. B. The dark forms are distasteful to birds and are thus safe in polluted forests. C. The light forms are selected against in nonpolluted forests. D. Birds prey more on the dark forms in polluted forests E. Dark forms emigrate from nonpolluted forests to polluted forests. 11. In a hypothetical study, equal numbers of marked dark and light moths are released in polluted and unpolluted woodlands and recaptured 10 days later. According to the industrial melanism hypothesis, which of the following results is unexpected? A. More marked dark moths should be recaptured in polluted woodlands than in unpolluted woodlands. B. Fewer marked light moths should be recaptured in polluted woodlands than in unpolluted woodlands. C. Fewer marked dark moths should be recaptured in unpolluted woodlands than in polluted woodlands. D. More marked light moths should be recaptured in unpolluted woodlands than in polluted woodlands. E. Fewer unmarked dark moths should be captured in polluted woodlands than unmarked light moths. 12. Which of the following seems to be least important in understanding the basis for industrial melanism? A. abundance of lichens on trees B. greater camouflage of the dark moths on trees in polluted woodlands C. darkening of bark surfaces by pollutants D. greater crypticity of the light moths on trees in unpolluted woodlands E. differential predation by birds 13. Which one of the following "alternate" hypotheses might also explain industrial melanism? A. Dark moths are more resistant to the toxic effects of pollution than light moths. B. Dark moths emigrate out of polluted areas to escape the pollution. C. Pollution kills important tree species that peppered moths depend on for egg laying. D. Because dark moths absorb more heat they are more active and better able to avoid bird predation. E. Birds used the marks that Kettlewell placed on the moths when he released them to help them find and capture the moths. 14. Domestication of dogs has led to A. a variety of homologous structures. B. a variety of phenotypes. C. a variety of mutations. D. a variety of reproductively isolated breeds. E. a variety of different species. 15. In experiments using artificial selection to change the number of bristles in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the resulting population of flies A. Bristle number is likely determined by multiple genes. B. Some experiments used directional selection. C. Some experiments used disruptive selection. D. Large changes in bristle number took place within 35 generations. E. At the end of the experiment, were unable to interbreed with wild type flies. 16. In comparing artificial and natural selection, which of the following statements is true? A. Artificial selection is slower than natural selection. B. Artificial selection is reversible; natural selection is not. C. Artificial selection can produce maladaptive structures, natural selection cannot. D. Artificial selection cannot produce changes as large as changes produced by natural selection. E. In artificial selection, the magnitude of the selection pressure can be varied; in natural selection, it cannot. 17. Considerably more phenotypic variation exists in domesticated varieties of species like dogs and cabbages than exists in non-domesticated species like lions and maple trees. Which one of the following statements best explains why this is true? A. There is no selection and mating is random under domestication. B. During domestication, very high rates of mutation are induced. C. Genetic drift is important because domestication involves small populations. D. Many domesticated varieties would not survive in the natural world. E. Domesticated species exhibit "hybrid vigor" (heterosis). 18. Some of the most dramatic evidence for evolution has come from human agriculture. One of the most highly artificially selected crop plants is A. peas. B. tomatoes. C. potatoes. D. corn. E. asparagus. 19. A technique used in dating a rock can be used to accurately predict the age of the fossils occurring in the rocks. This technique involves A. fossil dating. B. successive rock layering. C. radioactive isotope decay. D. structural geology. E. developmental geology. 20. Today, the fossil record A. can be dated only with one layer in relation to older layers below and younger layers above, no actual dates can be estimated. B. can be dated reasonably well only with uranium-238. C. can be dated reasonably well using a variety of radioactive isotopes with known half-lives. D. can be dated precisely, to within a single year, using radioactive isotopes. E. can be dated precisely, to within a single year, using DNA hybridization. 21. Progressive changes in fossils of different ages provides one of the strongest lines of evidence for A. extinction. B. evolution. C. coevolution. D. adaptation. E. mutation. 22. In the case of the toothed whales, the fossil record A. shows they evolved from fish. B. shows they evolved from swimming dinosaurs. C. shows they evolved from a land mammal with hooves. D. has fragmentary evidence that cannot be explained. E. has no evidence about how they evolved. 23. Radioactive isotopes are used in dating materials from the distant past. Which of the following statements about radioactive dating techniques is true? A. It gives the general ages of rock strata. ( 1 million years). B. It gives exact ages of rock strata. ( 1 year). C. It uses a technique in which the degree of radioactive decay is measured, the younger the rock the more radioactive decay. D. It uses a technique in which the degree of radioactive decay is measured, the older the rock the more radioactive decay. E. It does not work well with fossil remains that have not absorbed radiation. 24. A rock contains 18 mg of the radioactive isotope carbon-14. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,600 years. How many half-lives and years will it take before the carbon-14 decays to less than 4 mg? A. 1 half-lives; 5,600 years B. 2 half-lives; 11,200 years C. 3 half-lives; 16,800 years D. 4 half-lives; 22,400 years E. 9 half-lives; 50,400 years 25. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,600 years. A fossil that has one-eighth the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 is probably A. 2,800 years old. B. 5,600 years old. C. 11,200 years old. D. 16,800 years old. E. 22,400 years old. 26. Which one of the following features of Archaeopteryx clearly demonstrates that it was on the evolutionary line leading from dinosaurs to birds? A. egg-laying ability B. teeth C. feathers D. bony tail E. claws on forelimbs 27. Which one of the following statements about the evolutionary divergence of horses in North America is false? A. Most changes are seen as adaptations for life in grassland habitats. B The general trends during horse evolution are increase in body size, lengthening of limbs, reduction of . digits on both sets of limbs, and tooth development for a grazing life style. C. Global climate change during the Miocene and early Oligocene epochs caused many of the changes in the evolution of horses. D. Horse evolution is unusual in that rates of change were uniform and constant throughout most lineages. E. Living lineages of horses show much less diversity than existed in the past. 28. When ancient rocks are arranged in the order of their age, a progressive series of changes are seen. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. fossil record B. homology C. convergent evolution D. biogeography E. development 29. Which of the following features of ancient horses is not an adaptation for living on open grasslands? A. multiple toes B. complex patterns of ridges on molar and premolars C. lengthening of limbs D. increase in body size E. high-speed locomotion 30. The most precise method of obtaining estimates of the absolute ages of geological deposits is A. measure rates of sedimentary rock formation. B. measure the ratios of various radioactive isotopes in the deposits. C. apply the principle of superposition (younger deposits above older deposits). D. make salinity measurements in ocean sediment deposits. E. study the sequence of fossil types in the deposits. 31. Evidence for evolution can be obtained by examining presently existing species through studies on each of the following except one. Select the exception. A. early development B. vestigial structures C. patterns of distribution D. convergence E. analogous structures 32. Structures that are derived from the same body part in a common ancestor but may have different appearances and functions are called A. analogous structures. B. homologous structures. C. vestigial structures. D. embryonic structures. E. homozygous structures. 33. Many organisms possess structures that have no apparent function, but they resemble structures of presumed ancestors. This is the study of A. the fossil record. B. the molecular record. C. homology. D. development. E. vestigial structures. 34. You see a sign on a door that reads "Homologous Structures Inside." You go in and find A. structures of animals that appear to have evolved from different parts of their bodies. B structures of animals that have difference appearances and functions but seem to have evolved from the . same body part in a common ancestor. C. structures of animals that have the same appearances and functions but obviously no common ancestor. D. structures of animals that have different appearances and functions but different ancestors. 