Chapter 07
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Chapter 07

Course Number: MANA 4322, Spring 2012

College/University: University of Texas

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Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets True/False Questions 1. The trend towards worldwide markets makes it easier to predict where competitors will spring up. Answer: False 2. Because many countries are investing in countries other than their own, each country is becoming more autonomous and independent. Answer: False 3. An advantage of international expansion is that competition...

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7 Chapter International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets True/False Questions 1. The trend towards worldwide markets makes it easier to predict where competitors will spring up. Register to View Answer2. Because many countries are investing in countries other than their own, each country is becoming more autonomous and independent. Register to View Answer3. An advantage of international expansion is that competition within foreign countries is generally very similar to that of the United States. Register to View Answer4. In Michael Porter's diamond of competitive advantage, there are four broad attributes that, as a system, constitute a nation's competitiveness in an industry. Register to View Answer5. The factor conditions of a country are inherited and cannot be created. Register to View Answer6. With regard to factor conditions, the pool of resources that a firm (or nation) has is much more important than the speed and efficiency with which these resources are deployed. Register to View Answer7. Demanding domestic consumers tend to push firms to move ahead of companies in other countries where consumers are less demanding and more complacent. Register to View Answer8. High levels of environmental awareness in Denmark have led to a decline in Denmark's industrial competitiveness in the international marketplace. Register to View Answer Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 349 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 9. Countries with a strong supplier base benefit by adding efficiency to upstream activities. Register to View Answer10. Typically, intense rivalry in domestic markets does not force firms to look outside their national boundaries for new markets. Register to View Answer11. Many international firms are increasing their efforts to market their products and services to countries such as India and China as the ranks of their middle class continue to increase. Register to View Answer12. International expansion can extend the life cycle of a product that is in its maturity stage in a firm's home country. Register to View Answer13. An advantage of international expansion is that it can enable a firm to optimize the location of every activity in its value chain. Register to View Answer14. The laws, and the enforcement of laws, associated with the protection of intellectual property rights represent a significant currency and management risk to multinational firms. Register to View Answer15. Differences in foreign markets such as culture, language, and customs can represent significant management risks when firms enter foreign markets. Register to View Answer16. Two opposing pressures that managers face when they compete in foreign markets are: cost reduction and adaptation to local markets. Register to View Answer 350 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 17. Within a worldwide market, the most effective strategies are neither purely multidomestic nor purely global. Register to View Answer18. Theodore Levitt has argued that people around the world are willing to sacrifice preferences in product features, functions, and design if they are offered lower prices and high quality. Register to View Answer19. Among Theodore Levitt's assumptions that would favor a global strategy is that consumers around the world are becoming less price sensitive. Register to View Answer20. A multidomestic strategy is the most appropriate strategy for international operations because it drives economies of scale as far as possible and provides a middle of the road product appealing to the largest number of consumers in every market. Register to View Answer21. The need to attain economies of scale encourages multinational firms to operate under a multidomestic strategy. Register to View Answer22. Industries in which proportionally more value is added in upstream activities are more likely to benefit from a global strategy than those in which more value is added downstream (closer to the customer). Register to View Answer23. In a global strategy a firm operates all its businesses under a single common strategy regardless of location. Register to View Answer24. Corporations with multiple foreign operations that act very independently of one another are following a multidomestic strategy. Register to View AnswerDess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 351 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 25. A multidomestic