Cultural Anthropology gives three distinct meanings of cultural relativism
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Cultural Anthropology gives three distinct meanings of cultural relativism

Course Number: ANT 101, Spring 2012

College/University: Ashford University

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Discuss what you see as the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three kinds of relativism Moral Stance Moral stance is being able to set aside ones own beliefs in order to better understand the behaviors, attitudes, actions or any other aspects of the subject society. Judgment must not be cast based upon the anthropologists own morals and values as this will inevitably taint the research outcome (Norwak...

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what Discuss you see as the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three kinds of relativism Moral Stance Moral stance is being able to set aside ones own beliefs in order to better understand the behaviors, attitudes, actions or any other aspects of the subject society. Judgment must not be cast based upon the anthropologists own morals and values as this will inevitably taint the research outcome (Norwak & Laird, 2010) A strength of arresting ones own social and cultural morals is the insight they gain by not being in conflict within themselves, therefore unhindered by self-distraction. The anthropologist can obtain their information untainted and unbiased, gathering invaluable information on the uniqueness of the subject culture without the worry or fear of causing insult. If one cannot impose a moral stance, they run the risk of obtaining corrupt data based on their own internal conflict while possibly imposing their own social, religious and cultural morals on the worlds many and various societies. Methodological Strategy Methodological strategy is the learning of another societys culture via books and journals before beginning their field study. With the methodological strategy, I see a strength in having prior knowledge of not just some of the customs and rituals but also the beliefs of those the anthropologist is preparing to study in the field. In beginning this way, one can see where studies have focused on in the past and what is still needed to be learned. Then one can determine the best course of action and make preparations. One can also note changes that have occurred and how the culture has changed and why. The downside to methodological strategy is they are learning from books; while helpful there is a difference between book learning and applying what is learned. Depending on the period of when the material was written and when the anthropologist is planning their expedition many things could have changed and they may still be ill prepared. The authors of these book and journals may also have placed their interpretations of their observations due to the fact they may have not had anything to compare it to for understanding. I could see this as being misleading. Epistemological Position Epistemological position is the viewing of each culture as independent and incomparable to others based on the experiences of that particular society. The strength in the epistemological position would be the ability to interact with a society with no preconceived notions of other cultures or civilization around them. This grants the anthropologist a clean slate to learn of their beliefs, morals, values and culture through their histories and interactions. This seems best done when isolation has been a factor. If the epistemological position is used in a more modern society with interaction with other social, cultural or influential peoples the results can become jumbled. It is no longer just their way of life but an adaptation of others in which they interact. Identify one belief or practice in another culture that you find puzzling, strange, or troubling, and then discuss the extent that cultural relativism is a useful approach to understanding and interacting with the people who hold it. There is a custom in Saudi Arabia that I find puzzling if a bit troubling. In the case of theft, a thief would have his left hand amputated. There are ways that this can be avoided, such as the victim granting a pardon or the thief paying restitution before the trial. While I can see how this punishment would be a deterrent, it is hard for me to comprehend how these types of punishments came to be. Discuss the extent that cultural relativism would be a useful approach to understanding and interacting with people in your won society that did (or do) the same. When applying cultural relativism we are able to take a step back and try to put off our own morals and judgments. I think that in using this form of cultural relativism, I can learn with an open mind as to why a culture would institute such harsh punishments and the mindset of that culture. Explore the extent to which weather one is studying in ones own country or in another makes a difference in the applicability of cultural relativism to ones research. Being in ones own country and learning of others from books, journals and possibly interviews with others who have been to, or were part of, that region can give great insight into the workings of that society. However, I do believe that book learning differs from actually being there. If one were to be present during rituals or activities, they get firsthand experience of the emotions, beliefs, actions and responses at the time. You can obtain a general understanding of new ideas through books but if we become offended, it is easy to set it aside and not have to deal with it. On the other hand if we were present during something that would be offending we would have to apply the cultural relativism or risk causing insult to the host society, and possibly becoming more of an outsider then we already were. One cannot learn everything from afar, participation and/or interaction is needed to obtain a full understanding. Norwak, B., & Laird, P. (2010). Cultural Anthropology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Cultural Anthropology gives three distinct meanings of cultural relativism: a moral stance that