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1 Both Question Rogers and Maslow believe people are not masters of their own destiny people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth human behavior is largely determined by primitive sexual urges human behavior is shaped by environmental events Question 2 Which of the following is NOT good advice for getting more out of lectures? ask questions during the lecture try to record the lecturer's comments verbatim when the material is especially complex, read ahead on the topic to be covered in class during the lecture, try to anticipate what's coming next and search for deeper meanings Question 3 Which of the following is not good advice for developing sound study habits? find a place to study where you can concentrate set up a schedule for studying avoid taking study breaks while studying reward yourself for studying Question 4 Dr. Yang is studying pain perception. She argues that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation. Which early school of psychology is Dr. Yang's views most like? structuralism behaviorism functionalism humanism Question 5 Which of the following would NOT be expected of an experimental psychologist? to study the effects of reward on learning to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and task performance to conduct psychotherapy to study the factors that motivate behavior Question 6 Taken as a whole, the text's review of the early "schools" of psychology best reflects which one unifying theme in psychology? peoples experience of the world is highly subjective psychology is theoretically diverse behavior is shaped by cultural heritage heredity and environment jointly influence behavior Question 7 As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. A(n) ____ would be most likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale. social psychologist educational psychologist industrial/organizational psychologist clinical psychologist Question 8 Which of the following did not have a significant influence on the development of Freud's theory? knowledge gained as a result of working with patients the results of his experimental research knowledge gained from his examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires his observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make Question 9 Which of the following sounds least like the work of an applied psychologist? finding ways to teach learning disabled children studying basic learning processes in rats treating someone with a phobia looking for ways to increase efficiency in an organization Question 10 When Watson claimed "Give me a dozen healthy infants..." he was arguing that behavior is strongly influenced by heredity factors environmental factors cultural factors subjective factors Question 11 Which of the following is NOT likely to be a characteristic of a critical thinker? flexible unable to admit mistakes willing to plan persistent Question 12 As a young psychologist, your major goal is to help people reach their potential. Most likely you follow the principles of behaviorism structuralism psychoanalysis humanism Question 13 Jane's thyroid gland has become inactive, and as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid gland can cause this reaction because of studies conducted by clinical psychologists medical psychologists experimental psychologists physiological psychologists Question 14 The two disciplines from which psychology developed were sociology and philosophy philosophy and physiology physiology and theology physiology and sociology Question 15 Which of the following is NOT good advice for developing sound study habits? spread out your studying over a period of time. allow time for study breaks try to tackle simple, routine tasks first, saving larger tasks for later find a place to study where distractions are likely to be minimal Question 16 Which of the following areas is most similar to clinical psychology? social psychology school psychology industrial psychology counseling psychology Question 17 Which of the following psychological perspectives is most likely to focus on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior? evolutionary perspective biological perspective cognitive perspective behavioral perspective Question 18 A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women towards traditional sex roles were studied. Most likely the researcher was a cognitive psychologist a counseling psychologist a developmental psychologist a social psychologist Question 19 Nature is to nurture as experience is to environment learning is to knowing heredity is to environment behavior is to doing Question 20 The text's suggestions for improving academic performance by improving your reading, getting more out of lectures, and improving test-taking strategies are consistent with the application of subjective thinking skills objective thinking skills accepted thinking skills critical thinking skills Question 21 Which of the following statements about Freud's psychoanalytic theory is most accurate? Freud's views have been largely abandoned and they exert relatively little, if any, influence on current mainstream psychology. Freud's views exert a tremendous influence on other disciplines, but not on psychology. Freud's views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology. Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into the mainstream of psychology. Question 22 Which of the following is not a major area of interest in the positive psychology movement? positive subjective experiences positive events positive life institutions and communities positive individual traits Question 23 With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner most in agreement on the issue of internal mental events? John Watson Sigmund Freud Wilhelm Wundt Abraham Maslow Question 24 Skinner would suggest that if you study "extra hard" for your first psychology midterm and earn an "A", for your next psychology midterm you would continue to study "extra hard" reduce your study time by approximately 25% reduce your study time by approximately 50% devote all of your study time to your other courses Question 25 If you wonder about the adaptive purpose of a common behavior (such as toddlers following their mothers around or teenagers wanting more independence from their parents) your wondering would be most consistent with the principles of cultural psychology humanism biological psychology evolutionary psychology Question 26 While functionalism emphasizes the adaptive purpose of ____, evolutionary psychology emphasizes the adaptive purpose of ____. physical structures of the body; behavior behavior; consciousness consciousness; behavior consciousness; physical structures of the body Question 27 The school of psychology that takes the most positive or optimistic view of human nature is behaviorism functionalism humanism psychoanalysis Question 28 Which of the following is not good advice for improving your test-taking ability? check for hidden complexities in simple-looking questions review the test if you have time left after completing the test make sure you use your time efficiently and will have enough time to complete the test don't waste too much time pondering difficult-to-answer questions Question 29 When Watson proposed that psychology should only study observable behaviors and not consciousness he was emphasizing the unifying theme that behavior is influenced by multiple causes peoples experience of the world is highly subjective psychology should use theories psychology should be empirical Question 30 While Freud might explain an individual's depression by focusing on the person's unconscious thoughts, a physiological psychologist might focus instead on a chemical imbalance in the brain. This difference in explanations best illustrates the text's unifying theme of psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context heredity and environment jointly influence behavior psychology is theoretically diverse psychology is empirical Question 31 Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the most help in developing this computer system would be a behavioral psychologist a humanistic psychologist a cognitive psychologist a biological psychologist Question 32 Psychology is based on systematic observation rather than pure reasoning or common sense. We can say, therefore, that psychology is behavioral speculative empirical rational Question 33 Which of the following is NOT good advice for improving your test-taking ability? don't change answers on a multiple-choice test; your first answer is usually your best don't waste time thinking too much about difficult-to-answer questions don't "read things into" test items--that is, make an item more complicated than it is if you have time left after you've answered all the questions, go back and review the test Question 34 If Dr. Maple is a behaviorist he would be most likely to believe that the cause of a child's disruptive behavior in school is the result of a learning disability his genetic inheritance his prior experiences a combination of his genetic inheritance and his prior experiences Question 35 In criticizing the structuralists' reliance on the method of introspection, William James argued that two people could view the same stimulus quite differently. James's argument illustrates which of the textbook's unifying themes? psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context psychology is empirical heredity and environment jointly influence behavior our experience of the world is highly subjective Question 36 Which of the following is NOT likely to be considered a critical thinking skill? working systematically toward a desired goal accepting the views of an appropriate authority figure distinguishing among facts, opinions, and reasoned judgments understanding how reasons and evidence support or refute conclusions Question 37 Which of the following is not a major area of specialization in research psychology? psychometrics industrial/organizational personality social Question 38 Some researchers have suggested that people currently tend to sleep during periods of darkness because sleeping under these conditions was an adaptive behavior that helped to increase survival among early humans. This is the type of argument that would most likely be made by psychologists who take the cognitive perspective in psychology evolutionary perspective in psychology biological perspective in psychology behavioral perspective in psychology Question 39 It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by William James Abraham Maslow B. F. Skinner Wilhelm Wundt Question 40 Imagine two scientists from another planet visit earth and are attempting to study our computers. In his studies Poz focuses on how the computer is used for conducting business, accessing research, communicating with others, and playing games, while Zog concentrates on the construction of the harddrive, monitor, keyboard and mouse. Poz's approach is most similar to ____ while Zog's is most similar to ____. functionalism; behaviorism functionalism; structuralism structuralism; functionalism structuralism; behaviorism ... View Full Document

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