35. The side toes of a horse, the pelvis of the whale, and the human appendix are all examples of A. analogous structures. B. homologous structures. C. vestigial structures. D. homeotic mutations. E. acquired structures. 36. Which one of the following is not important to the concept of homology? A. Homologous features must be found in a common ancestor. B. It can include anatomical, physiological, or molecular features. C. Features must share a common developmental pattern. D. Species with homologous features must be related. E. None of the features being compared can be vestigial. 37. All vertebrates contain a similar pattern of organs, indicating that they are related to one another. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. fossil record B. homology C. convergent evolution D. biogeography E. development 38. During growth in the mother's uterus, human embryos and fetuses exhibit characteristics of other vertebrates, suggesting that humans are related to the other forms. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. fossil record B. homology C. convergent evolution D. biogeography E. development 39. The evolution of similar forms in different lineages when exposed to the same selective pressures is A. called divergence. B. called convergence. C. referred to as successive homologies. D. referred to as descent. E. also known as natural selection. 40. The wings of birds and butterflies are examples of structures that resemble each other and have similar function, but are the result of parallel evolution in separate lineages. These structures are called A. analogous structures. B. homologous structures. C. vestigial structures. D. embryonic structures. E. homozygous structures. 41. Which of the following does not illustrate shared ancestry by anatomical comparison studies? A. same structure has evolved to carry out different function B. structure loses its function altogether C. different structures evolve in similar ways when subjected to the same selective pressures D. structure becomes vestigial E. structures found to be homologous 42. The observation that different geographical areas sometimes exhibit plant and animal communities of similar appearance, even though the individual plants and animals are not closely related, is called A. the fossil record. B. homology. C. convergent evolution. D. divergent evolution. E. adaptation. 43. Which of the following is an example of convergent evolution? A. Australian marsupials and placental mammals of other continents B. analogous organs of horses, antelopes, and deer C. homologous organs of apes and humans D. skull bones of vertebrates E. all of the species in a genus of placental mammals 44. A friend is trying to understand the concept of convergent evolution. Which one of the following statements best describes this concept? A. Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in the same area become reproductively isolated. B. Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in different areas become reestablished and are able to reproduce. C Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in the same area are competing for the same . resource thus causing one to evolve away from the other. D Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in different areas evolve similarities through . natural selection acting on those characteristics. 45. Which one of the following is not true about species that show convergent evolution? A. Do not share a recent common ancestor. B. Must be found in the same biogeographical region. C. Subject to similar selection pressures. D. Have similar phenotypes. E. Can share homologous structures. 46. The marsupials in Australia closely resemble the placental animals of the rest of the world, which argues that parallel selection has occurred. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. fossil record B. homology C. convergent evolution D. biogeography E. development 47. Inhabitants of oceanic islands resemble forms of the nearest mainland but show some differences, which suggests that they have evolved from mainland migrants. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. fossil record B. homology C. convergent evolution D. biogeography E. development 48. The convergence in form seen in sharks, tuna, and dolphins best relates to A. a recent shared common ancestor. B. dissimilar selection pressures. C. the physical properties of water. D. the need to escape fast-moving predators. E. intelligent design. 49. Evidence for evolution includes all of the following except A. the fossil record. B. homologous structures. C. the molecular record. D. intelligent design. E. vestigial structures. 50. Which of the reasons does not explain why "scientific creationism" cannot be considered a science? A. It is not supported by any empirical observations. B. It does not obtain its principles from observation, as does science. C. Its assumptions lead to no hypotheses that could be tested and possibly disproved. D. The idea of creation by a supernatural agency lies outside the realm of science. E. Only non-scientists believe it. 51. A biologist seeing a sign describing evolution as "just a theory" would think that A. evolution is a theory that is supported with a tremendous amount of evidence. B. evolution is just a collection of facts without a central theme and this is not a theory. C. evolution is what Darwin proposed to account for all the changes he observed in the finches so it is a hypothesis, not a theory. D. evolution occurred in the past, but it is not occurring in the present, so it cannot be a theory. 52. The "scientific creationism" view includes all of the following beliefs except A. biblical account of the origin of the earth is literally true. B. the earth is much younger than most scientists believe. C. all species of organisms were individually created. D. the organisms did not change from their original appearance. E. extinct species are replaced with new ones. 53. Evolution is said to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Which of the following statements best describes why this is not true? A. Evolution does not always produce more complex forms; sometimes less complex forms arise. B. Because evolution is a random process, it does not require an input of energy. C. Earth is not a closed system; it constantly receives an input of energy from the sun. D. Living organisms are not subject to the second law. E. The disorder generated by extinction balances the order created by evolution. 54. Which of the following is the best reason that the origin of species according to creation science should not be included in the curriculum of biology courses? A. It is not a scientifically testable theory. B. It has proven to be false. C. It has been superseded by more modern theories. D. It is contrary to the beliefs of most scientists. E. It constitutes the teaching of religion. 55. The pattern of wet years and dry years shown will probably move the population toward A. all having larger beaks. B. all having smaller beaks. C. having intermediate size beaks. D. having two, distinct populations. E. maintaining abundant variation in beak depth. 56. Which statement best describes the correlation between beak depths of Geospiza fortis on the Galpagos island Daphne major and the dryness of the environment? A. B. C. D. Birds with large beaks are favored during wet years. Birds with small beaks are favored in dry years. Birds with large beaks are favored during dry years. Birds with either size beak (large or small) are favored equally. In the laboratory, fruit flies (Drosophila) were artificially selected for the number of bristles on their bodies. One population (R) was selected for low numbers of bristles, a second population (S) for high numbers of bristles. 57. A major implication of this study of Drosophila is A. absolutely no data to prove or disprove the theory of evolution. B. it takes thousands to millions of generations to see evolutionary change, if at all. C. dramatic variation may be present within a population, but may not be observable unless strong selection occurs. D. dramatic mutations may occur within a population under strong selection. E. although evolutionary change was observed, this would not be expected in higher organisms such as mice. 58. After 35 generations (about 1 year's time), the two populations R and S were studied. Researchers found A. no change was seen; it's much too soon. B. some slight increase of bristle numbers was already evident. C. a vast, overlapping range of bristle numbers was seen. D. a slight increase in bristles in S, a slight decrease in R, with a little overlap in the middle ranges. E. a huge increase in S, a huge decrease in R, with no overlap whatsoever. Marsupials are a very ancestral form of mammal, evolving before placental mammals over 70 million years ago. Today Australian marsupials can be compared to placental mammals on other continents. 59. When you compare Australian marsupials to placental mammals today A. the marsupials are all very primitive, having changed very little during the last 70 million years. B. the marsupials are very similar to placental mammals in the ways they have adapted to similar ecological niches. C. the marsupials have evolved much more rapidly than placental mammals and are more highly adapted. D. the marsupial fossils look remarkably similar to the placental mammals of today. E. living marsupials are little changed from the earliest marsupial fossil forms. 