strategy would likely include the use of high volume, centralized production facilities to maximize economies of scale. Register to View Answer26. Firms pursuing a cost leadership strategy are inherently unsuited to successfully follow a multidomestic strategy. Register to View Answer27. Multinational firms following a transnational strategy strive to optimize the tradeoffs associated with efficiency, local adaptation, and learning. Register to View Answer28. A key tenet of a transnational strategy is improved adaptation to all competitive situations as well as flexibility by capitalizing on communication and knowledge flows throughout the organization. Register to View Answer29. Typically, joint ventures involve less control and risk than franchising. Register to View Answer30. A franchise generally expires after a few years whereas a license is designed to last into perpetuity. Register to View Answer31. Foreign direct investment includes exporting and licensing. Register to View Answer32. Typically, the best method of entry into a foreign market is the establishment of a wholly owned foreign subsidiary so that the parent organization can maintain a high level of control. Register to View Answer 352 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets Multiple Choice Questions 33. A major trend in international developments includes A) greater international trade and operations. B) a growing recognition of an international managerial perspective. C) a large increase in international investment. D) all of the above Register to View Answer34. The reasons that explain why some governments make better use of the inflows from foreign investment and know-how than others include all of the following except A) governmental practices that are business-friendly. B) local entrepreneurs that can train workers and invest in modern technology. C) high tariffs and taxes on foreign investors and multinational corporations provide income to improve living conditions. D) sound management of broader economic factors such as interest rates and inflation. Register to View Answer35. In Michael Porter's framework all of the following factors affect a nation's competitiveness except A) factor conditions. B) demand characteristics. C) related and supported industries. D) policies that protect the nation's domestic competitors. Register to View Answer36. All of the factors below have made India's software services industry extremely competitive on a global scale except A) large pool of skilled workers. B) large network of public and private educational institutions. C) tax and antitrust legislation that protect the dominant players in the industry. D) large, growing market and sophisticated customers. Register to View Answer Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 353 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 37. Rivalry is intense in nations with conditions of ________ consumer demand, ___________supplier bases, and ____________ new entrant potential from related industries. A) weak; weak; high B) strong; strong; low C) strong; strong; high D) weak; weak; low Register to View Answer38. According to Michael Porter, firms that have experienced intense domestic competition are A) unlikely to have the time or resources to compete abroad. B) most likely to design strategies aimed primarily at the domestic market. C) more likely to design strategies and structures that allow them to successfully compete abroad. D) more likely to demand protection from their governments. Register to View Answer39. All of the following would be viewed as advantages of global diversification except A) fewer social and political risks than domestic operations. B) a firm not being solely dependent on the domestic market. C) a firm with large margins at home helping subsidize its operations in other nations. D) the potential to lower costs of operation even if the primary market is at home. Register to View Answer40. The sale of Boeing's commercial aircraft and Microsoft's operating systems in many countries enable these companies to benefit from A) higher prices in their domestic markets. B) economies of scale. C) optimizing the location for many activities in their value chain. D) reducing their exposure to currency risks. Register to View Answer 354 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 41. Optimizing the location of every activity in the value chain can yield all of the following strategic advantages except A) performance enhancement. B) cost reduction. C) extending the life cycle of the product of service. D) risk reduction. Register to View Answer42. Microsoft decided to establish a corporate research laboratory in Cambridge, England A) because England is an ally of the United States. B) to access the outstanding technical and professional talent available there so that they can attain world-class excellence in selected value-creating activities. C) because the local language is English. D) because the company views the United States as a risky place to expand due to the actions of the U.S. Department of Justice. Register to View