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Socialization How society effects human development, nature v. nurture, are we prisoners of socialization What is Human Nature? Socialization is the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group- knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and actions appropriate for them Nature and nurture effect human development Societal interaction is a key to human development- shown in studies of feral and isolated children Language, social contact and interaction allow humans develop in emotionally healthy human beings. This is known as the social environment (entire human environment including direct contact with others) Language is not natural it is learned The family is the primary agent of socialization Theories of Human Development Humans develop reasoning skills, personality, emotions, morals and a sense of self through social observation, contact and interaction. Major theories- Cooleys looking glass self, Mead and role taking, Piaget and stages of development, Kohlbergs stages of development, and Carol Gilligan stages of development. Looking Glass Self and Role Taking Looking Glass Self (1902) Each to a looking glass reflects the other that doth pass. Charles Cooley- coined the term. It is the process by which a persons sense of self develops from interactions with others. 1-Imagine how we appear to those around us 2-Intrperet others reactions 3- develop self- concept The self is never a finished product, it is always a process Mead and Role Taking (1934) In order to take the role of the other the person needs to put themselves in the other persons shoes Not born with this ability- during childhood this is developed through play Children first learn to take on the role of the significant other eventually take the role of the generalized other Three Stages of Role Taking Three and Under- mimic gestures and words of others Three to Six- Take role of others, firefighter, superhero Games- play organized games that require them to take multiple roles I and Me and the Mind as a Product of Society Self is divided into two parts-I and the Me I is the self as subject, creative, active part of self Me is the self as an object Mead drew the conclusion that not only the self but the human mind is a social product We think using symbols. Symbols come from societies, like language. If society did not provide symbols we could not think The mind is a product of society Piaget and the Development of Reasoning (1954) Piaget concluded that children go through four stages as they develop the ability to reason 1. Sensormotor stage 2. Preoperational stage 3. Concrete operational stage 4. Formal operational stage Piaget and the Development of Reason Sensormotor Stage understanding limited to direct contact. ... View Full Document

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