60. It could be said that today's Australian marsupials and today's placental mammals have A. undergone divergent evolution. B. undergone selective advantage. C. undergone heterozygote advantage. D. undergone convergent evolution. E. developed homologous structures. ch21 Key 1. Charles Darwin argued that evolution is accomplished by the process of natural selection. Which of the following is not important to the concept of natural selection? A. B. C. D. E. Most organisms are capable of producing more offspring than typically survive. Phenotypic variation that an organism acquires in its lifetime is passed on to its offspring. Phenotypic variation exists within populations. Phenotypic variation can influence reproductive success. Phenotypic variation within a species is due in part to inherited characteristics. Characteristics acquired in an organism's lifetime are influenced by the environment, not by the individual's genome. Only traits with a genetic basis can be passed on to the next generation. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #1 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 2. Natural selection varies the shape of the beaks among Darwin's finches in response to: A. B. C. D. E. the available food supply. the available nest building material supplies. the availability of potential mating partners. the presence of ectoparasites on their feathers. the need to improve their feather preening abilities. Darwin noted a correlation between the food available on each island and the shape of the beaks of the finches that inhabited each island. This relationship was confirmed by subsequent research by Peter and Rosemary Grant, who witnessed variations in beak size as conditions on the islands changed from year to year. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #2 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 3. Which one of the following observations was not important in the studies done on the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) by Peter and Rosemary Grant to verify Darwin's selection hypothesis? A. B. C. D. E. Considerable variation existed in the bill size and shape in this finch. During the 30-year period of the study, the dryness of climate varied considerably. The medium ground finch showed assortive mating according to bill size and shape. Bill shape (depth) varied with the dryness of the year. Offspring were similar to parents in bill size and shape. The selective pressure driving the evolution of beak shape was food availability, not mate choice. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #3 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 4. In studying the medium ground finch on Daphne Major, the Grants noted that each generation of finches had beaks: A. B. C. D. best suited for their parents' environment. best suited for their current environment. smaller than those of the previous generation. larger than those of the previous generation. Each generation of finches inherited beak size from the previous (parental) generation; it was the parental generation on which selection had acted to produce the offspring generation's distribution of beak size. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #4 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 5. Which aspect of natural selection is illustrated by figure 21.1b? A. Variation must exist in the population. B. Variation among individuals must be genetically transmissible to the next generation. C. Variation among individuals leads to differences in lifetime reproductive success. D. More individuals are produced each generation than the environment can support, resulting in competition for survival. The graph shows a positive correlation between the beak depth of the parents and the beak depth of their offspring, suggesting that beak size is heritable. Blooms Level: Analyze Raven - Chapter 21 #5 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 6. Industrial melanism is a term A. describing the color change induced by living in industrialized areas. B. explaining that the darker moths have higher mutation rates because of industrialization. C. describing the evolutionary process in which initially light-colored organisms become dark as a result of natural selection. D. explaining that the darker moths having higher reproductive success because of their pigmentation. E. describing the widespread implementation of pollution controls. Industrial melanism is a specific form of evolution in which the selective pressure is environmental pollution; it results in a predominance of dark individuals over light individuals. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #6 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 7. The evidence for industrial melanism as being due to an increase in the dark allele was provided from field tests carried out by A. B. C. D. E. Kettlewell. Lamarck. Darwin. Tutt. Wallace. Tutt first proposed the hypothesis that those moths more similar in color to the tree trunks on which they rested would be better camouflaged and thus survive longer and reproduce more. Kettlewell, however, set up experimental field tests to test the hypothesis. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #7 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 8. The shape of the beaks of Darwin's finches industrial and melanism are often cited as examples of the process of _______________ leading to evolutionary change. A. B. C. D. E. artificial selection coevolution intelligent design founder effect natural selection Natural selection occurred in both of these examples; the pressures leading to the selection of deeper beaks following drought or darker pigmentation following pollution were environmental changes. Natural selection is the change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next in response to changes in environmental pressures. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #8 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 9. Natural selection has favored the dark form of the peppered moth in areas subject to severe air pollution, perhaps because on darkened trees moth-eating birds see them less easily. As pollution abated, the light forms were favored because A. B. C. D. E. they were less visible after the lichens returned. of migration from more polluted areas. of mutation. they were preyed on more. of a bottleneck effect. While the darker phenotype was selected for after pollution killed the lichens and deposited soot on the tree trunks, after the Clean Air Act of 1956, pollutants were removed and light-colored lichens regrew, resulting in selection for the lighter phenotype. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #9 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 10. Industrial melanism involving the peppered moths (Biston sp.) is cited as an example of natural selection that has been observed in the last one hundred years. Recall that the peppered moth exhibits two distinct morphological types with dark and light colored wings. Which of the following statements about changes in these two types of moths as a result of industrial melanism is true? A. B. C. D. E. The dark forms are selected against in nonpolluted forests. The dark forms are distasteful to birds and are thus safe in polluted forests. The light forms are selected against in nonpolluted forests. Birds prey more on the dark forms in polluted forests Dark forms emigrate from nonpolluted forests to polluted forests. In nonpolluted forests, light-colored lichens cover the tree trunks, making the dark forms more susceptible to predation. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #10 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 11. In a hypothetical study, equal numbers of marked dark and light moths are released in polluted and unpolluted woodlands and recaptured 10 days later. According to the industrial melanism hypothesis, which of the following results is unexpected? A. More marked dark moths should be recaptured in polluted woodlands than in unpolluted woodlands. B. Fewer marked light moths should be recaptured in polluted woodlands than in unpolluted woodlands. C. Fewer marked dark moths should be recaptured in unpolluted woodlands than in polluted woodlands. D. More marked light moths should be recaptured in unpolluted woodlands than in polluted woodlands. E. Fewer unmarked dark moths should be captured in polluted woodlands than unmarked light moths. You would not expect there to be more light moths (either marked or unmarked) than dark moths in a polluted forest, since dark moths are more well-camouflaged and thus should be more numerous after 10 days of predation by birds. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #11 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 12. Which of the following seems to be least important in understanding the basis for industrial melanism? A. B. C. D. E. abundance of lichens on trees greater camouflage of the dark moths on trees in polluted woodlands darkening of bark surfaces by pollutants greater crypticity of the light moths on trees in unpolluted woodlands differential predation by birds While the presence of lichens seemed to be a significant factor in moth coloration in England, the preponderance of one moth color over another in Detroit did not change in conjunction with lichen presence. Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven - Chapter 21 #12 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 13. Which one of the following "alternate" hypotheses might also explain industrial melanism? A. Dark moths are more resistant to the toxic effects of pollution than light moths. B. Dark moths emigrate out of polluted areas to escape the pollution. C. Pollution kills important tree species that peppered moths depend on for egg laying. D. Because dark moths absorb more heat they are more active and better able to avoid bird predation. E. Birds used the marks that Kettlewell placed on the moths when he released them to help them find and capture the moths. If dark moths emigrated, we would expect the preponderance of this morph to decrease, not increase. If the tree species was killed by pollution, then both moth morphs would be equally affected. There is no evidence that pollution increased heat, nor is there evidence that black moths absorb more heat and are subsequently more active. In any case, moths avoid predation by cryptic, hiding behavior, not by fleeing from their predators. Finally, Kettlewell placed the marks under the moths' wings and they were thus undetectable by the birds. The only hypothesis that could also explain Kettlewell's results is that the dark moths have some innate re Blooms Level: Evaluate Raven - Chapter 21 #13 Section: 21.02 Topic: Evolution 14. Domestication of dogs has led to A. B. C. D. E. a variety of homologous structures. a variety of phenotypes. a variety of mutations. a variety of reproductively isolated breeds. a variety of different species. In dogs, artificial selection has led to a variety of different phenotypes; the different dog breeds are not considered separate species nor are they reproductively isolated. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #14 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 15. In experiments using artificial selection to change the number of bristles in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the resulting population of flies A. B. C. D. E. Bristle number is likely determined by multiple genes. Some experiments used directional selection. Some experiments used disruptive selection. Large changes in bristle number took place within 35 generations. At the end of the experiment, were unable to interbreed with wild type flies. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #15 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 16. In comparing artificial and natural selection, which of the following statements is true? A. Artificial selection is slower than natural selection. B. Artificial selection is reversible; natural selection is not. C. Artificial selection can produce maladaptive structures, natural selection cannot. D. Artificial selection cannot produce changes as large as changes produced by natural selection. E. In artificial selection, the magnitude of the selection pressure can be varied; in natural selection, it cannot. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #16 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 17. Considerably more phenotypic variation exists in domesticated varieties of species like dogs and cabbages than exists in non-domesticated species like lions and maple trees. Which one of the following statements best explains why this is true? A. B. C. D. E. There is no selection and mating is random under domestication. During domestication, very high rates of mutation are induced. Genetic drift is important because domestication involves small populations. Many domesticated varieties would not survive in the natural world. Domesticated species exhibit "hybrid vigor" (heterosis). Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #17 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 18. Some of the most dramatic evidence for evolution has come from human agriculture. One of the most highly artificially selected crop plants is A. B. C. D. E. peas. tomatoes. potatoes. corn. asparagus. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #18 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 19. A technique used in dating a rock can be used to accurately predict the age of the fossils occurring in the rocks. This technique involves A. B. C. D. E. fossil dating. successive rock layering. radioactive isotope decay. structural geology. developmental geology. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #19 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 20. Today, the fossil record A. can be dated only with one layer in relation to older layers below and younger layers above, no actual dates can be estimated. B. can be dated reasonably well only with uranium-238. C. can be dated reasonably well using a variety of radioactive isotopes with known half-lives. D. can be dated precisely, to within a single year, using radioactive isotopes. E. can be dated precisely, to within a single year, using DNA hybridization. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #20 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 21. Progressive changes in fossils of different ages provides one of the strongest lines of evidence for A. B. C. D. E. extinction. evolution. coevolution. adaptation. mutation. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #21 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 22. In the case of the toothed whales, the fossil record A. B. C. D. E. shows they evolved from fish. shows they evolved from swimming dinosaurs. shows they evolved from a land mammal with hooves. has fragmentary evidence that cannot be explained. has no evidence about how they evolved. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #22 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 23. Radioactive isotopes are used in dating materials from the distant past. Which of the following statements about radioactive dating techniques is true? A. It gives the general ages of rock strata. ( 1 million years). B. It gives exact ages of rock strata. ( 1 year). C. It uses a technique in which the degree of radioactive decay is measured, the younger the rock the more radioactive decay. D. It uses a technique in which the degree of radioactive decay is measured, the older the rock the more radioactive decay. E. It does not work well with fossil remains that have not absorbed radiation. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #23 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 24. A rock contains 18 mg of the radioactive isotope carbon-14. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,600 years. How many half-lives and years will it take before the carbon-14 decays to less than 4 mg? A. B. C. D. E. 1 half-lives; 5,600 years 2 half-lives; 11,200 years 3 half-lives; 16,800 years 4 half-lives; 22,400 years 9 half-lives; 50,400 years Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #24 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 25. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,600 years. A fossil that has one-eighth the normal proportion of carbon14 to carbon-12 is probably A. B. C. D. E. 2,800 years old. 5,600 years old. 11,200 years old. 16,800 years old. 22,400 years old. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #25 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 26. Which one of the following features of Archaeopteryx clearly demonstrates that it was on the evolutionary line leading from dinosaurs to birds? A. B. C. D. E. egg-laying ability teeth feathers bony tail claws on forelimbs Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #26 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 27. Which one of the following statements about the evolutionary divergence of horses in North America is false? A. Most changes are seen as adaptations for life in grassland habitats. B The general trends during horse evolution are increase in body size, lengthening of limbs, reduction of . digits on both sets of limbs, and tooth development for a grazing life style. C. Global climate change during the Miocene and early Oligocene epochs caused many of the changes in the evolution of horses. D. Horse evolution is unusual in that rates of change were uniform and constant throughout most lineages. E. Living lineages of horses show much less diversity than existed in the past. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #27 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 28. When ancient rocks are arranged in the order of their age, a progressive series of changes are seen. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. B. C. D. E. fossil record homology convergent evolution biogeography development This is known as stratification. In Darwin's time, the only way to date fossils was through relative dating, using stratigraphy. Older specimens were found in lower strata than were younger specimens. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #28 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 29. Which of the following features of ancient horses is not an adaptation for living on open grasslands? A. B. C. D. E. multiple toes complex patterns of ridges on molar and premolars lengthening of limbs increase in body size high-speed locomotion Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #29 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 30. The most precise method of obtaining estimates of the absolute ages of geological deposits is A. B. C. D. E. measure rates of sedimentary rock formation. measure the ratios of various radioactive isotopes in the deposits. apply the principle of superposition (younger deposits above older deposits). make salinity measurements in ocean sediment deposits. study the sequence of fossil types in the deposits. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #30 Section: 21.04 Topic: Evolution 31. Evidence for evolution can be obtained by examining presently existing species through studies on each of the following except one. Select the exception. A. B. C. D. E. early development vestigial structures patterns of distribution convergence analogous structures Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #31 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 32. Structures that are derived from the same body part in a common ancestor but may have different appearances and functions are called A. B. C. D. E. analogous structures. homologous structures. vestigial structures. embryonic structures. homozygous structures. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #32 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 33. Many organisms possess structures that have no apparent function, but they resemble structures of presumed ancestors. This is the study of A. B. C. D. E. the fossil record. the molecular record. homology. development. vestigial structures. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #33 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 34. You see a sign on a door that reads "Homologous Structures Inside." You go in and find A. structures of animals that appear to have evolved from different parts of their bodies. B.structures of animals that have difference appearances and functions but seem to have evolved from the same body part in a common ancestor. C. structures of animals that have the same appearances and functions but obviously no common ancestor. D. structures of animals that have different appearances and functions but different ancestors. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #34 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 35. The side toes of a horse, the pelvis of the whale, and the human appendix are all examples of A. B. C. D. E. analogous structures. homologous structures. vestigial structures. homeotic mutations. acquired structures. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #35 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 36. Which one of the following is not important to the concept of homology? A. B. C. D. E. Homologous features must be found in a common ancestor. It can include anatomical, physiological, or molecular features. Features must share a common developmental pattern. Species with homologous features must be related. None of the features being compared can be vestigial. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #36 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 37. All vertebrates contain a similar pattern of organs, indicating that they are related to one another. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. B. C. D. E. fossil record homology convergent evolution biogeography development Homologous structures are those shared among different species due to common ancestry. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #37 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 38. During growth in the mother's uterus, human embryos and fetuses exhibit characteristics of other vertebrates, suggesting that humans are related to the other forms. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. B. C. D. E. fossil record homology convergent evolution biogeography development Many developmental features reflect the common ancestry of vertebrates. Many vertebrate embryos are nearly indistinguishable in the early stages to all but developmental biologists; the different species begin to differentiate as development progresses. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #38 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 39. The evolution of similar forms in different lineages when exposed to the same selective pressures is A. B. C. D. E. called divergence. called convergence. referred to as successive homologies. referred to as descent. also known as natural selection. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #39 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 40. The wings of birds and butterflies are examples of structures that resemble each other and have similar function, but are the result of parallel evolution in separate lineages. These structures are called A. B. C. D. E. analogous structures. homologous structures. vestigial structures. embryonic structures. homozygous structures. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #40 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 41. Which of the following does not illustrate shared ancestry by anatomical comparison studies? A. B. C. D. E. same structure has evolved to carry out different function structure loses its function altogether different structures evolve in similar ways when subjected to the same selective pressures structure becomes vestigial structures found to be homologous Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #41 Section: 21.05 Topic: Evolution 42. The observation that different geographical areas sometimes exhibit plant and animal communities of similar appearance, even though the individual plants and animals are not closely related, is called A. B. C. D. E. the fossil record. homology. convergent evolution. divergent evolution. adaptation. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #42 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 43. Which of the following is an example of convergent evolution? A. B. C. D. E. Australian marsupials and placental mammals of other continents analogous organs of horses, antelopes, and deer homologous organs of apes and humans skull bones of vertebrates all of the species in a genus of placental mammals Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #43 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 44. A friend is trying to understand the concept of convergent evolution. Which one of the following statements best describes this concept? A. Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in the same area become reproductively isolated. B. Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in different areas become reestablished and are able to reproduce. C Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in the same area are competing for the same . resource thus causing one to evolve away from the other. D Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in different areas evolve similarities through . natural selection acting on those characteristics. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #44 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 45. Which one of the following is not true about species that show convergent evolution? A. B. C. D. E. Do not share a recent common ancestor. Must be found in the same biogeographical region. Subject to similar selection pressures. Have similar phenotypes. Can share homologous structures. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #45 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 46. The marsupials in Australia closely resemble the placental animals of the rest of the world, which argues that parallel selection has occurred. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. B. C. D. E. fossil record homology convergent evolution biogeography development Environmental pressures provide the forces upon which natural selection acts. When organisms with some similar characteristics (size, diet, etc.) occupy similar niches in similar geographical areas, they may each evolve similar adaptations best suited for that environment. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #46 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 47. Inhabitants of oceanic islands resemble forms of the nearest mainland but show some differences, which suggests that they have evolved from mainland migrants. This represents which of the following lines of evolutionary evidence? A. B. C. D. E. fossil record homology convergent evolution biogeography development Darwin noted that many island species resembled mainland species; he surmised that the island populations diverged from the mainland populations due to different environmental pressures. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #47 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 48. The convergence in form seen in sharks, tuna, and dolphins best relates to A. B. C. D. E. a recent shared common ancestor. dissimilar selection pressures. the physical properties of water. the need to escape fast-moving predators. intelligent design. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #48 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 49. Evidence for evolution includes all of the following except A. B. C. D. E. the fossil record. homologous structures. the molecular record. intelligent design. vestigial structures. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #49 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution 50. Which of the reasons does not explain why "scientific creationism" cannot be considered a science? A. B. C. D. E. It is not supported by any empirical observations. It does not obtain its principles from observation, as does science. Its assumptions lead to no hypotheses that could be tested and possibly disproved. The idea of creation by a supernatural agency lies outside the realm of science. Only non-scientists believe it. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #50 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution 51. A biologist seeing a sign describing evolution as "just a theory" would think that A. evolution is a theory that is supported with a tremendous amount of evidence. B. evolution is just a collection of facts without a central theme and this is not a theory. C. evolution is what Darwin proposed to account for all the changes he observed in the finches so it is a hypothesis, not a theory. D. evolution occurred in the past, but it is not occurring in the present, so it cannot be a theory. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #51 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution 52. The "scientific creationism" view includes all of the following beliefs except A. B. C. D. E. biblical account of the origin of the earth is literally true. the earth is much younger than most scientists believe. all species of organisms were individually created. the organisms did not change from their original appearance. extinct species are replaced with new ones. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #52 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution 53. Evolution is said to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Which of the following statements best describes why this is not true? A. B. C. D. E. Evolution does not always produce more complex forms; sometimes less complex forms arise. Because evolution is a random process, it does not require an input of energy. Earth is not a closed system; it constantly receives an input of energy from the sun. Living organisms are not subject to the second law. The disorder generated by extinction balances the order created by evolution. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #53 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution 54. Which of the following is the best reason that the origin of species according to creation science should not be included in the curriculum of biology courses? A. B. C. D. E. It is not a scientifically testable theory. It has proven to be false. It has been superseded by more modern theories. It is contrary to the beliefs of most scientists. It constitutes the teaching of religion. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #54 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 55. The pattern of wet years and dry years shown will probably move the population toward A. B. C. D. E. all having larger beaks. all having smaller beaks. having intermediate size beaks. having two, distinct populations. maintaining abundant variation in beak depth. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #55 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution 56. Which statement best describes the correlation between beak depths of Geospiza fortis on the Galpagos island Daphne major and the dryness of the environment? A. B. C. D. Birds with large beaks are favored during wet years. Birds with small beaks are favored in dry years. Birds with large beaks are favored during dry years. Birds with either size beak (large or small) are favored equally. Blooms Level: Apply Raven - Chapter 21 #56 Section: 21.01 Topic: Evolution In the laboratory, fruit flies (Drosophila) were artificially selected for the number of bristles on their bodies. One population (R) was selected for low numbers of bristles, a second population (S) for high numbers of bristles. Blooms Level: Analyze Raven - Chapter 21 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 57. A major implication of this study of Drosophila is A. absolutely no data to prove or disprove the theory of evolution. B. it takes thousands to millions of generations to see evolutionary change, if at all. C. dramatic variation may be present within a population, but may not be observable unless strong selection occurs. D. dramatic mutations may occur within a population under strong selection. E. although evolutionary change was observed, this would not be expected in higher organisms such as mice. Blooms Level: Analyze Raven - Chapter 21 #57 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution 58. After 35 generations (about 1 year's time), the two populations R and S were studied. Researchers found A. B. C. D. E. no change was seen; it's much too soon. some slight increase of bristle numbers was already evident. a vast, overlapping range of bristle numbers was seen. a slight increase in bristles in S, a slight decrease in R, with a little overlap in the middle ranges. a huge increase in S, a huge decrease in R, with no overlap whatsoever. Blooms Level: Remember Raven - Chapter 21 #58 Section: 21.03 Topic: Evolution Marsupials are a very ancestral form of mammal, evolving before placental mammals over 70 million years ago. Today Australian marsupials can be compared to placental mammals on other continents. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 59. When you compare Australian marsupials to placental mammals today A. the marsupials are all very primitive, having changed very little during the last 70 million years. B. the marsupials are very similar to placental mammals in the ways they have adapted to similar ecological niches. C. the marsupials have evolved much more rapidly than placental mammals and are more highly adapted. D. the marsupial fossils look remarkably similar to the placental mammals of today. E. living marsupials are little changed from the earliest marsupial fossil forms. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #59 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution 60. It could be said that today's Australian marsupials and today's placental mammals have A. B. C. D. E. undergone divergent evolution. undergone selective advantage. undergone heterozygote advantage. undergone convergent evolution. developed homologous structures. Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 #60 Section: 21.06 Topic: Evolution ch21 Summary Category Blooms Level: Analyze Blooms Level: Apply Blooms Level: Evaluate Blooms Level: Remember Blooms Level: Understand Raven - Chapter 21 Section: 21.01 Section: 21.02 Section: 21.03 Section: 21.04 Section: 21.05 Section: 21.06 Section: 21.07 Topic: Evolution # of Questions 3 9 2 23 26 63 8 8 8 12 9 12 6 63

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FIU - BSC - BSC 1010
ch221. The _ _ model assumes that evolution occurs in spurts, between which there are long periods of stasis with little evolutionary change. _ 2. A _ is a group of organisms that differs in one or more characteristics from other groups, and does not hyb
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ch231. The biological specialty that deals with the grouping and naming of organisms is called taxonomy or _. _ 2. The biological specialty that deals with the study of evolutionary relationships is called _. _ 3. The behavior of parental care exhibited
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ch241. Over long segments of chromosomes, the linear order of mouse and human genes is the same. This is called conservation of _. _ 2. Genes with the same ancestral sequence are known as _. _ 3. Two genes within an organism that arose from the duplicati
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ch251. The evolution of eyespots on butterfly wings shows that they were adapted from different genes in different species. This is an example of _ evolution. _ 2. An alternation in the timing of a developmental event caused by a genetic mutation is call
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ch261. The hypothesis of _ proposes that meteors or cosmic dust may have brought complex organic molecules to Earth. _ 2. Organelles such as the nucleus are not present in _ organisms. _ 3. Prokaryotes were the only organisms for about _ billion years af
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ch271. Viruses are _-coated fragments of DNA or RNA that have become detached from the genomes of cells and have the ability to replicate themselves within cells. _ 2. A _ can contain DNA or RNA as its genetic material, but not both. _ 3. Outside the pro
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ch281. Sedimentary deposits known as _ were formed by mats of ancient prokaryotes known as cyanobacteria. _ 2. The earliest fossilized forms of microscopic life, known as _, were prokaryotes. _ 3. Prokaryotes split into two lines early in the history of
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ch291. Protists move chiefly by either flagellar rotation or by cytoplasmic streaming called _ movement. _ 2. The formation of a structure called a _ is important to many parasites that must survive a harsh environment between hosts. _ 3. Mitochondria, c
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ch301. The first plants clearly evolved from an organism that, if it existed today, would be classified as a multicellular green _. _ 2. The _ plants include among others, the ferns, conifers, and the flowering plants, all of which contain nutrient-condu
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ch311. Fungi are decomposers and obtain their food by _ the organic molecules released by the action of secreted enzymes. _ 2. Fungi, together with bacteria are the principal _ in the biosphere. _ 3. The symbiotic relationship between green algae or cyan
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ch321. Animals are multicellular heterotrophs and obtain their food by _. _ 2. Eumetazoa can be subdivided into two principal branches based on _. _ 3. In all deuterostomes, by contrast, the cells divide parallel to and at right angles to the polar axis.