Answer43. Many U.S. multinational companies set up maquiladora operations south of the USMexico border primarily A) to sell products into the growing Mexican market. B) as part of US government-initiated measures to discourage illegal immigration. C) to take advantage of the lower tax rates in Mexico. D) to take advantage of the low cost of labor. Register to View Answer44. Appreciation of the U.S dollar will have the following impact on McDonald's: A) lower sales abroad because foreign customers cannot afford McDonalds' products. B) more transfer of ingredients from the U.S to branches abroad to take advantage of the higher dollar. C) lower profits, because foreign profits will be reduced when measured in dollars. D) no impact at all. Register to View Answer Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 355 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 45. Software Tech, Inc., a company in the computer software industry, invests heavily in R&D and product design. Thus, most of its value is added A) upstream. B) in its infrastructure. C) downstream. D) midstream. Register to View Answer46. Industries in which proportionally more value is added in ____________ activities are more likely to benefit from a ____________ strategy. A) downstream; global B) upstream; multidomestic C) upstream; global D) manufacturing; multidomestic Register to View Answer47. Pressures to reduce costs require that A) a company should not trade idiosyncratic preferences in product features for higher economic returns. B) a company pursue must what is economically beneficial to the company including maximizing economies of scale and learning curve effects. C) the manager should follow a multidomestic strategy to maximize the economic benefits to the company. D) the company needs to supplement the local foreign economy in a manner specified by the local government. Register to View Answer48. Which of the following types of international firms are most likely to benefit from a global strategy as opposed to a multidomestic strategy? A) firms that compete in industries in which consumer preferences vary substantially in each country B) firms in industries that are expanding very rapidly C) firms in industries that have value added by sales and marketing departments D) firms in industries that have much value added in research and design or manufacturing Register to View Answer 356 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 49. Recent trends that might lead managers of multinational corporations (MNCs) to adopt a more decentralized strategy for their operations would include all of the following except A) customers' needs, interests, and tastes are becoming increasingly homogenized or similar. B) consumers around the world are increasingly willing to trade off idiosyncratic preferences in product features for lower price. C) flexible manufacturing trends have allowed a decline in the minimum volume required to reach acceptable levels of production efficiency. D) fluctuating exchange rates. Register to View Answer50. Which one of the following is one of Theodore Levitt's assumptions supporting a pure global strategy? A) Consumers are willing to pay more for specific product features. B) Customer needs and interests are becoming more dissimilar. C) If the world markets are treated as heterogeneous, substantial economies of scale are easily achieved. D) MNCs can compete with aggressive pricing on low cost products that meet the common needs of global consumers. Register to View Answer51. Low pressure for local adaptation combined with low pressure for lower costs would suggest what type of strategy? A) international. B) global. C) multidomestic. D) transnational. Register to View Answer52. High pressure for local adaptation combined with high pressure for lower costs would suggest what type of international strategy: A) global B) multidomestic C) transnational D) differentiation Register to View Answer Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 357 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 53. High pressure for local adaptation combined with low pressure for lower costs would suggest what type of international strategy: A) global B) multidomestic C) transnational D) overall cost leadership Register to View Answer54. Firms following a global strategy strive to offer ______________ products and services as well as locate manufacturing, R&D, and marketing activities in _____________ locations. A) a wide variety of; several B) a wide variety of; few C) standardized; several D) standardized; few Register to View Answer55. All of the following are risks associated with a global strategy except: A) a firm with only one manufacturing location must export its productsome of which may be a great distance from the operation. B) the geographic concentration of any activity may also tend to isolate that activity from the targeted markets. C) concentrating an activity in a single location makes the rest of the firm dependent on that location. D) the pressures for local adaptation may elevate the firm's cost structure. Register to View Answer56. All