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Principles Ecology(BIOL 4253) - EXAM 2 (sec 2)
If it is OK to have your exam returned in class with other students' exams, please initial here __________.
Mar 5, 2012
Please write your name on this test form and bubble in your name (last name first) and your student ID
number on the scantron.
Choose the best answer. If you do not know the correct answer, then guess because your score will be based only on
the number of correct answers. If you wish, you may write a note on this exam for later consideration.
1. What is the formula to estimate the Generation Time (T) in a population with overlapping generations?
2. In Winemiller and Rose's classification of life history strategies (opportunistic, equilibrium, periodic), the
opportunistic strategy includes a ______ absolute reproductive output that represents a _____percentage of its
energy budget allocated to reproduction.
C. high...high D. low...high
3. Leaves of tropical plant species contain toxic alkaloids _______ temperate plant species.
A. more frequently than
B. as frequently as
C. less frequently than
4. Size-selective predation refers to ___________.
A. same sized predator individuals select prey individuals that are different sizes
B. different sized predator individuals select prey individuals that are all about the same size
C. different sized predator individuals select prey individuals of different sizes
5. In regard to variation in the prey diets, widespread carnivores generally vary _______ carnivores with small
A. more than B. about the same as C. less than
6. In the bluegill sunfish study by Werner and Mittelbach (1981), optimal foraging theory predicted that the fish should
A. all prey they encounter
B. only smaller prey individuals
C. only medium and larger prey individuals
D. only defenseless individuals
7. A density dependent mortality factor is one that causes ________ when the population density is higher.
A. more individual deaths
B. a higher rate or percent of deaths
C. the same number of deaths
8. Endler's experiments with guppies in artificial ponds, confirmed in field experiments, demonstrated that selection
for male color-pattern is a balance between
A. female mate choice and predator avoidance
B. female mate choice and kin selection
C. cooperative breeding and predator avoidance
D. cooperative breeding and dominance
E. female mate choice and cooperative breeding
9. Evidence among plants (for example, wild radishes) shows that once pollen has arrived on a stigma there is
_______mating success among different pollen donors.
10. Selection for investing resources in genetically related individuals that are not one's offspring is _______
A. Kin selection B. Intersexual selection
C. Batesian mimicry D. Mullerian mimicry E. Natural selection
11. The movement of offspring away from their parents is ____________.
12. 1C4 and CAM photosynthetic pathways are found in plants growing in ___ soil moisture and ___ light levels.
A. high...high B. low...low
13. In Grime's life history classification of plants, ruderals are _____
A. Stress toleraters
B. Disturbance toleraters
C. Disturbance and stress tolerators D.
14-15. (Use the same set of answers for 14 and 15) In the MacArthur and Wilson classification of life histories,
developed further by Pianka, which of the following sets of characteristics is ......
A14. .....an r-strategist?
A. High r, fast development, early reproduction, many offspring
B. High r, slow development, early reproduction, many offspring
C. Low r, slow development, late reproduction, few offspring
D. Low r, fast development, late reproduction, few offspring
E. High r, fast development, late reproduction, few offspring
16. Of the photosynthetically active radiation reaching the canopy of a boreal forest, what percent actually reaches a
seedling on the forest floor?
A. 50% B. 20%
D. 2% E. 0%
17. Which of the following has the highest C:N ratio?
18. In plants, which of the following tissues has the highest C:N ratio?
19. Mullerian mimicry involves a ______ animal mimicking a _______ animal.
B. old leaves
C. new leaves D.
B. non-toxic...non-toxic C.
toxic....toxic D. toxic....non-toxic
20. Generally, plant species that produce larger seeds, produce ______ plants that produce smaller seeds .
A. more seeds than
B. fewer seeds than
C. about the same number of seeds as
21. In African lions in the Serengeti, male coalitions of 2 or 3 are often ______ whereas larger coalitions consist
mostly of _____ males.
22. Which of the following is NOT a requirement of eusocial species?
B. Cooperative care of the young
C. More than one generation living in the group
D. Reproductive and non-reproductive castes
23. Which of the following are cooperative, but not eusocial?
E. Naked mole rats
24. In the haplodiploid system of ants, the genetic relatedness of a mother and daughter is _____ and the genetic
relatedness between sisters who share the same father is ________.