FIU - BSC - BSC 1011
ch331. In most Cnidarians, fertilized eggs give rise to free-swimming, multicellular, ciliated larvae, known as _. _ 2. You discover an animal that is clearly multicellular, but does not have cells organized into tissues. The animal appears to have radia
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ch341. A _ is a circular or U-shaped ridge around the mouth, bearing either one or two rows of ciliated, hollow tentacles. _ 2. Brachiopods develop as protostomes, but they show _ cleavage. _ 3. In their basic body plan, mollusks have a visceral mass cov
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ch351. An animal with a single hollow nerve cord, a flexible rod on the dorsal side of the primitive gut, and pharyngeal slits is a(n) _. _ 2. The most diverse and successful vertebrate group, the _, provided the base for invasion of land by the amphibia
FIU - BSC - BSC 1011
ch361. Plant cells that give rise to two cells, one of which is free to differentiate into various kinds of cells that contribute to the plant body, are called A. endodermal cells. B. primary cells. C. lateral cells. D. parenchyma cells. E. meristematic
FIU - BSC - BSC 1011
ch371. Plant tissues that contain cells capable of repeated division and are found at the root and shoot apices are called A. primary growth tissues. B. secondary growth tissues. C. ground tissues. D. meristem tissues. E. mesophyll tissues. 2. One of the
FIU - BSC - BSC 1011
ch381. The process by which water is "pulled" up through the xylem columns of plants and evaporated out of the leaves is called A. root pressure. B. transpiration. C. osmosis. D. adhesion of water molecules. E. cohesion of water molecules. 2. The most im
FIU - BSC - BSC 1011
ch391. Plants can remove harmful chemicals from the soil by the process of A. glandular secretion by leaves. B. CO2 activation. C. phytoremediation. D. fertilization. E. root nodule formation. 2. Which of the following is not a natural process of plants
FIU - BSC - BSC 1011
ch401. _ occurs when a chemical signal secreted by the roots of one plant blocks the germination of nearby seeds or inhibits the growth of a neighboring plant. A. Nodulation B. Etiolation C. Reduction D. Allelopathy E. The systemic response 2. Which of t
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ch411. If temperatures suddenly rise 5 to 10 C, _ proteins are produced to help stabilize other proteins. A. denatured B. photosensitive C. chilling D. heat shock E. oxidative 2. Rapid turgor pressure changes in specialized multicellular swellings called
University of Toronto - GGR - 252
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ch421. Which of these characteristics would most likely discourage self pollination in a flower with both stamens and pistils? A. many more stamens than pistils B. long stamens and short pistils C. long pistils and short stamens D. pollen released before
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ch431. Which of these is not part of loose connective tissue? A. collagen B. elastin C. reticulin D. chondroitin E. adipose cells 2. Which of these neuron structures is usually the longest? A. cell body B. dendrite C. axon 3. In adult vertebrates,which o
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ch441. A(n) _ diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft between the presynaptic axon and the postsynaptic cell to transmit a nerve impulse. A. neurotransmitter B. electrical impulse C. Na+ ion D. vesicle E. action potential 2. The neurotransmitter that is
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ch451. All input from sensory neurons to the central nervous system arrives in the same form, as _ propagated by afferent sensory neurons. Perception of the stimuli about type and intensity depend on the projection of the impulse to which part of the bra
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ch461. Homeostasis is achieved through the actions of two major regulatory systems, the endocrine system and the _ system. A. nervous B. circulatory C. reproductive D. digestive E. respiratory 2. A _ is a regulatory chemical that is secreted into the blo
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ch471. The mammalian jaw is an example of what kind of moveable joint? A. B. C. D. 2. hinge joint combination joint gliding joint ball-and-socket jointWhich of these is not part of the axial skeleton? A. B. C. D. skull backbone rib cage pelvis3.The re
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ch481. Which of these animals has a gastrointestinal tract? A. sponge B. hydra C. flatworm D. earthworm E. salamander 2. The strong hydrochloric acid present in the gastric juice denatures proteins and activates _, a protein digesting enzyme. A. pepsin B
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ch491. Most of the primitive phyla of invertebrates obtain their oxygen by diffusion directly from the surrounding A. B. C. D. 2. air. water. mud. blood._ are used for respiration by aquatic vertebrates. A. B. C. D. Lungs Tracheal tubes Moist skin surfa
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ch501. In a _ circulatory system, the circulating fluid, blood, is always enclosed within the blood vessels that transport blood away from and back to a pump. A. B. C. D. 2. closed open countercurrent reversibleCells called _ contain hemoglobin and serv
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ch511. Nearly two-thirds of every vertebrate's body is composed of _. A. B. C. D. 2. water carbon bones muscleThe regulatory systems of the animal body maintain a relatively stable internal condition through a process called _. A. B. C. D. homeostasis e
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ch521. _ are phagocytes that circulate in the blood. A. B cells B. macrophages C. Plasma cells D. T cells E. Monocytes 2. _ are helper and inducer cells. A. B cells B. Macrophages C. Plasma cells D. T cells E. Monocytes 3. _ are the source of antibody-pr
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ch531. _ reproduction is the primary means of reproduction among the protists, cnideria, and tunicates. A. B. C. D. 2. Asexual Sexual Amorphous Hermaphoditic_ fertilization in which the males generally release their sperm into the water containing the e
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ch541. _ is the initial event in development. A. B. C. D. 2. Fertilization Cleavage Gastrulation OrganogensisThe cleavage pattern is influenced by the amount of _ and its distribution in the egg. A. B. C. D. albumen yolk shell air3.The appearance of t