of the following are limitations of a global strategy except A) limited ability to adapt to local markets. B) the ability to locate activities in optimal locations. C) the concentration of activities may increase dependence on a single facility. D) single locations may lead to higher tariffs and transportation costs. Register to View Answer 358 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 57. Gillette's worldwide success with its Sensor razor demonstrates A) the importance of merging global and multidomestic strategies. B) the values of establishing joint ventures with several multinational corporations. C) that a global marketing effort can sometimes be successful. D) the usefulness of a multidomestic strategy. Register to View Answer58. As in the case of Siebel Systems, elements of a global strategy may facilitate the competitive advantage of differentiation by A) increased freedom of individual business units to adapt to local tastes. B) the creation of a worldwide network to achieve consistent service regardless of location. C) flexibility in applying R&D to meet country-specific needs. D) tailoring products to meet country-specific needs. Register to View Answer59. Elements of a multidomestic strategy may facilitate the competitive advantage of cost leadership by A) flexibility in adjusting to local laws and customs. B) decreased duplication of inventories which are often involved in having multiple plants producing similar products. C) decreased shipping and transportation costs inherent in local production. D) economies of scale gained through centralized production of standardized products. Register to View Answer60. All of the following are limitations of a multidomestic strategy except A) less ability to realize cost savings through scale economies. B) greater difficulty in transferring knowledge across countries. C) single locations may lead to higher tariffs and transportation costs. D) may lead to overadaptation as conditions change. Register to View Answer Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 359 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 61. Which of the following is a disadvantage of a transnational strategy? A) less ability to realize cost savings through scale economies B) limited ability to adapt to local markets C) unique managerial challenges in fostering knowledge transfer D) single locations may lead to higher tariffs and transportation costs. Register to View Answer62. In order to realize the strongest competitive advantage, firms engaged in worldwide competition must A) require that all of their various business units follow the same strategy regardless of location. B) ensure that all business units follow a strategy strictly tailored to their respective locations. C) pursue a strategy that combines the uniformity of a global strategy and the specificity of a multidomestic strategy in order to achieve optimal results. D) attempt to use the strategy that was most successful in their home country. Register to View Answer63. Units coordinate their activities with headquarters and with one another, units adapt to special circumstances only they face, and the entire organization draws upon relevant corporate resources. These are all attributes of which type of strategy? A) a global strategy B) a transnational strategy C) an international strategy D) a multidomestic strategy Register to View Answer64. Which of the following describes the most typical order of entry into foreign markets? A) franchising, licensing, exporting, joint venture, and wholly owned subsidiary B) exporting, licensing, franchising, joint venture, and wholly owned subsidiary C) licensing, exporting, franchising, joint venture, and wholly owned subsidiary D) exporting, franchising, licensing, joint venture, and wholly owned subsidiary Register to View Answer 360 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 65. A domestic corporation considering expanding into international markets for the first time will typically A) start off by implementing a wholly owned foreign subsidiary so it can maintain standards identical to those at home. B) consider licensing or franchising its operations. C) consider implementing a low risk/low control strategy such as exporting. D) form a joint venture with a reputable foreign producer. Register to View Answer66. The form of entry strategy into international operations that offers the lowest level of control would be A) franchising. B) licensing. C) joint venture. D) exporting Register to View Answer67. Fees that a multinational receives from a foreign licensee in return for its use of intellectual property (trademark, patent, trade secret, technology) are usually called A) transfer prices. B) dividends. C) royalties. D) intra-corporate inflows. Register to View Answer68. The difference between a franchise and licensing contract is that A) a franchise contract is more specific and usually longer in duration. B) a franchise contract must include a foreign government. C) a licensing contract covers more aspects of operations. D) a franchise contract involves less control and less