Wk 5 Assignment
3 Pages

Wk 5 Assignment

Course Number: CRIMINAL J 202, Summer 2011

College/University: American Public University

Word Count: 642

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1. Identify and define four mental processes that account for mistakes in identifying strangers. Also identify the five circumstances that affect the accuracy of perceptions in identifying strangers. I could only find three: Acquisition of Memory: the amount of information a person notes in their brain at the time of the crime Retention of Memory: the amount of information that is retained between the crime and...

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Identify 1. and define four mental processes that account for mistakes in identifying strangers. Also identify the five circumstances that affect the accuracy of perceptions in identifying strangers. I could only find three: Acquisition of Memory: the amount of information a person notes in their brain at the time of the crime Retention of Memory: the amount of information that is retained between the crime and the booking process to the time of the lineup Retrieval of Memory: the amount of information that is able to be recall at the time of lineup for identification The five circumstances are: Length of time to observe the stranger, Distractions during the observation, Focus of the observation, Stress on the witness during the observation, Race of the witness and the stranger1 2. Why are photo identifications the most unreliable eyewitness identification procedure? The amount of photos used in the mug shot book makes the identification suggestive at times. Also, the alleged suspect may have changed their looks from the last time they were photographed. 3. Identify and explain the rationales behind the three justifications for the exclusionary rule. Which justification does the U.S. Supreme Court use today? Constitutional Right: It is your right to be protected under unreasonable search and seizures and due process Judicial Integrity: It keeps the courts in line through integrity Deterrence: It keeps the police from breaking the law Since the 1980s, the Court has relied on deterrence as the only justification for excluding valid evidence.2 Why should the court here the case if the Police can not obtain the evidence lawfully? 1 Samaha 2 Samaha 4. List and explain five exceptions to the exclusionary rule. Collateral Use: The use of illegally obtained evidence in nontribal proceedings Cross-Examination: The government presents evidence to prove the suspect is guilty Attenuation of the taint of unconstitutional official conduct: Only if the evidence makes the governments case weak(er) Independent Source: The evidence will be admissible unless the police break the law in order to discover the evidence Inevitable Discovery: If the Police would eventually find the evidence under constitutional means 5. Identify the difference the between subjective and objective tests of entrapment. Identify two elements in the subjective test of entrapment and the two kinds of circumstances the government can use to prove defendants' predisposition to commit crimes. The subjective test,thestatesutilizespossibleconsiderationsisthedefendant'sstateof mind.However,in the objective test the statesthathaveadoptedtheobjectivetestfor entrapmentdonotlooktotheactionsormotivationsoftheindividualoffender.Instead, theyarefarmoreconcernedwiththenatureofthegovernment'sparticipationinthe criminalendeavor. Thetwoelementsusedinthesubjectivetestaresomewhatoneinthesame.Thefirstone is,they(thesuspect)hadnointentionsincommittingthecrimeuntilthegovernmenthad encouragedthem.Thesecondoneisthecrimewascommittedduetotheencouragement ofthegovernment. 6. Is there a constitutional right to the exclusionary rule and the defense of entrapment? Explain your answer. NO, and if there is, there should not be one. The exclusionary rule isnt a constitutional right; its a device to protect constitutional rights! 7. Identify the two elements of the qualified immunity defense, and explain why the test is so easy for officers to pass. Officers cant be held personally liable for their official action if; Their action meets the test of objective legal reasonableness. And reasonableness is measured be legal rules clearly established at the time the officers acted.3 8. Identify and describe the differences between two kinds of state civil lawsuits against individual state officers. The two are; State Tort lawsuits and U.S. Civil Rights Act lawsuits. State torts involve an individual officer whereas the Civil Rights act lawsuits involve the agency 9. Can you sue a judge for damage? A prosecutor? Explain. No for judges and yes for prosecutors. Judges fall under what the courts call ABSOLUTE IMMUNITY meaning they cant be sued. They can be impeached or voted out of office if the people have found them to be in bad faith. As for the prosecutors, functional immunity is what protects most prosecutors. It all comes down to the function that the prosecutor had in the case. References 1. Samaha, Joel (2007), Criminal Procedure 7th ed., Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN: 978-0495095460 3 Samaha