requires anthropologists to suspend moral and ethical judgments when interacting with a culture different from their own, a methodological strategy that allows the anthropologist to pay specific attention to the uniqueness of a culture, and an epistemological position that cultures are unique and therefore knowledge about different cultures is almost inherently not comparable. (Sec. 1.3). In your forum contribution: Discuss what you see as the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three kinds of relativism. Identify one belief or practice in another culture that you find puzzling, strange, or troubling, and then discuss the extent that cultural relativism is a useful approach to understanding and interacting with the people who hold it. Discuss the extent that cultural relativism would be a useful approach to understanding and interacting with people in your own society that did (or do) the same. Explore the extent to which whether one is studying in one's own country or in another makes a difference in the applicability of cultural relativism to one's research. Your initial response should be at least 150 words in length. Build on the ideas and terminology in the text and your own ideas to support your answers. Please support your claims with examples from the text, required and recommended material, and/or scholarly articles. Respond to at least two of your classmates posts by Day 7. Ashford 2: - Week 1 - Discussion 1 Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated. Cultural Relativism Cultural Anthropology gives three distinct meanings of cultural relativism: a moral stance that requires anthropologists to suspend moral and ethical judgments when interacting with a culture different from their own, a methodological strategy that allows the anthropologist to pay specific attention to the uniqueness of a culture, and an epistemological position that cultures are unique and therefore knowledge about different cultures is almost inherently not comparable. (Sec. 1.3). In your forum contribution: Discuss what you see as the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three kinds of relativism. Identify one belief or practice in another culture that you find puzzling, strange, or troubling, and then discuss the extent that cultural relativism is a useful approach to understanding and interacting with the people who hold it. Discuss the extent that cultural relativism would be a useful approach to understanding and interacting with people in your own society that did (or do) the same. Explore the extent to which whether one is studying in one's own country or in another makes a difference in the applicability of cultural relativism to one's research. Your initial response should be at least 150 words in length. Build on the ideas and terminology in the text and your own ideas to support your answers. Please support your claims with examples from the text, required and recommended material, and/or scholarly articles. Respond to at least two of your classmates posts by Day 7. Respond Expand All Collapse All Print View Show Options Hide Options Select: All None Unread Read Inverse Mark selected as: Read Unread View Selected View All Responses Response Author Date/Time* Cultural Relativism - Discussion 1 Marva Cook 8/15/2012 9:50:06 AM The three different ways that contemporary uses anthropology cultural relativism are by taking a moral stance which requires suspending moral and ethical judgments when interacting with a culture different from their own. Methodological strategy allows us to pay specific attention to the uniqueness of a culture. Epistemological cultural relativism allows us to see that cultures are the out come of historical and material processes, and treats humans as historically explainable products of these processes. Some of the strengths of cultural relativism is it calls for you to keep an open mind. It encourages tolerance and respect for all cultures. It allows for equality among cultures. Some of the weaknesses of cultural relativism: if we accept that all cultures are equal, we prevent people from advocating against practices that may be detrimental. This would mean people who are a part of the culture as well as those who are not a part of that culture. I had always wondered why people of Iraq tolerated the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein. I couldn't understand why they didn't fight for their rights. I had the opportunity to meet with some journalists from Iraq and asked that question. As they painted the picture of life for them under this person, I was really awakened by the horrors they faced if anyone tried to go against Saddam. I had to eliminate morals and ethics in order to understand their views. The more talking I did with these journalists, the more I was able to understand that they didn't have a lot of choices. They had to consider their own lives as well as the lives of their families. Survival was a daily routine for the people in Iraq. In the United States, we have more checks and balances and this would not be allowed. I work with the elderly and I have a large Jewish population. One of the areas I deal with is having religious services for most of our different denominations. That also includes our remembrance services for those who have died. The Jewish people don't really recognize Jesus only God. Personally, I recognize both because of the Old and New Testaments. I really had to put my personal beliefs aside and learn more about the Jewish people. I had our Jewish elders teach me about some ot their traditions and what they meant. We now have Seder dinners, Shabbat services, and recognize other holidays that are important to this group. It has allowed us to teach other people from different backgrounds to participate and learn. Relativism has allowed for more open mindedness and tolerance in understanding other people's traditions and beliefs. In my opinion, I do believe whether you are studying in your own country or in another does make a difference in the applicability of cultural relativism to your research. It seems like it should not, but if you are in your own country, you may have an easier time with relativism because