25. The three kangaroo species (eastern grey, western grey, and red) studied by Caughley et al. (1987) show
distributions that appear to be limited by ______.
C. Interspecific competition among the three
D. Disease factors
E. Evolutionary relationships
26. Joe Connell in 1961 determined experimentally that in the barnacle, Chthamalus stellatus, adults are limited by
______ at the top of its zone and by ______ at the bottom of it's zone.
27. In general, as a result of reproduction and dispera, most species of young plants have patterns that are ______.
C. Regular (uniform)
28. Hubbell and Johnson's (1977) study of stingless bees suggested that bee nests were distributed more regularly in
species that were ______.
A. more rare
B. more common
C. more aggressive
D. less aggressive
29. Comparisons across species show that population densities are higher in ______ herbivorous mammals species
and in ______ plant species.
30. For a given body size, mammals tend to have _____densities than birds and aquatic invertebrates have
_____densities than terrestrial invertebrates.
31. Africanized honeybees, introduced into Sao Paulo in 1957, spread northward through the New World and arrived
in the southern US in 2008, are a _____.
A. species of honeybee different from our domesticated honey producing bee, Apis melifera.
B. sub-species of Apis melifera.
C. anthropogenically (humanly) genetically-modified form of Apis melifera
D. a Batesian mimic of our domesticated honey producing bee, Apis melifera
32. When climate changes slowly, as in the glacial and inter-glacial periods of the Pleistocene, the distributions of
plants and animals ____________.
A. change in order to accompany the movement of climatic conditions
B. remain the same by physiological acclimation
C. remain the same through adaptation
D. expand to occupy new as well as old areas
33. Populations of many species occur not as a single continuous distributed range of individuals, but as spatially
separated subpopulations. Occasional dispersal keeps these subpopulations joined as a ____.
A. Community B. Ecosystem C. Population D. Metapopulation E. Megapopulation
34. Doubling times for populations can be estimated by the equation t d =0.69/r. If the double time is 23 years what is
the population per capita growth rate?
A. 0.03%/year B. 0.3%/year C. 3%/year
35. A population growing logistically will stop growing when N = _______.
36. If a population starts with 100 individuals and grows with a net reproductive rate of 1, then after 3 generations,
what is the approximate size of the population ? A. 100
37. In human population growth, the demographic transition, associated with the change from agriculture to
industrialization, involves _______ in ______.
A. an increase...birth rates only
B. an increase...death rates only
C. a decrease...birth rates only
D. a decrease...death rates only
E. a decrease...both birth and death rates
38. Given the following continents (Oceania, South America, North America, Europe, Africa and Asia) what is the
approximate percent of the Earth's human population in Asia?
39. The female cardinal is not brightly colored. Would you guess that red and black coloration in
the male Cardinal is a result of ___?
A. Mullerian mimicry
coloration C. Batesian mimicry
D. Sexual selection
40. In Eric Charnov's (2002) life history classifications, he defines variables in ratios in order to eliminate the effect(s)
of differences in __________.
A. Body sizes B. Development times and lifespans
C. Both A. and B.
Given the following life table of survivorship and fecundity schedule, answer questions 41-42
41. What is the survival rate in the age interval 2-3?
A. 0.10 B. 0.20
C. 0.25 D. 0.40
42. What is the mortality rate in age interval 1-2?
43. The study of the c timing of leaf, flower and fruit production is _____.
A. Foiliography B. Photoperiodism
44. An estimate of the Net Reproductive Rate (R o) is
A. lxmxx/ lx
45. What are the morphological forms of the Tiger Swallowtail in the eastern United States?
A. Male ancestral (tiger), female polymorphic (black form and tiger form)
B. Male mimetic(black), female mimetic (black)
C. Male mimetic (black), female ancestral (tiger)
D. Male ancestral (tiger), female mimetic (black)
E. Male and female polymorphic (black form and tiger form each)
46-49. Given the three survivorship rves ,
which curve best represents _______.
A. Type 1
B. Type 2
C. Type 3
Highest mortality early in life
Passerine (perching) birds
Constant annual mortality
50. A cohort life table is based on
A. who died about the same time
B. who were born about the same time
C. who have the same parents
D. are a random sample of the population