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Encyclopedia The of ANGELS The Encyclopedia of ANGELS Second Edition Rosemary Ellen Guiley, Ph.D. Foreword by Lisa J. Schwebel, Ph.D. The Encyclopedia of Angels, Second Edition Copyright 2004 by Visionary Living, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Guiley, Rosemary. The encyclopedia of angels / Rosemary Ellen Guiley; foreword by Lisa Schwebel.2nd Ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8160-5023-6 (alk. paper) 1. AngelsDictionaries. I. Title. BL477.G87 2003 202.1503dc22 2003060147 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 3228755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by Erika K. Arroyo Cover design by Semadar Megged Printed in the United States of America VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper. For Lynne Hertsgaard CONTENTS f ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOREWORD ix xi AUTHORS INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION xv AUTHORS INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION xvii ENTRIES A TO Z BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX 387 1 380 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS f My deepest appreciation goes to Joanne P Austin, who was instrumental in . researching and compiling portions of the first edition of this book. ix FOREWORD f A huge fan of encyclopedias, I only recently updated the one-volume encyclopedia I have used since childhood (there is no entry for particle accelerator in the 1950s edition). It saw me through grade school, high school, several colleges, graduate school in Scotland, and back home again to a career as a teacher and writer. It has attended more family dinners than some members of my family and any number of bets have been settled by going to the encyclopedia. For a while, encyclopedias seemed to go out of fashion. I could not understand this. Of course, some encyclopedias tell you too much about a subject, or presume you know more than you do, and so are more obfuscating than illuminating, but this is certainly not true of all of them. A good encyclopedia is still the best first line of information on just about any topic, and I wouldnt think of beginning a research project without checking the relevant encyclopedias. When students come by for help in getting started on a topic, I direct them to the set of encyclopedias in our main office, telling them to come back to me if they dont find anything. Mostly, they dont come back. In fact, it was while doing research for my doctoral dissertation on mysticism that I came upon Rosemary Ellen Guiley through her excellent Encyclopedia of Mystical and Paranormal Experience. I became an instant fan and collector of her work. Rosemary Guiley epitomizes the qualities one hopes for in an encyclopedist. She takes a historical and phenomenological approach to her subject matter, reportingin a neutral and nonjudgmental mannerwhat folklore, myth, and religion have to say about angels, about their significance, and about developments in thinking about them over time. Suitable for teenagers as well as adults, experts and nonexperts, believers and nonbelievers, her specialized encyclopedias (on witches, saints, ghosts, and angels) provide solidly researched, comprehensive, detailed, cross-cultural information on what are complex andfor many people highly chargedtopics. It is difficult to strike the right tone when dealing with such subjects, and Rosemary Guiley has perfect pitch. Nowhere is this more necessary, and more in evidence, than in her Encyclopedia of Angels. Here her low-key and respectful presentation is just what is needed to engage a wide audience. As a resource, this is the go-to book on angels; the revisions add both breadth and depth to the original while maintaining its accessible style. This is a volume for looking up specific topics and for dipping into at random. As with all of her encyclopedias, I tend to do both: I start out needing to know about the angel Gabriel and end up also reading about Schemhamphorae. I frequently recommend the first edition of this encyclopedia, but always with the warning that it is not possible to read only one entry. The short bibliographies included after most entries are useful in directing the reader to supplemental reading. Last, the artwork is wonderful; Rosemary is to be commended for finding pieceswhether they are paintings, photos, or 19th-century sheet music coversthat not only illustrate an entry but also reveal new dimensions of it. I have found that the artwork constitutes a reference resource on its own. My religious upbringing was such that I knew angels to be messengers or agents of Gods will who xi xii Foreword appeared mysteriously and usually in disguise to mortal men and women. The angels I grew up reading about in the Bible were not particularly sweet, loving, or delightful; their appearance was not unambiguously good news. On the contrary, angels did serious and difficult work. The Hebrew Bible is full of the delicate missions entrusted to angels; missions that, according to the Bible, changed the course of human history. Angels tell Abraham that Sarah will bear him a son, and it is an angel who later stops Abraham from sacrificing Isaac. Angels are involved in the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and though they lead Lot and his daughters to safety, the fate of Lots wife (being turned into a pillar of salt) is a chilling lesson in what happens to those who do not listen to angels. Not two chapters later an angel of God attempts to comfort Hagar, Abrahams outcast mistress and the mother of his firstborn son, Ishmael, with the promise that Ishmael will be made into a great nation. The business of angels, it was clear to me as a child, was dark, dangerous, and demanding. One did not trifle with angels or get in their way; they dealt with important people and with the very very good and the very very bad. As a result I did not grow up thinking of angels as having much to do with ordinary people, let alone as being potential friends or advisers. In fact it seemed safer on the wholethe example of Lots wife before meto stay as far away from their notice as possible. My view of the subject did not change much as an adult and as a Ph.D. student in religion. The appearance of angels was still an ambiguous blessing; whatever good news they brought was invariably tempered by pain and suffering. Reading the Annunciation, it seemed to me that the angel Gabriel should have warned Mary: The good news is you will bear a son, the bad news is he will die a slow and horrible death. To be sure there was better news to come but, from the point of view of motherhood, what agony Mary must have known seeing those nails pounded into the flesh of her beloved child, standing helplessly by as hour after hour he slowly asphyxiated. On balance, I thought, it was best not to be the subject of an angels attention. However, as my research interests developed in the area of religious experience, especially in the area of visionary experience, I found myself surrounded by accounts of angel visitations. Despiteor perhaps because ofmy previous conviction that angels were best avoided, I had now made them an unavoidable area of study. What were angels? How did they function in visionary experiences? What role did they play in the lives of religious people? The approach that made the most sense to me, that most fit in terms of comprehensiveness, clarity, and consistency, was that angels are transpersonal figures of archetypal significance. That is, as messenger figures between God and human beings, as intermediaries who both deliver and effect the divine will in the world, angels symbolize the connection between the conscious mind and the unconscious, that vast, unbounded reservoir of psyche from and through which the great visionaries of all religions claim the divine makes itself known. Angels appear to move the story along; they force the plot in particular directions by shaking things up, disturbing the status quo. Understood as manifestations of consciousness, the appearance of an angel in one or another form is always a revelation of some unacknowledged, and generally difficult, truth (e.g., the appearance of the angel of death for one obvious example). Thus psychologically, angels are agents of change and growth. The range and variety of angels speaks to the depth and complexity of the psyche; and, transcultural and transhistorical similarities among angel figures suggest that consciousness has a collective or cosmic quality to it. It seemed, though, that in all of this I had left out the most important questions about angels: Are angels supernatural beings? Do they have spatiotemporal existence? Can a manifestation of consciousness exist independently of consciousness? A student, responding to my suggestions about writing a paper on angels, had this to say: though it would probably be easier [sic] to write about angels as archetypes, I think it would be much more interesting to focus on angels as created beings. The students interest reflects the central concern people have today about angelsnot what are they? but where are they? But even this betrays, it needs be pointed out, an archetypal character. The student adds: Im not sure how much text I will come across with regard to that, but I find the concept of powerful beings with free will a compelling track. Indeed. Not satisfied by the psychic reality of angels, we seek their material reality, as if psyche and matter, or mind and body, are independent and separate realities and only the second half of each pairmatter and bodyare really real. However, if we consider consciousness as a whole with many dimensions operating on and experienced in different levels, then at one and the same time, angels can be understood as separate supernatural beings and also as ultimately in and from the psyche. This is what Alexandra David-Neel, a religious adept in the yogic traditions and practices of Tibet, discovered when one of her mental projections developed a life of its own. Following certain visualization exercises David-Neel spent months creating the Foreword image of a monk in her mind. So well did she succeed in bringing the monk to life in her mind, that he sprang to life outside of her mind. He would appear without her having to think about him, and he performed activities on his own initiative. Once he was even seen by someone visiting her tent. David-Neel reports that it took six months and considerable mental effort for her to withdraw the projection and get rid of him. xiii Finally, I want to say that whether one thinks of angels as supernatural beings, as archetypal figures, or as some combination of both, Rosemary Ellen Guiley has written, and now revised, the one essential resource book on the subject. Lisa J. Schwebel, Ph.D. Hunter College, City University of New York AUTHORS INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION f The second edition of The Encyclopedia of Angels is significantly changed from the first edition, published in 1996. Content is increased with the addition of several hundred new entries and more than 70 new illustrations. Nearly all major entries and numerous smaller ones have been revised, reorganized, and cross-referenced to make the book more valuable as a resource. I have included many more entries on individual angels, including fallen angels. If you use the angels and angelology entries as starting points, you will find your way to all of the principal entries in the book. In particular, I have added significant depth and detail from apocryphal, mystical, and esoteric texts, which are rich sources of our angel beliefs and lore. Visionary recitals of journeys into the heavens written nearly two millennia ago retain their power today in their vivid portrayals of mighty beings called angels. The angels experienced then are different in many ways from the angels experienced today; the history of that evolution is a fascinating one. The angel of the prophets is fierce and enigmatic. Todays angel is more accessible, more personal, more like us. What remains unchanged, however, is the alluring mystery that surrounds angels. I am indebted to the groundwork laid by Gustav Davidsons Dictionary of Angels, which I do not attempt to re-create. Readers who are familiar with that work will appreciate the longer treatments and discussions of topics related to angels made possible in this book by an encyclopedia format. The further reading recommendations at the ends of many entries are not intended to be exhaustive references but to direct readers to useful sources. In the years since I completed the first edition of this encyclopedia, my views on angels have not changed in any profound ways, but they have in more subtle ways. I consider angels to exist in their own right, but also as part of us and all creation. To attempt to define them too precisely shatters their mystery. Angels exist in a realm that can be grasped only through intuitive knowing and visionary experience. Nonetheless, intellectual inquiry and study of angels is valuable, for consciousness is raised to a higher plane and made fertile for visionary understanding. Readers will notice at times that the names of angels can be confusing. Even within a single text, the name of an angel may be spelled in different ways. The entries on individual angels give alternative spellings and names in parentheses. Sometimes variant names describe what appear to be different angels altogether, or perhaps aspects of an angel. For example, Sariel is the alternate name of Uriel, but Sariel is not always Uriel. An alternate name of Sariel is Saraqael, which is also an alternate name of Sarakiel. There are both overlaps and differences in identities and duties, depending on the texts in which the angels are mentioned. As noted in the entry NAMES, many early angel names were the products of trance recitations of prayers and incantations. Readers may wish to read the names entry as one of the first, along with ANGELOLOGY as an orientation to this book. The literature on angels describes their many roles: messenger, protector, guardian, punisher, destroyer, administrator, minister, teacher, and servant and worshiper of God. These roles capture only pieces of their essence. Above all, angels are participants with us in the glory of creation. They sing the wonders of God and the cosmos. Their song is ours to sing too. Rosemary Ellen Guiley, Ph.D. xv AUTHORS INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION f The angel is a mystery, one that we have attempted to explain for more than two thousand years. The study of angels is vast and complex. Contradictions abound concerning name spellings, functions, duties, and identities. In fact, one can become submerged in minutiae about angels that does little to shed light on their true essence. In this Encyclopedia of Angels, significant angels are listed by name and by group. The characteristics, functions and nature of angels, and our beliefs about them and experiences with them, are covered under general subject headings and under biographical profiles of mystics, theologians, philosophers, and others. I also compare angels to some similar beings in non-Western religions. The collection of these entries provides what I hope will be for the reader a fascinating journey into the evolution of the angel in Western thought. This evolution has been shaped largely by visionary experience. What we know about angels comes through our otherworldly contact with them. My own interest in angels was sparked in the mid1980s (before angels became the darlings of the media), when I began having archetypal dreams that included a mysterious figure I identified as an angel. This figure served as a psychopomp into the reaches of inner space, leading me through a psychic transformation from one life-stage of consciousness to another, which unfolded over time. Earlier in life I had received no particular religious indoctrination about angels, and felt rather neutral about the question of their existence as portrayed in text and art. However, it seemed to me that I was nonetheless tapping into an archetypal form that exists in the collective unconscious regardless of my own personal views. This is an ancient archetype, shaped by countless experiences, which in turn shaped beliefs, which evolved to shape experience. And now this archetype was breaking through the unus mundus, the undifferentiated whole of the universe, in response to my own psychic need. I found that the more I accepted this angel, the more the archetype became energized in my life, expressing itself not only through dreams but through inspiration, creativity, intuition, and even visionary experience. Do I believe in angels? The answer must of course be yes, although even after years of study on the subject, I remain open as to their exact nature. I do not believe there are easy answers. Do they exist in their own right, in celestial realms? Perhaps so. Or perhaps there is an energy, a vibration of love and light from the Godhead, which becomes an angel when it interacts with human consciousness, taking on a form that we can comprehend and integrate into our spiritual and cosmological outlooks. Perhaps it is our need for semidivine messengers, for spiritual companions, protectors and guides, and for divine beauty in our own likeness, that draws to us what we call the angel. Our monotheistic God is imageless, abstract, and remote. The angel, upon whom we project a form that is an exalted image of ourselves, helps us to feel closer to the Source of All Being. The worlds mystical traditions teach oneness, that everything is part of everything else. Quantum physics tells us that there is no separation between object and observer, that we are inexorably bound up in what we think we merely observe. Consequently we and the angels are part of each other; the good angel can be xvii xviii Authors Introduction to the First Edition seen as an expression of our higher self, and the demon or fallen angel as an expression of our lower nature. The dynamics between the two, high and low, are what psychic integration and spiritual growth are all about. The angel is a profound mystery, as deep as the mystery of the soul, as limitless as the mystery of infinity and eternity. This is a puzzle we may never be able to solve, but our probing of the mystery yields endless permutations that deepen our insights into ourselves. The experience of an angelan angelophanyis just as powerful today as it was for the visionary prophets of the biblical era. The prophets were escorted to a state of consciousness called heaven and were given the word of God in the form of laws and moral codes. Today the epiphanies are more personal, but just as life-changing. Via the angel we glimpse the unknown, and we are encouraged to press on. Rosemary Ellen Guiley, Ph.D. A f Abaddon (Apollyon) ANGEL OF DEATH, destruction, and the netherworld. Abaddon is derived from the Hebrew term for to destroy, and means place of destruction. Apollyon is the Greek name. Originally, Abaddon was a place and not an angel or being. In rabbinic writings and the Old Testament, Abaddon is primarily a place of destruction, and it is a name for one of the regions of Gehenna (HELL). The term occurs six times in the Old Testament. In Proverbs 15:11 and 27:20, it is named with SHEOL as a region of the underworld. In Psalm 88:11, Abaddon is associated with the grave and the underworld. In Job 26:6, Abaddon is associated with Sheol. Later, Job 28:22 names Abaddon and Death together, implying personied beings. In REVELATION 9:10, Abaddon is personied, and it is the king of the abyss, the bottomless pit of hell. Revelation also cites the Greek version of the name, Apollyon, probably a reference to Apollo, Greek god of pestilence and destruction. In magic, Abaddon is often equated with Satan and Samael. His name is used in conjuring spells for malicious deeds. According to AGRIPPA, Abaddon is the prince who rules the seventh hierarchy of DEMONS, the Furies who govern powers of evil, discord, war, and devastation. Abaddon (Copyright 1995 by Robert Michael Place, from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert Michael Place. Reprinted courtesy of HarperSanFrancisco) 1 2 Abasdarhon FURTHER READING Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. Abasdarhon In the LEMEGETON, the angel of the fth hour of the night, called Sanayfar. Abasdarhon commands 101,550 dukes and other servants divided into 12 degrees of orders. Abezethibou One-winged demon who lives in the Red Sea, and who plots against every wind under the heavens and is the enemy of MOSES. In the Testament of SOLOMON, Abezethibou says he once sat in the rst heaven named Amelouth. He was present when Moses was taken before the pharaoh of Egypt, and was summoned to the aid of the Egyptian magicians when they sought to discredit Moses. Abezethibou takes credit for turning the pharaoh against Egypt and for inciting the Egyptians to pursue the Israelites in their exodus. When the parted Red Sea falls in on the Egyptians, Abezethibou is trapped with the pillar of air until the DEMON Ephippas arrives to take him to King Solomon. Solomon binds Abezethibou and Ephippas to the pillar (perhaps a reference to the Milky Way) and commands that they hold it up in the air until the end of time. amused by this. Abraham shows the men the way to SODOM AND GOMORRAH, which are destroyed. ISAAC is born, and God tests Abrahams obedience by ordering him to offer his son as a burnt sacrice on Mount Moriah. Abraham complies, but he is stopped from slitting his sons throat at the last moment by the Angel of the Lord. Theologians and philosophers have examined and debated the story of Abraham for centuries. Was his vision at Mamre a theophany (manifestation of God) or an ANGELOPHANY (manifestation of an angel)? Did the angels, whom Abraham initially assumed were mortal, really eat food or only appear to eat food? It was established early in the history of Christianity that his vision was an angelophany, and that the angels, being incorporeal, only gave the appearance of eating. God or Angel? Confusions remain over the distinction between God and the Angel of the Lord, however. The rst confusion occurs with Hagar. After her expulsion, the angel of Yahweh meets her and speaks to her. The angel foretells Hagars numerous descendants and tells her to name her son Ishmael. She calls the angel El Roi, the Abigor See ELIGOR. Abraham Patriarch of the Hebrews who was a frequent recipient of instructions and interventions from God and the ANGEL OF THE LORD. Abraham features prominently in Genesis and in apocryphal writings. The text of Genesis often reads Yahweh said; Genesis 15:1 reads it happened . . . that the word of Yahweh was spoken to Abram [his original name] in a vision. By the time they are old, Abram and his wife Sarai are still childless. At Sarais suggestion, Abram impregnates their slave, HAGAR. The girls air of superiority angers Sarai, who expels her from the house. Yahweh then makes a covenant with Abraham, promising him the birth of a sonthough he and his wife are both elderlyand also land. He instructs Abram to circumcise himself and all in his household. Abrams name from now on will be Abraham and Sarais will be Sarah. Three angels disguised as men come to visit Abraham and he feeds them beneath the oak tree at Mamre. One tells him Sarah will have a son in a year. Sarah is Three angels visiting Abraham (Gustave Dor) Abraham God of Vision. The well where this meeting takes place is renamed Lahai Roi. One midrash says that Isaacs birth is announced three days after Abrahams circumcision of his entire household, and that God commands Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael to comfort Abraham, who suffers great pain, as happens on the third day after circumcision. The archangels protest: Would you send us to an unclean place, full of blood? God answers: By your lives, the odor of Abrahams sacrice pleases me better than myrrh and frankincense! Must I go Myself? The angels accompany God disguised as Arab wayfarers. Michael is to announce Isaacs birth; Raphael is to heal Abraham; and Gabriel is to destroy the evil city of Sodom. The midrash ties in with the story that follows, the most frequently discussed angel episode in the Abraham story, Genesis 18 and 19. The text says, Yahweh appeared to him at the Oak of Mamre while he was sitting by the entrance of his tent during the hottest part of the day. He looked up and there he saw three men standing near him. As soon as he saw them he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them, and bowed to the ground. This was not a sign of adoration but a sign of respect. At rst Abraham sees his guests as human beings and welcomes them warmly. Their superhuman character is only gradually revealed. Abraham hurries to get a meal prepared and stands by them while they eat under the tree. They ask where Sarah is and Abraham says she is in the tent. Then one says he will come and visit in a year and Sarah will have a son. Sarah overhears and laughs. The guest asks why Sarah laughed; when is anything too wonderful for Yahweh? From there the men set out and arrived within sight of Sodom, with Abraham accompanying them to show them the way. Now Yahweh had wondered, Shall I conceal from Abraham what I am going to do? Yahweh is referring to his plans for Abrahams line to live in his righteous way. He says, How great an outcry there is against Sodom and Gomorrah and says he will go and investigate. The men left there and went to Sodom, while Abraham remained standing before Yahweh (18:22) and convinced Yahweh to spare the city if he nds 10 righteous men there. Genesis 19:1 reads, when the two angels reached Sodom that evening. Then follows the account of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the escape of Lot and his daughters, and the changing of Lots wife into a pillar of salt. Genesis 19:5 reads when dawn broke the angels urged Lot. . . . Concerning the sacrice of Isaac in Genesis 22, Abrahams rst instruction to take Isaac to the land of Moriah and offer him as a burnt offering comes from God, yet it is the Angel of the Lord who intervenes at 3 the last minute to prevent Abrahams knife from killing Isaac. The rabbis writing the Sefer Hayashar add this to the story. As Abraham and Isaac are ascending Mount Moriah, the FALLEN ANGEL Samael comes in the shape of a humble greybeard, and says: Can a command to kill the son of your old age proceed from a God of mercy and justice? You have been deceived! Abraham sees through the disguise and drives him away; but he reappears in the shape of a handsome youth to Isaac, whispering, Wretched son of a wretched mother! Was it for this she awaited your birth so long and patiently? Why should your besotted father slaughter you without reason? Fell, while there is yet time! Isaac repeats these words to Abraham, who curses Samael and sends him away. Different explanations have been advanced to explain the seeming interchangeability of God and his angels. According to MAIMONIDES, angels are references to prophetic vision or to a dream in which either God or an angel may be perceived or heard. Or, Old Testament angel messengers may have been remnants of stories of visitations and encounters with desert holy men who were using their dramatic and occult arts to intervene in the spiritual development of the Hebrew nomads. This might also explain how Sarah was impregnated. Abraham in the Apocryphal Texts JUBILEES written circa 160140 B.C.E. and attributed to a narration to MOSES by an ANGEL OF THE PRESENCE, focuses on the promise of progeny and land. It does not mention the theophany (manifestation of God), nor the angels eating of food. The angels, who are not specied by number, are involved in Sarahs pregnancy. Angels appear to Abraham on the new moon of the fourth month at the oak at Mamre and inform him that Sarah will bear a son. When Sarah gets this news, she laughs. The angels reproach her, and she denies laughing. They tell her she will bear a son and will name him Isaac. It is not Gods idea to test Abraham, but a plot by Mastema, the accuser. Word comes into heaven that Abraham loves the Lord and is faithful in all ways. Mastema, in the role of a satan, goes to God and tells him to instruct Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a sacrice, in order to test him further. God does so. When Abraham is about to slay Isaac, the angel of the presence who narrates Jubilees comes to stand before him and Prince Mastema. God tells the angel to instruct Abraham not to harm his son. Abraham obeys and sacrices a ram instead. Prince Mastema is shamed. JUBILEES, 4 Abraham THE APOCALYPSE OF ABRAHAM The Apocalypse of Abraham is a pseudepigraphon written sometime during the rst or second centuries C.E., and after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70. Its original language probably was Hebrew, but it survives only in a Slavonic version. The text concerns Israels election and its covenant with God, and presents a rich angelology, demonology, and cosmology. There is a nal judgment with redemption and punishment, but no resurrection, perhaps due to the inuence of the Bogomils, who did not believe in resurrection of the body. The work also is inuenced by the biblical books of Genesis and EZEKIEL, and the apocryphal work of 1 ENOCH. The restoration of the Temple of Jerusalem is important in its end. The rst part of the apocalypse concerns Abrahams early life, and the second part concerns his visionary journey to HEAVEN. In his youth, Abraham becomes aware of the wrongs of idolatry, and argues about this with his father, Terah. He pledges to seek the one true God, the God of gods. The voice of the true God comes down from heaven and orders him out of his fathers house. As soon as Abraham departs, thunder comes from heaven and the house is burned to the ground, killing Terah and all who are in it. God, who refers to himself as Before-the-World and Mighty, the God who created previously, before the light of the age (9:12), then instructs Abraham to purify himself for 40 days and make a sacrice on a high mountain (Mt. Horeb). God promises to reveal the nature of creation. Abraham falls trembling to the ground. God sends his angel, Iaoel, in the form of a man to consecrate and strengthen him. Iaoels appearance is brilliant like jewels and the rainbow. He introduces himself and describes his powerswhich include the quelling of all reptiles and the loosening of Hadesand acknowledges that he is the one who burned down the house of Terah. Iaoel keeps company with Abraham during his fast and purication; Abraham calls his ability to see the angel as his food and his conversation with him his drink. After 40 days they go to Mt. Horeb to make the sacrice of birds and animals. Iaoel gives specic instructions for how it is to be done, after which he will take Abraham on a journey to see the fullness of the universe. Abraham follows the instructions, and an unclean bird comes to the carcasses of the sacriced animals. It speaks to Abraham and urges him to ee from Iaoel or risk being destroyed in the heavens. Iaoel identies it as Azazel, the angel of disgrace, lies, wrath, and trials of the impious, whose domain is the earth. He is the lord of HELL. Iaoel orders Abraham to send Azazel away and not to answer him if he speaks again. The visionary journey then begins at sunset. Iaoel places Abraham on the right wing of the sacriced pigeon and himself on the left wing of the sacriced turtledove, and they ascend up into a ery Gehenna lled with the forms of men running, changing shape, prostrating themselves, and crying aloud. The Eternal One approaches in re and with a voice like the roaring sea, and the angel and Abraham bow to worship in song. The re rises and Abraham sees a throne of re upon the ames and many-eyed ones around it worshiping with the same song. Under the throne are four ery living creatures similar to those described by EZEKIEL. Each creature has four heads with four faces each, of a man, an ox, an eagle, and a lion, so that each creature has 16 faces total. They have six wings, two at the shoulder, two halfway down the body, and two at the loins that extend to cover the feet. They y erect with the two middle wings. After singing, they threaten each other. It is Iaoels job to turn their faces to stop the threatening. Behind the ery creatures is a chariot with ery wheels full of eyes. The throne is above the chariot, covered with re and encircled by re and an indescribable light. The voice of God emanates from the re. Abraham is shown the seventh rmament, upon which he stands, and the expanses of heaven. He sees multitudes of incorporeal angels who carry out the orders of ery angels who are on the eighth rmament. The angels of the seventh rmament command those on the sixth rmament. The fth rmament contains the stars and the elements. Looking down, Abraham sees the earth and its men and creatures, and the impiety in the souls of men. He sees Leviathan in the watery depths. He sees the Garden of Eden, and a multitude of people, half on the right and half on the left. God says that the ones on the left are the people of Azazel, and the ones on the right have been prepared for judgment; and so the entire world is divided into two parts, one good and one corrupt. Abraham also sees the huge forms of ADAM AND EVE entwined in front of a tree, and Azazel standing behind it, in the form of a dragon with 12 wings and human hands and feet. Abraham is shown the corruption of all humanity. Azazel does not have control over the righteous of the world, and he will not be able to reveal the secrets of heaven, lest he be banished to the desert forever. God tells Abraham the future. There will be 12 periods of tribulations, after which will come the nal judgment and then the redemption of the righteous. During the 12 periods, God will send 10 plagues: sorrow from great need; ery conagrations in the cities; destruction Abraxas of cattle by pestilence; famine; earthquakes and wars; hail and snow; devouring wild beasts; pestilence and hunger; execution by sword and ight into distress; and thunder, voices, and destroying earthquakes. God then will send his chosen one who will help him gather up all the people and punish the heathen. Apostates will burn in the re of Azazel, and the Temple (of Jerusalem) and its sacrices will be restored. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Field, M. J. Angels and Ministers of Grace. New York: Hill and Wang, 1971. Graves, Robert, and Raphael Patai. Hebrew Myths. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1964. Maimonides. Guide of the Perplexed. Abridged. Introduction by Julius Guttmann. London: East and West Library, 1952. Abraxas (Abrasax, Abraxis) An ancient name attributed to a god, a sun, an angel, and a DEMON. Abraxas was the name of a sun mounting an ouroborus (a snake biting its tail) held by the highest Egyptian god Isis, the creator of the sun and mistress of all the gods. Isis mythology found its way deeply into GNOSTICISM, in which Abraxas is the name of the ruler of the 365th (highest and nal) AEON, or sphere ascending to the unknowable God. Abraxas thus became the Gnostic demigod or Aeon of the High Heaven. Abraxas is mentioned frequently in Gnostic literature as one of the great aeonsalong with Gamaliel and Sablowho brings the elect into HEAVEN. Abraxas also was associated with the Mithraic mystery religion of Persian origin, the chief rival of Christianity in Rome in its rst 400 years. Like Gnosticism, Mithraism featured a complex astrology and numerology. Numerical values of Mithras and Abraxass names each total 365. Abraxas was assimilated into the Gnostic Lord of the World, the Old Testament God (really a creation/ son of Sophia, a high Aeon) who created the material world and had demonic qualities. Orthodox Christians came to view Abraxas as a demon. In turn, Abraxas became a favorite deity of heretical sects of the Middle Ages. Abraxas appears in the works of CARL G. JUNG, who had Gnostic interests. The father of depth psychology wrote a vast amount of material on his personal visionary experiences, little of which has been released by his heirs. One such document, reported by Jung to have been composed on three nights between December 15, 5 1916, and February 16, 1917, entitled Seven Sermons to the Dead, purports to be written by the Gnostic teacher Basilides in Alexandria; several of the sermons feature Abraxas. In contrast to Helios, the god of light, and the devil, god of darkness, Abraxas appears as the supreme power of being in whom light and darkness are both united and transcended. He is also dened as the principle of irresistible activity and is a close approximation of an active manifestation of the Pleroma. Gnostic talismans bearing the gure of Abraxas were saved because they were carved into valuable stones, usually oval. They show a gure with a human body, the head of a rooster (or more seldom of a hawk), and legs fashioned like serpents. The gods hands hold a shield and a whip, the shield usually inscribed with the name IAO, reminiscent of the Jewish four-letter name of God. He is often mounted on a chariot drawn by four white horses, with both sun and moon, gold and silver, masculine and feminine overhead. The symbolism is usually explained as follows: the rooster represents wakefulness and is related to the Abraxas (Copyright 1995 by Robert Michael Place, from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert Michael Place. Reprinted courtesy of HarperSanFrancisco) 6 acclamations human heart and the universal heart, the sun, invoked by chanticleer; the human torso embodies the principle of logos, or articulated thought; the snake legs indicate prudence whereby the dynamic rulership of universal being governs its own all-powerful energies; the shield is symbolic of wisdom, the great protector of divine warriors, while the whip denotes the relentless driving power of life, the four horses the tetramorphic forces of the universal libido or psychic energy (four elements, Jungs four functions). The number 365 appears again, for in both Greek and Hebrew the seven letters of the name Abraxas yield 365 in numerology, and the seven letters correspond to the seven rays of the planetary spheres, according to Gnostic principles. Jung calls Abraxas the truly terrible one because of his ability to generate truth and falsehood, good and evil, light and darkness with the same word and in the same deed. In Jungian psychology there is no easy way out of psychic conict; one must not only ght on the side of the angels, but occasionally join the host of the fallen angels. According to Jung, fear of Abraxas is the beginning of wisdom, and liberation, or gnosis, is achieved by not resisting. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Hoeller, Stephan A. The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons to the Dead. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books, 1982. acclamations One of three primary hierarchies of angels designated by the alchemist Robert Fludd. The other two are APPARITIONS and VOICES. Adam and Eve According to the Bible, the rst man and rst woman. Genesis 2:79 tells how God creates Adam (man) in his own likeness from dust and plants in the garden of Eden. In Genesis 2:2122, God decides man should not be alone and takes a rib from Adam while he sleeps, fashioning it into Eve (the mother of all things). Their paradisal life ends, however, in Genesis 3 when Eve is tempted by a serpent to eat the forbidden fruit of the tree of life in the center of the garden. She does so and gives fruit to Adam to eat. As a result they fall from grace. God, angry, curses the serpent to crawl on its belly, curses Eve to be submissive to her husband and to have pain in childbirth, and curses Adam to sweat and toil and suffer pain and death. The two are sent out of Eden. God places CHERUBIM with a turning aming sword at the east gate of Eden to guard access to the Tree of Life. In some texts Adam is an angel. He is the bright angel in The Book of Adam and Eve and is the second angel in 2 ENOCH. He is sometimes associated with the sixth sephira of the Kabbalistic TREE OF LIFE, Tipareth (Beauty). The Tree of Life itself represents ADAM KADMON, the archetypal man. According to the lore of Lilith, the queen of DEMONS and night terrors, Lilith was the rst woman to have sex with Adam. The union spawned demons, including Asmodeus. The Life of Adam and Eve The Life of Adam and Eve, written in the latter part of the rst century, provides more details of angelic involvement in the story of Adam and Eve. The Vita text is written in Slavonic (Latin) and the Apocalypse text in Greek. A third version, the Apocalypse of MOSES, dates to late medieval times and is derived from earlier Hebrew and Aramaic sources. The Vita begins with the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden. Adam says that in order to repent, he will fast for 40 days in the Jordan River. He instructs Eve to go into the Tigris River up to her neck and stand there silently for 37 days. Eve obeys. After 18 days, Satan transforms himself into a bright angel and seeks to lure Eve out of the water with a promise of food. Fooled, she does so, and Satan takes her to Adam. Both Adam and Eve are distressed at Eves seduction again. Satan blames his own fall on Adam. He tells them that when Adam was created, the angel Michael brought him into heaven and made the angels worship him as the image of the Lord. Satan and the angels under him refused to do so. This angered God and he cast them out of HEAVEN. Jealous of Adam and Eve in Paradise, Satan plotted to get them cast out in return. Hearing this, Adam cries out to God to be delivered from Satan, and the devil disappears. When Eve gives birth to Cain, she is attended by 12 angels and two EXCELLENCIES, or VIRTUES. Michael stands to her right and touches her from her head to her breast and blesses her and pledges the help of the angels. After the birth of the child, God sends Michael to give Adam seeds and teach him how to become a farmer. After the birth of Seth, Adam tells Seth about a vision he had. He says that after he and Eve were driven out of Paradise, they prayed and Michael came to them. Adam saw a chariot like the wind with wheels of re. It carried him into the Paradise of righteousness, where he saw the Lord in the appearance of unbearable Adam and Eve aming re. Thousands of angels were to the left and right of the chariot. Filled with fear, Adam worshiped God, but he is told he will die because he listened to Eve instead of God. Adam begged for mercy, and so God says he will permit descendants from Adam who will serve him. Michael immediately took Adam by the hand and ejected him from the Paradise of visitation (evidently a special receiving area). The angel then took a rod and touched the waters around Paradise, freezing them. Michael returned Adam to the place where his vision had begun. At age 930, Adam falls into his nal illness. He gathers all his 30 sons around him and relates the story of the Fall. He asks Seth and Eve to go to the gates of Paradise and beg for the oil from the tree of mercy to ease his pain. In Paradise, a wild beast (Satan) attacks Seth and bites him, infecting future generations with transgression and sin. Seth and Eve continue on. They encounter Michael, who tells them the oil cannot be taken until the last days, a reference to the future redemptive power of Christ. Michael says that Adam will die in six days, and, at the moment he does, Seth and Eve will see a great vision of heavenly wonders. Adam dies in six days, and for seven days the sun, moon, and stars are darkened. While Seth mourns, Michael appears to him and says he will show him what the merciful God has in store for Adam. As angels sound trumpets and praise God for showing pity, God hands Adam to Michael to stay in his custody until the day of judgment, at which time Adam shall have the throne that once belonged to Satan before his fall. God instructs Michael and Uriel to place three linen cloths over Adam and his son Abel, and bury them. The angels proceed, and instructions are given that burials must be done in this fashion. Six days after Adam dies, Eve announces her impending death and gathers her 30 sons and 30 daughters. She instructs them to write the story of Adam and Eve on clay and stone tablets, one of which will survive no matter how the Lord will judge humanity: The stone tablets will survive judgment by water and the clay will survive judgment by re. Eve dies and is buried. Seth writes the tablets in an automatic script: An angel holds his hand and he knows not what he writes. He places the tablets in Adams oratory where Adam once prayed. After the Flood, the tablets are seen by many but not read, until SOLOMON finds them. The angel who held Seths hand tells Solomon to build a temple upon the place where Adam and Eve had once prayed. 7 Cherub driving Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden (Gustave Dor) Solomon completes the temple. He finds on the stones the prophecy made by ENOCH before the Flood, namely, that the Lord will come to judge the impious. So ends the Vita. The Greek Apocalypse text states that it is the narrative and life of Adam and Eve as revealed by God to Moses when he received the tablets of law. The story line is similar. When Adam falls ill, it is Eve, however, who tells their children the story of Paradise and the Fall. When Adam dies, Eve beholds a chariot of light coming down from heaven. It is preceded by angels and is pulled by four radiant eagles whose glory and faces cannot be seen by the living. The chariot comes to Adam and SERAPHIM stand between it and his body. Angels bring bowls of incense to the altar and breathe on them, causing the sky to be hidden behind the fumes. The angels fall down and beg God to forgive Adam. The sun, moon, and stars darken. An angel sounds a trumpet, and the angels who had fallen on their faces rise and declare God has forgiven Adam. A seraph carries Adam off to the Lake of Acheronwaters over 8 Adam and Eve which the souls of the dead are transported to the underworldand washes him three times in the presence of God. Adam lies for three hours, and then God hands him to Michael to take into the third heaven, where he is to be left until that great and fearful day which I am about to establish for the world (37:6). Michael asks God how Adams remains shall be treated. God sends angels to take Adams body to Paradise, and he instructs Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael to go to the third heaven and etch three cloths of linen and silk and oil from the oil of fragrance. With these they are to prepare the bodies of both Adam and Abel. Abels body, which had been rejected by the earth, had been taken by an angel to a rock where it awaited his fathers death. Adam and Abel are buried in Paradise where God rst took the dust to form Adam. God promises resurrection to Adam and his descendants on the last day. He places a triangular seal upon the tomb. Knowing her own impending death, Eve begs God to be buried with Adam. Michael attends her death, and he and three other angels take her body to be buried with Abel. Michael instructs Seth that all people are to be buried in this way, with cloths and oils, until the day of resurrection. Mourning is to last no more than six days, and the seventh day is for rejoicing, for on that day God and the angels rejoice in the migration from the earth of the righteous soul. Michael ascends to heaven, praising God. So ends the Apocalypse text. Seth. But the knowledge of God leaves them, and their world is dark and full of dead things, like men. Three menpossibly angels, similar to the men who appeared to ABRAHAMcome to Adam and give him a revelation. He predicts the Flood, the division of the earth by NOAH, and the establishment of the 12 kingdoms. Three great aeonsAbraxas, Gamaliel, and Sablowill carry off the elite into heaven. The Photor, or ILLUMINATOR of knowledge, will come to redeem souls, and those who accept his truth will live forever. The Apocalypse of Adam The Apocalypse of Adam is a Gnostic text written between the rst and fourth centuries, and it forms part of the pseudepigrapha. It comprises a secret revelation given by Adam to Seth immediately before Adams death. It is intended to be passed on down through Seths line. As is characteristic of Gnostic literature, it presents two Gods, the creator God who is the Demiurge and the supreme God who is remote. The creator God rules the AEONS and POWERS, and becomes hostile toward the eternal God. The Apocalypse of Adam stands out from most other Gnostic texts in its use of the name God for both deities. The followers or the creator God are doomed, whereas the followers of Seth hold the secret knowledge of the higher God, and will have salvation in imperishability. Adam begins his revelation by telling Seth that he and Eve once had the glory of the aeon from which they had come. Eve teaches him a word knowledge of the eternal God, and they are like great eternal angels, loftier than God. But upon the fall they become two aeons and their glory returns to a higher level. Their knowledge passes into humanity through First hour of the night: The praise of demons; they do not injure or harm anyone. Second hour of the night: The praise of doves. Third hour of the night: The praise of sh, all the lower depths, and re. Fourth hour of the night: The holy, holy, holy praise of the seraphim. Adam comments that once he heard the beat of their wings to the sound of their triple praise, but after his fall, heard them no more. Fifth hour of the night: Praise of the waters that are above heaven. Adam once heard the sound of these waves, which prompted the angels to sing hymns of praise to God. Sixth hour of the night: The construction of the clouds and the great fear that comes in the middle of the night. Seventh hour of the night: The viewing of powers while the waters are asleep. Priests can mix the waters with consecrated oil and anoint those who are aficted, so that they rest. Eighth hour of the night: The sprouting of grass upon the earth while dew descends from heaven. The Testament of Adam The Testament of Adam is a short pseudepigraphon written between the second and fth centuries C.E. It is rich in ANGELOLOGY and shares some common ground with the Life of Adam and Eve. It is divided into three sections: the Horarium, about the hours of the night and day; the Prophecy, in which Adam gives a revelation to Seth about creation, the Fall, the Flood, the coming of Christ, and the end of the world; and the Hierarchy, which describes the nine levels of the angelic kingdom. The text presents God as the creation of everything good and evil; there is no dualism, and everything has its proper place in the scheme of things. Adam intended to become a god, but he made the mistake that resulted in the Fall. The Horarium describes the various aspects of all the hours of the night and day, their purposes and events that take place at those times. The hours are: Adam Kadmon Ninth hour of the night: The praise of the CHERUBIM. Tenth hour of the night: The praise of human beings. The gate of heaven opens and the prayers of all living things enter; they worship and leave. Whatever a person asks shall be given in this hour, when the seraphim and the roosters beat their wings (dawn). Eleventh hour of the night: Joy on earth as the sun rises from Paradise and shines on all creation. Twelfth hour of the night: The waiting for incense. Silence is imposed on all the ranks of re and wind until the priests burn incense to his divinity. All heavenly powers are dismissed. First hour of the day: The petition of the heavenly ones. Second hour of the day: The prayer of the angels. Third hour of the day: The praise of the birds. Fourth hour of the day: The praise of the beasts. Fifth hour of the day: The praise which is above heaven. Sixth hour of the day: The praise of the cherubim who plead against the wickedness of human nature. Seventh hour of the day: The entry and exit from the presence of God, when the prayers of all living things enter, worship, and leave. Eighth hour of the day: The praise of the re and the waters. Ninth hour of the day: The petition to those angels who stand before the throne of God. Tenth hour of the day: The visitation of the waters when the spirit (Lord) descends and broods upon the waters and upon the fountains. If the Lord does not do this, the demons will injure everyone they see. The waters are taken up by priests, mixed with consecrated oil, and administered to the aficted, so that they have rest and are healed. Eleventh hour of the day: The exultation and joy of the righteous. Twelfth hour of the day: The petitioning of God for his gracious will. In the Prophecy, Adam foretells the birth of Christ into a human body, and his miraculous powers. He tells Seth that after he ate of the forbidden fruita gGod spoke to him. God said he knew Adam wanted to be a god, and he would make him one, but not for a long time because he had listened to the serpent. Thus, Adam was consigned to death but would not waste away in SHEOL. For the sake of Adam, God would be born into esh through the Virgin Mary, and God would establish a new heaven for the seed of Adam. God said that after three days from his death, he 9 would rise from the tomb, set Adam at his right hand, and restore to him and his posterity the justice of heaven. Adam also predicts the Flood because of the sins of Eve and the daughters of Cain. After the Flood, there would be a period of 6,000 years, and then the world would end. Seth then writes that after Adam died, he was buried at the east of Paradise opposite the rst city built on Earth, which was named after Enoch. Adam was taken to his grave by angels and the POWERS. For seven days, the sun and moon were dark. The testament was placed in the cave of treasures, along with the gold, myrrh, and frankincense that Adam had taken from Paradise. These gifts would be taken by the magi to the infant Jesus. The Hierarchy describes the duties of the levels of angels and how they are involved in service to the world. The orders, from lowest to highest are: Angels: One angel is assigned to every person to accompany that individual everywhere. Archangels: They direct everything in creation according to the plan of God. Archons: They govern the elements and the weather. Authorities: They govern the celestial lights of the sun, moon, and stars. Powers: They prevent the demons from destroying the world. Dominions: They rule over earthly kingdoms and decide the outcome of wars. In biblical battle descriptions, they are angels riding on red horses. Thrones: They stand before God and guard the gate of the holy of holies. They glorify God every hour with hymns of holy, holy, holy. (See QEDUSSAH.) Cherubim: They stand before God and reverence his throne and keep the seals. They sing the hourly holy, holy, holy. Seraphim: They stand before God and serve his inner chamber. They sing the hourly holy, holy, holy. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Hurtak, J. J. The Scrolls of Adam and Eve: A Study of Prophetic Regenesis. Los Gatos, Calif.: The Academy for Future Science, 1989. Adam Kadmon The Celestial Man, the heavenly body of light of the primordial, archetypal form of the Adamic race. The 10 Adimus god Brahma, and Indra, the weather and storm god. The 12 adityas correspond to the months of the year. Adnachiel (Advachiel, Adernahael) Angel who rules November and the sign of Sagittarius. Adnachiel also shares rulership of the order of angels with Phaleg. Adonael In the Testament of SOLOMON, one of seven ARCHANGELS, and the angel who has the power to thwart the demons Methathiax and Bobel, who cause diseases. See DECANS OF THE ZODIAC. Adonai (Adonay) Name that refers to an angel or is also another name for God. In Phoenician mythology, Adonai is one of the seven ELOHIM or ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE who create the universe. In GNOSTICISM, he is one of the 12 powers created by Ialdabaoth. In MAGIC, Adonai is conjured in many rituals and in exorcisms of re. Adam as the angel Adamel (Copyright 1995 by Robert M. Place; from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert M. Place) Fall nearly separates ADAM AND EVE from their Adam Kadmon, or perfected state. The Adam Kadmon has a divine GEMATRIA. In the Pistis Sophia, JESUS refers to 12 emanations of light, which are the radiance of the universe and which are multiplied into orders and suborders from two to 144,000. See ARCHETYPES. Adimus One of the seven REPROBATED ANGELS in a church council trial in 745 in Rome. adityas In Vedic lore, the 12 descendants or shining ones of Aditi, the goddess who is the mother of the world, and, according to some texts, the mother of Vishnu, the preserver god and second in importance after the creator aeons In GNOSTICISM, celestial planes and the rulers or powers of the planes. Aeon (aion in Greek) means eternity or eternal realm. The Gnostics conceived of the HEAVENS as a series of concentric spheres called aeons. Basilides enumerated 365 aeons, though others counted far fewer, up to 30. The chiefs of the aeons are called aeons themselves. They are emanations of God, the rst created beings, and compare to SERAPHIM in closeness to the Godhead. Abraxas is chief among aeons. Sophia rules the 30th aeon, the highest level of the Pleroma, which are the 30 aeons closest to earth and which form earths celestial heavens. Before the angelic hierarchy of PSEUDODIONYSIUS became established, aeons were included in hierarchies of angels as a 10th order. The Greek term aion is used in the Bible to describe eternity or world. In Greek lore, Aion is the proper name of a divine being born of Kore, the daughter of Persephone, who marks the coming of a new age. Aeshma In Persian lore, one of the AMARAHSPANDS or ARCHANGELS. The DEMON name Asmodeus is derived from Aeshma. Af Angel of anger and destruction and one of the ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT. Af means anger. Af governs the Agrippa, Henry Cornelius death of mortals. He is 500 PARASANGS tall and is made of chains of black and red re, and he lives in the seventh HEAVEN. In the Zohar, Af is one of three angels in Gehenna (HELL)along with Mashit and Hemahwho punish those who sin by idolatry, incest, and murder. Af helps Hemah to swallow MOSES. Agares Formerly a member of the order of VIRTUES and now one of the FALLEN ANGELS. Agares is the rst duke of the power of the east, and rules over 30 legions. According to the LEMEGETON, he appears as a handsome man riding a crocodile and carrying a goshawk. He makes those who run stand still and can bring back runaways. He teaches all languages, causes earthquakes, and destroys spiritual and temporal dignities. Agares is one of the 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Agla Angel invoked in MAGIC; also a name of God. The name Agla comes from the rst letters of the Hebrew words for Thou art mighty forever, O Lord, a common sentiment expressed in the Old Testament. Agla is invoked in various magical rites. The LEMEGETON (see GRIMOIRES) refers to Agla as a great and mighty name of God. According to the English occultist A. E. Waite, Agla is an important protection invoked in the magical preparation of ritual instruments. The name is inscribed on the blade of the magicians sword. It also is inscribed (with a male goose quill) on the blade of the white-handled knife, which is used for magical purposes except for the casting of the magical circle, done with a blackhandled knife. Agrat bat Mahlat See ANGELS OF PROSTITUTION; SAMAEL. Agrippa, Henry Cornelius (14861535) One of the most important occult philosophers of the 16th century. Henry Cornelius Agrippaalso known as Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheimwrote extensively on Neoplatonic and Kabbalistic MAGIC and the occult. His detailed accounts of the magical functions of angels, DEMONS, INTELLIGENCES, spirits, planetary and celestial forces, numbers, gems, stones, and other topics inuenced generations of thinkers who followed. Far ahead of his time and contemptuous of other intellectuals, he was not often understood by his contemporaries and often ran afoul of the authorities of the Catholic Church and the state. 11 Life Agrippa was born on September 14, 1486, in Cologne, and was educated at the university there. Some biographers say he was born into a noble family, but the prevailing view is that he adopted the name von Nettesheim, or of Nettesheim, himself, after the founder of Cologne. Agrippa entered the University of Cologne in 1499. A quick student, he learned eight languages and engaged in a deep study of alchemy, the Hermetic literature and the KABBALAH. His personal aim was to achieve a spiritual union with the Godhead. His rst job was an appointment as court secretary and then soldier to Maximilian I, king of Rome and emperor of Germany. He became involved in conspiratorial intrigues, an activity he would continue throughout his life. He earned a doctorate of divinity and lectured on the Kabbalah at the University of Dole. He tried to win the patronage of Maximilians daughter, Margaret of Ghent, with a attering work, The Nobility of Women, but the local monks denounced him as a heretic, and he was forced to ee to England. Agrippa spent years drifting around Europe, forming secret societies and working at various jobs. He was frequently at odds with the church, for he considered many monks to be ignorant and narrow-minded. He was unlucky in marriage: two wives died and the third ruined him emotionally and nancially. In Lyons, he was appointed physician to Louise of Savoy, the queen mother of the king of France. She was chiey interested in having him tell her fortune by astrology, but he said he had more important work to do. She was slow to pay him, and kept him conned to Lyons, impoverished, from 1524 to 1526, until he was able to quit. In 1519, he undertook the defense of a woman accused of witchcraft by the inquisitor of Metz. The chief evidence against the woman was that her mother had been burned as a witch. Agrippa destroyed the case against herand the credibility of the inquisitorwith the theological argument that man could be separated from Christ only by his own sin, not by that of another. The humiliated inquisitor threatened to prosecute Agrippa for heresy. He left town and resumed his traveling around Europe, taking various jobs and securing the patronage of Margaret of Austria. By 1529, he had accumulated enough money to spend his time studying alchemy. But when Margaret died his fortunes turned, and he found himself jailed for debt in 1531. His friends released him, but only a year later, his writings led to charges against him of impiety. The Dominicans attempt to block publication 12 Agrippa, Henry Cornelius of some of his work. Emperor Charles V demanded that he recant many of his opinions. In 1535 the emperor condemned him to death as a heretic. Agrippa ed to France but was imprisoned. Sprung free by friends once again, he set out for Lyons but fell sick along the way and died. During his life, Agrippa attracted many pupils. One of the most famous was JOHANN WEYER, who wrote extensively on demonology. Works By the time he was 23, Agrippa had collected a vast store of occult knowledge, and began making notes for what would become his most important work, the three-volume Occult Philosophy, a summation of all the magical and occult knowledge of the time. In 1510 he sent the manuscript to Abbot JOHANNES TRITHEMIUS at the monastery of St. James in Wurzburg for approval. The rst published edition appeared in 1531 and the complete work was published in 1533. Agrippa wrote numerous other works, which he collected together with his letters toward the end of his life and published as Opera. In Occult Philosophy, Agrippa maintains that magic has nothing to do with the devil or sorcery, but it depends upon natural psychic gifts such as second sight. He believes in the ultimate power of will and imagination to effect magic, and understands the power the mind has over the body: a jilted lover can truly die of grief. Man achieves his highest potential by learning the harmonies of nature. The astral body is the chariot of the soul and can leave the physical body like a light escaping from a lantern. The greatest and highest wonder-working name is Jesus. According to occult scholar Donald Tyson, Agrippa may have been the rst to blend Neoplatonic and Kabbalist streams of thought. The result was the leading encyclopedic authority on practical magic of the day. Dominican inquisitors successfully blocked publication of the entire work but only temporarily. A spurious fourth book appeared in 1567, but it was denounced by Weyer. An English translation of Occult Philosophy, published in 1651, was plagiarized by the occultist FRANCIS BARRETT, who published a truncated version of it as his own book THE MAGUS in 1801. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the premier magical fraternity of Western occultism, which ourished in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, used Occult Philosophy as a key source for much of its material. In book one, Agrippa covers natural magic in the elementary world, including stones, herbs, metals, and so forth. Book two covers the celestial or mathematical world and discusses the magical properties of celestial bodies and numbers. Book three covers the intellectual world of pagan gods and spiritsincluding angels and demonsand gives magical procedures for invoking and communicating with them, as well as with God. There are instructions for making sigils and AMULETS, working with angelic scripts, and working with sound and fumes. The Kabbalistic TREE OF LIFE is explained, including the angels and demons associated with each sephirot. Agrippa says that angels can impart either virtues or suffering, and bestow certain occult powers upon those who follow the right path: All men therefore are governed by the ministry of divers angels, and are brought to any degree of virtue, deserts, and dignity, who behave themselves worthy of them; but they which carry themselves unworthy of them are deposed, and thrust down, as well by evil spirits, as good spirits, unto the lowest degree of misery, as their evil merits shall require: but they that are attributed to the sublimer angels, are preferred before other men, for angels having the care of them, exalt them, and subject others to them by a certain occult power, which although neither of them perceive, yet he that is subjected, feels a certain yoke of presidency, for which he cannot easily acquit himself, yea he fears and reverenceth that power, which the superior angels make to ow upon superiors, and with a certain terror bring the inferiors into a fear of presidency. THE ANGELIC HIERARCHY Agrippa equates angels to intelligences and spirits, in that they all are nonphysical entities, are immortal, and wield great inuences over things in creation. Angels are knowing, understanding and wise. There are three kinds in the traditions of the magicians. The rst kind are the supercelestial angels, rather like intellectual spheres focused on worshiping the one and only God. So full of God and overwhelmed with the divine nectar are they that they cannot participate in the lower, inferior realms. The supercelestials infuse the lower orders with the light they receive from God, and instruct the orders in their duties. The second kind are the celestial angels, or worldly angels, for they are concerned with the spheres of the world and for governing every heaven and star. The celestials are divided into orders, as many as there are heavens and as there are stars in the heavens. The celestials also include the angels who govern planets, the signs, triplicities, decans, quinaries, degrees, and stara. There are 12 PRINCES who rule the signs of the zodiac, 36 who rule the DECANS OF THE ZODIAC, 72 who rule the quinaries, four who rule the triplicities and the elements, and seven governors of the whole world, according to the seven planets. All of these Akriel angels have NAMES and SEALS that are used in ceremonial magic operations. The third kind of angels are the ministers, who are committed to the affairs of earth and people, including travel, business, wars, and daily affairs. The ministers, who are everywhere, can help procure success and happiness, and also inflict adversity. The orders of ministers fall into four categories aligned with the characteristics of the four elements, which govern different faculties of mind, reason, imagination, and action. Agrippa also discusses the CELESTIAL HIERARCHIES of PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS, Iamblichus, Athanasius, and the Kabbalists. There are more good angels than the human mind can comprehend, but the good angels have corresponding FALLEN ANGELS or demons. 13 Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Ahriman The evil god of ZOROASTRIANISM. Ahriman, originally called Angra Mainyu, is the source of all evil. He opposes the good god, Ohrmazd, in a cosmic battle for supremacy, but one that ultimately he will lose. He is aided by demonic forces, including six arch-demons who struggle against the six archangel AMARAHSPANDS or Bounteous Immortals. RUDOLF STEINER named Ahriman as the arch-end principle of the cosmos, comparable to the devil or Satan. Ahura Mazda See OHRMAZD; ZOROASTRIANISM. THE DEMONIC HIERARCHY There are nine orders of demons that correspond to the nine orders of the Pseudo-Dionysius hierarchy of angels. They are, from the most important to the least: False Gods, who are ruled by Beelzebub and who usurp the name of God and demand worship, sacrices, and adoration; Spirits of Lies, who are ruled by Pytho and deceive oracles, diviners, and prophets; Vessels of Iniquity, also called Vessels of Wrath, who invent evil things and the wicked arts such as card games and gambling, and who are ruled by Belial; Revengers of Evil, who are ruled by Asmodeus and cause bad judgment; Deluders, who are ruled by Satan and imitate miracles, serve wicked conjurers and witches, and seduce people by their false miracles; Aerial Powers, who are ruled by Meririm and cause pestilence and terrible destroying storms, and who are personied by the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the book of REVELATION; Furies, who are ruled by Abbadon (Apollyon) and wreak war, discord, devastation, and evil; Accusers, who are ruled by Astaroth and lie and slander; Tempters and Ensnarers, who are ruled by Mammon and inspire covetousness and evil genius. All these evil spirits wander up and down the earth, enraged and fomenting trouble, but they have the potential for redemption if they repent. FURTHER READING Morley, Henry. The Life of Henry Cornelius Agrippa. London: Chapman and Hall, 1856. Aini One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. In HELL Aini is a strong duke. He appears as a handsome man with three heads: a serpent, a man with two stars on his forehead, and a cat. He rides on a viper and carries a blazing rebrand, with which he spreads much destruction. He imparts cunning and gives true answers to questions about private matters. Aion See AEONS. aishim; ashim See ISSIM. Akatriel (Achtariel, Akat(h)riel Yah Yedhod Sebaoth, Aktriel, Kethriel, Yehadriel) A crown PRINCE of judgment over other angels. Akatriel is often equated with the ANGEL OF THE LORD and is identied with Metatron. When ELIJAH ascends to HEAVEN, he sees Akatriel surrounded by 120 myriads of MINISTERING ANGELS. Akatriel also is the name of the Godhead on the throne of Glory. Akoman See ZOROASTRIANISM. Akriel Angel of barrenness. In Jewish magical lore, Akriels name is invoked in prayers for children by repeating Deuteronomy 7:12, which promises fruitfulness of body and materiality in reward for keeping Gods laws. The invocation of the NAME enhances the supernatural forces inherent in the biblical verses. 