if you don't agree with something from another culture, it may not be as big of a deal because you are somewhat protected in your own country. When you are in someone else's country, you have to abide by their rules or possibly pay a penalty which may be prison or your life. As I spoke about the people in Iraq, I understand their position, but if I was in their country and someone was ordering me around and dealing with me in a way that was not humane or in opposition of my beliefs, I don't know if I would be disciplined enough to put all that aside. I feel you really need to do a lot of research and soul searching about other cultures and make sure you can handle things that are in total opposition of your beliefs and teachings. If not, you may want to rethink visiting that country. The more I think on this question, I would also debate it would depend on what you are researching about in that country. Then the applicability of cultrural relativism may not come into question. Respond Cultural Relativism Maria Mhoon 8/15/2012 10:14:50 AM Cultural Anthropology gives three distinct meanings of cultural relativism: a moral stance that requires anthropologists to suspend moral and ethical judgments when interacting with a culture different from their own, a methodological strategy that allows the anthropologist to pay specific attention to the uniqueness of a culture, and an epistemological position that cultures are unique and therefore knowledge about different cultures is almost inherently not comparable. (Sec. 1.3). In your forum contribution: Discuss what you see as the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three kinds of relativism. A strength created by moral stance that requires anthropologist suspend moral and ethical judgments when interacting with cultures that have different value systems than their own is first of all having the strength and the ability to do so in the first place. For example, as written in our text infanticide and cannibalism (Nowak et al, 2010) are viewed as violations of basic human rights and carry heavy penalties for having a part in such activity here in America. Healthy Americans care about the health and wellbeing of others and can be difficult for a healthy American to keep their emotion out of separate from their work when dealing with such behavior. A weakness that may be experienced by anthropologists required to deal with cultural differences that are opposite from their own culture, in my opinion, is learning to get comfortable with the feelings of numbness and do their job at the same time; especially when dealing with infants or those who eat one anothers flesh. A strength of methodological strategy cultural anthropologist may have in paying specific attention to the uniqueness of a culture is the research process that is required by them in obtaining as much knowledge and education about a culture prior to any reaction taking place at all. For example, some cultures have many more colors to describe different shades of a single color (Nowak, et al, 2010) than Americans do; and doing the required research beforehand strengthens the knowledgebase of the working cultural anthropologist before working in cultures other than their own. A weakness of the methodological strategy for a cultural anthropologist could be in deciding exactly what color specifically describes the true color as people residing in that culture describe it. For instance, what we call blue could very well be green in tropical societies (Nowak et al, 2010). A strength of epistemological position is in the understanding that the differences that exist are not by any means comparable to another culture. A weakness of this position for anthropologists in this area could be in understanding that one culture is no better than the other just because they cant compare the different value systems held by another culture or society. Identify one belief or practice in another culture that you find puzzling, strange, or troubling, and then discuss the extent that cultural relativism is a useful approach to understanding and interacting with the people who hold it. Incest is a practice that is perfectly okay in other cultures that troubles me that some people do not have a problem with. For example, I feel that once a person is either married or has children with one person in the family, neither of the two people should become involved with any other member of that same family. It is not okay for your ex to go and have intimate relations with your mother, father, sister, brother, cousin, mother-in-law, father-in-law and so on because this behavior could spark unnecessary reactions and emotions. It is very unhealthy because envy could spark one to commit acts of violence and malicious crimes had healthy boundaries been respected in the first place. A useful approach to understanding and interacting with people who feel that incest is okay would be for one to keep their significant other private and away from those types of people. Discuss the extent that cultural relativism would be a useful approach to understanding and interacting with people in your own society that did (or do) the same. The way that I have learned to deal with cultural relativism in understanding and interacting with people in my society is that I no longer bring my private life home to meet my home or allow anyone to meet my family anymore. Explore the extent to which whether one is studying in one's own country or in another makes a difference in the applicability of cultural relativism to one's research. The extent to which whether on is studying their own country or another makes a difference in the application of cultural relativism to their research in my opinion is to learn lessons from the attitudes and behaviors of family and friends from my past which help me to move forgive, move forward, and be mindful to establish and maintain healthy boundaries right now and in the future. Nowak, B., & Laird, P. (2010). Cultural Anthropology. Chapter 1.3 Studying Culture. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. Retrieved on August 15, 2012 from Ashford University Online.

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