risk. Register to View Answer Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 361 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 69. ____________ entail the creation of a third-party legal entity, whereas __________ do not. A) Licensing agreements, joint ventures B) Joint ventures; strategic alliances C) Strategic alliances; joint ventures D) Franchising agreements; strategic alliances Register to View Answer70. Foreign direct investment includes the following form of entry strategy: A) licensing B) franchising C) joint ventures D) exporting Register to View Answer71. A ____________ is a business in which a multinational company owns 100 percent of the stock. A) joint venture B) strategic alliance C) wholly owned subsidiary D) franchising operation Register to View Answer72. ___________ are most appropriate where a firm already has the appropriate knowledge and capabilities that it can leverage rather easily through multiple locations in many countries. A) Joint ventures B) Strategic alliances C) Licensing agreements D) Wholly owned subsidiaries Register to View Answer 362 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets Short Answer Questions 73. Explain Michael Porter's diamond of national competitiveness. Page: 221 - 226 74. Summarize the most important benefits and risks associated with diversification into global markets. Page: 226 - 231 75. Explain how the two opposing forces facing MNC managers, cost reduction and local adaptation, create pressures to operate with a global or multidomestic strategy, respectively. Page: 232 - 234 76. According to Theodore Levitt, what are the three assumptions that favor the pursuit of a pure global strategy? Briefly provide counterarguments to each assumption. Page: 232 77. What are some of the primary benefits and risks of transnational strategies? Page: 238 - 239 78. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of the four types of entry strategies for international expansion? Page: 239 - 246 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e 363 Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets 364 Dess/Lumpkin, Strategic Management: Text & Cases, 2/e

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6.3 The State Transition MatrixThe discussion in this section is taken primarily from section 8.2.1 of Gajic.Let us look at a 1st order DE:dx ( t )(6.3.1)= ax ( t ) + bf ( t ) .dtcfw_In the following discussion, a will be a negative number. The Lap
Idaho - ECE - 450
6.4 State Space and the Transfer FunctionThe basic state equations are&x = Ax + Bf (t ), x ( 0 ) = x 0 ,y = Cx ( t ) + Df ( t ) .We have since established the solution:11X ( s ) = ( sI A ) x ( 0 ) + ( sI A ) BF ( s ) .(6.4.1 a)(6.4.1 b)(6.4.2)
Idaho - ECE - 450
6.5 Time-Domain Simulation of State SpaceStart with our basic state space equations:&x = Ax + Bf (t ), x ( 0 ) = x 0 , y = Cx .(6.5.1)stWe are all familiar with the 1 order approximation of a time-domain derivativedx ( t ) x ( t + t ) x ( t ).dt
Idaho - ECE - 450
6.6 Discrete-Time ModelsIn discrete time the state equations becomex [ k + 1] = Ad x [ k ] + Bd f [ k ]y [ k ] = C d x [ k ] + Dd f [ k ]For instance, for a 2nd order difference equationy [ k + 2] + a1 y [ k + 1] + a0 y [ k ] = b1 f [ k + 1] + b0 f [
Idaho - ECE - 450
7. Feedback Control7.1 Introduction to FeedbackThe following system is referred to as open loop:Figure 7.1.1 An open loop systemBy closing the loop, i.e., adding a feedback which gives me a closed loop,Figure 7.1.2. A closed loop, or feedback system
Idaho - ECE - 450
7.2 Transient Response7.2.1. Transient Response of Second-order SystemsLook at Fig. 7.2.1. In the open loop transfer function:a. K is the system static gainb. T is the system time constantFigure 7.2.1.The closed loop transfer function isY ( s)K /T
Idaho - ECE - 450
7.4 Feedback System Frequency Characteristics The open control loop frequency transfer function is defined by G( ) H ( ) The closed-loop transfer function is M ( ) = H ( ) 1+ G ( ) H ( )(7.4.1) (7.4.2)Look at the denominator of Eq. (7.4.2). If the quant
Idaho - ECE - 450
Idaho - ECE - 450
MemorandumDate: Sept. 20, 2012To: Professor Dennis SullivanFrom: John SmithSubject: Grading of problem #2, Exam 1.Dear Professor Sullivan:I would like to request a review of the grading of problem number two on ourlast exam. I believe I had the cor
Idaho - ECE - 450
6.5.1: plot of y(t) using analytical and state space simulationAnalytical210-102468106810810secSimulated210-1024sec6.5.2: plot of H(s) response to u(t) u(t-2)SHimyt()21010246sces mfz a d t p ep neo x a d 2u o i
Idaho - ECE - 450
Additional Information for Outreach Students ECE 450, Spring 2012Despite what is said in the lectures, Outreach students are not required to submit the homework for grading. We have found the logistics of this to be too great a problem. But understand th
Idaho - ECE - 450
Exam I, ECE 450 Fall 2011 This is a take home exam. It must be turned in to room BEL 323 by 4:30 pm, Friday, September 23, 2011. During this time, you are not to discuss it with anyone or ask assistance of anyone on any aspect of the exam. Any questions s