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American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366 (2003)Around 3:20 a.m., on August 7, 1999, a police officer of the Baltimore County PoliceDepartment stopped a vehicle for speeding and because the driver was not wearing a seat belt.See Pringle v. State, 805 A. 2d 101
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Quesiton 8Distinguish between deductive and inductive criminal profiling and provide examples of each.The general public has become very fascinated by criminals and fearful of criminal behavior. Inthe fight against crime, criminal profiling has been de
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
The theory that motivated behavior results from the combination of individualneeds and the value of goals available in the environment.a. Behavioral Motivational Typologyb. Power reassurancec. Expectancy Value Theory This is a correct answerd. Intent
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Criminal JusticeCMRJ329 Criminal Profiling3 Credit Hours8 WeeksPrerequisites: NoneTable of ContentsInstructor InformationEvaluation ProceduresCourse DescriptionGrading ScaleCourse ScopeCourse OutlineCourse ObjectivesPoliciesCourse Delivery M
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Criminal Profiling is a method of identifying the perpetrator of a crime based on ananalysis of the nature of the offense and the manner in which it was committed(Turvey). It most notably can be traced back to work done in the later part of the lastcen
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Picture 1:With the victims hair caught in the rope, it would seem as if she was lying down if there wasonly one perpetrator, being that it would take some deal of strength to hold her up while puttingthe rope around her, therefore, straddling her on th
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
The offender signature can be broken down into two separate but interdependenthalves: signature aspect and signature behavior. Signature aspect defines thetheme or motive of an offense, and can include motivational categories such asprofit, anger, reta
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Question 1 (Worth 3 points)Explain in detail why a Polygraph Examination is not considered aForensic Expertise.ESSAY SUBMISSIONPolygraphs have little credibility among scientists (apa.org). (Fas.org) Despite claims of 90maintain that rather than a "te
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Describe the method for documenting and collecting a toolmark impression. Whatinstrument is used to compare a toolmark impression to a known tool?The method used to collect the impression is casting. If it's not feasible to transport theentire item con
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Question 1 (Worth 10 points)The effectiveness of an expert's testimony is almost always dependent on:a. The experience of the expertb. The ability of the expert to talk in clear, concise languagec. The educational background of the expertd. The scien
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Criminal JusticeCMRJ341Criminalistics3 Credit Hours8 Week CoursePrerequisite(s): NoneTable of ContentsInstructor InformationEvaluation ProceduresCourse DescriptionGrading ScaleCourse ScopeCourse OutlineCourse ObjectivesPoliciesCourse Delive
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Forensic science in its broadest definition is the application of science to law (Saferstein, 2006).Forensics is defined as the application of science to interpret clues for crime investigation. Theearliest forensic scientists were physicians who were c
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Like your reference regarding the O.J. Simpson jury, I was appalled, but somewhat knew whatwas going to happen. I was shocked to see that the jury, consisted of (9 African-Americans, 1Latino, and 2-Caucasians, 9- Females and 3- Males) (Newton, 1994), fou
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Law enforcement has utilized the process of DNA testing to effectively fight crime, identify andapprehend criminals, and make the community safer (Wisconsin DOJ). In todays world, thesame tool that has been used by law enforcement in the United States h
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Documenting a crime scene and its conditions can include directly recording briefdetails such as lighting, furniture, fingerprints, and other valuable information. Certainevidence if not collected right away can easily be lost, destroyed or ruined. The
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
1. Youre the defense attorney for a client that has been charged with causing a death by recklessdriving and failing to stop and report an accident (hit and run). The police have told you thatthere is forensic paint evidence which links your client's ca
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Describe the differences between bribery and extortion and then explainwhich does the most harm to society.I have found this being the easiest way to understand the differences between bribery andextortion, because too often we confuse both as 'bribery
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