14 al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din Yaha al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din Yaha (11541191) Su mystic, philosopher, and founder of the Ishraqi (Illuminationist) school of philosophy. Life Shibab as-Din Yaha al-Suhrawardi was born in the village of Surhrawardi in what is now northwestern Iran. He studied in Maraghah and Isfahan, and he then went to Anatolia, where he associated with royalty. He went to Aleppo, where he taught and wrote and became close friends with the governor, Malik Zahir. In his youth he had a dream in which Aristotle appeared to him and discussed philosophy. He was inspired by this to reject the prevailing philosophy of IBN SINA and revive the philosophy of the Ancients. He turned to Hermeticism, Plato, Aristotle, and Su mysticism, and developed his own Illuminationist school of philosophy in which the ancient Divine Wisdom passes from Hermes to Egypt to Persia. Malik Zahir, the son of Saladin, the sultan of Egypt, lled his court with Sus and scholars. Saladin became concerned at Suhrawardis growing inuence on his son and incited local opposition against Suhrawardi. The philosopher was charged with heresy and imprisoned. Saladin ordered his execution, and Malik was forced to comply. In death Surhawardi became known as al-Maqtul (he who was killed), al-Shahid (the martyr), and Shaikh al-Ishraq (Master of Illumination). Works Suhrawardi authored approximately 50 works in Arabic and Persian. His four major philosophical works are Kitab al-talwihat (The Imitations), Kitab al-muqawamat (The Oppositions), Kitab al-mashari wa-l-mutarahat (The Paths and the Heavens) and Kitab hikmat al-ishraq (The Philosophy of Illumination). Suhrawardi holds that because ibn Sina lacked knowledge of ZOROASTRIANISM his work is incomplete. Suhrawardi sees philosophy and mystical experience as inseparable: A philosophy that does not culminate in a metaphysic of ecstasy is vain speculation; a mystical experience that is not grounded on a sound philosophical education is in danger of degenerating and going astray. Suhrawardis physical world consists of bodies of varying mixtures of light and darkness, which pass different degrees of light. Above the physical world is a vertical array of lights similar to the scheme of ibn Sina; however, they number more than ibn Sinas 10. They are not innite, but are as many as the number of stars xed in the HEAVENS. The vertical lights interact with each other to produce a horizontal array of lights. The interaction of the vertical and horizontal lights produces the bodies of the lower world, which vary in their ability to receive and pass light. Angels are divided into two orders: the tuli, who are the vertical, longitudinal order, and the ardi, who are the horizontal, latitudinal order. Each of the tuli emanates a radiation of positive attributes (dominion, independence, active contemplation, and so on) that produces an angel below it, which forms a fructifying feminine world. The higher angel relates to the lower one through dominance, and the lower angel relates to the higher one through love. The angels form a barzakh or bridge from one to another, veiling the purer light from the higher order; the higher order is revealed only to the amount of light that is passed through. The barzakh functions like the mundus imaginalis. The negative emanations of the tuli (dependence, passive illumination, love as intelligence) produce the heaven of the xed stars. The relationship of dominance and love among the levels of tuli creates the masculine ardi order, which exists as an equal whole and does not engender one another. The ardi are the approximation of Platonic Forms or ARCHETYPES; they also have characteristics of GUARDIAN ANGELS. Each one is lord of a species or class of being in the visible world that it governs and watches over. The ardi also correspond to the sevenfold powers of Ohrmazd, the AMARAHSPANDS. The chiefs of the amarahspands are the ARCHANGELS, headed by Bahman, the Zoroastrian Vohu Manah, who is the greatest and closest to the absolute light of Deity. The archangel Gabriel is the archetype of humanity and is its lordly light and revealer of knowledge. Every human being is a reection of an angel. At birth, the soul (which preexists) separates from its angel, and spends its incarnation seeking to be reunited with its angelic self and to return to higher light. The souls home or true abode is the Oriental Source, the numinous orient of light beyond the stars, where it can nd peace and bliss. The soul struggles against its prison of occidental darkness. The invocation of Gabriel enables one to discern light from darkness and also different levels of light, and thus begin the journey home. Illuminationishraqis the souls return to its home through reason and intuition. An intermediate world, the world of subsistent images (alam al-mithal) or immaterial bodies, which Suhrawardi calls the cosmic Intermediate Orient, is home to the imagination, where theophanies take place. Suhrawardis work includes a complete cycle of recitals to initiation in Persian, which are continuation of ibn Sinas recitals. The Recital of the Occidental Exile and The Purple Archangel are among those amesha spentas about the Quest, a progressive initiation into selfknowledge through illumination. In The Familiar of the Mystical Lovers (Munis alUshshaq) Suhrawardi dramatizes three beings proceeding from the meditation of the First Archangel (Bahman, the Intelligence) bearing the names Joseph, Zulaykha, and Jacob, and representing respectively Beauty, Love, and Sadness reecting upon his being. Sadness (Jacob) corresponds to the heaven whose subtle matter materializes the thought of a nonbeing; it measures the zone of shadow, the distance that always intrudes between Love and Beauty to which it aspires. At the same time, Sadness is the instrument that allows the Soul, by the roundabout way of a long pilgrimage, to approach Beauty. Suhrawardi claims to have seen in a vision the primordial Flame which is the source of these epiphanies or dawn splendors that revealed to him the authentic Oriental Source. This is the Light of Glory, the eternal radiance of the Light of Lights, Bahman. Suhrawardis theosophy of Light did not pass into Christian Europe but rather endured as a lasting inuence upon Islamic esoteric philosophy. It also had an impact upon Jewish philosophy, such as in the works of Isaac Luria and the Safed Kabbalists. Modern translations of his works have gained new attention in the West. FURTHER READING Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Liadain Sherrard. London: Kegan Paul International, 1993. Nosr, Seyyed Hossein. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1978. Nosr, Seyyed Hossein, and Oliver Leaman, eds. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1996. Allocen (Allocer) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. A duke in HELL, Allocen appears as a soldier who rides a large horse. His lion face is very red, and he speaks in a loud and hoarse voice. He teaches astronomy and the liberal sciences, and makes a good familiar. He rules over 36 legions. amarahspands (amesha spentas) In ZOROASTRIANISM, six bounteous immortals or holy immortal ones who are created by the good god Ohrmazd for the purpose of assisting him with their creativity and organizing ability. The amarahspands are similar to ARCHANGELS and organize the material world. Each is responsible for a sphere of the world, and each embodies a virtue or quality. They are: 15 Vahuman (Good Thought, Good Mind), Ohrmazds rst creation and his chief promoter, who welcomes the blessed souls, leads the founding prophet Zarasthustra to Ohrmazd, is invoked for peace, and has special charge over useful animals Artvahisht (Best Righteousness or Truth), who personies divine law and order, and rules all res Shahrevar (Choice Kingdom, Material Sovereignty), who personies Ohrmazds might, majesty, regal power, and triumph and presides over metals, his signs, and symbols Spandarmat (Bounteous Right-Mindedness, Wisdom in Piety), who is daughter of Ohrmazd and heaven, personies religious harmony and piety and presides over the earth, which manifests her bounty Hurdat (Health, Wholeness, Salvation), a feminine principle almost always associated with Amurdat, and who personies complete health and perfection, and who governs water Amurdat (Life or Immortality), a feminine principle who personies immortality and governs plants, and who, with Hurdat, is the promised reward of the blessed after death in paradise A seventh amarahspand sometimes named is S(a)raosha. The amarahspands receive special worship in ritual, and are said to descend to the oblation on paths of gold. The amarahspands are opposed by their evil counterparts, devas ruled by AHRIMAN, the Zoroastrian god of evil. The amarahspands can be seen as forerunners of the sephirot of the TREE OF LIFE in the KABBALAH. FURTHER READING Dhalla, Maneckji Nusservanji. History of Zoroastrianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1938. Reprint AMS Press, 1977. Amduscias One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Amduscias is a great duke of HELL who rules over 29 legions. He appears as a unicorn. He will take on human shape if commanded to do so, but this will cause musical instruments to be heard but not seen. The LEMEGETON says that he gives people the power to make trees fall, and he also gives excellent FAMILIARS. Amitiel See ANGEL OF TRUTH. amesha spentas See AMARAHSPANDS. 16 Amon Amon (Aamon) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. According to the LEMEGETON, Amon is a strong and powerful marquis who rules over 40 legions. He appears as a wolf with a serpents head, vomiting ame. He appears as a human when ordered to do so, but has dogs teeth. He is invoked to see the past and the future, procure love, and reconcile people. Amriel (Ambriel) Angel of the month of May, prince of THRONES, and ruler of the zodiac sign of Gemini. Amriels name is invoked to protect against evil. He can be conjured with the seventh SEAL of the planet Mars. In MAGIC, Amriel is chief ofcer of the 12th hour of the night. amulets Magical objects of healing and protection against harm, disease, and misfortune, which often invoke the help of God or gods, angels, DEMONS, or other supernatural powers. Amulet comes from either the Latin word amuletum or the Old Latin term amoletum, which means means of defense. The premise of amulets is that the powers of the cosmos can be accessed through special or magically charged objects to ward off trouble in the natural world. Amulets exist universally and were widely used in ancient Egypt, the classical world, and the Near East. Probably the rst amulets were natural objects such as stones, animal parts, and herbs. The magical properties of such objects were presumed to be inherent. Over time, amulets became more creative and diverse. Stones, gems, and other objects were used in the making of animal shapes, symbols, rings, seals, and plaques. They were ritually imbued with magical power with inscriptions, words, spells, little prayers (charms), and the NAMES of deities and supernatural beings. Written amulets for healing and protection were especially popular among Jews during the Talmudic period and in the Middle Ages. Formulae for amulets are given in texts. In addition, magical texts called GRIMOIRES offer magical procedures for making amulets drawn from Neoplatonic philosophy and the KABBALAH. Astrological inuences, tools, colors, fumes, and so forth are all important parts of the process. Names especially are believed to access divine powers. One of the greatest and most powerful names is the Hebrew personal name of God, Yahweh (YHVH), called the Tetragrammaton. Many Christianized amulets use Jesus as the great name of power. Amulets invoke the names of major angels such as Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael as well as the names of numerous angels (and demons) whose specic powers are appropriate for the purpose of the amulet. For example, if an amulet is to ward off a specic illness, the name of the demon responsible for that illness and his THWARTING ANGEL would be invoked. Amulet inscriptions sometimes are written in one of the ANGEL ALPHABETS and decorated with powerful symbols such as the Star of David or geometric shapes. Some amulets are magical squares of letters or numbers. The Jewish historian Joshua Trachtenberg cites four elements that are included in almost all Jewish amulets: (1) the names of God or angels; (2) biblical expressions or phrases that describe Gods attributes and power; (3) meticulous detailed functions of the amulet; and (4) the name of the person the amulet serves, and the name of his/her mother. Some amulets can be long and complex, such as this multipurpose one: In the name of Shaddai, who created heaven and earth, and in the name of the angel Raphael, the memuneh in charge of this month, and by you, Smmel, Hngel, Vngsursh, Kndors, Ndmh, Kmiel, Sariel, Abrid, Gurid, memunim of the summer equinox, and by your Price, Oranir, by the angel of the hour and the star, in the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who rests upon the cherubs, the great, mighty, and awesome God, YHVH Zebaot is His name, and in thy name, God of mercy, and by thy name, Adiriron, trustworthy healing-God, in whose hand are the heavenly and earthly households, and by the name YHVH, save me by this writing and by this amulet, written in the name of _________ so of [mothers name]. Protect him in all his two hundred and forty-eight organs against imprisonment and against the two-edged sword. Help him, deliver him, save him, rescue him from evil men and evil speech, and from a harsh litigant, whether he be Jew or Gentile. Humble and bring low those who rise against him to do him evil by deed or by speech, by counsel or by thought. May all who seek his harm be overthrown, destroyed, humbled, aficted, broken so that not a limb remains whole; may those who wish him ill be put to shame. Save him, deliver him from all sorcery, from all reverses, from poverty, from wicked men, from sudden death, from the evil effects of passion, from every sort of tribulation and disease. Grant him grace, and love, and mercy before the throne of God, and before all being who behold him. Let the fear of him rest on all creatures, as the mighty lion dreads the mightier mafgia. I conjure [name], son of [mothers name], in the name of Uriron and Adriron [sic]. Praised be the Lord forever. Amen and Amen. Many amulets are much simpler and may not contain all four elements, such as the following for winning favor: Andra Hasdiel at my right, Haniel at my left, Rahmiel at my head, angels, let me nd favor and grace before all men, great and small, and before all of whom I have need, in the name of Yah Yah Yah Yau Yau Yau Yah Zebaot. Amen Amen Amen Selah. Amulets must be worn on the body in order to protect a person or animal. They also protect spaces by being placed in homes and buildings or buried under thresholds. Written amulets on pieces of parchment or animal skin can be placed in pouches, bottles, and boxes for wearing or placement. See MAGIC; MEMUNIM; MEZUZAH; TALISMANS. FURTHER READING Budge, E. A. Wallis. Amulets and Superstitions. New York: Dover Publications, 1978. First published 1930. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Amurdat See AMARAHSPANDS. Amy One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Amy was once a member of the orders of ANGELS and POWERS. According to the LEMEGETON, he is a president in HELL, where he governs 36 legions. He possesses perfect knowledge of the liberal sciences and astrology. He rules over good FAMILIARS. He appears rst as a huge aming re and then as a man. Amy reveals hidden treasures guarded by other spirits. In 1,200 years he hopes to be restored to the seventh throne, that is, to the place before God reserved for the highest of angels. Demonologist JOHANN WEYER called this claim not credible. Anael (Anael, Aniel, Aniyel, Ariel, Auel, Hamiel, Haniel, and Onoel) Angel who rules Venus and human sexuality; Friday angels; the second HEAVEN; and, in some references, the moon. Anael also is one of the seven ANGELS OF CREATION and is PRINCE of ARCHANGELS and chief of PRINCIPALITIES. In the second heaven, Anael is in charge of prayers that ascend from the rst heaven. The Jewish historian Joshua Trachtenberg says that in the Middle Ages, the Jewish mezuzah, a parchment scroll in a holder placed on doorways to ward off evil, 17 was to be written only on Sunday or on Thursday, in the fourth hour, presided over by Venus and the angel Anael. The name of Anael was included in the angel names inscribed on MEZUZOT. In the LEMEGETON, Anael rules the second hour of the day, called Cevorym. He commands 70 chief dukes and 100 lesser dukes and their servants. Anapiel YHVH (Anael, Anaphiel, Anpiel) Angel associated with the prophet ENOCH and the angel METATRON. Anapiel means branch of God. In the MERKABAH, Anapiel is one of the eight great angels and is named as the PRINCE of water and the chief SEAL bearer. He keeps the keys of the seven palaces in Arabot, the seventh HEAVEN. In 3 ENOCH, Anapiel YHVH is one of the angels identied as the one who carries Enoch to heaven. He is called the honored, gloried, beloved, wonderful, terrible and dreadful Prince (16:7). He is chosen by God to punish Metatron on one occasion with a ogging of 60 lashes. Metatron says that Anapiel is so named because his majesty, glory, crown, brilliance, and splendor overshadow all the chambers of Arabot in the same way that Gods majesty veils the heavens and lls the Earth with his glory. Anapiel bows down to Soterasiel. Anahel In 2 ENOCH, ruler of the third HEAVEN, and in the Sixth and Seventh Books of MOSES, a resident of the fourth heaven. Anahel also is described as a guardian of the Gate of the West Wind. Ancient of Days A NAME of Yahweh/God or the highest of holy ones. In the book of DANIEL, the prophet Daniel sees the Ancient of Days in his ery, heavenly court in the rst of four visions: As I looked, thrones were placed and one that was ancient of days took his seat; his raiment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was ery ames, its wheels were burning re. A stream of re issued and came forth from before him; a thousand thousands served him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the court sat in judgment, and the books were opened. (7:910) In the KABBALAH, Ancient of Days describes Keter (Crown), the rst sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE, also called Macroprosopus, meaning God of concealed form. Andra See ZOROASTRIANISM. 18 Andras Andras One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Andras is a great marquis who rules over 30 legions, and he appears in the form of a raven-headed angel who rides a black wolf and carries a gleaming and sharp sword. According to the LEMEGETON, he creates discord and kills those who are not careful and wary, including the master, servants, and all assistants of any household. Andrealphus One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. The LEMEGETON says that Andrealphus is a mighty marquis who rules 30 legions. He rst appears as a noisy peacock and then as a human. He can transform people into birds. He teaches geometry, everything pertaining to measurements, and astronomy. Andromalius One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Andromalius is both a great duke and an earl. He appears as a man holding a serpent. He returns stolen goods, reveals thieves, discovers wicked deeds and underhanded dealings, and reveals hidden treasures. my messenger. Of special signicance in Malachi is verse 3:16: Then those who feared the Lord spoke with one another; the Lord heeded and heard them, and a book of remembrance was written before him of those who feared the Lord and thought on his name. The Greater Key of SOLOMON refers to Malachim as the tongue of angels. According to occultist S.L. MacGregor-Mathers, Malachim is formed by the positions of stars. The characters are shaped by drawing imaginary lines from one star to another. Passing of (through) the River. A type of eye writing, but with more embellishments than the previous two. Also known as the Talismanic Script of King Solomon, this script is so-named from the four rivers that ow through the garden of Eden: Pison, Euphrates, Gihon, and Hiddekel. Theban. A script of curved symbols. Also known as the Honorian Script, this alphabet is related to lunar energies and affects the lower astral and etheric planes. It is equated to English. See ANGEL LANGUAGES; GRIMOIRES. angel alphabets Secret written languages used in MAGIC and mysticism and conveyed by angels. Angel alphabets are used to invoke and communicate with angels and spirits, and to translate and encode prayers, charms, texts, AMULETS, and TALISMANS. One of the most widely copied and used celestial alphabets comes from the SEFER RAZIEL and is of unknown origin. Various alphabets are attributed to individual angels, including Metatron, Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and other angels. In form, some angel alphabets resemble cuneiform; others are related to early Hebrew or Samaritan script. They are called eye writing in Kabbalistic literature because the letters are formed with straight and curved lines and circles resembling eyes. There is one character for each letter in the Hebrew alphabet. The scripts may be used in conjunction with SEALS, symbols, and magical squares of numbers. Signicant magical scripts are: Celestial Writing. A type of eye writing related to the stars. Malachim. A type of eye writing that takes its inspiration from the angelic order of MALACHIM (kings) and from the book of Malachi, whose proper name is derived from the Hebrew term for Different angelic scripts, from The Magus by Francis Barrett angel bread FURTHER READING Goddard, David. The Sacred Magic of Angels. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1996. James, Geoffrey. Angel Magic: The Ancient Art of Summoning and Communicating with Angelic Beings. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Savedow, Steve. Sepher Rezial Hemelach: The Book of the Angel Rezial. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 2000. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. angel bread Manna. The Hebrew term for manna is lehem abbirim, or bread of powerful beings. According to the Zohar, Angelic alphabet for magical purposes 19 angel bread, or mannaa aky substance like thin cakes of honeyis a product of divine emanation that provides both physical and spiritual nourishment. The Zohar says that angels are nourished by it each according to his diet. The Talmud describes manna as bread that the ministering angels eat. Exodus 16 describes angel bread as bread from HEAVEN, given to the Israelites by Yahweh during their trip through the desert out of Egypt; it fell as dew during the evening, appearing in the morning like a coating of frost. Manna sustained the Israelites during 40 years in the wilderness: Then the Lord said to Moses, Behold I will rain bread from heaven for you (Exodus 16:4); And the people of Israel ate the manna forty years, (Exodus 16:35). There may be a real manna: a substance excreted by plant lice on tamarisk shrubs (found in the Sinai wilderness), which hardens in the dry desert air. One must be of a certain purity to be able to eat angel bread, which emanates from a very high sphere 20 angel language of heaven and penetrates deep into the soul. The Zohar says that Comrades, those who study the Torah, receive the highest food of all, namely, WISDOM. angel language The language understood by all angels, for the purposes of communication, intercession, duties, petitions, and prayers. According to the Talmud, God understands all languages, but the ofcial language of angels is Hebrew. Thus, angels might ignore petitions made in any other language. The belief in Hebrew as the ofcial angel language was prevalent among Jews through the Middle Ages. This principle apparently was fostered in order to discourage prayers in Aramaic, the popular tongue (but also held by some to be the ofcial language of angels). Aramaic prayers were allowed for the sick, because it was believed that the SHEKINAH hovered over the head of the patient and received prayers directly without the intervention of angelic messengers. Other prayers composed in Aramaic may have been written expressly to avoid understanding by angels, perhaps due to the contents. The importance of Hebrew as the official language of angels can be seen in the old custom for Jews to be given a Hebrew name in addition to a secular name, so that during religious rites the angels could recognize individuals. The Hebrew name was especially important for the passage of death and the ANGEL OF DEATH. The importance of Hebrew also was evident in medieval Jewish magical texts. Procedures and instructions might be written in the vernacular, but the charms themselves, intended for the angels, were given in Hebrew. The belief that angels understood only Hebrew was oddly contradicted, however, by the Talmud itself, which states that angels know the thoughts hidden in the heart. In other lore, angelic speech has nothing to do with sounds or words and is not impeded by time or distance. An angel speaks by directing its thought to another angel. Angels speak to God by consulting his divine will and contemplating him. In various systems of MAGIC, different magical alphabets and symbols are used to communicate petitions and make charms intended to procure angelic intervention; many use Hebrew. The Renaissance alchemist JOHN DEE, working with Edward Kelly, composed an elaborate system of angelic keys, or calls, to communicate with the heavenly host. Popular belief in contemporary times holds that angels, like God, understand any language. EMMANUEL SWEDENBORG, who made visionary trips to HEAVEN and HELL, conversed with angels in a universal language that is instinctive and does not need to be learned. In Heaven and Hell (1758) Swedenborg says that angelic speech ows from their affection of thought, and unites the wisdom and love that is in their interiors. The angels express ideas and nuances beyond the comprehension of mortals, and they can convey in a single word what a mortal would say in 1,000 words. See ANGEL ALPHABETS; MERKABAH; NAMES; SEALS. FURTHER READING Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. angel names See NAMES. Angel of Death Angel charged with announcing death and taking the soul to either HEAVEN or HELL. The Angel of Death is known by various names. In his true form, the Angel of Death has a terrible countenance, but he is able to manifest in any pleasing form in order to trick or calm the living into giving up their souls to him. Serving as the Angel of Death is one of the functions ascribed to the GUARDIAN ANGEL in Christian belief. According to ORIGEN, the celestial escort receives the soul at the moment it leaves the body. Among the prominent Angels of Death are Michael, who leads souls of the dead to the afterlife (see PSYCHOPOMPOI), and who takes away the souls of ABRAHAM and MARY; Gabriel, a guardian of the underworld; Satan; Samael, who holds a sword over the mouths of the dying, from which falls a drop of poison; and Iblis. In rabbinic writings, other angels of death are Metatron, Azrael, Abbadon (Apollyon), Hemah, Kafziel, Kezef, Leviathan, Malach ha-Mavet, Mashit, Yehudiah, and Yetzer-hara. Azrael is prominent in Arabic lore; in ZOROASTRIANISM, it is Mairya. In folktales the Angel of Death often is not named. The Testament of ABRAHAM relates the story of Abrahams encounter with the angel of death. The story begins when Abraham is 175 years old and at the end of his life. Both his wife Sarah and son ISAAC gure in the story, although according to Genesis Sarahs death preceded that of Abraham, and Isaac was married to Rebecca when his father died. Angel of Death 21 Angel of Death taking a soul, in the form of a child, from a dying man (Reiter, Mortilogus, 1508) God sends Michael to Abraham to tell him it is time to die. Abraham still lives by the oak tree at Mamre, where he had earlier in his life served and fed three visitors who were angels in disguise. He sees Michael approach him, and though he looks like a splendid warrior, he does not recognize him as an angel. He invites Michael to come with him, and the two walk back to Abrahams house. Isaac, recognizing Michael as an angel, falls at the angels feet. He tells Sarah that Michael is an angel. Abraham has Isaac fetch water, which he uses to wash Michaels feet. He begins to weep, and sees that Michael weeps tears of precious stones. Abraham then orders Isaac to prepare a room for a banquet. Michael excuses himself and goes immediately to heaven, where he has a conversation with God. Abraham is so righteous, he says, that he cannot pronounce death upon him. God decides to send a prophecy of death in a dream to Isaac, which Michael can then interpret. Michael also wonders how he will be able to eat food. God says he will send an all-devouring spirit to consume the food and protect Michaels identity. Michael goes back to Abraham and joins him in the meal. They pray together. When Isaac goes to sleep, he dreams the death prophecy and awakens weeping. Michael also weeps. Sarah attends them, and realizes that Michael is one of the three mysterious visitors from before. She quietly lets Abraham know. Abraham hears Isaacs dream, and Michael interprets it. Abraham persuades Michael to admit that he is an angel, and to reveal the purpose of his visit. He refuses to die. He discusses death with God, and Michael takes him on a tour of the cosmos. Still Abraham refuses to die. 22 Angel of Death Angels taking away souls of the dead (Authors collection) God then sends the Angel of Death to Abraham at Mamre, and he reveals his true appearance: The Death made his appearance dark and more erce than any sort of beast . . . and he showed Abraham seven ery heads of dragons, fourteen faces of the most aming re . . . and a gloomy vipers face. And the face of a terrible precipice, and the ercer face of an asp, and the face of a fearsome lion . . . and he also showed him the face of ery sword . . . and another face of a wild sea raging and a river rushing and a fearsome three-headed dragon and a mingled cup of poisons. Death prevails in the end, and Abraham dies. The Angel of Death manifests in a much friendlier form in the 19th-century Hasidic folk tale of the esteemed Reb Pinhas. The angel appears as a visiting Hasid, and politely presents a petition of death to Reb Pinhas that reveals his true identity. The rabbi answers with his own petition: He will be happy to go wherever the Angel of Death wishes to take him, but if he could have a choice, he wishes to go to Gehenna (hell), because he wishes to be of service to the souls there and work for their release. This places the Angel of Death in a predicament, for he has been ordered not to deny Reb Pinhas any wish. Yet, he cannot bring himself to take the rabbi to hell. Like Michael, he goes back to heaven to ask God what to do. He is given an answer, whispered through a curtain. The angel goes back to Reb Pinhas and presents him with a petition, to which has been appended a single word inscribed in black ames. The petition tells Reb Pinhas that he has been given a holy name that will take him either to Paradise or to Gehenna, depending on how the name is pronounced. The true pronunciation is so secret that only the angel Metatron knows it. Not even the Angel of Death can help. Reb Pinhas, still intent on going to hell, studies the word but ultimately must guess at its pronunciation. He goes to heaven, illustrating that there is no escape Angel of Peace from ones fate: One cannot go to hell if one deserves to go to heaven, and vice versa. A rabbinic tale from Babylon in the fth century also illustrates that there is no escaping the Angel of Death. One morning, King SOLOMON hears birds chirping, and, because he understands the language of birds, he learns that the Angel of Death plans to take two of his closest advisers. He tells them, and they beg him to help them escape their doom. He urges them to ee to the enchanted city of Luz, which the Angel of Death is forbidden to enter. (Luz, according to the Talmud, is a secret city where everyone remains immortal as long as they do not venture outside the gates. Solomon, because of his magical powers, is able to know the location of it. Also, in Genesis 28:19 Luz is the place where JACOB had his dream of the ladder.) But the Angel of Death knows all, and when the men arrive at the city gates, they nd the angel waiting for them just outside, barring their way. This and other tales about the Angel of Death show that mortals cannot escape fate, and that once God has decreed it, Death always has the last word. However, another rabbinic story tells that Rabbi Joshua ben Levi outfoxes the Angel of Death by talking the angel into letting him hold his sword. He refuses to give it back, and leaps straight into the Garden of Eden while he is still alive. The Beit ha-Midrash tells the story that Moses wrote 13 Torahs on the day he was told he was going to die, as a means of preventing the Angel of Death from taking him. According to lore, one cannot die while one is studying the Torah. The 13 Torahs included one for each of the 12 tribes of Israel, plus a celestial Torah (the best of the lot) that was taken to heaven and used by the angels. (Gabriel gave this Torah to Rabbi Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg, a leader of German Jewry in the 13th century who spent much time in prison, and who copied the Torah during his connement. He put the copy in a casket and sailed it off down the Rhine, to be discovered by Jews.) Still another Jewish story demonstrates how angels exert free will, and how God can change his mind and retrieve the Angel of Death. A mystical tale from Yemen in the 14th century tells about the fate of a bride and bridegroom. An old man, Reuben, sins once in his life by rebuking another man for sitting in his place at the synagogue. God decides to punish him by sending the Angel of Death to take away his son, who is about to be married. Reuben pleads with the angel to spare his son until he is married and has tasted the joy of life. Moved with pity, the angel agrees. God rebukes the angel for disobeying him. Chastened, the angel decides to revenge himself by taking 23 the son with the same tremendous anger shown him by God. The prophet Elijah tells the son that at his wedding, an old man in rags will appear, and it will be the Angel of Death. The angel appears and Reuben offers himself as a surrogate. The angel displays his faces of cruelty, anger, wrath, and severity, and draws his sword to cut off Reubens head. Reuben ees. Reubens wife offers herself, and then she ees in terror. Finally, the bride offers herself and does not ee. The Angel of Death sheds a tear of mercy. God, watching from heaven, has pity and orders the Angel of Death to retreat. He grants both bride and bridegroom 70 more years of life. FURTHER READING Schwartz, Howard. Gabriels Palace: Jewish Mystical Tales. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Angel of Glory One of the titles of Sandalphon, along with ANGEL OF PRAYER and ANGEL OF TEARS. Angel of Great Counsel A title ascribed to the Messiah in the Greek rendition of the Old Testament. The Angel of Great Counsel was to be the ruler of Israel. The title may have consolidated the four titles in the Hebrew version, given in Isaiah 9:6: Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace. Those four titles may eventually have been dispersed among the top four archangels, Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel/Phanuel, aspects of the ANGEL OF THE LORD. FURTHER READING Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israels Second God. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Angel of Hostility Name associated with the evil angel Mastema, prince of DEMONS. In the Dead Sea Scrolls (see QUMRAN TEXTS) and in JUBILEES, Israelites who obey the law of MOSES and are circumcised will not suffer at the hands of the Angel of Hostility. See ANGELS OF MASTEMOTH. Angel of Peace According to Jewish lore, an unnamed angel who, with the ANGEL OF TRUTH, opposed the creation of man. God punished the angels and their host by burning them. In 1 Enoch, the angel of peace accompanies ENOCH on his heavenly journeys, answers questions, and gives 24 Angel of Prayer him the names of the four archangels of the presence: Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel (Uriel). St. John Chrysostom referred to the GUARDIAN ANGEL as an angel of peace in terms of helping people to maintain their inner calm and equilibrium. See ANGELS OF PEACE; PRINCE OF PEACE. Angel of Prayer Angel who carries prayers to God. Serving as a messenger of prayers is a duty ascribed to angels in general, but certain angels are especially identified with this task. The most often named angels of prayer are Sandalphon, Michael, Metatron, Gabriel, Raphael, and, in Persian lore, Sizouze. Some angels carry prayers only to a certain level of HEAVEN, where they are handed over to angels who will carry them to the next level. Sandalphon is one of the highest angels of prayer. Tertullian, one of the Roman Catholic Church fathers, said the GUARDIAN ANGEL functions as the Praying angel at cathedral in Coutances, France (Authors collection) angel of prayer, assisting people in their most important spiritual task. Angel of Punishment See ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT. Angel of Repentance Title given to various angels, including Michael, Penuel, Phanuel, Raphael, Salathiel, and Suriel. In The Shepherd of HERMAS, the Angel of Repentance is an otherwise unnamed angel who appears in the form of a glorious shepherd and interprets some of Hermass visions. The angel stays permanently with Hermas, similar to one of the good DAIMONES or a GUARDIAN ANGEL. Angel of Tears A title ascribed to Sandalphon, who hears the prayers of the suffering, and sometimes to Cassiel. In Islamic lore, the Angel of Tears is not named but resides in the fourth HEAVEN. The Angel of Prayer (Reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) Angel of the Lord 25 Angel of the Lord (Angel of Yahweh) Angel identied with, and possibly the same as, God. While any angel sent to execute the commands of God might be called the Angel of the Lordsuch as in 2 Samuel 24:16 and 1 Kings 19:5,7frequent mention is made in Scripture of a particular angel who is distinguished from Yahweh, and yet is identied with him. Whether or not the angel represents a direct visitation or manifestation of God, God appearing through an angel, God giving an angel more direct power than usual, an angel taking the form of man, or some other phenomenon is still debated. The Angel of the Lord reveals the face of God (Genesis 32:30) and is Yahwehs name (Exodus 23:21). The angels presence is equivalent to Yahwehs presence (Exodus 32:34; 33:14; and Isaiah 63:9). The Angel of the Lord thus appears as a manifestation of Yahweh himself, one with Yahweh and yet different from him. Sometimes the angel of the Lord may be described as a oating conception, at one moment an angel, at another the Lord. Examples of other references to Angel of the Lord in the Old Testament occur in: Genesis 16:714; 18:14, 1314, 33; 21:17; 22:1112, 1516; 31:11, 13; Exodus 3:16; 23:2024; Numbers 20:16; 22:2135; Joshua 5:1315; 6:2; Judges 2:15; 5:23; 6:1124; 13:125; 1 Samuel 29:9; 1 Chronicles 21:1530; Zechariah 1:1013; 3:12. In the New Testament, angelic voices and dream visions surround the birth and early lives of John the Baptist and JESUS. The Angel of the Lord who appears to Zechariah (Luke 1:1120) says, I am Gabriel, who stand in Gods presence. The Angel of the Lord is a title applied to an unnamed angel throughout the Gospels, including those present at the tomb on Easter morning. But the Angel of the Lord came to be identied with Christ himself in early church writings. This controversy in Christian theology continues. Justin Martyr (ca. 100ca. 165 C.E.) was the rst to advocate that the Angel of the Lord was a pre-incarnate appearance of Christ in the guise of an angel. Others attracted to this concept interpreted Old Testament references to Angel of the Lord as referring to Christ. It was Christ who wrestled with JACOB, according to St. Clement of Alexandria (ca. 150ca. 220). St. Hilary of Poitiers (ca. 315367) took Jesuss words in John 8:56 (Abraham saw my day) to mean he was one of the three angels who visited ABRAHAM (Genesis 16:10). St. Angel of the Lord destroying the army of King Sennacherib (Gustave Dor) AUGUSTINE was aware of the dangers of embracing the idea that Christ had been corporeal prior to the Incarnation and opined that the Trinity was incorporeal in the Old Testament. Nevertheless, he broadened the idea of angel/messenger to include the Holy Spirit. Augustines views prevailed for over a millennium. St. THOMAS AQUINAS did not pursue the issue. During the PROTESTANT REFORMATION, John Calvin committed himself in the Institutes to a descent of the non-yet-incarnate Christ in a mediatorial capacity, that he might approach the faithful with greater familiarity (1.13.10; 14.5). The Lutherans deemed it heresy to deny that the Angel of the Lord was Christ. In his list of accusations against Servetus, Calvin indicted him for heresy for not holding that the angel was Christ (Institutes, 1.13.10). Eventually it was argued that every theophany in the Old Testament was a Christophany by the angel-Christ advocates, who said that because these angels were sometimes worshiped or that people who saw them believed they had seen God, they were indeed God. They held that the Old and New Testaments must be mediated by the same source in name, form, and substance; Christ was the Messiah and true God. Major 19th-century 26 Angel of Truth their masters business. It would make sense for an angel to represent itself as malak Yahweh [Angel of the Lord] or malak Elohim [the angel of God]. In The Great Angel, Margaret Barker makes a case for the Great Angel, or Angel of Yahweh, as originally a second and lesser God of the Hebrews. Yahweh was one of several sons of God (EL ELYON), the High God. Early, more polytheistic beliefs influenced by exposure to Babylon and Egypt were consolidated by the Deuteronomist reforms in the establishment of the Law. Yahweh also was one of the four angels around the throne in EZEKIEL; in Psalms 58 and 82 he is the judge of the heavenly court of law. Yahweh the Great Angel overlaps with, and eventually came to be represented by, four facets in the chief archangels, Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel. Metatron and Melchizedek also have associations with the Great Angel. FURTHER READING Angel appearing to Zacharias Christologists maintained the angel-Christ identication, as well as many since. M. J. Field has argued that the earliest angel messengers, particularly in Genesis, are real men appearing to be angels. According to Fields thesis, the unschooled Hebraic nomads could have been guided and led to make decisions through the intervening powers of holy men of the deserts who were interested in drawing these people toward monotheism. Field spent many years in Africa witnessing the magical and persuasive powers of men and women hermits who exerted spiritual oversight over tribes. Field notes that these people are often adept in special effects such as re, sparks and smoke, and ventriloquism, like the voice in the burning bush (Exodus 3:2). Their luminosity, dignity, powers, and charismatic presence would derive from years of spiritual practice. These individuals existed in the lands and especially the deserts of the Bible, and they created the beginnings of the Western monastic traditions. Others, such as William G. MacDonald, argue against the wholesale interpretation of the Angel of the Lord as Christ mainly on the grounds that pre-incarnation appearances of Christ make it impossible theologically to reconcile the full deity of Christ with the full humanity of Christ. For example, malak means not only messenger but agent. Servants had full authority to carry on Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israels Second God. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Field, M. J. Angels and Ministers of Grace: An Ethno-Psychiatrists Contribution to Biblical Criticism. New York: Hill & Wang, 1971. Heick, O. W. A History of Christian Thought. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1965. MacDonald, William Graham. Christology and The Angel of the Lord. In Current Issues in Biblical Studies. Edited by G. F Hawthorne and Merrill Tenney. Grand Rapids, . Mich.: Eerdman, 1975. Angel of Truth In Jewish lore, an unnamed angel who, with the ANGEL OF PEACE and the angels under them, opposes the creation of man. All the opposing angels are punished by God by being burned into cinders. Amitiel is sometimes identied as the Angel of Truth. In Islamic lore, Gabriel, the angel who brings revelations to MUHAMMAD, is the Angel of Truth. See PRINCE(S) OF LIGHT(S). Angel of Yahweh See ANGEL OF THE LORD. angel wreath (feather crown) In the folklore of the Ozarks area of the United States, lumps of feathers formed into wreath shapes found inside bed pillows. An angel wreath found inside the pillow of someone who has just died is a lucky omen that the person is saintly and has gone to heaven. The wreath is a symbol of the golden crown the person will wear in heaven. angelology Angel wreaths vary in shape and size. Some are tightly bunched and others loosely formed. They resemble rings, buns, caps, and balls, and they are from two to six inches in diameter. Most likely the wreaths form naturally from pressure and handling of the pillow. The feathers become attached by the minute barbs on the quills. Folkloric tradition holds that the feathers inside the pillow of a deceased person should be searched for signs of an angel wreath. If one is found, the family is relieved. Angel wreaths have been preserved in families as lucky charms. In earlier times, the discovery of an angel wreath was worthy of mention in the town newspaper. Angel wreaths once were so highly prized that they were stolen or secreted into pillows. Sometimes people would ask to be buried with the angel wreaths of their deceased spouses or relatives. It was widely believed that the wreaths were not made by humans or by chance but were of divine origin. Ozark superstition also holds that angel wreaths are not from heaven but from the devil, and they are a sign of witchcraft at work. Thus, feather pillows should be regularly searched, and any partially formed wreaths destroyed. 27 Straw efgies of humansusually a man but sometimes a womancommonly were burned as a part of summer solstice festivals. FURTHER READING Frazer, James G. The Golden Bough. New York: Avenel Books, 1981. First published in 1890. angelology The study of angels. The existence, nature, function, duties, and influences of heavenly forces called angels are important in the development of the monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. All three religions honor the texts of the Old Testament as divine revelation. They share roots in Middle Eastern history and Semitic languages; for example, the term for angel or messenger is malak in both Hebrew and Arabic. FURTHER READING Randolph, Vance. Ozark Magic and Folklore. New York: Dover Publications, 1964. First published 1947. angelic keys See ANGEL ALPHABETS; DEE, JOHN. angel-man In German folklore, an efgy representing the solar re, traditionally burned at celebrations of the summer solstice. The burning of res once was a widespread practice in honor of the solstice and to help the sun, at its peak power, change its course in the sky. Scriptures and other sacred writings describe angels as burning and clothed in re. An angel became an appropriate image in some seasonal re festivals. The German ritual was called beheading the angel-man. It was performed on Midsummer Day, at least up through the early 20th century and perhaps later. The angel-man was an efgy made of a stump driven into the ground, wrapped in straw, and fashioned into a crude human gure with arms, head, and face. Wood was piled around the efgy. Boys armed with swords covered it with owers. The wood was lit. When the angel-man burst into ames, the boys attacked it and cut the burning gure into small pieces. They then jumped backward and forward over the re. Michael holding the cube of Metatron (Reprinted courtesy of Jayne M. Howard) 28 angelology All three religions also share the belief in the presence of an evil force, a disobedient angel, an adversary of Goda satan in Hebrewwho wreaks havoc on the human plane. In both the Koran and the Bible, angels are sent to strengthen believers, succor them here and in eternity, undertake military assistance, punish disbelievers, intercede for humans, act as GUARDIAN ANGELS, and mete out Gods judgment on the last day. Angels represent God, but are not to be worshiped for themselves. Angels in Judaism Judaic angelology acknowledges angels as both intermediary and intercessory. Angel lore was heavily inuenced by ZOROASTRIANISM, to which part of the Jewish population was exposed during the Babylonian captivity in the seventh century B.C.E. In pre-exilic times angels belonged to popular rather than prophetic Judaic religion, but after the exile angels sprang into prominence and played crucial roles in visionary experiences such as those described in the Tanakh, the Old Testament, by ISAIAH, EZEKIEL, ELIJAH, ZECHARIAH, DANIEL, and in apocryphal works like the book of ENOCH. The Enochian writings in particular feature an elaborate scheme of heaven and the hierarchy of angels. During the Babylonian captivity, a complete system of angels, both good and bad, was developed; it shares many parallels with Zoroastrian concepts. Heaven is composed of different levels, above which rests Yahweh on his throne. The heavens below him are lled with a great multitude of angels who do his bidding, and who have specic duties to keep the universe organized and functioning. Many angelic duties overlap or even conict among angels, with different angels or order of angels performing the same tasks. In between angels and man are hosts of DEMONS. Talmudic times saw the developments of angelology and demonology, both complex and both containing entities and beliefs inherited from cultures throughout the Mediterranean: Egyptian, GraecoRoman, and Gnostic, in addition to Babylonian. Magical and mystical practices for dealing with these entities focused on the power of NAMES. Magical practices sought to borrow power from entities in order to protect against others or to effect some action in the world. Mystical practices, such as in the MERKABAH tradition and later the KABBALAH, also employed names of power to interact with angels and demons. In Scripture the function of angels is to glorify God (such as in the visionary accounts mentioned above) and act out Gods commands and will. Angels, appearing either as men (see ABRAHAM) or as an ANGEL OF THE LORD, reveal the presence and might of God in the world. Angels punish on Gods command (see SODOM Angel (Copyright 1995 by Robert Michael Place, from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert Michael Place. Reprinted courtesy of HarperSanFrancisco) AND GOMORRAH) but they also protect (see DANIEL, GUARDIAN ANGELS). But angelsor those interpreted to be angelsare themselves punished by God if they displease him. (See LUCIFER; SONS OF GOD; WATCHERS.) The references to angels in the Old Testament did not prevent the aristocratic Jewish intellectual Sadducees in ancient Israel from denying the existence of angels. However, the majority of Jews from post-exilic times onward had not only afrmed the existence of angels but also developed additional ideas about them as intermediaries who are accessible to humans and can be called upon for help. In Talmudic times, prayers to angels appealed to their intercessory abilities. As angelology developed along more magical lines, angelology prayers were converted into magical incantations. (See MAGIC.) In mysticism, the angels of the Merkabahespecially those closest to Godare powerful, remote beings often hostile to humans, many of whom stand as barriers between man and God. According to tradition, when God thinks about creating man, he rst creates a company of angels and then asks their advice. The angels oppose the creation of man, and God destroys them by burning them. He creates a second company who also oppose the idea, and he destroys them as well. A third company of angels agree to the creation of man. But after mankind becomes so corrupted that God decides to destroy everything by sending the Flood, the angels remind him of the original advice and say, Lord of the Universe, did not the rst company of angels speak aright? God replies that he has promised to carry and sustain man; thus NOAH repopulates the earth. Similarly, angels oppose the delivery of the Law to MOSES and the passing of the SEFER RAZIEL book of cosmic secrets to ADAM, but they are unsuccessful on both accounts. In 3 ENOCH, they object unsuccessfully to Rabbi Ishmael (the purported author of the text) entering the heights of heaven and participating in the angels devotional rights. Myriads of angels infinite in number attend everything in creation. (See MEMUNIM.) Numerous individual angels are recognized, including seven archangels who can be compared to the six Bounteous ImmortalsAMARAHSPANDSof Zoroastrianism. In the KABBALAH, there are 10 orders of angels assigned to the 10 sephiroth of the TREE OF LIFE, the system set forth in the primary Kabbalistic work, the Sefer Yetzirah. Guardian angels assigned to every person from birth to death are derived in part from the Persian FRAVASHIS, beings who also are guardians of place, similar to the GENII. The identities of the individual angels often blur with different names given for the same being. Long lists of angels are given in literature; works such as 3 Enoch and the Sefer Raziel contain detailed descriptions of cosmic workings, the angels assigned to them, andin the case of the Sefer Razielprocedures for invoking those angels. See MAIMONIDES; PHILO; QUMRAN TEXTS. Angels in Christianity In the New Testament, the roles of intermediary and intercessor of God are taken over by JESUS; angels play supporting roles. Gabriel announces to Mary her impending pregnancy. Angels proclaim the birth of Jesus to shepherds. Joseph is visited by an angel in his dreams: to be instructed to marry Mary despite her pregnancy; to take his family to Egypt after the birth of 29 Diptych of Gabriels annunciation to Mary, from St. Cozia Monastery, Romania (Authors collection) Jesus to avoid the persecutions of Herod; and to return to Israel from Egypt when it was safe to do so. After Jesus begins his ministry, angels recede in importance. They are not the channels of miracles, for he has taken over that role as well. Jesus mentions angels but does not emphasize them in his preaching. He states that not even the angels will know when the tribulation will come; when the Son of man returns he will be surrounded by angels. Angels are involved as secondary gures in some of Jesus key experiences. After Jesus rejects Satan during his temptation in the desert, angels come and minister to him. One or two angels are at his tomb (Why do you seek the living among the dead?Luke 24:5). Forty days after Jesus crucixion, during which he appears and speaks numerous times to his apostles, Jesus ascends to heaven; two angels disguised as men speak to his awestruck apostles: And when he [Jesus] had said this, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight. And while they were gazing into heaven as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white robes, 30 angelology Angels gure in the subsequent acts and lives of the apostles. For example, when Peter and other apostles are imprisoned by the Sadducees, an Angel of the Lord appears at night and opens the prison doors and leads them out. In his epistles, St. PAUL writes about angels and devils, giving emphasis to the superiority of Jesus over angels, and the role of devils (demons) as enemies of the faithful. The early church fathers accepted angels but opposed anything that might encourage idolatry. St. AUGUSTINE said that while Christ did not die for the angels, his redemption nonetheless beneted them, helping to repair the damage of their ruin (a reference to the WATCHERS). In 325, the Council of Nicaea incorporated angels into the dogma of the Christian Church, stimulating art and theological and philosophical commentaries on them for centuries to come. Angels gure prominently in the lore of the saints. Legends and hagiographies of the early saints and martyrs include references to angels. They appear in DREAMS AND VISIONS; act as guides; dictate messages, instructions, and revelations; and serve as support in times of trial. Their presence symbolizes the saints holiness. In many cases of hagiographies, angels may have been more a literary device to explain inspired thought or a means by which to inspire the faithful. Many saints, however, had genuine visionary experiences of angels. (See St. TERESA OF AVILA.) The Christian monastic traditionthe withdrawal from the world in order to dedicate ones life to God developed in the early centuries after the death of Jesus. St. Pachomius was a fourth-century Egyptian Copt who, after his conversion to Christianity while in the Roman army, spent years in retreat with another hermit. He was praying alone in the desert of Tabenna when an angelic gure spoke to him and told him to found a monastery according to the rule the angel would give. His companion helped him to build what would become the rst Christian cloister. A wall surrounded the humble structure as a symbol of the monks separation from the world, and no stranger was allowed beyond a certain point, leaving the inner sanctum unsullied. Pachomiuss Angelic Rule, one Angel at the tomb of the resurrected Christ (Gustave Dor) Angel delivering St. Peter from prison (Gustave Dor) and said, Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven. (Acts 1:911) angelology of the major monuments of early Christian literature, was innovative in one major fact: It was a binding commandment, akin to a law. After living as a novice for a number of years, each monk accepted the rule as an unalterable canon of life. Christian monasticism was most profoundly inuenced by St. Augustine, whose teachings on angels coincided with monastic spirituality. According to Augustine, monks are a group chosen for the heavenly city. The terrestrial church has only a partial vision of God, whereas the celestial church enjoys the full vision of God. As the counterparts of the angels, monks occupy a special place at the heart of the church universal. They bear witness to the bliss that awaits the pure of heart; their penances and ascetic practices prepare them for the incorporeal life of angels. Early monks frequently dened their vocation as the angelic life, insofar as they were detached, pure, and devotional. Poverty, chastity, and obedience were rooted in angelic reality, as angels had no bodily needs and served God unceasingly. Indeed, in accordance with Christs words (Matthew 22:30; Mark 12:25; Luke 20:3536) that the blessed will be like the angels in heaven. Celibacy is especially important in the process of sanctication, or becoming angel-like. In his tract Holy Virginity, Augustine praises virginity as vita angelica, the angelic life, a sharing in the life of the angels and a striving for endless immortality here in this perishable esh. Practicing continence dedicated to God means reecting on the life of heaven and of the angels amid this earthly mortality. Thus, whoever has taken a vow of celibate chastity, whether a man or woman, must live on earth the life of the angels, and begin to be on this side of the grave what other Christians will be only after the resurrection. Augustine saw further resemblances to the angelic life in the way the celibate direct their senses and their efforts to what is eternal and immutable, and in their zeal for performing works of virtue, so that they show to earth how life is lived in heaven. Following from this, Augustine developed the theme of the heavenly life, vita caelestis, a psychology of living on earth with ones eyes turned upward. The contemplation (vita contemplativa) of God practiced in the monastery would in time proceed to freedom from passion; the monks like angels would be immersed in happiness derived from divine truth and beauty while still in this world. This striving toward the angelic was emphasized by many who followed Augustine. In the ninth century, the works of PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS were translated, and the hierarchy of angels became a model for the ascent of the soul. The monastic literature of angelology and contemplation reached its apex in the 12th century with St. 31 Bernard of Clairvaux. The waning of monastic culture after 1200 (with the rise of new orders like the Franciscans and Dominicans, who were not cloistered) brought a lessening of interest in Augustinian angelology. The great medieval scholar St. THOMAS AQUINAS, who favored Aristotlean philosophy, wrote extensively on angels, dening their nature and activities, conrming the existence of guardian angels, and commenting on the Dionsyian hierarchy. Others, however, such as the Rhineland mystic Meister Eckhardt, saw angels less as role models and more as messengers. The PROTESTANT REFORMATION that began in the 16th century dramatically changed and split Christian angelology. The Protestants accepted the existence of angels as helpers and messengers, but they increasingly emphasized the demonic: Satan and his legions were a terrible threat. John Calvin expressed great skepticism that guardian angels existed, and dismissed the Pseudo-Dionysius writings as babble. Calvinist thought has wielded considerable inuence on Protestant philosophy into contemporary times. Angels have retained a stronger place in Catholicism, although the church ofcially recognizes only three angels by name: Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. The general presence of angels in spiritual life is more readily acknowledged than in Protestantism. Modern popes have talked of angels. (See PIUS XI, PIUS XII, and JOHN XXIII.) Saints such as Padre Pio have underscored the importance of enlisting the help of ones guardian angel. Various DEVOTIONAL CULTS put angels in the proper context of spiritual living. A renaissance of popular interest in angels began in the late 20th century and spawned a popular angelology. This view portrays angels as more than messengers and administrators of Gods will, but as personal companions, healers, and helpers. The modern angel is a being who is always good and benevolent, in contrast to the biblical angel who metes out punishment and justice when God so commands. Popular angelology has brought angels down to earth: They have personal names, beautiful humanlike appearances and characteristics, and they have personal conversations with their human charges. In many respects, the modern angel is like an idealized human being. While it is likely that intuition, inspiration, and imagination have taken on angel faces, extraordinary visionary experiences also occur, including dream encounters that parallel many accounts of earlier times. See ANGELOPHANY; ANGELS; GNOSTICISM; IMAGES OF ANGELS. Angels in Islam The Koran establishes angels as the second of ve articles of faith, along with divine unity, messengers 32 angelology (prophets), revealed books, and the day of resurrection. Surah 35.1 describes angels as having subtle and luminous bodies with two, three, four, or more wings. They can assume various forms; they are endowed with perfect knowledge and have power over their acts. Their ministry is to glorify God; they manifest themselves to the prophets and their spiritual heirs (wasi) to signify a divine communication to them. Attempting to explain any more about angels strays from the proper road. Scholars and holy men who applied angelology to metaphysics, psychology, cosmology, and mystical practice often provoked alarm, incomprehension, and even open hostility from the legalists. Nonetheless, a rich angelology emerged from the prophets, mystics, and philosophers outside of Islamic orthodoxy, and among Shiites and some sects of Susm. General beliefs hold that angels are created of light and are endowed with life, speech, and reason. They are sanctified from carnal desire and the disturbance of anger. They do not disobey God, and do whatever he commands of them. They are distinctly different from DJINN and genii. They are inferior to human prophets because all the angels were commanded to prostrate themselves before Adam (Surah 2.32). According to Su teacher Abdul Karim Jili, the highest angel is identied with the Spirit mentioned in the Koran. He is made from Gods lightthe Muhammadan lightand from him God created the world and made him His organ of vision in the world. He is the divine command, chief of the kerubim (CHERUBIM), the axis of creation. He has eight major forms, great angels who bear the throne of God. All other angels are created from him like drops from the ocean. He is also the eternal prophetic light from which all prophets derive their inner being; the breath or spirit sent to Mary to conceive Jesus; and MUHAMMAD in his perfect manifestation. The archangels and angels created from the highest angel preside over the principles of the universe. Four archangels, or kerubim, are named in the Koran. From the great angels heart comes Isral, the mightiest of the angels who will sound the trumpet at the last day; from his intelligence comes Gabriel (Jibril), treasurer of divine knowledge and revelations, who dictated the Koran to Muhammad; from his judgment comes Azrael (Azrail or Izrail), the ANGEL OF DEATH, and from his himma (spiritual aspiration) comes Michael, who metes out the fate of all things. From his thoughts come all the celestial and terrestrial angels who are the souls of the spheres and of mankind. From his imagination comes the very stuff of the universe itself, which is Imagination within Imagination within Imagination. From his soul or ego comes both the sublime and contemplative angels and the Satan and his hosts. Two other angels (though not Koranic) are known by name, Munkar and Nakir, who visit the graves of the newly buried as soon as the funeral party departs. They are charged with examining the dead person with regard to belief. Other angels who have special functions are Ridwan, the angel in charge of heaven, sometimes called the treasurer of the Garden, even the door-keeper of the Garden, which may connect in some way to the cherubim in Genesis keeping the way of the tree of life with a aming sword. A main duty of angels is to praise the Lord and intercede for humans, asking God to forgive them: the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord, and ask forgiveness for the dwellers on earth (Surah 42.3). In addition, a guardian angel looks after each person all through life, with duties of giving assistance against unbelievers, and having the ability to intercede if necessary: Each hath a succession of angels before him, who watch over him by Gods behest (Surah 13.12) and He is the supreme guard over his servants, and sendeth forth guardians who watch over you, until, when death overtaketh any one of you, our messengers receive him and fail not (Surah 6.61). When God so orders, angels are sent as military warriors to aid in battle. Every believer is attended by two RECORDING ANGELS, called the kiramul katibin. One has its station on the right, the one who contemplates and dictates; the other has its station on the left, the one who records. Like the angels of Jacobs vision, sometimes the recording angels come down to humans. The Koran adds: it is said that among their number are those to whom the human being is entrusted and whom the Holy Book calls Guardians and Noble Scribes (82.1011). The recording angels are acknowledged daily in the Muslim prayer ritual, the salat. Both Satan and Devil are named in the Koran. Satan originally was a good angel, but declined to share in the worship of Adam and so was expelled from Paradise. He is often mentioned with the adjective the Stoned, which may refer to the jamrah, the throwing of stones at three shayatin (djinn) during the pilgrimage rites. On the day of Resurrection the four bearers of Gods thronesimilar to the four living creatures in Isaiah will be raised to eight. They shall bear the Throne and those round about it, proclaim the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him (Surah 40.7); Upon the day when the Spirit and the angels stand in ranks . . . angelophany thou shalt see angels encircling about the throne (Surah 68.77). The death of Muhammad in 632 ofcially brought an end to prophecy, for no other prophets can follow Muhammad. However, traditions of esoteric prophecy continued in Shia and Sunni philosophies, centered around imams, teachers or holy guides. There are four types of prophets. One is the nabi or prophet who has revelations only for himself and is not obliged to proclaim what is received. Another is the nabi who hears the voice of the angel while dreaming, but does not see the angel in a waking state and also is not obliged to proclaim his vision to anyone. Third is the nabimursal, the prophet-messenger who has the vision or perception of an angel in both sleeping and waking states. This prophet may be sent to bring light to others. Fourth are the seven great nabimursal messengers Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, and Muhammadwhose mission (risalah) is to proclaim a shariah, a new divine law. The Shiites hold that only the shariah or legislative kind of prophecy ended with Muhammads death, whereas the esoteric prophecy continues. The prophet/messengers waking visions of angels differ from sense perception; they take the form of an inner vision called wahy, or divine communication in which the angel/intelligence imparts a knowing to the human intellect. The angel-intelligence is identied with the Angel of Revelation, the Holy Spirit or the angel Gabriel, and also is called the Pen (qalam) because it is the intermediary between God and humankind that actualizes knowledge in the heart, as the pen mediates between writer and paper. Knowledge through God is only actualized through the angels, according to Surah 42.5051: It is not vouchsafed to any mortal that God should speak to him save by communication from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger. The visionary experience also can be likened to a veil that lifts between two mirrors, the divine mirror and the mirror of the heart. The veil is lifted by hand, as the philosophers try to do, or by blowing wind or by an angel through divine grace. The mirror is a metaphor for the imagination, upon which angels can impress symbols that help further the ascent of the soul to the Origin. See AL-SUHRAWARDI; IBN SINA. FURTHER READING Bishop, Eric F F Angelology in Judaism, Islam and Chris.. tianity, Anglican Theological Review. Vol. 46 (January 1964). Carter, George William. Zoroastrianism and Judaism. New York: AMS Press, 1970. 33 Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Liadain Sherrard. London: Kegan Paul International, 1993. Giudici, Maria Pia. The Angels: Spiritual and Exegetical Notes. New York: Alba House, 1993. Lang, Judith. The Angels of God: Understanding the Bible. Hyde Park, N.Y.: New City Press, 1997. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1978. Nigg, Walter. Warriors of God: The Great Religious Orders and Their Founders. Translated by Mary Ilford. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1959. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Zumkeller, Adolar. Augustines Ideal of the Religious Life. Translated by Edmund Colledge. New York: Fordham University Press, 1986. angelophany The experience of perceiving an angel with one or more of the ve senses. The characteristics of angelophanies differ, probably in accordance to cultural conditioning, expectations, and acceptance or rejection of such experiences. Since angels have no corporeal form, the exact nature of their appearances has been the subject of debate and controversy. (See IMAGES OF ANGELS.) Ancient angelophanies found in the Bible, apocryphal texts, rabbinic literature, and other lore often occur within the context of DREAMS AND VISIONS. The great prophets, such as EZEKIEL, MOSES, ISAIAH, and ENOCH had grand visions of angels and transport to heavenly realms. They saw angels, were guided by them, beheld the throne of God, and were anointed as holy messengers to return to their people and disseminate the word of God through warnings and moral and ethical codes. They heard the voices of angels and the voice of God. Such visions involved common elements of brilliant light, re and lightning, and sounds of thunder and earthquakes. The angels were described as having the forms of men, but being clothed in brilliant light or garments. Sometimes they were said to have wings; other times wings are not specied. The dramatic nature of such visions may have been necessary to gain the attention of people; the angelophaniesand theophanies, or experiences of Godcertified the prophets as official agents of the Lord. Such visions also were central to MERKABAH mysticism in which one rode to the heavens via prayer and meditation to attain access to the thronechariot of God. 34 angelophany Portrait of St. Francis Xavier (Bartolom Esteban Murillo, c. 1670; reprinted courtesy of the Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn.) On some occasions in early writings, angels pass for mortals, and seem to have the ability to disguise their heavenly light. In Genesis, ABRAHAM is so fooled when three men visit him on the plains of Mamre and partake of a feast he offers them in hospitality. They converse with him. Similarly, the archangel Raphael appears as a mortal man in the book of TOBIT and acts as a guide on the journey of Tobias. In Catholicism, angels are considered to be pure spirits who have the ability to take the form of men and women. They intervene to help people in their spiritual and temporal needs. Angels appear often in hagiographies, the legends and lives of the saints, and figure in many of their miracle stories. Typically, they do not have names (Michael is the most often named of those who do). They may be accompanied by fire, or displays of elements, or fragrant smells. They play roles in healing, mystical experience, miracles, protection, and guidance. Their presenceprobably fictional and symbolic in many casesserves to demonstrate the presence of God, or a saints closeness to God. St. Simeon Stylites reportedly spent the last 37 years of his life conned by his own accord atop a 60-foothigh pillar. His disciples gave him food and removed his waste with buckets and ropes. Even this deprivation was not enough for him, and so he had himself bound to the platform so tightly that the ropes cut into his esh, and maggots began eating at the wounds. It was documented that he was often and visibly visited by his guardian angel, who devoted many hours to teaching him the mysteries of God. The angel also foretold his death. St. Theodosius claimed that an angel enabled him to endure his torture by refreshing his burning wounds. When the torture ended, the angel went away, which made Theodosius unhappy. A story concerning St. Agnes holds that when a Roman judge ordered her to be punished by rape in a house of prostitution, an angel struck blind the man who attempted to do so. The mans companion begged for her mercy; she prayed for him, and his sight was restored. St. Agnes eventually underwent severe torture and was executed. St. FRANCIS OF ASSISI beheld an angel who played the violin for him, lling him with such joy that he thought his soul would leave his body. A seraph also gave him his stigmata. St. FRANCES OF ROME was able to see and hear a guiding angel for the last 28 years of her life. (See also St. GEMMA GALGANI; St. TERESA OF AVILA.) Modern angelophanies differ signicantly from those described in the past. In the modern West, the culture does not support grand prophetic visions in the style of the Old Testament prophets; however, the NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE incorporates many of the same elements (guiding beings of light, visions of heaven, prophetic visions of the future, warnings about the present course of humanity). Few in the contemporary Western secular world report constant communication with angels. An angelophany is likely to be a once-in-a-lifetime event, usually in response to a crisis or severe psychological need. For example, an angelophany bolsters spiritual faith or jolts one on to a spiritual path. Angels are most likely to appear as mortals, either adult or child (see MYSTERIOUS STRANGER), probably due to cultural conditioning. Other visual perceptions are of balls, clouds, and pillars of light. (See ANGEL OF THE LORD.) If angels manifest as a being of light, they invariably have a beautiful human form and countenance, and occasionally wings. Many people believe that angels have appeared to them in the form of animals, such as animals to the rescue. Some people have experiences that could be classed as angelophanies, though they do not identify any presences as angels (see angels CHARLES LINDBERGH). This may be due to cultural conditioning in which individuals do not believe in real angels or in the possibility of encountering angels. Many angelophanies take place entirely on the inner planes. People who attempt to cultivate communication with angels do so in meditation and prayer; many feel they receive spiritual guidance in return. A trend in Western popular culture has been to identify and name ones GUARDIAN ANGEL. FURTHER READING Adler, Mortimer J. The Angels and Us. New York: Collier Books/Macmillan, 1982. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Angels of Mercy. New York: Pocket Books, 1994. Parente, Fr. Pascal P The Angels: The Catholic Teaching on the . Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1973. First published 1961. Parisen, Maria, comp. Angels & Their Co-creative Power. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books, 1990. Angels (Gustave Dor) 35 angels Incorporeal beings who mediate between God and mortals. Angels, created by God, minister over all living things and the natural world, and also all things in the cosmos. In CELESTIAL HIERARCHIES, angels are one of various classes of angels in general; they are those closest to the material world, the GUARDIAN ANGELS of souls and the couriers of the HEAVENS who deliver prayers to God and Gods answers and inspirations to humans. The term angel comes from the Greek angelos, which means messenger. Similarly, the Persian term angaros means courier. In Hebrew, the term is malak, which also means messenger. Serving as messenger refers to one of the angels primary duties, to shuttle back and forth between earth and heavenly realms. Angels also mete out the will of God, whether it be to aid or to punish humans. Angels are specic to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; however, they derive from concepts of helping and tutelary spirits that exist in mythologies the world over. 36 angels The Western concept of the angel evolved primarily from the mythologies of Babylonia and Persia. ZOROASTRIANISM developed a complex angelology that inuenced the Jews, who spent time exiled in Babylonia. The angel also absorbed characteristics from Sumerian, Egyptian, and Greek beings. Syncretic Jewish, Hellenistic, and Gnostic angel beliefs were absorbed into Christianity and then into Islam. (See ANGELOLOGY.) The Bible presents angels as representatives of God. The term ANGEL OF THE LORD appears frequently and may refer to an angel or to God himself. Angels exist in a celestial realm. They are incorporeal, but have the ability to assume form and pass as mortals. They also appear as beings of re, lightning, and brilliant light, sometimes with wings and sometimes without. (See IMAGES OF ANGELS.) Various classes of angels are mentioned in the Bible and apocryphal texts; they are organized into different hierarchies. Angel (From The Hierarchie of the Blessed Angells by Thomas Heywood [1635]) In the Bible, angels play roles in the working out of humanitys relationship to the Divine. Except for Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, they are not referred to with proper names. However, numerous angels are mentioned by name in APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA TEXTS. By the Middle Ages, midrashim, kabbalistic writings, and other sources had cited thousands of angels by name. (See KABBALAH; MERKABAH; NAMES.) The ranks of heavenly angels have evil counterparts in the FALLEN ANGELS cast out of heaven because they angered God. (See LUCIFER; SATAN; WATCHERS.) As DEMONS, they tempt humankind into sin and steal souls into hell. The fallen angels also include the demonized gods of pagan cultures. The early church fathers of Christianity gave extensive consideration to the duties, nature, numbers, abilities, and functions of angels. This theological interest peaked by the Middle Ages and began to decline in the Renaissance. The scientic revolution diminished the stature and importance of angels, though DEVOTIONAL CULTS kept their interest alive in Christianity. Angels renewed in popular interest in the late 20th century, due in part to a widespread spiritual hunger for personal relationships with the Divine and in part for the comfort of ready supernatural assistance and guidance. Popular culture portrays angels as anthropomorphized best friends, which is in stark contrast to the awesome, impartial, unknowable beings of Jewish angelology and early Christian lore. Numbers of Angels Early writings refer only to numberless numbers of angelstheir ranks are so vast as to be beyond calculation. The stars and all heavenly bodies are angels or angelic INTELLIGENCES. The biblical prophet DANIEL had a vision of heaven in which at least 100 million angels appeared: a thousand thousands served him and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him. The prophet ENOCH, in his travels to heaven, observed angels innumerable, thousands of thousands, and myriads and myriads. Enochs description is echoed in the New Testament book of REVELATION, authored by John of Patmos. In the Kabbalah, the Zohar states that 600 million angels were created on the second day of creation, but adds that other angels were created on other days for other purposes. In the third century, the Jewish scholar Simon ben Lakish related angels to the seven heavens of Enoch and the signs of the Zodiac. There were a total of 1.06434 quintillion angels, he said, organized into hosts, camps, legions, cohorts, and myriads. In Islam, the Koran states only that numerous angels are in heaven. However, an Islamic tradition about the archangel Michael holds that he is responsi- angels of destruction ble for creating 700 quadrillion CHERUBIM alone. Michael is covered with saffron hairs, each of which has a million faces, and each face has a million eyes, from each of which fall 700,000 tears, each of which becomes a cherub. ORIGEN, a church father, said that angels multiply like ies. But the Roman Catholic Church declared that the numbers of angels were xed at the time of creation. By the Middle Ages, speculation on the numbers of angels reached a peak. St. THOMAS AQUINAS said that every person on earth has a guardian angel, but that the total ranks of angels are much greater. St. Albert the Great, a Dominican monk who was a teacher to Aquinas, said that each of the nine ranks of angels has 66,666 legions, each of which has 6,666 angels, for a total of nearly 4 billion angels. Other medieval scholars placed the total number of heavenly host at 301,655,722, of which 133,306,668 are fallen. In contemporary popular culture, the question of the numbers of angels is moot: There are as many angels in the universe as are necessary. Even in the 17th century, the folly of angel counting was recognized. Said Thomas Heywood, an English playwright who authored The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, counting angels would grow from ignorance to error. The modern rhetorical question, How many angels can dance on the head of a pin? points to the futility of trying to calculate the numbers of the heavenly host. Do Angels Eat? Angels are incorporeal, so therefore they cannot eat food in the same manner as mortals. How, then, to explain texts in which angels eat food with mortals? The accepted answer is that angels only appear to eat, which is sometimes necessary to protect their disguise as humans. In Genesis 18, ABRAHAM is visited by three angels, whom he mistakes for men. They partake of a feast of food and drink he prepares for them. In the book of Tobit, Raphael, in the guise of a man, eats food with his mortal companion and charge, Tobias (see TOBIT). In The Testament of Abraham, Michael arrives as the ANGEL OF DEATH to fetch the soul of Abraham and is offered a feast. In the latter work, Michael in a quick visit to God protests that he will not be able to eat; God says he will send an all-devouring spirit to enable Michael to give the appearance of eating. Similarly, theologians explain that the angels of Genesis (thought to be Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael) only appear to eat. In Tobit, Raphael explains that visions are created to give the appearance of eating; the angels actually consume manna, a special food of heaven. (See ANGEL BREAD.) 37 Sometimes angels turn away food. In Judges 6:21 presents food to the ANGEL OF THE LORD, who burns it up; this is a sign that the angel is who he says he is, and his instructions to Gideon must be followed. In Judges 13:1516, an angel declines a kid offered by Manoah: If you detain me, I will not eat of your food; but if you make ready a burnt offering, then offer it to the Lord. Modern-day accounts of angelophanies sometimes involve eating by angels. GIDEON FURTHER READING Adler, Mortimer J. The Angels and Us. New York: Collier Books/Macmillan, 1982. Giudici, Maria Pia. The Angels: Spiritual and Exegetical Notes. New York: Alba House, 1993. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Angels of Mercy. New York: Pocket Books, 1994. Godwin, Malcolm. Angels: An Endangered Species. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Lang, Judith. The Angels of God: Understanding the Bible. Hyde Park, N.Y.: New City Press, 1997. Parisen, Maria, comp. Angels & Their Co-creative Power. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books, 1990. angels of destruction Angels who function as the sword of God and who are dispatched to mete out punishment to humans. Punishment can be in the form of illness, plagues, pestilence, misfortune, or death. Accounts of destroying angels often do not give names of the angels. Numbers of angels of destruction vary in the literature, ranging from 40,000 total to 90,000 in hell alone. In the MERKABAH tradition, angels of destruction try to confound the mystic on his attempts to ascend through the HEAVENS. Angels of destruction are mentioned frequently in rabbinic texts, where they have two primary tasks: to punish the wicked and to torture and purify souls in HELL. In 3 ENOCH, they are present at the heavenly court of law when people are called to judgment. When God sits on the judgment throne, the angels of destruction stand facing him. The ANGELS OF MERCY stand on his right and the ANGELS OF PEACE stand on his left. There are two scribes and a host of higher angels, the SERAPHIM and OPHANIM. The judgment book is made half of re and half of ame. When God opens it, the angels of destruction immediately go out to execute his punishment with his unsheathed sword. Two of them, Zaael (ZAAPIEL) and Simkiel, take the souls of the wicked to SHEOL. The souls who are intermediatethat is, they have some redeeming qualitiesare puried there by Simkiel. The condemned are taken by Zaael 38 angels of destruction on down to Gehenna (hell) where they are punished with rods of burning coals. Angels of destruction who are cited by name are Uriel, Harbonah, Azrael, Simkiel, Zaael, Af, Kolazonta, Hermah, and Kemuel. Kemuel or Simkiel are most often named as the chief of the group. Other angels not specically angels of destruction also carry out Gods orders of punishment. The archangel Gabriel is sometimes cited as the angel dispatched to destroy the wicked SODOM AND GOMORRAH. Incidents of angelic punishment are cited in Scripture and other religious tracts. The Zohar observes that there is no act of annihilation or punishment that does not involve a destroying angel. Besides the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, biblical accounts of punishing angels include a number of episodes. In 2 Kings 19, King Hezekiah battles the Assyrians and is assured by God that not a single Assyrian arrow will be shot into Jerusalem. A lone destroying angel visits the Assyrian soldiers one night, and the next morning all 185,000 of the troops are found dead. However, God is not so pleased with Jerusalem because King David has displeased him (1 Chronicles 21). Satan incites David to number Israel against Gods orders. God gives David a choice of punishments (1 Chronicles 21:1112): Take what you will: either three years of famine; or three months of devastation by your foes, while the sword of your enemies overtakes you; or else three days of the sword of the Lord, pestilence upon the land, and the ANGEL OF THE LORD destroying throughout all the territory of Israel. David opts not to be punished by his mortal enemies. God sends the pestilence and the destroying angel. David sees the angel, stretched between heaven and earth, ready to smite Jerusalem with his sword, and begs for mercy. The angel instructs him to set up an altar. David The Destroying Angel (Reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) angels of Mons does and offers a sacrice to God. The Lord accepts and orders the angel to stay his hand. One of the best-known accounts is that of the destroying angel who slaughters the rstborn of Egypt in the Passover, recounted in Exodus 12:1830. God warns the Israelites held captive in Egypt that he will pass judgment on the land. The faithful are told to smear blood on their lintels and doorposts as a sign. At midnight on the appointed night, the destroying angel sweeps over Egypt and kills the rstborn of man and beast in every household except those marked by blood. In Job 2, Satan again functions as an angel of destruction when God, seeking to test Jobs faith as a righteous man, delivers Job into Satans hands. Satan smites Job with loathsome sores (boils) all over his body, but Job only curses the day of his birth, and not God. Eventually, God restores Job to favor and rewards him with prosperity. Punishing angels appear in the New Testament as well. In Matthew 13, Jesus goes out into a boat and addresses a large crowd on shore, speaking in parables. In 13:4750, he describes the kingdom of heaven as like a net thrown into the sea, which gathers every kind of sh. Fishermen must sort out the good from the bad. So it will be at the close of the age, he explains. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous and throw them into the furnace of re; there men will weep and gnash their teeth. Acts 12 tells of the punishment of King Herod. Herod is angry with the people of Tyre and Sidon. A group of them come to him and ask him for peace, because their people depend on his country for food. Herod dons his royal robes, ascends his throne, and delivers an oration to them. They cry out, The voice of a god, and not of man! (Acts 2022). Acts 20:23: Immediately an angel of the Lord smote him, because he did not give God the glory; and he was eaten by worms and died. The book of REVELATION, a vision of the end times, is filled with angels of destruction who obliterate sinners. Revelation 8 describes seven angels who blow their trumpets, raining down upon the earth hail and fire mixed with blood, turning part of the sea into blood, dimming the sun, moon, and stars, and wreaking tremendous havoc. A host of angels unleashes pestilence, plagues, searing fires, and earthquakes upon the earth. The angels promise to torture with fire and sulphur anyone who worships the beast (the devil). The author of Revelation is assured that Jesus has sent his angel to reveal the prophecies, and to remind people that he is coming soon, bringing my recompense, to repay everyone for what he has done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end, (Revelation 22:1213). 39 The concept of angels of destruction conicts with modern popular ideas about angels as solely beings of goodness, protection, and benecence. The body of early lore on angels presents them as neither intrinsically good nor bad, but as capable of acting out in either good or bad ways as seen from the perspective of the human recipient. Angels are charged with carrying out the instructions of God, whether those instructions call for reward or punishment. See ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT; EZRA. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Graham, Billy. Angels: Gods Secret Agents. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1975. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. angels of glory High-level group of angels often equated with the ANGELS OF SANCTIFICATION. According to 3 ENOCH and the SEFER RAZIEL, angels of glory live in Arabot, the highest HEAVEN, and are 660,000 myriads in number. They stand over against the throne of Glory and the divisions of aming re. angels of hell See ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION; ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT; EZRA. Angels of Mastemoth In the Dead Sea Scrolls, a name for the WATCHERS, FALLEN ANGELS who cohabited with women and begat giants. The Angels of Mastemoth are Enemy Angels and Angels of Darkness. The Qumran text 4Q390 refers to sinners being delivered into the power of the Angels of Mastemoth who will rule them. See ENOCH; MASTEMA; QUMRAN TEXTS. angels of mercy Angels who stand at the right side of God in the heavenly court of law in the seventh HEAVEN. The angels are present when people are called to judgment. Most angels of mercy are not named. Among those who are named are Uzziel, acting under Metatron; Rhamiel, the angelic name of ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI; Rachmiel; Gabriel; Michael; Zadkiel; and Zehanpuryu. angels of Mons See MONS, ANGELS OF. 40 angels of peace angels of peace In 3 ENOCH, angels who stand at the left side of God during sessions of the heavenly court. The Zohar refers to seven angels of peace. In other lore, angels of peace traditionally visit Jewish homes at the start of the Sabbath. angels of prostitution Four angels who rule whoredom and prostitution. Three of themLilith, Agrat bat Mahlat, and Naamahare also partners or brides of Samael. The fourth angel of prostitution is Eisheth Zenunim. angels of punishment Angels who carry out the discipline and punishments of sinning humans and other angels. In the Shepherd of Hermas, the visionary HERMAS has a permanent Angel of Punishment who looks like a mean, whipwielding shepherd, and who keeps Hermas morally in line. In 2 ENOCH and the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, the angels of punishmentpresumably also evilreside in the third HEAVEN. Some angels in charge of punishment are named. In the Pistis Sophia, Ariel is the chief; in other Coptic Gnostic writings, Asmodeus holds the position. The Midrash Tehillim lists ve angels of punishment encountered by MOSES in heaven: Af, the angel of anger; Kezef, the angel of wrath; Hemah, the angel of fury; Hasmed, the angel of annihilation; and Mashit, the angel of destruction. The Maseket Gan Eden and Gehinnon lists seven angels of punishment: Lahatiel, the aming one; Shoftiel, the judge of God; Makatiel, the plague of God; Hutriel, the rod of God; Puriel/Pusiel, the re of God; and Rogziel, the wrath of God. See ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION; EZRA. angels of sanctication A high-level order of angels, who according to the book of JUBILEES, were created on the rst day already circumcised so that they could join God in observing the sabbath in heaven and on earth. Jubilees says that the angels of sanctication are one of two high orders, along with the ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE. They also are sometimes equated with the ANGELS OF GLORY. Principal angels of sanctication are Phanuel, Michael, Metatron, Zagzagael, and Suriel. angels of the days of the week Angels who govern the days of the week in magical lore. Their names are to be invoked in rituals. In addition to days, the angels also have other associations: the seven major planets of the ancient world, the air, the directions of the wind and different levels of heaven. Within each level of heaven are four directions, each associated with angels. Each day is ideal for different activities. Duplication among angels occurs. The associations, drawn from The Magus by occultist Francis Barrett (1801) are as follows: Angels punishing Heliodorus (Gustave Dor) SUNDAY Chief angel: Michael Other angels: Dardiel, Huratapel Angels of the air: Varcan, king, and his ministers Tus, Andus, and Cynabal Wind: North Heaven: Fourth Angels of the east: Samael, Baciel, Abel, Gabriel, Vionatraba Angels of the west: Anael, Pabel, Ustael, Burchat, Suceratos, Capabili Angels of the north: Aiel, Ariel, Aquiel, Masgrabiel, Saphiel, Matuyel Angels of the south: Haluliel, Machasiel, Charsiel, Uriel, Naromiel Planet: Sun angels of the days of the week Favorable activities: acquiring gold and gems (wealth), seeking favor and honors, dissolving ill will, eliminating inrmities MONDAY Chief angel: Gabriel Other angels: Michael, Samael Angels of the air: Arcan, king, and his ministers Bilet, Missabu, Abuhaza Wind: West Heaven: First Angels of the east: Gabriel, Madiel, Deamiel, Janak Angels of the west: Sachiel, Zaniel, Habiel, Bachanae, Corobael Angels of the north: Mael, Uvael, Valmuum, Baliel, Balay, Humastraw Angels of the south: Curaniel, Dabriel, Hanun, Vetuel Planet: Moon Favorable activities: procuring silver, conveying things from place to place, disclosing secrets of people both present and future, making horses swift TUESDAY Chief angel: Samael Other angels: Satael, Amabiel Angels of the air: Samax, king, and his ministers Carmax, Ismoli, Paffran Wind: East Heaven: Fifth Angels of the east: Friagne, Guel, Damael, Calzas, Arragon Angels of the west: Lama, Astagna, Lobquin, Soneas, Jazel, Isael, Irel Angels of the north: Rhaumel, Hyniel, Rayel, Seraphiel, Fraciel, Mathiel Angels of the south: Sacriel, Janiel, Galdel, Osael, Vianuel, Zaliel Planet: Mars Favorable activities: bringing or causing war, death, inrmity, and combustions (re) WEDNESDAY Chief angel: Raphael Other angels: Meil, Seraphiel Angels of the air: Mediat, king, and his ministers Suquinos, Sallales Wind: Southwest Heaven: Second Angels of the east: Mathlai, Tarmiel, Baraborat Angels of the west: Jerusque, Merattron Angels of the north: Thiel, Rael, Harihael, Venahel, Velel, Abuiori, Ucirmiel 41 Angels of the south: Milliel, Nelapa, Calvel, Laquel Planet: Mercury Favorable activities: procuring all sorts of metals, revealing all earthly things past, present, and future, pacifying judges, giving victory in war, teaching experiments and sciences, changing things alchemically, procuring health, raising the poor and casting down the rich, binding or loosing spirits, opening locks and bolts THURSDAY Chief angel: Sachiel Other angels: Cassiel, Asasiel Angels of the air: Suth, king, and his ministers Maguth, Gutrix Wind: South Heaven: None, because there are no angels of the air above the fth heaven (instead of prayers to angels, prayers are directed to the four directions) Planet: Jupiter Favorable activities: procuring the love of women, causing merriment and joy, pacifying strife, appeasing enemies, healing the diseased, procuring things lost FRIDAY Chief angel: Anael Other angels: Rachiel, Sachiel Angels of the air: Sarabotes, king, and his ministers Amahiel, Aba, Abalidoth, Blaef Wind: West Heaven: Third Angels of the east: Setchiel, Chedusitaniel, Corat, Tamuel, Tenaciel Angels of the west: Turiel, Coniel, Babiel, Kadie, Maltiel, Huphaltiel Angels of the south: Porosa, Sachiel, Chermiel, Samael, Santanael, Famiel Planet: Venus Favorable activities: procuring silver and luxuries, causing marriages, alluring men to love women, causing or removing inrmities, and doing all things which have motion SATURDAY Chief angel: Cassiel Other angels: Machatan, Uriel Angels of the air: Maymon, king, and his ministers Abumalith, Assabibi, Balidet Wind: South Heaven: None; same as Thursday 42 angels of the earth Angels and planets that rule the days of the week and the hours of the day and night (From The Magus by Francis Barrett) Planet: Saturn Favorable activities: sowing of discord, hate, evil thoughts and irritations, maiming and murdering FURTHER READING Barrett, Francis. The Magus. Secaucus, N.J.: The Citadel Press, 1967. First published 1801. charge of one of the four winds: Gabriel in the north, Uriel in the south, Michael in the east, and Raphael in the west. angels of the elements See ELEMENTALS. angels of the end of the world See ANGELS OVER THE CONSUMMATION; EZRA. angels of the earth Seven angels who watch over the planet. The angels are Azriel, Admael, Arkiel (also Archas), Arciciah, Ariel, Harabael or Aragael, Saragael, and Yabbashael. Other angels also given this title are Haldiel, Tebliel, Phorlakh, Raguel, and Samuil. Thomas Heywood gives four angels of the earth, each of whom is in angels of the hours Angels assigned to govern each hour-long period of the day and night. Thus, at any given moment a particular angel can be called upon for service or favor. In MAGIC, an angel of the hour may be summoned during ritual. angels of the Lord of the Spirits 43 In Greek magical lore, the angels of the hours of the night work under the aegis of Selene, one of the principal lunar goddesses, and the goddess of dreams. The angels of the hours are summoned to send dream messages to another person. The Papyri Graecae Magicae states that the practitioner first invokes Selene to: give a sacred angel or a holy assistant who serves this very night, in this very hour . . . and order the angel to go off to her, NN (so-and-so), to draw her by her hair, by her feet; may she, in fear, see phantoms, sleepless because of her passion for me and her love for me, NN, come to my consecrated bedroom. Trithemius of Spanheims Book of Secret Things, translated in FRANCIS BARRETTs The Magus, assigns the seven PLANETARY ANGELS to repeating duty as angels of the hours. The day and night are divided into equal parts of 12 hours each. Every hour of every day of the week is governed by one of the seven (see accompanying table). The Lemegeton, a magical GRIMOIRE, gives another list of the names of the angels of the hours of every day and night: Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Samuel Anael Vequaniel Vahrmiel Sasquiel Saniel Barquiel Osmadiel Quabriel Oriel Bariel Beratiel Night 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sabrathan Tartys Serguanich Jesscha Abasdarhon Zaazenach Mendrion Narcoriel Pamyel Lssuarim Dardariel Sarandiel See ADAM AND EVE. Time-keeping angel at Chartres Cathedral, France (Authors collection) FURTHER READING Barrett, Francis. The Magus. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1967. First published 1801. Henson, Michael, ed. Lemegeton: The Complete Lesser Key of Solomon. Jacksonville, Fla.: Metatron Books, 1999. angels of the Lord of the Spirits Multitudes of angels who stand before the glory of the Lord of the Spirits, witnessed by the prophet ENOCH. 1 Enoch 40:110 describes their numbers as a hundred thousand times a hundred thousand, ten million times ten million, an innumerable and uncountable (multitude). The angels stand on the four wings of the Lord of the Spirits. Enoch sees among the multitudes four faces, and hears four voices sing praises before the Lord of Glory. 44 angels of the months The ANGEL OF PEACE, who is Enochs guide, identies the four as: Michael, the merciful and forbearing; Raphael, who is set over all disease and every wound of the children of the people; Gabriel, who is set over all exercise of strength; and Phanuel, who is set over all actions of repentance unto the hope of those who would inherit eternal life. After hearing the identities revealed, Enoch learns all the secrets in HEAVEN. angels of the months Angels assigned to the months of the year. In some cases where angels are equated with other angels, more than one angel may govern a month. Angels of the months are invoked in magical rituals. The following list is derived from Kabbalistic lore. Alternate spellings of names are given in parentheses. January: Gabriel; Cambiel February: Barakiel (Barchiel; Barkiel) March: Malchidiel April: Asmodel May: Amriel (Ambiel; Ambriel) June: Muriel July: Verchiel August: Hamaliel September: Uriel; Zuriel October: Barbiel November: Adnachiel (Advachiel, Adernahael) December: Hanael; Anael In Persian lore the angels of the months are: January: Bahman February: Isfandarmend March: Farvardin April: Ardibehist May: Khurdad June: Tir July: Murdad August: Shahrivar September: Mhr (Miher) October: Aban November: Azar December: Dai angels of the planets Archangels assigned to govern each of the seven planetary bodies of the ancient world and the distribution of their astrological inuences. In Jewish lore, these seven archangels play an important role in the order of the universe. Different sources give different and often conicting associations as well as variations in the spellings of the angel names. Various angels may be named to more than one planet. The use of these associations in astrology and ritual magic depends on which system one follows. The angels of the planets are called the seven governors of the world and always stand before the face of God. Historian Joshua Trachtenberg collated ve lists, including those given in the SEFER RAZIEL and in Ginzburgs Legends of the Jews, to produce the following. Variations of name spellings are in parentheses: Sun: Raphael; Michael Moon: Gabriel; Aniel (Anael) Mercury: Michael; Zadkiel; Raphael Venus: Aniel; Hasdiel Mars: Samael; Gabriel Jupiter: Zadkiel; Barkiel Saturn: Kafziel; Michael AGRIPPA Barkiel; Hasdiel; makes the following associations: Sun: Semeliel (Semeschia) Moon: Jareahel Mercury: Cochabiah (Cochabiel) Venus: Nogahel Mars: Madimiel Jupiter: Zedekiel Saturn: Sabathiel FRANCIS BARRETT gives two lists: Sun: Michael Moon: Gabriel Mercury: Raphael Venus: Anael Mars: Zamael Jupiter: Zachariel Saturn: Oriphael Sun: Raphael Moon: Gabriel Mercury: Michael Venus: Haniel Mars: Camael Jupiter: Zadkiel Saturn: Zaphiel The Muslim philosopher Averros gives the following associations: Sun: Michael Moon: Gabriel Mercury: Raphael Venus: Anael Mars: Samael Jupiter: Sachiel (Zadkiel) Saturn: Cassiel (Kafziel) See ANGELS OF THE ZODIAC; GEMATRIA. angels of the zodiac FURTHER READING Savedow, Steve. Sepher Rezial Hemelach: The Book of the Angel Rezial. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 2000. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Behrmaris Jewish Book House, 1939. angels of the presence High-level angels also known as angels of the face. According to the book of JUBILEES, angels of the presence and ANGELS OF SANCTIFICATION are the two highest orders of angels. They are created on the rst day already circumcised so that they can participate in the keeping of the sabbath with God in heaven and on earth. God instructs one of these angels (thought to be Michael), to write the history of creation for MOSES. The angel takes the tablets of history and law, and in a long revelation, recites them to Moses with instructions to write them down. Other angels usually identied as angels of the presence are Metatron, Suriel, Sandalphon, Astanphaeus, Sarakiel, Phanuel, Jehoel, Zagzagael, Uriel, Yefeah, Sabaoth, and Akatriel. The angels of the presence also are equated with the ANGELS OF GLORY. In rabbinic tradition, there are 70 tutelary angels called the angels of the presence. According to the Zohar, the angels of the presence revealed the mystery (purpose) of God to people, and thus were expelled from the divine presence. In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Judah, one of the 12 sons of JACOB and Leah, testies that he was blessed by an angel of the presence. In Phoenician mythology, the angels of the presence are the creators of the universe. See ADONAI. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. angels of the seasons Angels who have jurisdiction over the seasons of the year. Their names are invoked at appropriate times for magical purposes. Different systems assign different angels to the seasons. FRANCIS BARRETT gives the following associations: Spring Governing angel: Spugliguel Angels: Amatiel, Caracasa, Commissoros, Core 45 Summer Governing angel: Tubiel Angels: Gargatel, Gaviel, Tariel Autumn Governing angel: Torquaret Angels: Guabarel, Tarquarn Winter Governing angel: Attarib Angels: Amabael, Cetarari (Ctarai) RUDOLF STEINER ascribes the seasonal and angelic qualities to stages of spiritual growth in humankind. He begins with autumn; his associations are: Autumn: Michael Winter: Gabriel Spring: Raphael Summer: Uriel The SEFER RAZIEL gives long lists of angels who govern numerous activities to be undertaken in every season. The ANGELS OF THE PLANETS and the ANGELS OF THE ZODIAC also have attending angels that change by season. FURTHER READING Barrett, Francis. The Magus. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1967. Savedow, Steve. Sepher Rezial Hemelach: The Book of the Angel Rezial. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 2000. Steiner, Rudolph. The Four Seasons and the Archangels. Bristol, England: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1992. angels of the winds See NATURE SPIRITS. angels of the zodiac Angels assigned to rule over the 12 houses of the zodiac, and to govern and disperse their astrological influences. Different systems assign different angels to the signs and also different spellings of angel names. Some of the seven major archangels who are ANGELS OF THE PLANETS also are angels of the zodiac. According to historian Joshua Trachtenberg, other angels were either borrowed from ancient sources, such as the lore of the Chaldeans and Babylonians, or even invented in order to ll out the list. According to the SEFER RAZIEL, the associations are: Aries the Ram: Ovavorial Taurus the Bull: Lehetial Gemini the Twins: Pheniel 46 angels over the consummation angel of Cancer probably should be Sartaniel, and the angel of Libra probably should be Maznimiel. In The Book of Secret Things, written in the late Middle Ages by JOHANNES TRITHEMIUS, the signs and their respective governing angels are set forth as: Aries: Malahidael; Machidiel Taurus: Asmodel Gemini: Ambriel Cancer: Muriel Leo: Verchiel Virgo: Hamaliel Libra: Uriel; Zuriel Scorpio: Barbiel Sagittarius: Advachiel; Adnachiel Capricorn: Hanael Aquarius: Cambiel; Gabriel Pisces: Barchiel Gemini, the Twins, depicted as angels (Hyginus, Poeticon Astronomicon, 1504) Cancer the Crab: Zorial Leo the Lion: Bereqiel Virgo the Virgin: Cheial Libra the Scales: Tzorial Scorpio the Scorpion: Gabrial Sagittarius the Archer: Medonial Capricorn the Goat: Shenial Aquarius the Water-Carrier: Gabrial Pisces the Fishes: Romial AGRIPPA gives the following: Aries: Teletiel Taurus: Suriel Gemini: Tomimiel Cancer: Sattamiel Leo: Ariel Virgo: Betuliel Libra: Masniel Scorpio: Acrabiel Sagittarius: Chesetiel Capricorn: Gediel Aquarius: Deliel Pisces: Dagymiel According to occultist Donald Tyson, two of these angel names may be incorrect. Based upon Hebrew, the FRANCIS BARRETT drew a connection between the angels of the zodiac and the 12 angels mentioned in REVELATION. In John of Patmoss vision of the holy city of New Jerusalem, descending from the heavens, there is a high wall with 12 gates, each of which is guarded by an unnamed angel. In MAGIC, the names of zodiac angels are invoked in rituals pertaining to astrological inuences. The angels are petitioned for help in effecting spells and enchantments. FURTHER READING Barrett, Francis. The Magus. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1967. First published 1801. Savedow, Steve. Sepher Rezial Hemelach: The Book of the Angel Rezial. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 2000. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Behrmans Jewish Book House, 1939. angels over the consummation Nine angels in the Greek Apocalypse of EZRA who will rule or judge at the consummation, or the end of the world. The angels are Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, Gabuthelon, Aker, Arphugitonos, Beburos, and Zebuleon. Their names are revealed (6:12) to Ezra by God during Ezras journey to HEAVEN and Tartarus (HELL). Angra Mainyu See AHRIMAN. Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha texts animistics (animastics; dii animalie) An order of beings who are half human and half angel or god. Animistics are nobles, lords, and princes who are inferior to the angelic hierarchies but above the earth. They are heroes and demigods, the Strong and Mighty who have done good deeds for humans and have certain divine powers. The name animistics means the animated. They are sometimes called ISSIM. Among Agrippas examples of animistics are Merlin, the Arthurian wizard; Priapus, the son of Dionysius and Aphrodite; Hippo, the daughter of Oceanus and Theys; and Vertumnus, an Etruscan diety carried to Rome. The 12 apostles of Christ are the chief animistics, followed by the 70 or 72 disciples of Christ appointed by him to go ahead of him (Luke 10:1). After them come a multitude of saints. According to AGRIPPA, the animistics, when prayed to and supplicated, respond with greater gifts, benets, and graces than do the angelic powers. Animistics are associated with the 10th sephiroth of Malkuth (Kingdom). Agrippa states that they have their inuence on the sons of men, and give knowledge and the wonderful understanding of things, also industry and prophecy, and are ruled by Metatron. An animistic is the GUARDIAN ANGEL of MOSES. Anpiel In kabbalistic lore, the angel who protects birds. Anpiel resides in the sixth HEAVEN. He wears 70 crowns, crowns all prayers sent up from earth and sends them up to the seventh heaven. In The Legends of the Jews, Anpiel is credited with taking ENOCH to heaven. Ansiel Angel known as the constrainer. Ansiel is invoked in MAGIC against forgetting and stupidity. Apocalypse See REVELATION. Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha texts Ex-canonical Jewish and Christian texts, many of which contain detailed ANGELOLOGIES, celestial organizations, and mystical visionary recitals. Most angel lore is in works outside of the Old and New Testaments. Traditional Apocrypha The term apocrypha means that which is hidden. All Bibles contain the same 27 books of the New Testament and the 39 books of the Old Testament that are part of the Hebrew canon. In addition, there traditionally are 15 books or portions of books considered to be 47 the Apocrypha, and were written between about 200 B.C.E. and 200 C.E. These books were either deliberately hidden from all but initiates because of their profound esoteric lore or were hidden because they were heretical. The traditional 15 Apocrypha texts are: 1 Esdras (Ezra) 2 Esdras (Ezra) Tobit Judith Additions to the Book of Esther The Wisdom of Solomon Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) Baruch The Letter of Jeremiah The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men Susanna Bel and the Dragon The Prayer of Manasseh 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Eastern Orthodoxy also considers 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, and Psalm 151 as part of the Apocrypha (4 Maccabees is placed in an appendix). Acceptance or rejection of the Apocrypha has changed over the centuries. Though they are not part of the Hebrew canon, many of the Old Testament books refer to the Apocrypha. The Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament, includes the Apocrypha. Most of the early fathers of the Christian Church accepted the Apocrypha as Scripture. In the fourth century, the great biblical scholar St. Jerome was commissioned by Pope Damascus to prepare a standard Latin version of the Bible. Jeromes version, known as the Latin Vulgate, included the Apocrypha, but noted that it belonged in a separate category from the Old Testament. This distinction was a ne one to many, and the Apocrypha were generally considered part of the Scriptures up through the Middle Ages. The rst English version of the Bible, translated from the Latin Vulgate near the end of the 14th century, includes all of the Apocrypha but 2 Esdras, but makes a distinction between the Apocrypha and other Scriptures. The PROTESTANT REFORMATION saw numerous disputes over doctrine. English Protestants eventually rejected the apocryphal books as sources of doctrine and excluded them from the Revised Standard Version of the Bible. In response in part to the Reformation, the Apocrypha were ofcially declared part of the Christian 48 Apollyon canon in 1546 by the Council of Trent; anyone who did not accept them was anathema. However, the books are given a lesser status than the rest of the Scriptures. In angelology, the most important apocryphal work is TOBIT, which tells the story of the blind man Tobit, his son Tobias, and the archangel Raphael. It is considered to be a historically based novel, the purpose of which is to impart lessons on righteousness and morality, and to teach occult lore concerning healing and exorcism. Despite its troubled standing in doctrine, the Apocrypha nonetheless have had a tremendous influence upon the arts, especially poetry, drama, music, literature, sculpture, and painting. Shakespeare may have been familiar with the Apocrypha, though that is debated by scholars. The composer Handel was influenced. Other Apocryphal and Pseudepigrapha Texts In additional to the traditional Apocrypha, there are numerous other texts also excluded from the canon. Many of these are pseudepigrapha, inspired Jewish and Jewish-Christian works written by anonymous authors but attributed to important prophets and patriarchs. These texts are also rich sources of angelologies, angel MAGIC, visionary recitals of HEAVEN and HELL guided by angels, and MERKABAH ascents. Many are apocalyptic in nature, dealing with the end of time, the nal judgment and resurrection, and the fate of souls after death. Included in this general category are the QUMRAN TEXTS. Most pseudepigrapha were written primarily between 200 B.C.E. and 200 C.E., though some were written or added to much later. They were composed in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek and later translated, often into Latin, Slavonic, Ethiopic, or Armenian. Some were not translated into English until the Middle Ages or much later. The book of ENOCH is the most detailed and signicant pseudepigrapha in terms of angels. Its importance was dismissed by some inuential fathers of the churchfor example, Ss. Jerome and AUGUSTINEwho considered it to be too old and full of errors to be of value. Also signicant for its angel content is the book of JUBILEES. See ADAM AND EVE; BARUCH; EZRA; DREAMS AND VISIONS; GNOSTICISM; HERMAS; ISAIAH; JACOB; LEVI; SOLOMON; ZEPHANIAH. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983; 1985. May, Herbert G., and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Apollyon See ABADDON. apparitions One of three primary hierarchies of angels designated by the alchemist Robert Fludd. The other two are ACCLAMATIONS and VOICES. Arael (Ariel) In Jewish lore, angel who is PRINCE over the people of the birds. In the Testament of SOLOMON, the name may be a variation of Uriel. See DECANS OF THE ZODIAC. aralim, arelim See ERELIM. Arapiel YHVH (Araphiel, Nirpiel) In 3 ENOCH, one of the PRINCES who guards the seventh HEAVEN. Arapiel means neck of God. Arapiel bows down to Asroilu. Araqiel (Araquiel, Arakiel, Araciel, Arqael, Saraquael, Arkiel, Arkas) Angel who has dominion over the earth. Araqiel is identied as both a good and a bad angel. In 1 ENOCH he is one of 200 FALLEN ANGELS and teaches the signs of the earth to people. In the Sibylline Oracles he is good, and he is one of ve angelswith Ramiel, Aziel, Uriel, and Samielwho leads souls to judgment. Araton (Arathron) One of the seven ruling angels of the 196 Olympic provinces of HEAVEN, according to the Arbatel of Magic. As the rst angel, Arathron rules 49 provinces, 49 kings, 42 princes, 35 satraps, 28 dukes, 21 servants, 14 councillors, 7 enjoys, and 36,000 legions of spirits, each legion having 490 beings. Arathron has great magical ability and knowledge. He can make a person invisible, a barren woman fertile, change animals and vegetables into stones, and transmute metals. He teaches medicine, alchemy, and MAGIC. archai A class of angels who rule and govern, and who have the ability to inuence the destiny of humanity. The name archai is Greek for sphere of authority or power, and its Latin equivalent is principia. The archangels term was used in Judaism and early Christianity and was adopted by the Gnostics. Archai can be compared or equated to AUTHORITIES (EXOUSIAI), POWERS (potestates), and PRINCIPALITIES; the name is sometimes used interchangeably with ARCHONS. Archai are referred to as both benevolent and hostile supernatural forces. In Christian writings they are often named as the rst of three celestial powers, along with exousiai and dynameis (powers). St. PAUL uses the term archai in his famous passage of Romans 8:3839, often translated as angels. archangels In the Pseudo-Dionysian hierarchy, the second highest rank of angels. The name archangels comes from the Greek term archangelos, meaning chief messenger or eminent messenger. Archangels, also known as Holy Ones, are liaisons between God and mortals; Michael the archangel (From The Hierarchie of the Blessed Angells by Thomas Heywood [1635]) 49 they are in charge of heavens armies in the battle against HELL; and they are the supervisors of the GUARDIAN ANGELS. They also serve as guardian angels to great people, such as heads of religions and states. They carry the divine decrees of God. Archangels are sometimes equated with the BENE ELOHIM. The gures of archangels appear in the Old Testament, but the term archangel is not used in Greek versions. Archangel does appear in Greek versions of pseudepigrapha texts such as the Enochian writings, which give classes of angels, and it appears twice in the New Testament. Jude 1:9 refers to Michael as an archangel, and 1 Thessalonians 4:16 refers to a nameless archangel who heralds the second coming and the resurrection of the dead: For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangels call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. Archangels also appear in Judeo-Christian magical texts. Joshua 5:1315 describes a forerunner of the archangel in the form of a man whom Joshua sees in a vision, and who identies himself as commander of the army of the Lord. Daniel names two high-level angels, Michael and Gabriel, but he does not call them archangels. Angels who have a special place before God are often interpreted as archangels. Groups of four, six, and seven are mentioned in various texts. For example, REVELATION 8:2 speaks of seven angels who stand before God; EZEKIEL 9:2 describes seven punishing angels (six who wield swords and a seventh who carries a writing case); and TOBIT 12:15 has Raphael identifying himself as one of seven angels who transmit prayers of the holy, or who stand in the presence of the Lord. In the Enochian writings, 1 ENOCH 9 lists Michael, Sariel, and Gabriel (and in some versions also Raphael) as signicant angels who watch from the sky. 1 Enoch 20:17 lists the six holy angels who watch by name: Sariel (Suruel) or Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Gabriel, and Saraqael, and 1 Enoch 40:110 describes Michale, Gabriel, Sariel, and Phanuel as the four angels who stand before the glory of the Lord of the Spirits. Among other angels described as archangels are Oriphiel, Zadkiel, Anael, Jehudiel, Sealtiel, and Barachiel. The Roman Catholic Church elevated the archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael to sainthood. Michael is by far the most signicant of the three. He is the ruling prince of the order, who defends the church against the forces of darkness. Michael is the only angel named in the Bible who is specically called an archangel (Jude 1:9). In Daniel (10:13, 21), he is called one of the chief princes and your prince, but in Revelation 12:7 he is only an angel. 50 archetypes Gabriel is often identied as the angel who visits Elizabeth and MARY to announce the forthcoming births of John the Baptist and JESUS, respectively. Raphael, identied as the prince of archangels, is a central gure in the book of Tobit, part of the Catholic canon but otherwise considered apocryphal. In Islam, the Koran acknowledges the existence of four archangels but names only two: Jibril (Gabriel), the angel of revelation, and Michael, the warrior angel. The other two are likely Azrael, the ANGEL OF DEATH and Isral, the angel of MUSIC. See DEVOTIONAL CULTS; ENOCH. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2 New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. van der Toorn, Karl, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. archetypes Universal primordial images and instincts that reside in the collective unconscious, and are expressed in behavior and experience. Archetypes have existed since the dawn of humanity. Mythologies, religions, sacred rites, and folktales are especially rich in archetypal themes and characters (for example, the hero, the trickster, forces of nature, the elements are all archetypal representations). Angels are representations of archetypes. Carl G. JUNG developed, but did not originate, the concept of archetypes. Heraclitus was the rst to view the psyche as the archetypal rst principle. Plato articulated the idea of archetypes in his Theory of Forms, which holds that the essence of a thing or concept is its underlying form or idea. The term archetype occurs in the writing of PHILO, Irenaeus, and PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS. The concept, but not the term, is found in the writings of St. AUGUSTINE. Jung rst wrote of primordial images in the unconscious of his patients in 1912. He rst used the term archetype in 1919, in order to distinguish between the archetype itself and the archetypal image which is perceived on a conscious level. Archetypes are without end, created by the repetition of situations and experiences engraved upon the psychic constitution. They are forms without contentthey wait to be realized in the personality, and are recognizable in outer behaviors. Archetypes are a means through which the unus mundus, the unitary world or undifferentiated whole, can express itself in our conscious reality. The unus mundus is found in all spiritual traditions and is lawfully ordered by a transcendent plan that links everything together. This order is of such a sublime nature that it is beyond sensory perception but can be grasped through expressions of archetypes. The expressions themselves are not archetypes but representations of archetypes. All psychic imagery, such as is found in dreams and sacred art and ritual, is archetypal to some extent. Historian Mircea Eliade observes that human history is governed by archetypes, and is a reection of celestial archetypes; thus, myths and symbols share similarities among diverse cultures. Cities, temples, and houses represent the sacred center, for example, and the cross of Christianity represents the Cosmic Tree. In this context angels are representations of the positive-negative polarity, the yin and yang, the light and dark, the good and evil. They also represent the ability of the human soul to ascend to heaven or descend to the underworld, as well as the immortality and inherent divine nature of the soul. The functions and characteristics ascribed to individual angels all express archetypes. Angels gazing toward the world of archetypes, with correspondences in Sphere of Nature below (Malachias Geiger, Microcosmus Hypochondriacus, 1652) archons The stronger and more active is the belief in archetypal representations, the stronger they become in the collective unconscious and the more they express themselves by impinging on the outer world through such things as synchronistic events (in the case of angels, these would be an array of angelic interventions). The pagan deities of the classical world have lost strength due to neglect over ensuing centuries; meanwhile, the archetypal forces serving newer religions, such as Christianity, have gained strength. Angels reached a peak of popularity in the Middle Ages and then declined as a force active in the psyche. As of the late 20th century, the angel archetypal force has been reactivated in Western consciousness. FURTHER READING Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1971. First published 1954. . Images and Symbols. Princeton University Press, 1991. First published 1952. Jung, Carl G. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. 2d ed. Bollingen Series XX. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968. Archistrategos Title of commander in chief of an army, usually given to Michael. (See HERMAS.) In the Greek Apocalypse of EZRA, the Archistrategos is Raphael, who assists Ezra in his vision. archons (archontes) Ruling angels of the HEAVENS and underworld, and also of nations. Archons are sometimes equated with AEONS, ARCHANGELS, PRINCES, DEMONS, Satan, and planetary deities. The term archon (singular) is Greek and means high ofcial or chief magistrate and was used by the early Greeks as a designation for high human ofcials. The term appears as a designation for supernatural beings in the writings of the early Jews and early Christians, and also in Neoplatonism and GNOSTICISM. Archons can be either good or evil, but more often the term is used for beings who are hostile or evil. Iamblichus, in his hierarchy of beings between God and the soul, places archons below archangels, angels, and demons but ahead of heroes. He says there are two kinds of archons, cosmic ones (kosmokratores) and hylic ones (tes hyles parestekotes). In the Septuagint, archons is used to translate 36 different Hebrew terms relating to positions of leadership and authority in military, political, and priestly ranks. In Jewish and Christian writings, archon refers 51 to the chief evil being, known variously as Satan, Mastema, Belial, and the devil. In the synoptic gospels, Satan is called the archon ton daimonion, or prince of demons. (See DAIMONES.) As a name of good angels, archon appears in DANIEL as a translation of the Aramaic term sar, or prince. Daniel 10 refers to the archons or princes of nations, implying the existence of celestial governors assigned to nations on earth. St. Ignatius of Antioch, one of the early fathers of the church, uses archons (translated as princes) as a designation for a type of angel. The Enochian writings equate archons both with angelic princes and with Semyaza, the chief of the WATCHERS. In Gnosticism, Sophias son Ialdabaoth creates archons to rule over all the hierarchies, but he gives them lesser powers, so that he can rule over all of them. The principal archons rule the seven planets and impede the upward progress of the soul. The earliest author to name the seven, St. Irenaeus, lists Ialdabaoth as the chief archon, followed by Iao, Sabaoth, Adoneus, Eloeus, Oreus, and Astanphaeus. ORIGEN, in his description of Orphic mythology in Contra Celsum, names the principal seven as Ialdabaoth, Iao, Sabaoth, Adonaios, Astaphaios, Eloaios, and Horaios. Origen also gives specic rituals for the soul to get past the archontes. In the Apocryphon of John 48:1017, seven archons create ADAM. The Hypostasis of the Archons (The Reality of the Rulers) is an anonymous Gnostic work that gives an esoteric interpretation of Genesis 16. Its date of origin is unknown, but it was originally written in Greek, probably in Egypt. The document declares that archons are not imaginary but are real. The archons generally exhibit arrogance, cruelty, and base behavior; they are called the Rulers of Darkness and Rulers of Unrighteousness. Norea, the daughter of Eve, cries out to God to be rescued from the clutches of the Rulers of Unrighteousness, and is immediately visited by Eleleth, the Great Angel who stands in the presence of the Holy Spirit. He says he is one of the Four Light-givers. None of the Rulers has true power over her, he tells Norea, because they cannot prevail against the Root of Truth. He tells her the story of how the androgynous Ialdabaoth came into being, and how he created the archons, seven in number and all androgynous like himself. He proclaims himself God of the entirety, which angers Zoe, the daughter of Sophia. She breathes fire into his face, and the fire becomes an angel and casts Ialdabaoth into the underworld (Tartaros). 52 Ariel His offspring Sabaoth repents and condemns his father and his mother (Matter), and Sophia and Zoe lift him up to the seventh heaven, where he rules in splendor. Ialdabaoth becomes jealous, and this is the origin of Envy. Envy engenders Death, and Death creates the offspring of Chaos (similar to the fallen angels). The lesson of the story is that when humanity discovers the Spirit of Truth, they will exist deathless. When Death is conquered, the archons (authorities) will come to an end as well, and angels will weep over their destruction. Humanity will become the Children of Light. A Gnostic sect called the Archontici took its name from the archons. See PRONOIA. FURTHER READING Barnstone, Willis. The Other Bible. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1984. van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. Ariel (Arael, Ariael) Angel whose name means lion of God. Ariel appears in biblical, apocryphal, Gnostic, Coptic, and occult literature in a variety of guises, both angel and demon. In 4 EZRA Ariel is an angel. In the Old Testament, the book of ISAIAH refers to Ariel as an altar, man, and city. This was echoed by the Renaissance occultist, AGRIPPA, who referred to Ariel as a demon, angel, or city. In Jewish lore, Ariel is a name for Jerusalem, and in Kabbalistic lore it is the name of a VIRTUE. Ariel is ranked among the seven PRINCES by Thomas Heywood in The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. In the Coptic Pistis Sophia, Ariel rules the lower world, and in GNOSTICISM he is associated with the creator god Ialdabaoth. In magical texts, Ariel is described as a lion-headed angel. In the Testament of SOLOMON, he controls demons. Shakespeare named a fairy Ariel in The Tempest. Ariel also gures in Gaelic prayers of protection for the home and hearth. Ariel also is one of the 72 angels of the SCHEMHAMPHORAE. Aristotle See INTELLIGENCES. Ark of the Covenant Gilded wooden chest made to contain the tablets of Gods covenant with Israelthe Ten Commandmentsand a pot of MANNA and the rod or Aaron. The chest is protected by two CHERUBIM, the twins Jael and Zarall. When King SOLOMON built the rst Temple of Jerusalem, the Ark was placed in the innermost chamber, the Holy of Holies. When transported, it was covered with a veil of badgers skins and a blue cloth, which kept it from being seen. Gods instructions to MOSES for constructing the Ark are given in Exodus 18:1022. God species that it be made of shittim (acacia wood) and measure twoand-a-half cubits long by one-and-a-half cubits wide. The chest is gilded inside and out and crowned with gold. Four golden rings are at the corners for staves used to carry the ark. The mercy seat of God sits atop the Ark, from which God addresses Israel. Two gilded wood cherubs are at the ends of the Ark, stretching their wings across it. The Ark served as an important source of prophecy. In Exodus 25:22, God tells Moses that he will speak from above the ark-cover and between the two cherubim. The two cherubim perhaps served as the focal point for intense spiritual energy and meditation, and thus they were the primary channels of prophecy for Moses and other prophets. When the First Temple was destroyed, this vein of prophecy ceased to exist. The Zohar says that the two cherubim represent the 10 sephirot of the TREE OF LIFE divided into a masculine and feminine array (ve commandments on each tablet correspond to ve sephirot on the Tree). This masculine-feminine tension enabled the spiritual force of prophecy to manifest. FURTHER READING Kaplan, Aryeh. Sefer Yetzirah: The Book of Creation. Rev. ed. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1997. Armaros (Abaros, Ardearos, Armers, Pharmaros) In 1 ENOCH, a FALLEN ANGEL who teaches the resolving of enchantments. Armisael Angel of the womb invoked to aid pregnancies and childbirth. The Talmud gives a prescription for difcult pregnancies that instructs the recitation of Psalm 20 nine times in the presence of the pregnant woman. The psalm is repeated another nine times if there is no relief. If there is still no relief, Armisael is invoked in this prayer: I conjure you, Armisael, angel who governs the womb, that you help this woman and the child in her body to life and peace. Amen, Amen, Amen. See CHILDBIRTH ANGELS; MAGIC. Armogen See HARAHEL. Asmodeus 53 Moses with the Ark of the Covenant, from a 19th-century Bible (Authors collection) Artyahisht See AMARAHSPANDS. Asariel Angel who is one of the 28 rulers of the MANSIONS OF THE MOON. Asariel means whom God has bound, specically, by oath. Asmoday (Ashmeday, Asmodius, Hasmoday, Sydonay) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. The LEMEGETON describes Asmoday as a strong and powerful king who had three heads: a bull, a man, and a ram. He also has a serpents tail and webbed goose feet, and he vomits fire. Asmoday rides a dragon and carries a lance and pennon. He bestows the ring of virtues, teaches arithmetic, geomancy and all handicrafts, answers all questions, makes people invisible, and guards hidden treasures but reveals them. He rules 72 legions of spirits. A magician must invoke him bareheaded, otherwise he will lie. As Hasmoday, he rules the moon. Asmodeus (Ashmedai) One of the most prominent and evil of FALLEN ANGELS. Asmodeus is an archdemon who rules lechery, jealousy, anger, and revenge. His goals are to prevent intercourse between husband and wife, wreck new marriages, and force husbands to commit adultery. He is frequently blamed in cases of demonic possession. Asmodeus has three heads: that of an ogre, a ram, and a bull, all sexually licentious creatures. He also has the feet of a cock, another sexually aggressive creature. He has ugly wings, rides on a dragon (a Christian symbol of Satan and evil), and breathes re. Asmodeus has his roots in ancient Persian mythology, in which he is identied with Aeshma, one of seven ARCHANGELS. The Jews absorbed him into their mythology, where he attained the highest status and most power of his legends. According to Jewish lore, he is the son of Naamah and Shamdon. He is part of the SERAPHIM, the highest order of angels, but fell from grace when Lucifer was cast from HEAVEN. He also is either associated with, or is the husband of, Lilith, the 54 Asmodeus demon queen of lust. He is also said to be the offspring of Lilith and ADAM. According to the Testament of SOLOMON, Asmodeus lives in the constellation of the Great Bear (Ursa Major). He spreads the wickedness of men, plots against newlyweds, spreads madness about women through the stars, ruins the beauty of virgins, and commits murders. He is thwarted by Raphael and the smoking liver and gall of a sh, especially the sheatsh, which lives in Assyrian rivers. He has knowledge of the future. Asmodeus is brought to the presence of King SOLOMON by the Prince of Demons, Beelzebub. Sullen and deant, he tells the king he was born of a human mother and an angel father. Solomon will have only a temporary hold over the DEMONS; his kingdom eventually will be divided, and demons will go out again among men and will be worshiped as gods because humans will not know the names of the angels who thwart the demons. He admits that he is afraid of water. Solomon binds Asmodeus with care, puts him in chains, and surrounds him with jars full of water, which makes the demon complain bitterly. Asmodeus is forced to make clay vessels for the temple. Solomon also burns the liver and gall of a sh beneath the demon, which quells his nasty tongue. A rabbinic tale relates how Asmodeus is captured by King Solomon and then steals his magical ring. In order to cut stone for his Temple of Jerusalem, Solomon requires a shamir, a stone-cutting worm. Asmodeus knows where the worm is, for he comes to earth to watch debates in the house of learning and to take a drink of water from a stone-capped mountain well. Solomon sends his chief man, Benaiah ben Jehoiadah, to the well with a chain engraved with the divine name, a ring engraved with the divine name, a bundle of wool, and a skein of wine. Benaiah drills a hole and drains the well and stuffs the hole with the wool. He lls the well with the wine. Asmodeus comes and drinks the wine and falls asleep. Benaiah chains him about the neck and traps him with the seal of the ring. Asmodeus and other demons are forced to build Solomons temple. After completion of the temple, Solomon tells Asmodeus that he cannot understand why demons are so powerful when their leader could be so easily chained. Asmodeus says he will prove his greatness if Solomon will remove his chains and lend him the magical ring. Solomon does so, only to be hurled far away from Jerusalem. Asmodeus steals the ring, forces Solomon into exile, and becomes king himself. He throws the ring into the sea. But Solomons lover, the Ammonite Namah, nds the ring in a sh belly, and the king regains his power. He is immediately trans- Asmodeus (Francis Barrett, The Magus, 1805) ported to Jerusalem when he puts on the ring. As punishment, he puts Asmodeus in a jar. In the apocryphal book of TOBIT, Asmodeus plagues a young woman named Sarah by killing her husbands on their wedding nights in the bridal chamber before the marriages can be consummated. Sarah loses seven husbands before being rescued by Tobias, a young man who is aided by the archangel Raphael, disguised as a man. Raphael instructs Tobias to take the liver, heart, and gall of a sh and burn them to make a foul incense that will drive away Asmodeus. Tobias is dubious, but Raphael assures him the trick will work, and Tobias will be able to claim Sarah as his wife. Tobias becomes betrothed to Sarah, and, on their wedding night, prepares the foul smoke to repel Asmodeus. The demon is driven out and ees to Egypt, where he is bound up by another angel. Asmodeus appears in Christian demonology as one of Satans leading agents of provocation. Witches in the Middle Ages were said to worship him, and magicians and sorcerers attempted to conjure him to strike out at enemies. The medieval GRIMOIRES of magical instruction sternly admonish anyone seeking an audience with Asmodeus to summon him bareheaded out of respect. According to JOHANN WEYER, a 16th-century physician and demonologist, Asmodeus also ruled the gambling houses. Astanphaeus Asmodeus was one of the infernal agents blamed for the obscene sexual possession of a convent of nuns in 17th-century France, during the height of the witch scare that ran through Europe. The incident occurred at a convent in Louviers in 1647, and involved 18 nuns who allegedly were possessed through the bewitchments of the nunnerys director and the vicar of Louviers. According to confessionsmost extracted under torturethe possessed nuns committed unspeakable sexual acts with the devil and demons; attended witches sabbats, where they ate babies; and uttered obscenities and spoke in tongues. The nuns were subject to public exorcisms. The vicar, Father Thomas Boulle, was burned alive. The body of the nunnery director, Mathurin Picard, who died before sentencing was passed, was exhumed and burned. A nun who broke the story to authorities, Sister Madeleine Bavent, was sentenced to the dungeon. Holy Face of Christ displayed by two angels (Albrecht Drer, 1513) 55 FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. 