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ch551. The name of the study of behavior, behavioral genetics, and comparative psychology is _. A. B. C. D. 2. ethology demography etiology semanicsTinbergen is credited with founding the field of behavioral _, the study of how natural selection shapes
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ch561. Populations of endotherms that live in colder climates tend to have shorter ears and limbs than populations of the same species in warm climates. This is called _ Rule. A. B. C. D. 2. Allen's the K-Selected the r-Selected Edward'sBased on surface
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ch571. All organisms living together in a place are called a _. A. B. C. D. 2. community population species ecosystemCompetition shapes communities because there are usually limited _. A. B. C. D. species resources interactions nutrients3.The attempt
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ch581. A _ cycle is a cyclic path that involves both biological and chemical processes of an ecosystem. A. B. C. D. 2. biogeochemical complete hydrological complementaryA(n) _ is a permeable underground layer of rock, sand, and gravel saturated with gro
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ch591. As the global concentration of carbon dioxide increases, the world's temperature is rising, with great potential direct impact on the world's _. A. B. C. D. 2. climate biodiversity biogeochemistry ozone layerCO2 and other gases, which absorb the
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ch601. Scientists estimate that about _ of the world eukaryotic organisms have been discovered and given scientific names. A. 1% B. 5% C. 15% D. 40% E. 90% 2. As habitats are fragmented, shrinking in size, a major problem is _. A. B. C. D. 3. the edge ef
Washington - MUS - 162
1-7-07 - Soul An African American genre that grew out of R&B and has a heavier gospel influence Characteristics A thick horn section Orchestral back-up Latin percussion Constant themes Love songs Black consciousness Politics Dancing Beginnings - artists s
Washington - MUS - 162
1-8-07 - Psychedelic Rock Historical Background Psychedelic Rock = music played by San Francisco bands which usually encompassed a variety of styles and musical influences: Folk rock Blues Hard rock Latin music Indian classical music Focused in Haight-Ash
Washington - MUS - 162
February 9th, 2007 Funk music "Free your mind and your ass will follow" Origin and meaning of word "funky" Central African "Ki-Kongo" word meaning "healthy sweat" lu-fuki Used in New Orleans among jazz musicians "Funky butt" by Buddy Bolden Related to bod
Washington - MUS - 162
February 15th, 2007 MTV JEOPARDY History - This white genre was featured exclusively by MTV in its beginnings Rock and Roll - The original air date for MTV August 1st, 1981 - MTV execs didn't play the song "Billy Jean" because why? by Michael Jackson huge
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February 16th, 2007at Heavy Metal Judas Priest: "The Hellion/Electric Eye" (1982) Heavy metal "ended" around 1989. end of a period when heavy metal music got beat out and went back underground Phrase One: The Origins of Metal - Guitar heroes: Hendrix, Cla
Washington - MUS - 162
February 21, 2007SALSAListen (review): "Mayeya, No Jueges con los Santos" S3:28 Social Context Civil Rights Movement Youth identification with Afro-Caribbean culture "Nuyorican" identity FANIA Record Label 1963 Johny Pachero (Dominican) and Jerry Masucc
Washington - MUS - 162
February 22, 2007Jamaica Development of the Sound System and ReggaeWhy talk about Jamaica? Jamaican genres: mento, burru, ska, Dub, Reggae, raga. Jamaica History 1958: Independence of Britain Late 1960s 1970s, Jamaica Falls into economic crisis Developm
Washington - MUS - 162
Hip Hop Popular notion is that hip hop is an exclusively "black" creation. But its history is more multi-ethnic Origin of Hip Hop Cultural expression of poor young teens 1970's: South Bronx one of the poorest neighborhoods in the nations Other neighborhoo
Washington - MUS - 162
February 26th, 2007 Movie "Wile Style" (1982) portrays New York scene and spawns other films such as "Beat Street" (1984) and "Beat Street II: Electric Boogaloo" (1985) Hip Hop is acknowledged First Rap Recordings: 1979 Fatback's record "King Tim III (Per
Washington - MUS - 162
Asian Americans in pop (cont. from mon.) QBert -Fillipino American -Won Disco Mixing Championship (DMC) four years in a row -1989, created Invisibl Skractch Piklz (all asian turntablism group) -Turntablism = multiple Djs using separate tracks on vinyl to
Washington - MUS - 162
3-01-07 Guest Speaker - Women in Popular Music Rock has an image of white male musicians even though it originated in the gospel church and women had a significant influence. Significant Women Who Rock Mamie Smith Blues/Jazz singer 1st African American wo
University of Toronto - MGT - 201
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University of Toronto - MGT - 201
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University of Toronto - MGT - 201
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University of Toronto - MGT - 201
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LSU - ISDS - 2000
Chapter 1: Page 8:1-3 all, 6, 8, 9 1 2. 3. A population contains all the items of interest whereas a sample contains only a portion of the items in the population. A statistic is a summary measure describing a sample whereas a parameter is a summary measu
LSU - ISDS - 2000
Page 18:1a, 3a, 4-8all 1. a. The types of beverages sold yield categorical or "qualitative" responses because they have values that can only be placed into categories. The time it takes to download a video from the Internet yields numerical or "quantitati
LSU - ISDS - 2000
Page 31: 27-31all27. 28. 29.Ordered array: 63 Ordered array: a. b. c. d. 7364 7868 7871 7875 8588 8894 914% scored below 500 32% scored from 500 - <550 36% scored below 550 (Note: add 4%+32%) 100% scored below 750Frequenc y 2 16 Relative Frequen
LSU - ISDS - 2000
Page 45: 47-51all, 52 (ignore cumulative percentage polygon), 58ac, 59ac (use lower class limit=1.85 and width =0.05) 47. Stem-and-leaf of Finance Scores 5 34 6 9 7 4 8 0 9 38 Ordered array: a. 50 74 74 76 81 89 9248. 49.Ordered array: 9.1 9.4 9.7 10.0
LSU - ISDS - 2000
Page 100: 1ab,2ab,3ab,8,9ab (Omit Coeff of Variation for all problems) Page 113: 37, 38 (Use Calculator) 1. ab (Note that these data make up a SAMPLE)X Mean Median Mode Sample Std Dev Sample Variance Skewness Range Minimum Maximum Sum Count 6 7 #N/A 2.91
University of Toronto - ANTHROPOLO - ANT322