Basic Principles of Spectrophotometry
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Basic Principles of Spectrophotometry

Course: MDLB 4200, Spring 2008

School: Utah

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BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 1 Principles of Light Measurement Properties of light and energy (Photons) Wavelength Amplitude (intensity, brightness) Frequency (waves / second) Relationships: E = hf; f = c/! 2 3 1 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 4 Energies of atoms and molecules 5 6 2 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 7 8 Transmission/Absorption of light Reflection = bouncing...

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SPECTROPHOTOMETRY BASIC BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 1 Principles of Light Measurement Properties of light and energy (Photons) Wavelength Amplitude (intensity, brightness) Frequency (waves / second) Relationships: E = hf; f = c/! 2 3 1 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 4 Energies of atoms and molecules 5 6 2 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 7 8 Transmission/Absorption of light Reflection = bouncing Refraction = bending Diffusion = spreading Diffraction = combination of all three wavelength isolation filters Prisms -- non-linear Diffraction gratings -- linear 9 3 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 10 11 12 4 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 13 Absorption / Emission of light Atoms Molecules Solids 14 15 5 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Laws of Absorbance Beer / Lambert Laws Absorbance vs. %Transmittance Formulas 16 17 18 6 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 19 20 21 7 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 22 23 24 8 BASIC Components SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 25 Spectrophotometer Power supply Light Source -- halogen quartz Collimating lenses -- organize parallel lines Focusing lenses -- narrow or intensify beam Monochromator Band pass Stray light = band width at band height (room light, scratches, dust, fingerprints, wide bandpass) Slit width -- exit slit 26 Sample cell -- quartz or sliica Photodetector Photomultiplier tube: Read-out device -- cathode, dynodes, anode digital, recorder, printer 27 9 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 28 29 30 10 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 31 32 33 11 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 34 35 36 12 BASIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 37 Analytical Problems Absorbance Variation Check photometric accuracy with Neutral Density filters Noise and Drift Recorder or oscilloscope Stray Light Check with sharp cut-off filters Linearity Dye solutions Wavelength Filters: holmium oxide or didymium 38 13

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Electronicthrottle bodyFordFord ECUDelphiwheel speedsensor
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
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outputinputinputx F = ma = m& m& = kx + Fxorm& + kx = Fxms X ( s ) + kX ( s ) = F ( s )2 (ms + k )X ( s ) = F ( s )2
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
Im(s)LHPRHPRHPRe(s)1( s + 2)(s + 2 + j 2)(s + 2 j 2)1=2(s + 2) s + 4s + 8G(s) =G( s) =20( s + 1)( s + 2)()Like a circus tent supportedon 3 poles
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
sna0s n 1a1s n2b1bMs2Me1Me2s1f10s0g01aaa232ab53a4ab674a1a2 a0 a3 a0 - + a2b1 =a1 a3a1a1a4 a0 a5b2 =a1a0a1-a2+ a4a3a5a1a6 a0 a7b3 =a1b1a3 a1b2c1 =b1c1b2 c2b1d1 =c1b1a5 a1b3c2 =b1c1b3 c3b1d2
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
Hendrik Bode: graduated from HS at 14Denied entrance to UIUC due to age honorary degree at age 72Attended the Ohio State BS at 19G ( jw) G ( jw)Imw=G ( jwi )Re(G ( jwi )ReG ( jwi )Im(G ( jwi )w=0Im0.5451ReRe
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
G ( jw) G ( jw)Imw=G ( jwi )Re(G ( jwi )ReG ( jwi )Im(G ( jwi )w=0Imw=G ( jwi ) = 90ReRew=0w=Imw=0G ( jwi ) = 90ReImw=010.545wT = 1ReReImw=w=00.51ReReImImw=0w=0.51Rewnwnwn 0Nyquist DiagramsFrom: U(1)64To:
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
ImIms-planeReRen-m=2F(s)F(s)-planeRe2 CCW encirclementsIms planeassume no j axispoles for nowReRes-plane is the planethat we drew ourRoot Locus in=Zcfw_# of unstablezeros of 1+ GH(closed loop poles)ImNcfw_# of clockwiseencircle
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
Gm=18.661 dB (at 1.6903 rad/sec), Pm=55.938 deg. (at 0.44611 rad/sec)50PhasePhase (deg); Magnitude (dB)0-50-100-50-100-150-200-25010-210-1100Frequency (rad/sec)1011022.5delay = 2.1885 sec.21.5delay = 0 sec.10.50-0.5010203040
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arrival angledeparture angles112ImRe55o9090ojjjjjjjjjjjjjjj1 pole added2 poles added1Ts + 1TGc ( s ) = kc = kc1Ts + 1s+Ts+(0<1)G ( s) =Gc ( s ) = k1s ( s + 1)ImRes+2Gc ( s ) = ks + 10ImReIms+2Gc ( s ) =
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - MECHANICAL - ME460
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Step Response1.41.2~25%Amplitude10.80.60.40.200510T ime (sec.)15outputuGpyCLTSee Table 10-1 in Ogata10-+-outputrefKCRPCRGGc ( s ) = k p +kI4=2+ss2RefKp1u4Kd1/sInt.sPlanty+PI controllerseKp+_eI1Ti s
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