White-Collar CrimeJoshua Newton # 4042743CMRJ 303American Military University25 October 2009A current analysis of the phrase white-collar crime is as contentious as it iscommon. Looking at the F.B.I. website one can observe a congregation of crimes
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Explain and contrast the approaches of the classical, neoclassical, and thepositvist schools of thought.There are many different aspects of criminal justice policy. One in particular isthe different theories of crime and how they affect the criminal ju
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Return to courseCriminal JusticeCMRJ303Criminology3 Credit Hours8 WeeksPrerequisites: NoneTable of ContentsInstructor InformationEvaluation ProceduresCourse DescriptionGrading ScaleCourse ScopeCourse OutlineCourse ObjectivesPoliciesCourse
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
1.According to Edwin Sutherland's definition, white-collar crime refers to arelatively uniform behavior involving actions undertaken by individuals tocontribute to the financial success of the organization. They violate the law forthe firm. Yet the de
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
As the healing process begins in contusions, the body breaks down leaked blood cells and thehemoglobin. The iron in hemoglobin is foraged and used again, typically forming new bloodcells. The rest of the hemoglobin is festered into a pigment (green) cal
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Somatic death can be described as legally and medically dead, which can also be calledclinical or physical death. All the bodys cardiac activity along with respirations have seizedentirely due to lack of oxygen. Since there are no oxygenated blood cells
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
The processes of autolysis and putrefaction are paralleled as our texts states in the fact that theyhave the same purpose, decomposition. Even though they are parallel to each other, they workcompletely different. The bodys organs such as the liver, pan
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Criminal Justice and SecurityCMRJ402Pathology of Death3 Credit Hours8-Week CoursePrerequisite(s) - NoneTable of ContentsInstructor InformationEvaluation ProceduresCourse DescriptionGrading ScaleCourse ScopeCourse OutlineCourse ObjectivesPoli
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Texas Medical ExaminersBexar CountyRandall E. Frost, M.D.Chief Medical Examiner7337 Louis PasteurSan Antonio, TX 78229-4565Phone: 210-335-4000Lubbock CountyThomas Beaver, M.D.Chief Medical Examiner4434 South Loop 289Lubbock, TX 79414Phone: 806
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
I guess I will be the first to biteNaturalOld age, cancerHomicideMurder; A person killing anotherSuicideKilling ones selfAccidentPlane crashUndeterminedJust that, UNKNOWN causesIt is very important to know the Time of Death (TOD) medically and legal
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Blunt Force Injury (BFI) is an injury caused by that of a blunt object such as abat, belt or injuries sustained during a car accident. Which brings up Sharp ForceInjury (SFI) caused by objects having sharp edges that causes the separation oftissue. A f
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Wesley,I also agree with Emma when she stated how important is to know where the pedestrian was. Ifthe walker was crossing the street between parked vehicles or such, it would give the driververy little time to react.The problem your number 3 question
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Death prior to hanging-I am going to out of on the wire on this one. Pardon the pun My educated guess from thepictures shows snow on the ground and what looks like a small blood puddle approximately oneliter below where the victim was on the line. As th
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
It is funny that we are talking about this topic this week being I just toexplain the other day to my base commander about my run in with the lawin Germany earlier this year for this exact thing. Long story short, I waspulled over around 0300 one morni
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Child abuse is one of the saddest and most tragic problems in America today. Each year anestimated one to two million American children are being beaten, neglected, or sexually abusedby their parents or guardians. Infants only a few days old as well as
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1CourageWeek 2 Assignments: DefinitionObjective of Exercise: To create a thesis statement that can be supported by student's argument.To define The Right StuffEssay - Content andDevelopment75 Points PossibleIdentifies The Right Stuff andclearly s
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1NewtonThe Proposal ArgumentObjective of Exercise: To create a thesis statement that can be supported by student's research.Essay - Content and Development75 Points PossibleAn arguable thesis is present thatstates the authors position on theissue
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Hello Class,I am SSgt Joshua Newton, AF, currently stationed at Ramstein AB, Germany. At this moment, Iam in the process of deployingwait for it. Tampa, Fl. That is correct, wipe your eyes andshake your head. I am a flight medic and my crew and I are g