2d ed. New York: Facts On File, 1999. Asroilu YHVH In 3 ENOCH, one of the PRINCES who guards the seventh HEAVEN and is the head of every season in the heavenly academy. Asroilu bows down to Gallisur. Assiah See KABBALAH. Astanphaeus (Astaphaeus, Astaphai, Astaphaios) Important angel in GNOSTICISM. According to ORIGEN, the name Astanphaeus is derived from the art of 56 Astaroth MAGIC. Astanphaeus is one of seven ARCHONS whom Ialdabaoth makes in his own image, and he is also one of seven ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE. As an archon, he guards the third gate of the aeon of the archons. Astanphaeus also is identied as one of the seven sons of Melchizedek, and as an angel who rules the planet Mercury. Astaroth One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Of Syrian origin (according to Voltaire), Astaroth is a demonized version of the goddess Astarte. In Jewish lore, Astaroth was one of the SERAPHIM and a PRINCE of THRONES prior to his fall. In HELL, according to demonologist JOHANN WEYER, he reigns as a grandduke. He commands 40 legions of demons and serves as great treasurer. According to the LEMEGETON, he appears either as a foul angel or a beautiful angel who rides a dragon and holds a viper in his right hand. His breath stinks so badly that a magician must use his magic ring to defend his face. Astaroth will give true answers to questions about the past, present, and future. He discovers secrets and is skilled in liberal sciences. He encourages slothfulness and laziness. Astaroth believes he was punished unjustly by God, and that someday he will be restored to his rightful place in heaven. Asteraoth In the Testament of SOLOMON, the angel who can thwart Power, one of the seven demonic HEAVENLY BODIES, who feeds mens greed for power and control. Asteraoth is one of the PLANETARY RULERS. asuras See HINDUISM. Atrugiel (Atarguniel, Atarniel, Atrigiel, Atruggiel, Tagriel) In 3 ENOCH, a great PRINCE in the seventh HEAVEN who bows down to Naaririel. Atrugiel also is one of the many names of Metatron. Atziluth See KABBALAH. Augustine, St. (354430) One of the most inuential of the early church fathers. Augustine is remarkable among Catholic saints for having been in his youth a reckless sinner who wrote a detailed account of his conversion: the Confessions, addressed to God. At about age 72, Augustine sat down to review his writings and put them in chronological order, and was astounded at the quantity. His complete works, written in Latin, are about the size of an encyclopedia. Thomas Merton termed his monumental The City of God the autobiography of the Catholic Church. Augustine devotes much attention to angels: how they were created, how they differ from demons, and how they operate in expediting the progress of the human soul to holiness. Life and Works Augustine was born November 13, 354, in Tagaste, North Africa. His mother Monica was a Christian and his father Patricius a pagan, whom Monica eventually converted by her patience and good example. He was not baptized as an infant, but his mother enrolled him as a catechumen in the Catholic Church. He studied Latin and Greek grammar and literature in his boyhood, complaining about rough treatment by his schoolmasters. After his father died in 370, Augustine went to Carthage to study rhetoric to prepare for a public life. There he met a young woman at a church service, began to live with her, and fathered a son named Adeodatus (Gods gift). He condes to God in Confessions, both love and lust boiled within me, and swept my youthful immaturity over the precipice of evil desires to leave me half drowned in a whirlpool of abominable sins. . . . my soul was sick, and broke out in sores, whose itch I agonized to scratch with the rub of carnal things, including stage plays, with the mirror they held up to my own miseries and the fuel they poured on my ame. In 373 Augustine joined the Manichees, who taught that there are two supreme gods, one good and one evil, and similarly two competing souls within the human person. For nine years he maintained interest in this cult. After his move to Rome in 383 to teach a better class of rhetoric students, he was the guest of a Manichee and socialized with many prominent members of the sect. In 384 he was appointed professor of rhetoric in Milan. Within two years he abandoned Manicheism and gradually came under the influence of his Christian mentors: St. Ambrose, the influential local bishop, and Simplicianus, a wise elderly former bishop. At the same time, he wanted to advance himself in position and possessions, so marriage seemed the next step. His mother had joined him and helped him to arrange a marriage to a girl who was not yet 12; he agreed to wait two years. Augustines mistress of many years had to leave him as part of this marriage plan, which threw Augustine into emotional turmoil. My heart which had held her very dear was Augustine, St. broken and wounded and shed blood, he wrote. She went back to Africa, swearing that she would never know another man, and left with me the natural son I had of her. . . . I was simply a slave of lust. So I took another woman, not of course as a wife; and thus my souls disease was kept alive as vigorously as ever. He was tormented by both the loss of his former lover and the hopelessness for him of a life of continence, which ran in circles alongside his growing seriousness in reexamining Christianity. Then one day while in a garden, he experienced a striking conversion in which his self-doubt was expelled. His mother was exultant. Augustine decided to give up his teaching position and was baptized along with his son Adeodatus and another close friend on Easter 387. About a year later the group was at the port of Ostia on their way home to Africa when Monica died. She and Augustine had shared an ecstatic experience ve days previously, after which she had told him that all her prayers had been answered in superabundance and she no longer hoped for anything in this world. When Augustine nally returned in 388 to Tagaste in North Africa, he set up a sort of monastery on his family land with his close friends. His beloved son Adeodatus died within a year at age 16. Augustine soon gave away his possessions, and for the rest of his life lived simply as a monk in community with men. In 391 he was ordained a priest in Hippo by Bishop Valerius, who permitted Augustine to preach almost immediately. Upon Valeriuss death in 396, Augustine became bishop of Hippo, a post he held for 35 years. He composed the Rule for the Augustinian Order. In the 390s he started a convent for women following the Rule. He preached almost daily and wrote incessantly: theological treatises, letters, polemics against heresies, the Confessions (nished in 400), and The City of God, written in installments between 413 and 426. He died on August 28, 430, during a siege by the Vandals. Angelology in The City of God When Rome was sacked by the Goths under Alaric in 410, many intellectuals made accusations that Christianity had debilitated the empire and made it vulnerable. The City of God is Augustines response. His defense of Christian doctrine was informed by politics and history, full of direct references to pagan philosophers from Plato to his contemporaries. The fall of the earthly city of Rome was the inevitable result of the sinful wills of its rulers and citizens; at the same time the rise of the city of God (the Catholic Church) was a process that had begun before time and was infused with grace, personied by Jesus Christ. Augustine summarizes the concept of the two 57 cities: Two loves have built two cities: the love of self, which reaches even to contempt for God, the earthly City; and the love of God, which reaches even to contempt for self, the heavenly City. One glories in itself, the other in the Lord. One seeks its own glory amongst men; the greatest glory of the other is God, witness of its conscience. One, swollen with pride, uplifts its haughty head; the other cries out to God with the Psalmist: Thou are my glory, it is Thou who dost lift up my head. Duality is intrinsic to human souls (and by extension to angelic spirits) who dwell on a middle ground between Gods eternal immutable perfection and the lowest level of bodily mutable mortality. Humans can look upward to God and the eternal truths (the conversio ad Deum) or downward to mutable creatures (the pervasio animae). The upward gaze of the soul contains the workings of the ratio superior; in the downward glance, the ratio inferior. These are not two faculties of the soul, but are two dispositions of one and the same mind. The soul is not divided, but the being is. It is on the same basis that the two loves are distinguished, and so two societies of intellectual creatures. Augustine makes a similar distinction of time and eternity, a topic dear to him. In Books XI and XII Augustine shows how the good and bad angels had inaugurated the two cities on the basis of the two loves. Though there is no explicit verse in Genesis saying how and when the angels were created, Augustine concludes that in Let there be light, and there was light we are justied in understanding in this light the creation of the angels. He says, They were created partakers of the eternal light which is the unchangeable Wisdom of God. Whereas the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world (John 1:9) lighteth also every pure angel, that he may be light not in himself but in God, . . . if an angel turn away, he becomes impure, as are all those who are called unclean spirits, and are no longer light in the Lord, but darkness in themselves, being deprived of the light eternal. For evil has no positive nature; but the loss of good has received the name evil. In Books XIII and XIV, Augustine explains how this error was repeated by ADAM AND EVE. This brought humanity into a state of original sin, which Augustine calls a fortunate fall, because humanity is then redeemed by the intervention of Christ. From God, our rst parents received a free will capable of loving Him. But they, like the FALLEN ANGELS, preferred to love themselves and to live according to a law of their own, thereby establishing themselves in pride and falsehood. The angels who remained blessed enjoyed uninterrupted and unchangeable connection with God; the 58 Augustine, St. others of their own will did fall from the light of goodness. Augustine considers whether the fallen angels may have enjoyed something on this level before their fall, and says it is possible but not accompanied with foresight of their eternal felicity that the good angels had. If it is hard to believe that they were not all from the beginning on an equal footing . . . it is harder to consider that some good angels are now uncertain of their eternal felicity. . . . For what catholic Christian does not know that no new devil will ever arise among the good angels, as he knows that this present devil will never again return into the fellowship of the good? Augustine does not talk about the leader of the fallen angels per se, but he cites several words of Christ as clues to understanding how and when this sin of the angels occurred: He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth (Matthew 25:46). Augustine interprets beginning as from the beginning of the human race, when man, whom he could kill by his deceit was made. He refutes the interpretation that this passage indicates that the devil was awed from his very creation, as the Manichees posited. On this same ground he refutes the interpretation of the Apostle Johns comment the devil sinneth from the beginning (1 John 3:8), citing prophetic proof: How art thou fallen, O Lucifer, son of the morning (Isaiah 14:12) and Thou hast been in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering (Ezekiel 33:13), which Augustine says, it is meant that he was some time without sin. Augustine considers how a good God could create beings whom he knew would become evil, and says that God makes good use of evil wills. He causes the devil to be cast down from his high position and to become the mockery of his angels. In Book XII, Augustine returns to the subject and offers this conclusion: the bad angels either received less of the grace of the divine love than those who persevered in the same; or if both were created equally good, then while the one fell by their evil will the others were more abundantly assisted, and attained to that pitch of blessedness at which they became certain they would never fall from it. . . . We must therefore acknowledge, with the praise due the Creator, that not only of holy men, but also of holy angels, the love of God is shed abroad in their hearts by the Holy Ghost . . . [and] not only of men, but primarily and principally of angels it is true, as it is written, it is good to draw near to God. And those who have this good in common, have, both with Him to whom they draw near, and with one another, a holy fellowship, and form one city of GodHis living sacrice, and His living temple. Augustine also works with a two-tiered elaboration of the two cities idea. There is an imperfect city of God on earth and an imperfect city of God in HEAVEN awed by the defection of the bad angels; the present earthly city has no connection with God. Wicked angels are stirring up persecutions of Christians, constantly seducing those in power over nations, and otherwise setting struggles in motion on political, spiritual, and psychological levels. But the church can raise the earthly city up, an ascent through the ministry of angels and aspiring humans. A just man seeking to accomplish this is therefore much higher than a reprobate angel. All who understand or believe them to be worse than unbelieving men are well aware that they are called darkness . . . we understand these two societies of angelsthe one enjoying God, the other swelling with pride; the one to whom it is said Praise ye Him, all His angels, the other whose prince [Satan] says [to Jesus, Matthew 4:9] all these things will I give Thee if Thou wilt fall down and worship me; the one blazing with the holy love of God, the other reeking with the unclean lust of self advancement. Another way to look at this is that there are only two cities, each containing angels and men; the city of God contains good men and angels while the city of man contains both kinds of reprobate creatures, man and angels. Augustine says the nature of the good angels (the holy angels who maintain their allegiance to God, who never were, nor ever shall be apostate, between whom and those who forsook light eternal and became darkness, God . . . made at the rst a separation) determines the nature of the subsequent city of God by providing the earthly city with a prototype. All Christians must try to be like good angels. Those who succeed will actually become angels. The angels form the link between the two manifestations of the civitatis Dei, the earthly and the heavenly. Together the angels and the elect comprise the one city of God. The fall of the reprobate angels left gaps in the celestial court. God desires to ll these openings with his elect. The city of God in heaven will remain imperfect and unfullled until the temporal city of God reaches heaven after the Parousia (the Second Coming of Christ). Mans plight here below is temporary, since his goal is to resume his place in heaven. Aspiring humans are obligated to yearn to return to the voids reserved exclusively for them. Here on earth they are expected to behave in a manner betting angelsa key inspiration in Augustinian monasticism. The angels assist the elect in their pilgrimage to the perfect homeland above. However, Augustine warns in Book XIX that devils can imitate angels. As Satan, as we read [2 Corinthi- Augustine, St. ans 11:14] sometimes transforms himself into an angel of light, to tempt those whom it is necessary to discipline, or just to deceive, there is great need of Gods mercy to preserve us from making friends with demons in disguise, while we fancy we have good angels as friends; for the astuteness and deceitfulness of these wicked spirits is equaled by their hurtfulness. This is part of human misery, and the saints themselves are often tempted in this manner. Men and angels are joined symbiotically, each dependent on the other. The angels need humans to ll their depleted ranks. Humans long to rise to the occasion. Angels assist them both in practical terms and by offering their example. The ofce of assistance by the good angels pertains only to the earthly elect, not to the reprobate men who also reside in the church universal. The earlier books of The City of God are devoted primarily to refuting the arguments of pagan philosophers. Augustine is well aware that many pagans consider DAIMONES the mediators between gods (immortals) and mortals. In Book IV he explains how Christ alone is the mediator between God and man. There is a wicked mediator [the evil angels or Satan] who separates friends, and a good Mediator [Christ] who reconciles enemies. And those who separate are numerous. . . . The evil angels being deprived, they are wretched, and interpose to hinder rather than to help this blessedness, and by their very number prevent us from reaching that one beatic good. By becoming mortal Christ showed us that in order to obtain that blessed and beatic good, we need to seek mediators to lead us through the successive steps of this attainment, but . . . having Himself become a partaker of our humanity, has afforded us ready access to the participation of His divinity. For in delivering us from our mortality and misery, He does not lead us to the immortal and blessed angels . . . but he leads us straight to that Trinity, by participating in which the angels themselves are blessed. Therefore, when He chose to be in the form of a servant, and lower than the angels, that He might be our Mediator, He remained higher than the angels, in the form of GodHimself at once the way of life on earth and life itself in heaven. In Book X Augustine argues against the invocation of DEMONS in many magical practices. He states that miracles in the Bible were wrought for the purpose of commending the worship of the one true God, and prohibiting the worship of a multitude of false gods. They were wrought by simple faith and godly condence, not by a criminal tampering with the unseen world. There is no distinction between theurgy (practiced by honorable people) and necromancy (practiced by magicians addicted to the illicit arts) because 59 both classes are the slaves of the deceitful rites of the demons whom they invoke under the names of angels. Good angels minister to perform miracles and the place and time of miracles are dependent on Gods unchangeable will. Angels will never demand sacrices or worship for themselves but instead inspire us to worship and serve God. Angels in Other Works Several of Augustines other works discuss angels in detail. On Genesis Against the Manichees states that the ultimate destiny of humankind is a renewal, and a liberation, which he terms a change into angelic form. This constitutes a restoration to our original status lost by sin. In De Quantitae Animae, a dialogue with his friend Evodius, Augustine agrees with Evodiuss rm conviction that he is soul, but adds our souls are not in bodies. He tells his friend that the soul is by its nature equal of the angel, and any inferiority is a consequence of its sin. In Literal Commentary on Genesis, written before The City of God, Augustine says much on angels involvement with creation and the administration of it. He states that every being is rst made in the eternal uttering of its idea in the Word of God (Let there be . . .). According to the phrase and so it was made, the angels receive knowledge of the things, still to be created, in its idea within the Word. With the phrase and so God made, the thing take its nite actuality. This does not mean that the angels are the mediators of creation; God is the sole creator, the one who makes things in their separate existence. No creatures beneath the angels were created without their knowledge. Creation does not take place in six days, but it is completed in the rst moment of time. Augustine draws a parallel between two kinds of knowledge and evening and daylight, and he postulates this might be what day means in Genesis. When things are known directly in themselves as parts of creation they are known dimly, as if seen in the partial darkness of the evening. When the same things are known in their eternal principles (rationes aeternae), as they are in the Word of God, they are known clearly, in the full light of day. Thus, there is in the spiritual order a very real succession of night and day. The ordinary mode of knowledge which the angels enjoy, for instance, is that of spiritual daylight; they see the rationes of things in the Word of God. Since the angels have direct knowledge (though inferior to Gods) of creation subsequent to themselves, the six days could be thought of as a recapitulation of 60 authorities Pentecost. Angels never lose connection with the innite, eternal God, and they refer all things toward their source. FURTHER READING Augustine. The City of God. Translated by Marcus Dods, George Wilson, and J. J. Smith. Introduction by Thomas Merton. New York: Modern Library, 1950. . Confessions. Translated by F J. Sheed. New York: . Sheed and Ward, 1943, 1970. Battenhouse, Roy W., ed. A Companion to the Study of St. Augustine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955. Bourke, Vernon J. Wisdom from St. Augustine. St. Thomas, Tex.: Center for Thomistic Studies, 1984. Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. Angel keeping demons at bay (Authors collection) the process by which this happened. The evening which concludes each day is the angels looking in turn at each realm (rst themselves, then the rmament, and so on) as it is completed and stands forth in its own being, the outcome of Gods creative intention, yet inferior to what it remains in the rationes aeternae. The morning which follows is the referring of these various creatures to the praise of their Creator; and the new day reaches its full brightness in their looking to the divine ideas to see what next is to be created. The angels are connected to God without interruption, therefore their knowledge is day. But they also know created things as they are in themselves, and this looking downward is evening. If they should turn away from day knowledge (as Lucifer did), then their knowledge turns into that of the evening. In the treatise De Trinitatae, devoted to distinguishing the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, Augustine discusses the question of divine theophaniesthe appearances of God on earth. Except for the theophanies pertaining to Christ, all the other appearances of God to man may have been affected through the intervention of angels, including the tongues of re at the authorities (exousiai) Celestial forces or entities, or an order of angels, who are the bearers of authority. Authorities is sometimes used as an alternate for POWERS and VIRTUES. PSEUDODIONYSIUS gives them equal order with the DOMINIONS and powers. St. John of Damascus names authorities as sixth in rank, one level below the powers. References to authorities in the New Testament imply that they were celestial forces that became evil and had to be defeated by Christ. Ephesians 1:2021 states that when Christ was raised from the dead, he sat at the right hand of God far above all rule and authority and power and dominion. Similarly, 1 Corinthians 15:24 says, Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every power and every authority. Such references are taken to mean celestial forces as well as earthly ones. Authorities are mentioned frequently in Gnostic, apocryphal, and apocalyptic texts. ENOCH sees them in the seventh HEAVEN, along with the CHERUBIM, SERAPHIM, ORIGINS, THRONES, ARCHANGELS, and the incorporeal forces (2 Enoch 20:1). The Testament of ADAM places authorities sixth in rank, behind powers, and says they govern the celestial lights of the sun, moon, and stars. The Testament of SOLOMON opens with a declaration that the text describes how King Solomon subdued all the spirits and tells what their authorities are against men, and by what angels these demons are thwarted, implying the evil nature of authorities. The Testament of LEVI places authorities in the fourth heaven, along with the thrones. Authorities also appear in the apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, especially the acts of Andrew, John, Philip, and Thomas. See ST. PAUL. Azbogah YHVH FURTHER READING van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. avatars In Hinduism, human incarnations of the divine who function as mediators between men and God, thus serving in an angel-like capacity. The term avatar is Sanskrit for descent. Avatars incarnate of their own free will in order to help the spiritual progress of other incarnated souls. Like angels, avatars can bestow divine knowledge upon people, usually by touch, a glance, or even silence. Avatars appear in the Ramayana and Mahabharata (the latter of which includes the Bhagavad-Gita) but not in the Vedas or the Upanishads. Avatars in the Ramayana and Mahabharata are Rama and Krishna, incarnations of Vishnu, the sky god and protector of the universe. Vishnu is said to have had anywhere from 10 to 39 incarnations, all of whom appear to save the world in times of crisis. Rama and Krishna are the most beloved and worshiped; Krishna is considered the most perfect expression of the divine. The potential number of avatars is countless. Vishnus nal avatar will be Kalki, who will appear at the end of Kali-Yuga, the present era, and destroy the wicked and usher in the new era of Maha-Yuga. Gautama Buddha is considered an avatar. Various living holy men, such as Sai Baba of India, also are called avatars. Avicenna See IBN SINA. Ayil Angel who governs the zodiac sign of Sagittarius. Azael (Assiel, Azazel, Azzael, Azzazel) One of the principal evil angels who cohabited with mortal women. Azael means who God strengthens. According to lore, Azael slept with Naamah and spawned Assyrian guardian spirits known as SEDIM, invoked in the exorcism of evil spirits. As punishment, Azael is chained in a desert until Judgment Day. In magical lore, he guards hidden treasure and teaches witchcraft that enables men to make the sun, moon, and stars come down from the sky. In 3 ENOCH, Azael is named as one of three primary MINISTERING ANGELS with Azza and Uzza, who live in the seventh (highest) HEAVEN. In later lore, he is fallen and is punished by having his nose pierced. Azael is sometimes synonymous with Azza. In Akkadian lore, he is one of the MASKIM, a prince of HELL. See WATCHERS. 61 Azazel (Azael, Azazael, Hazazel) Name or epithet of a god or DEMON. The name Azazel means God strengthens. He originally may have been a Semitic god of the ocks who became demonized. Azazel is associated with the ritual of scapegoating as an expiation of sin, as described in Leviticus 16. In verse nine, God instructs MOSES that his brother Aaron shall take two goats and sacrice one to the Lord for sin. The second goat is for Azazel, and it is to be presented live to the Lord for atonement and then sent into the wilderness to Azazel. This reference to the wilderness has led to beliefs that Azazel was a demon of the desert. Apocalyptic writings emphasize the evil nature of Azazel. He is one of the chief SONS OF GOD who comes to earth and is corrupted by cohabitation. (See WATCHERS.) In 1 ENOCH, he is described as one of 21 chiefs of 200 FALLEN ANGELS. He has seven serpent heads, 14 faces, and 12 wings. He brings aggression by teaching men metalworking and how to make swords and shields, and vanity by teaching women how to use jewelry and cosmetics. He teaches oppression, leads men and women into adultery, and reveals divine secrets. Azazels instruction of metals and metalworking was taken by Hellenistic alchemists as evidence of the angelic origins of alchemy. In the Apocalypse of ABRAHAM, Azazel is the angel of disgrace, lies, evil, wrath, and trials and the lord of HELL, who is conned to earth by God because he became enamored with it. He appears to ABRAHAM rst in the form of an unclean bird and then as a dragon with 12 wings and human hands and feet. In Jewish lore, Azazel gures prominently in folktales, along with another fallen angel, Semyaza (Semyaz, Shemhazai). Azazel refuses to bow to Adam when he is presented to God and the heavenly hierarchies. Islamic lore also tells of Azazel refusing to bow down to Adam, and so God casts him out of heaven and changes him into Iblis (Eblis). FURTHER READING van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. Azbogah YHVH (Azbuga) In the MERKABAH, one of eight great angelic PRINCES of the throne of judgment who rank higher than Metatron. Azbogah means strength, and it also is a secret name of God, one of the NAMES of Divine Glory and a name of power. Azbogah is signicant in GEMATRIA because it has three groups of letters that each add up to eight. The 62 Azrael eightfold name reects the concept in GNOSTICISM of the Ogdoad, the eight rmament in which dwells Divine Wisdom, and which is over the seven rmaments of creation. In 3 ENOCH, Azbogah YHVH is an angelic prince, a glorious and dreaded angel who knows the secrets of the throne of Glorythat is, he is privileged to serve within the curtain that hides God. He is called Azbogah because his principal duty is to clothe the worthy with righteousness when they arrive in heaven. He bows down to Soperiel. Azbogah is invoked as an angel of healing against all illness, all hurt, and all evil. See YHVH. Azrael (Ashriel, Azrail, Azriel, Gabriel) In Jewish and Islamic angelologies, the ANGEL OF DEATH. The name Azrael means whom God helps. With other angels charged with the same task, Azraels hands are stretched out to receive the souls of evildoers in the agonies of dying. Azrael is one of the greatest of the angels, with his shape pleasing to the believer in order to facilitate the release from life. According to Su teacher Abdul Karim Jili, Azrael appears to the soul in a form provided by its most powerful metaphors. He may even manifest invisibly, so that a man may die of a rose in aromatic painor of a rotting stench. When the soul sees Azrael it falls in love, and its gaze is thus withdrawn from the body as if by seduction. Great prophets and saints may be invited politely by Azrael in corporeal form, as he did to MOSES and MUHAMMAD. When the Su poet Rumi lay on his deathbed, Azrael appeared as a beautiful youth: I am come by divine command to inquire what commission the Master may have to entrust to me. Rumis human companions almost fainted with fear, but the Su master replied: Come in, come in, thou messenger of my King. Do that which thou art bidden, and God willing thou shalt nd me one of the patient. Islamic angelology holds that Azrael is another form of Raphael, and possess 70,000 feet and 40,000 wings. He has as many eyes and tongues as there are people. Arabic mythology tells that Azrael constantly writes and erases in a large book. The writing brings birth and the erasing brings death. A story regarding the creation of ADAM has Azrael fullling a crucial task. The angels Michael, Gabriel, and Isral do not produce seven handfuls of earth necessary to make Adam; Azrael does. Thus, he is endowed with the power to separate the soul from the body. See DEATHBED APPARITIONS. FURTHER READING Barnstone, Willis, ed. The Other Bible. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1984. Klein, F A. The Religion of Islam. London: 1906. Reprint . 1971. Azriel (Mahniel) One of the chief ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION. Azriel is invoked to ward off evil. His name is one of seven or 10 angel names inscribed on some MEZUZOT. Azriel is known as Azriel the Ancient. His name Mahniel means mighty camp. He resides on the north side of HEAVEN, where he commands 60 myriads of legions of angels, and he also receives prayers. Azza (Semyaza) Azza means the strong. In rabbinic lore, Azza cohabited with women (see WATCHERS) and was punished to fall eternally from HEAVEN with one eye shut and the other open in order to see and suffer more. In 3 Enoch, Azza is named as one of three primary MINISTERING ANGELS with Azael and Uzza, who live in the seventh (highest) heaven. The three object to the elevation of the prophet ENOCH into the great angel Metatron. Azza heads a group of angels of justice. In the Talmud, Azza and Azael begot the SEDIM, Assyrian guardian spirits, by having sexual relations with Naamah, angel of prostitution, prior to the fall. In other lore, Azza is the angel who bestows knowledge upon King SOLOMON. In Akkadian lore, he is one of the MASKIM, a prince of HELL. FALLEN ANGEL. B f ba In Egyptian mythology, the ba is the soul, represented in art as a human-headed bird. As the winged, eternal part of a person, it provided an early inspiration for the image of the winged angel. The Egyptians associated the ba with the ka, or the persons double, and the ib, or heart. The ba is invisible and does not permanently leave the body upon death, but remains with it in the tomb, sometimes coming out at night with a lamp to roam a bit and then returning to the tomb. The body must remain intact in order for the ba to return to it (hence the need to preserve the corpse by embalming). The ba is fed cakes and is cared for by the sycamore tree goddess. The Egyptians left small openings in the pyramids so that the ba would have easy access. Small ledges inside were built for the ba to stand upon. The ancient Egyptians believed that the stars were ba, lit by their tomb lamps. See WINGS. The son of EL, the high god of Canaan, Baal was the lord of life, and ruled the death-rebirth cycle. He engaged in a battle with Mot (death) and was slain and sent to the underworld. The crops withered, until Baals sister, Anath, the maiden goddess of love, found his body and gave it proper burial. The Canaanites worshiped Baal by sacricing children by burning. According to the Zohar, Baal is equal in rank to the archangel Raphael. According to the LEMEGETON, Baal is a king ruling in the East and governs 66 legions. Baal has three heads: a toad, a man, and a cat. He speaks with a hoarse voice. Bael is invoked to impart invisibility and wisdom. Balam (Balan) A former member of the order of DOMINIONS and now one of the FALLEN ANGELS with 40 legions under his command. Balam also is one of the 72 spirits of SOLOMON. He is a terrible and powerful king with the heads of a bull, man, and ram; the tail of a serpent; and eyes of flaming fire. He rides on an angry bear (in some depictions he is naked) and carries a goshawk on his wrist. He speaks hoarsely and gives true answers concerning the past, present, and future. He also can render men invisible, and he makes them have wit. Baal (Bael, Baell) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Many small deities of ancient Syria and Persia carry this name, which means the lord, but the greatest Baal was an agricultural and fertility deity of Canaan. 63 64 Balberith Barakiel (Barachiel, Baraqiel, Barchiel, Barkiel, Barquiel and Barbiel) Angel who is the lightning of God and thus rules lightning. Barakiel is one of the seven ARCHANGELS and planetary angels and rules Jupiter and the month of February. He is one of the four chief SERAPHIM, ruler of the CONFESSORS, and PRINCE of the second and third HEAVEN. Barakiel is cited as the ruler of the zodiac sign of Scorpio and also Pisces. He is invoked for luck in gambling. As Barkiel he is one of the guards of the gates of the East Wind. As Barbiel he is one of the angels ruling the 28 MANSIONS OF THE MOON. Angel appearing to Balam (Gustave Dor) Balberith (Baalberith, Berith, Beal, Elberith) FALLEN ANGEL and former PRINCE of the order of CHERUBIM. As a DEMON, Balberith serves as a master of ceremonies and grand pontiff in HELL. He notarizes pacts with the devil. Balberith was named as a key demon in the famous possession of nuns at Aix-enProvence, France, in 1611. He appears wearing a crown and riding a horse. Balthioul (Balthial, Bathiel) In the Testament of SOLOMON, angel who has the power to thwart Distress, one of the seven demonic HEAVENLY BODIES who creates jealousy. Balthioul is one of the PLANETARY RULERS. Baradiel In 3 ENOCH, PRINCE of the third HEAVEN and angel of hail. See NURIEL. Barakiel (Copyright 1995 Robert M. Place; from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert M. Place) Baruch Baraqijal who teaches astrology. Baraqijal (possibly a variant of Barakiel) is named in 1 ENOCH as a chief of 10 leader of troops of fallen angels. In JUBILEES he is identied as one of the WATCHERS. FALLEN ANGEL Barattiel (Ataphiel, Atapiel, Atatiel) In 3 ENOCH, angel PRINCE who supports Arabot, the seventh HEAVEN, on the tops of his three ngers. Barbas See MORBAS. Barbatos One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Formerly one of the VIRTUES, Barbatos is a great count, earl, and duke of HELL, where he rules 30 legions. When the sun is in Sagittarius, he appears with four kings and three companies of troops. He understands the languages of all animals, especially the singing of birds, the barking of dogs, and the lowings of bullocks. Barbatos can reveal treasures hidden by MAGIC, and he can reconcile friends and people in power. He teaches all sciences, and knows all things in the past and of the future. Barbiel (Barakiel, Barbuel, Baruel) Angel who is both good and bad. As a good angel, Barbiel is ruler of October and, when equated with Barakiel, also February. He is one of the angels of the 28 MANSIONS OF THE MOON. As a FALLEN ANGEL, he is ex-prince of the orders of VIRTUES and ANGELS. In HELL, Barbiel serves under Zaphiel as one of the seven Electors. 