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English DepartmentEN102Effectiveness in Writing3 Credit Hours8 Week CoursePrerequisite(s): EN101Table of ContentsInstructor InformationEvaluation ProceduresCourse DescriptionGrading ScaleCourse ScopeCourse OutlineCourse ObjectivesPoliciesCo
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DB 1 Wk 3HUMAN SUPERIORITYHumans are not superior to all other life forms, we as humans rely greatly on all other living organisms.That is we eat plants and animals, we depend on them for sustainability. We cannot survive on Earthwithout any other lif
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
DB 1 Wk 3HUMAN SUPERIORITYHumans are not superior to all other life forms, we as humans rely greatly on all other living organisms.That is we eat plants and animals, we depend on them for sustainability. We cannot survive on Earthwithout any other lif
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Activity SheetPersonal ImpactAnalysisESA 21: Environmental Science ActivitiesName: Chassidy Dority 3087142Calculating your total emissions:Enter the values from the calculator in the table below and calculate the percent of totalemissions for each.
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Chassidy Dority3087142SCIN 190 DB 4Until I took this class I thought I was doing my part in environmental preservation. I waswrong! I do my fair share of recycling but unfortunately that is such a small portion of becominga "green" person.Once I mov
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Chassidy Dority3087142SCIN 190Wk 5 DBGlobal WarmingGlobal Warming is a term that was coined in the in the late 50s by a group of scientist insouthern California that were studying the effects of air pollution. The Hammond Timesnewspaper posted an a
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Chassidy Dority3087142SCIN 190DB Wk 6Genetic EngineeringWhen you hear the word genetic engineering you immediately think of the twisting andmodification human DNA. However, there are several other forms of genetic engineering, suchas biotechnology.
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Chassidy Dority3087142SCIN 191DB 3Wk 7I have not lived in my home town of Lincoln Illinois for 12 yearsnow. Since I have moved away the county that Lincoln resides in has takenmany steps in promoting a greener county. These changes have been at bot
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
FINAL ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 3.45 points)Ecosystem diversity is:the variety of interactions among organisms in natural communities.This is a correct answerthe number of different species in a given area.the variety of abiotic characte
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
QUIZ 1 ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 4 points)What must happen to people who live like the family below if we are to establish a sustainable Earth?They must help other countries attain the same level of consumption as they enjoy.They must recy
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
QUIZ 2 ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 4.17 points)Having a bottle of freon cost a consumer $2,000 to pay for the damage it does to the ozone layer when itis eventually released into the environment is an example of adding inemission charges.en
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
QUIZ 3 ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 4 points)Which of the following statements about the U.S. Clean Air Act is true?The Clean Air Act of 1970 focused on about 200 air pollutants.The most dramatic improvement in air quality has been a reductio
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
QUIZ 4 ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 4 points)All of the following are probable results of global climate change EXCEPT:more extreme weather patterns.extinction of some organisms.increases in sea level.higher global temperatures.an increase
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
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American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
QUIZ 6 ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 4.17 points)One of the controversies associated with the Endangered Species Act is that it:has generated too many unresolved cases with developers, over 1000 to date.does not provide compensation for privat
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
QUIZ 7 ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCEQuestion 1 (Worth 4.35 points)Solar thermal energy systems are inherently more efficient than other solar technologies because:they can convert sunlight directly into electricity.they can work at night and on cloudy days, as
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
Activity Sheet Trees andCarbonESA 21: Environmental Science ActivitiesName:Using the data from the table below, complete the calculations on page 2.Site #1TreeDiameter(cm)Pine22PineSite #2TreeDiameter(cm)TreeDiameter(cm)209Pine1133P
American Public University - CRIMINAL J - 202
ESA 21: Environmental Science ActivitiesActivity SheetEcological FootprintName: Chassidy D. Dority 3087142Instructor: Angela CostanzoCalculating Your Ecological Footprint:Use the calculator at: http:/www.earthday.net/footprint/index.html to fill in