65 Barquiel In the LEMEGETON, the ruling angel of the seventh hour of the day, called Hamarym. Barquiel commands 10 chief dukes and 100 lesser dukes. Barrett, Francis (19th century) English magician and occultist. Little is known about Francis Barrett beyond his authorship of The Magus, a compendium of occult information, including the lore of angels and DEMONS and how to work in MAGIC with them, published in London in 1801. Barrett billed himself as a Rosicrucian and a teacher of chemistry, metaphysics, and natural occult philosophy. He gave lessons in the magical arts from his apartment in Marlebourne. Most of his occult knowledge probably came from books. The Magus stimulated a revival of interest in occultism; the great occultist Eliphas Levi was inuenced by it. However, there is very little original material in the book. Barrett lifted material from the works of AGRIPPA, Peter of Albano, Jean Baptiste von Helmont, and other experts on alchemy and occultism. Barrett did contribute some new illustrations: portraits of various demons, which he may have seen while scrying. The English historian Montague Summers credited Barrett with turning Cambridge into a center of magic, though this probably exaggerates his inuence. FURTHER READING Barrett, Francis. The Magus. Secaucus, N.J.: The Citadel Press, 1967. First published 1801. Melton, J. Gordon, ed. Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. 5th ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001. Bariel In the LEMEGETON, the ruling angel of the 11th hour of the day, called Maneloym. Bariel commands thousands of dukes and their thousands of servants. Baruch Secretary to the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah credited with authorship of apocalyptic works. Baruch is briey mentioned twice in Jeremiah (32:14 and 36:4). The apocalypses feature encounters with angels. Barman (Bahman, Bahrman) Important angel in ZOROASTRIANISM. Barman is the first of the AMARAHSPANDS, the INTELLIGENCE from whom all other angels proceed. He rules the animals of earth and is chief of the ANGELS OF THE MONTHS . In Islamic lore, Barman is equated with Gabriel, the mightiest of angels. He rules January and the second day of the month. Barman is portrayed in human form wearing a red crown. 2 Baruch 2 Baruch, also known as the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, was written after the fall of Jerusalem (70 C.E.), probably sometime in the early second century. It describes how Baruch is desolate after the fall of Jerusalem, fasts, and then sends up lamentations and prayers to God. He warns the people of the nal judgment, which will be preceded by 12 disasters. He has a vision. (See DREAMS AND VISIONS.) Early in the text, as enemies are coming to destroy Jerusalem, Baruch is lifted up by a spirit and carried above the wall of Jerusalem. He sees four angels stand- 66 Baruch ing at the four corners of the city, each holding a burning torch. A fth angel descends from HEAVEN and instructs them to hold the torches and not light them until told to do so, for he is commanded to come and rst speak to the earth. The angel then enters the temple, into the Holy of Holies, and takes away all the holy objects and clothing. He announces these will be guarded so that they will not be taken by strangers, and they eventually will be restored to Jerusalem. The items are swallowed up by the earth. The angel commands the four angels with torches to destroy the walls down to their foundations so that the enemies cannot boast of doing so. The angels comply and the city walls come down. Baruch leaves. Later the Chaldean army arrives and seizes the city. In his lamentations, Baruch wonders whether there is anything to be gained by being righteous. God says that man must not fall into corruption. He tells Baruch of the coming 12 tribulations, followed by the salvation of the coming of the Messiah. The tribulations are: commotions; the slaughtering of the great; the death of many; ghting and war; famine and drought; earthquakes and terrors; a multitude of ghosts and the appearance of demons; the fall of re; rape and much violence; injustice and unchastity; and disorder and a mixture of everything that has come before. Baruch warns the people. He has a vision that God interprets for him, concerning the destruction of the destroyer of Jerusalem and the establishment of the dominion of the Anointed One. Baruch has another vision of 12 clouds pouring black water upon the earth, bringing destruction. There is lightning, and then 12 rivers come from the sea and surround the lightning, becoming subject to it. Baruch ponders his vision and prays. The angel Ramael (Ramiel), who governs true visions, comes to him and asks why he is troubled by what he has seen. Ramael explains the vision of the clouds of water: Each cloud represents a stage in history, beginning with the corruption of angels who came to earth and cohabited with women, and ending with the coming of the word, the rebuilding of a New Jerusalem, and the routing of all evils. Ramael tells Baruch he will depart the world in 40 days, but he will not die but will be kept until the end of times. Before he leaves, he must instruct people so that they will not die, but live in the last times. Baruch writes a long letter to the people, ties it to the neck of an eagle, and lets it go. 3 Baruch 3 Baruch was written between the rst and third centuries C.E. and exists in both Greek and Slavonic, the The last judgment (Gustave Dor) latter of which is a translation of a lost Greek original. Angels and the heavenly realms are described in detail in this text. The central gures are Michael, the holder of the keys of heaven, and Phanuel (Phamael), who serves as the heavenly guide. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Baruch weeps bitterly. God sends Phanuel, an archangel, ANGEL OF THE LORD, and the angel of hosts, to tell him his prayers have been heard, not to be concerned about the salvation of Jerusalem, and to stop irritating God with his lamentations. The angel says he will take him into heaven to reveal the mysteries of God. Baruch is shown ve heavens. According to the Greek manuscript, the descriptions are: FIRST HEAVEN After crossing a river and passing through a large door like the passing of 30 days, Baruch sees a plain with men who have the faces of cattle, the horns of deer, the feet of goats, and the loins of rams. These are men who built a tower of war against God, and they have been thrown out. Baruch SECOND HEAVEN Baruch and Phanuel pass through another large door, ying about the distance of 60 days, to a great prison holding creatures with the faces of dogs and the feet of deer. These are the ones who planned the building of the tower and who enslaved men and women in its construction. They attempted to bore into heaven to see if it was made of copper or iron. God struck them blind and confused their tongues and changed them into strange beasts. THIRD HEAVEN Baruch and Phanuel go on a journey of about 185 days to a plain with a serpent who appears to be stone. The serpent eats the bodies of those who live their lives badly, and his belly is Hades. Baruch is shown Hades, which is gloomy and unclean. Baruch asks to be shown the tree which caused the fall of ADAM. Phanuel says it was planted by Samael and thus was forbidden by God, but Samael tricked Adam. Because of the resulting evil, God sent the Flood that destroyed all esh and 409,000 giants, and all vegetation in Paradise. A sprig of the tree was uprooted and removed. Noah found the sprig and the angel Sarasael was sent to tell him to replant the tree, whose fruit will become the blood of God. Baruch is then shown where the sun goes forth, a chariot on top of re drawn by four horses and 40 angels and driven by a man with a ery crown. The chariot is preceded by a bird, PHOENIX, as big as nine mountains, who is the guardian of the world. It absorbs the rays of the sun so that men can stand the intensity and live on earth. The Phoenix excretes a worm, which is made into cinnamon. A thunderclap announces the opening of the 365 gates of heaven by the angelsthe separation of light from darkness. Baruch sees the crowned Phoenix carried by angels. He is frightened by the splendor and hides in the wings of Phanuel. Phanuel takes him to the west to the end of the day, where he sees four angels take the crown from a tired Phoenix and remove it to heaven for renewal. Phanuel says that the sun is deled by the sin, corruption, and lawlessness of men. Baruch is then shown the mysteries of the moon, drawn in a chariot driven by a woman and preceded by oxen, lambs, and many angels. Phanuel says that when Adam fell, the moon woman gave light to Samael when he took the serpent as a garment. Angry, God diminished her and shortened her days, which is why the moon waxes and wanes. FOURTH HEAVEN At the next level, Baruch sees a plain with a lake in the middle, and birds unlike those on earth, who continu- 67 ously praise God. This is where the souls of the righteous assemble living together choir by choir. It is the source of the dew of heaven. FIFTH HEAVEN The gate of this heaven is closed and can be opened only by Michael, the commander in chief who holds the keys. Michael descends in a noise like thunder and the gates open in more thunderous sounds. Phanuel makes obeisance to him and says, Hail, commander in chief of all our regiment. Michael responds, Hail thou also, our brother, interpreter of revelations to those who pass through life rightly (11:67). Michael holds a large bowl whose depth reaches from heaven to earth, in which he carries the good works and virtues of the righteous to God. Then angels of power and angels of principalities arrive with ower-lled baskets, which they give to Michael for his bowl. The owers are the virtues of the righteous. Other angels come with baskets less than full, and they are frightened to approach Michael. Michael tells them to bring what they have, but he and Phanuel are distressed because the bowl is not lled. Other angels come bearing nothing, crying because they have been handed over to evil men and begging to be released from them. Michael declines, saying they cannot go in order that the enemy will not win in the end. The angels still beg to be transferred. Michael tells them to wait until God tells him what to do. In a noise like thunder, he takes the bowl of virtues to God, and the doors to the fth heaven close. After a time Michael reappears bringing oil. It is the oil of mercy or the oil of Gods glory. For the angels who brought baskets of owers, he lls their baskets with oil according to the measure of what they brought, and tells them to give it as a reward to the righteous. To the angels who brought nothing, he instructs them to torment and punish the evil men to whom they are assigned, for their deeds have angered him. They are to provoke anger, bitterness, and jealousy; bring plagues of caterpillars, locusts, rust, and grasshoppers with hail, lightning, and fury; torment their children with demons and punish them with sword and death. The door closes while Michael is speaking, and Baruch and Phanuel withdraw. Phanuel returns the scribe to earth, where he praises God for the revelations. The story ends. The Slavonic manuscript of 3 Baruch mentions other angels in addition to Michael, Phanuel, and Sarasael. Samael is referred to as Satanael, Satans name before the fall. The Garden of Eden is planted by 200,003 angels, each of whom plants a different thing. Michael plants the olive, Gabriel the apple, Uriel the 68 Baruchiel nut, Raphael the melon, and Satanael the vine or the tree. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Baruchiel (Baruchiachel) In the Testament of SOLOMON, angel who has the power to thwart Strife, one of the seven demonic HEAVENLY BODIES. In 3 ENOCH, Baruchiel is one of seven PLANETARY RULERS. Bat(h) Qol (Bath Kol) In Kabbalistic lore, a female angel associated with divine prophecy, whose name means daughter of the voice or heavenly voice. Bath Qol appears in the form of a dove, perhaps a parallel to the dove of the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost of Christianity. She is the angel said to visit Rabbi Simeon (Shimon) ben Yohai, the reputed author of the Zohar in the second century, who spent 12 years in seclusion in a cave in Israel. Bathin (Mathim) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Bathin is a strong and great duke of HELL with 30 legions under his command. He appears as a man with a serpents tail astride a pale horse. He understands the lore of herbs and precious stones. He can transport people from country to country instantly. Bazazath (Bazazarath) Archangel of the second HEAVEN. According to the Testament of SOLOMON, Bazazath is the angel who has the power to thwart the demon WINGED DRAGON. Beelzebub (Beelzeboul) Syrian god who became demonized as a FALLEN ANGEL in Jewish and Christian lore. According to the KABBALAH, Beelzebub was the prince of DEMONS who governed the nine evil hierarchies of the underworld. In Christian demonology, he is second to Satan among the fallen angels, the prince of devils and chief of demons. Also known as Baal-zebub, the lord of the ies, the name is a distortion of Baal-zebul, the chief Canaanite or Phoenician god meaning lord of the divine abode or lord of the heavens. Beelzebub has always been considered a demon of great power, and sorcerers have conjured him at great risk. Most depictions show him as an enormous y. Pharisees tried to cast doubt on Jesus power to cast out demons by accusing him of being possessed by Beelzebub. The incident is recounted in Matthew (12:2429), Mark (3:2227), and Luke (11:1422): And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, he hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of devils casteth he out devils. And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand but hath an end. No man can enter into a strong mans house, and spoil his goods, except he will rst bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house. (Mark 3: 2227) This incident also presents the idea of binding (adjuring) Satan to the will of God before he can be thrown out of the house, or the body of the possessed victim. During the time of ELIJAH, the god Baal was the main rival to the Israelite god Yahweh (Jehovah). King Ahab was not constant in his faith and had allowed his wife Jezebel to introduce the worship of the Canaanite Baals into Israel. In 1 Kings 18:2040, Elijah challenges the 450 prophets of Baal to a contest to see which god is greater. The prophets prepare a sacricial bull and place it on a pyre but do not light the re. Elijah does the same. The prophets of Baal call on their god all day, but to no avail. Elijah taunts the prophets, suggesting that Baal had gone on a journey, or perhaps is asleep or tending to bodily functions. Elijah takes 12 stones representing the 12 tribes of Israel and places them near the bull and altar. He digs a small trench around the altar and lls it with water, drenching the pyre as well. Water is added a second time. Elijah calls on the Lord to show Himself as God. The pyre and all the stones and water are consumed by ame. Elijah captures the 450 prophets of Baal and assassinates them. In the Testament of Solomon, Beelzebub (Beelzeboul) is the Prince of Demons, and he is summoned and subdued by King SOLOMON with the help of his magical ring. Solomon commands Beelzebub to explain the manifestation of demons, and he promises to bring to the king all unclean spirits bound. He tells Solomon that he lives in the Evening Star (Venus). He alone is the Prince of Demons because he was the highest-ranking angel in heaven, and he is the only one left of the heavenly angels who fell. He was accompanied by another fallen angel (Abezethibou), who was cast into the Red Sea. Beelzebub says he destroys tyrants, causes men to worship demons, and arouses sexual desire in holy men and select priests. He also causes wars, insti- Beleth gates murders, and arouses jealousy. He is thwarted by the Almighty God and will disappear if anyone uses the oath the Elo-i (my God, which JESUS later cried on the cross). Solomon sets Beelzebub to cutting blocks of Theban marble for his temple. All the other demons cry out. Solomon tells the demon that if he wishes to obtain his release, he will tell the king about other heavenly things. Beelzebub says that Solomon can strengthen his house by doing the following: burn oil of myrrh, frankincense, sea bulbs, spikenard, and saffron, and light seven lamps during an earthquake. Lighting the seven lamps at dawn will reveal the heavenly dragons pulling the chariot of the sun. Solomon does not believe him, and he orders the demon to continue cutting marble and producing other demons for interrogation. During the Inquisition, Beelzebub was regarded as one of the chief demons over witches. At sabbats, witches supposedly denied Christ in his name, and chanted it as they danced. Numerous accounts attest to him copulating with witches in wild orgies. Beelzebub also was among the demons blamed for the demonic possession cases. In 1566, he tormented a young girl named Nicole Obry in Laon, France. Her daily exorcisms before huge crowds were used by the Catholic Church, embroiled in religious struggles with the French Huguenots, as examples of the churchs power over the devil. Through Obry, Beelzebub claimed the Huguenots as his own people, gleefully noting that their supposed heresies made them even more precious to him. The demon was exorcised through repeated administration of holy wafers. Beelzebub also was blamed for the bewitchment of nuns at Loudon, Louviers, and Aix-en-Provence in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, leading to the ery deaths of his accused lieutenants, Father Louis Gaufridi and Father Urbain Grandier. One of the demons most notorious appearances in the 20th century was as the possessing devil of Anna Ecklund. He entered the young woman at the behest of her father Jacob, angry that Anna would not engage in incestuous sex with him. The demon left on December 23, 1928, in a terrible roar of Beelzebub, Judas, Jacob, Mina (Annas aunt and Jacobs mistress) followed by hell, hell, hell and a terrible stench. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Elledge, Scott, ed. John Milton: Paradise Lost, An Authoritative Text. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975. 69 Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. 2d ed. New York: Facts On File, 1999. Behemoth The male counterpart to Leviathan, one of the FALLEN ANGELS and a DEMON of the deep. Like Leviathan, Behemoth is associated with Rahab and the sea, and is personied variously as a whale, crocodile, and hippopotamus. He is also associated with the ANGEL OF DEATH. The book of ENOCH says that Behemoth and Leviathan were separated by God at the creation, with Leviathan being sent to the sea and Behemoth being sent to an immeasurable desert named Dendain. In the Bible, Job 40:1524 describes Behemoth as a mighty beast, the first of the works of God (40:19). Rabbinic lore holds that on the Day of Judgment, he will slay and be slain by Leviathan. His fate is to furnish meat for the Messiahs feast, and his flesh will be distributed to the faithful. Another rabbinic legend says that God destroyed Leviathan on the day he created both monsters, but placed Behemoth, in the form of a giant ox, on enchanted mountains to fatten him up. There he eats the grass of 1,000 mountains each day; the grass grows back each night. Behemoth is doomed to remain there alone until the end of time, because God realized that such a monster could not be loosed upon the world. In Christian lore, Behemoth is considered one of the prime representations of evil. The demonologist JOHANN WEYER, who catalogued the ranks of HELL, did not include Behemoth in his list, but he did include him in another work, Praestigiorum Daemonum, in which he said that Behemoth represents Satan himself. Other demonologists of medieval times did include Behemoth in their rankings. Behemoth is sometimes described as being overweight and stupid; thus he encourages gluttony and the pleasures of the belly. His shape shifts to various animal forms, and often he is depicted as an elephant with a huge stomach. FURTHER READING Hyatt, Victoria, and Joseph W. Charles. The Book of Demons. New York: Fireside Press, 1974. Beleth (Bileth, Bilet, Byleth) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. The LEMEGETON, a GRIMOIRE, says that Beleth is a terrible and mighty king who rules over 85 legions. He arrives on a pale horse, preceded by many musicians. He is very angry when first summoned, and must be sent at once to a magical triangle by a magician point- 70 Belial ing a hazel wand to the southeast. He must be treated with great courtesy, but if the magician shows fear, Beleth will forever lose respect for him. The magician must protect himself by wearing a silver ring on the middle finger of the left hand and holding it up to the face. If Beleth refuses to cooperate, the magician must proceed with his commands. JOHANN WEYER writes that a bottle of wine helps to mellow Beleth into cooperation. Belial (Beliar) One of the FALLEN ANGELS. Belial ranks as one of Satans most important and evil DEMONS, who is deceptively beautiful in appearance and soft in voice, but full of treachery, recklessness, and lies. He is dedicated to creating wickedness and guilt in mankind, especially in the form of sexual perversions, fornication, and lust. Belials name probably comes from the Hebrew term beli yaal, which means without worth. In Jewish lore, Belial was the next angel created after Lucifer. He was evil from the start, being one of the rst to revolt against God. After his fall from HEAVEN, he became the personication of evil. St. PAUL considered him to be chief of demons. According to lore, Belial danced before King SOLOMON, and was among the demons who worked under the kings command, ruled by Solomons magical ring. In HELL Belial commands 80 legions of demons and served as infernal ambassador to Turkey. The LEMEGETON describes him as appearing in the deceptive form of a beautiful angel seated in a chariot of re and speaking in a pleasant voice. Belial distributes preferences for senatorships, favors to friends and foes, and gives excellent FAMILIARS. Because of his power, sacrices and offerings are necessary to invoke him. Belial sometimes break his promises, but those who gain his true favor are handsomely rewarded. Belials name is sometimes a synonym for Satan or the Antichrist, the epitome of evil. In the Old Testament, the sons of Belial refers to people of worthlessness and recklessness. Belial is among the 72 spirits of Solomon. Prior to his fall, he was in the order of the VIRTUES. In a QUMRAN TEXT called the Testament of Amran (Q543, 545548), Belial is identied as one of the WATCHERS whose three titles are Belial, Prince of Darkness, and King of Evil. He is empowered over all darkness and his every way and every work are darkness. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Eisenman, Robert, and Michael Wise. The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. London: Element Books, 1992. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. 2d ed. New York: Facts On File, 1999. Belphegor (Baal-Peor, Belfagor) Moabite god of licentiousness and both good and FALLEN ANGEL. Belphegor means lord of opening or lord Baal of Mt. Phegor. According to Kabbalistic lore, Belphegor was an angel in the order of PRINCIPALITIES prior to his fall. In HELL he rules inventions and discoveries, and he serves as infernal ambassador to France. benad hasche In Arabic lore, female angels. The benad hasche are commonand traditionally were the objects of veneration. bene elohim (ben elohim, beni elohim, bene elim, bne elohim) An order of angels or archangels whose name means sons of god, sometimes translated as sons of man because of the sexual activities of the SONS OF GOD. The bene elohim are a subdivision of the THRONES, though they sometimes are equated with thrones and also the ISSIM and ARCHANGELS. The main duty of the bene elohim is to ceaselessly sing the praises of God. According to the Zohar, they rank ninth in the CELESTIAL HIERARCHY, and their ruling chief is Hofniel. Azazel is also given as their chief. The Maseket Azilut also places them ninth, MAIMONIDES eighth, and the Berith Menucha ranks them third in importance. Berith (Beal, Bo, Belfry) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and the 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Bernael Angel of darkness and evil equated with Belial. Bernael sometimes is equated with Haziel, who is otherwise a cherub and good angel. Bethor One of the seven ruling angels of the 196 Olympic provinces of HEAVEN, according to the Arbatel of Magic. Bethor is the second angel, ruling over 42 provinces, 42 kings, 35 princes, 28 dukes, 21 councillors, 14 servants, seven envoys, and 29,000 legions of spirits, each legion having 490 beings. Bethor pos- Blake, William sesses the powers and attributes of the planet Jupiter. The SEAL of Bethor is used in Kabbalistic MAGIC. Bifrons One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. The earl Bifrons has a monstrous appearance but will take on human shape when ordered to do so. He teaches astronomy, geometry, other mathematical arts, and the knowledge of herbs, precious stones, and woods. He removes dead bodies from their graves and leaves them in other places, and he lights phantom candles on the grave. Binah See TREE OF LIFE. black angels In Islamic lore, angels who are black in appearance. Two blue-eyed black angels are named Monker and Nakir; a third mentioned has no name but has the appearance of a rakasha (destroyer), an evil spirit. Rakashas are esh-eating, shape-shifting ghouls who are black with yellow or aming hair. 71 lished all of his own writings and illustrations. He invented his own mythology. His ideas were beyond the comprehension of most of his contemporaries or audience, and he died in 1827 unappreciated and in poverty. Works Heavily inuenced by the more spiritual movements of his day, such as Swedenborgianism, Blake rebelled against the 18th-century emphasis on reason versus the natural pull of feeling and emotion. He especially detested Newtonian physics as an example of life following orderly precepts. Nearly all his poems and engravings depict his mistrust and disdain of Reason, nding it responsible for poverty, racism, denigration of women, sexual repression, and any and all ills of the period. Blake, William (17571827) English poet, artist, engraver, mystic, and iconoclast. William Blake received little appreciation for his work during his lifetime but fascinates a modern audience. He often depicted angels in his engravings and poems, nding them representations of authority, power, and divinity. Life Born in London on November 28, 1757, Blake had little formal schooling until his father sent him as a teenager to the Royal Academy to study art. He had read extensively as a young man and was well versed in literature, philosophy, and religion. From an early age, Blake experienced extraordinary visions of angels and other religious gures. He claimed to have talked to Gabriel, EZEKIEL, the Virgin Mary, and others. At age eight, Blake saw a tree lled with angels whose bright wings covered the tree boughs like stars. In 1772 he became apprenticed to an engraver and began earning a living in the trade at age 22. He developed a technique called Illumined Printing in 1788 whereby illustrations and print could be engraved simultaneously, but it was so costly that he did not reap the nancial rewards that he expected. Blake continued to use the technique for his own work, however. With the exception of his rst book, Poetical Sketches, published conventionally in 1783, Blake pub- Christ in the sepulchre, guarded by angels (William Blake; reprinted courtesy of Victoria and Albert Museum, London) 72 Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna Although Blake communicated with angels, he depicts them in his early works as servants of the enemy Reason. They represent absolutism, political empire, and the exercise of pure power. Even so-called good angels are not so; the angels who clothe ADAM AND EVE in Blakes engraving The Angel of the Divine Presence Clothing Adam and Eve with Coats of Skins represent cold reason and repression against divine Innocence. In his poem I Asked a Thief (1795), Blake sarcastically describes an angel as an 18th-century version of a modern corporate baron, one who can have it all: I asked a thief to steal me a peach, He turned up his eyes; I askd a lithe lady to lie her down, Holy & meek she cries. As soon as I went An angel came. He winkd at the thief And smild at the dame And without one word said Had a peach from the tree And still as a maid Enjoyd the lady. Blake particularly chafed at his societys conventions against women and sexual freedom and often portrayed his men and women in graphic sexual poses. Later in life Blakes philosophy changed, and he came to rely on the supremacy of imagination over anything in nature. Additionally, he believed that when man begins to imitate divine images in his life and art, represented by angels, he can begin to realize his own divinity. By the early 19th century, Blake had honed his engraving into the style of romantic classicism. He saw such art as the ultimate example of beautiful, specic detail, enabling any practitioner to achieve a divine vision of Innocence. Blake maintained that the human form must be carefully drawn and delineated in art, emphasizing every particularity, in order to sanctify every inch, limb, and part of the divine whole. Blakes great epic poem, Jerusalem, sums up his nal philosophy: that orthodox Christianity has perverted Christs forgiving love into a system that vengefully punishes sin and rejects sexual pleasure and love. He depicts this evil as a cowering cherub, the same description of Lucifer before his fall from heaven. He is the Antichrist incarnate: a hermaphroditic, hypocritical, egotistical entity that incorporates all the Pharisees, scribes, and Sadducees of ancient Jerusalem. He has a contracted and constricted body that portrays an outward show of pomp and ceremony but in reality serves the Whore of Babylon. The gure is a grotesque rendering of the human form divine. Blake illustrated the works of JOHN MILTON and the Book of Job as well as his own writings. See LITERATURE AND ANGELS. FURTHER READING Mellor, Anne Kostelanetz. Blakes Human Form Divine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974. Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna See DEVAS. Boehme, Jakob (15751624) Bohemian shoemaker and mystic. Jakob Boehme gained an eminent following in his lifetime and in generations to come. His admirers include Isaac Newton, the English theologian William Law, German philosopher Friedrich W. J. von Schelling, and poets WILLIAM BLAKE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Life Boehme was born in Altsteidenberg, Upper Lusatia, to a peasant family. In childhood he tended his familys sheep and briey attended school. At age 13 he went to Gorlitz, where he learned the shoemaking trade and became a master by 1599. He married Katharina Kantzschmann, the daughter of a butcher. Boehme began to write philosophical and theological works after becoming a master shoemaker. His rst work, a philosophical treatise titled Aurora, oder die morgenrote in Aufgang, was immediately popular and was passed among scholars. Threatened by his writings, the Lutheran Church charged him with heresy and publicly denounced him. The town council seized the original manuscript and forbade him to write. Boehme could not be censored for long, however, and he resumed writing by 1618. Some of his shorter pieces were published in book form. He was denounced by the church again and decided to leave town for Dresden to meet with a group of his supporters. While there he fell fatally ill with fever and was carried back home, where he died. Works Boehmes principal works concern the study of God; the structure of the world and man; and theological speculations. His best-known work is Von der Chadenwahl: Mysterium magnum. Boehme was inuenced by the alchemical works of Paracelsus and the Protestant mystic Kaspar Schwen- Boehme, Jakob feld. He did not claim to communicate with angels, spirits, or saints or to perform miracles that were attributed to him. CARL G. JUNG considered Boehme a modern Christian Gnostic. He noted that Boehmes life-cycle, which moves through seven Forms or properties of Nature, creates a Gnostic mandala holding threefold hellish or dark elements (attraction, expulsion, and the wheel of anguish) and heavenly or light elements (light or love, intelligible sound, and the all-embracing Reality) in balance with lightning sparking between them, much like the Gnostic gure Abraxas. In Boehmes visionary scheme, all seven Forms are found within all things, even in Gods name. The same forces operating above in the celestial world also operate below, in stones, earth, and plants. The shapes of individual beings are ruled by the angels, who repre- Of Divine Revelation (Jakob Boehme) 73 sent the formed powers of Gods Word and his Thoughts. Originally angels existed in two forms only, and were created from the rst principle, being of Lights matrix. Boehme states: They are the essence of both the inner internal res. Their powers are from the great emanating names of God. All have sprung from the Yes and been led into the No, in order that powers might become manifest. Angels help God rule the world; they are his instruments by and through which he reveals his powers, numbering a thousand times 10,000, unequal in rank, ranged in three realms and seven dominions, according to the seven Forms of Nature, with each having a Throne with seven princely hierarchies. Each angelic realm is ruled by a PRINCE: Michael, Lucifer, and Uriel. Lucifer, ruler of the second kingdom, is the most beautiful of all heavenly creatures. Angels are free and have the possibility of falling. Before Lucifers fall they were able to imagine themselves into the world of matter. Rather than fall, angels humble themselves before Gods great majesty so that the eternal No may not secure dominion over them. The ensemble of stars represents the totality of divine forces. The stars also mean the angels. Within each angelic creature, the divine forces are incessantly exciting one another, harkening to the music of eternity, receiving impulses from without and rising up to sing. In each angelic body the seven spirits forge the ve senses and coordinate the consensual and expressive faculties. Embodying pure force and pure sensory awareness, the angels are wholly alive, unlike the human half-dead angel that has fallen from grace. The great mystery to Boehme is the human creature. He believed angels are brethren to human beings in looks because they too were created in the image of God, with hands, feet, mouth, nose; they eat paradisiacal fruit of the divine power of Gods Word. Matter, like the esh, is a garment put on or congealed by the fallen will and a medium in which the eternal wisdom of God is mirrored. Spirit, as a conscious life, is the ascending, sublimated aspect of the root torment of the will. Even the basest sexual desire is a longing for something higher, a longing for the eternal light and a ight from death and darkness. From the human vantage, the angels represent the fulllment of all betterment, be it of the soul in need of redemption or of the world in need of improvement. All of Boehmes work was done to explain the contradiction inherent in reality, to grasp the possibility, indeed the necessity of evil in the highest Good. He found that in the being of all being, there is strife and opposition; any revelation is possible only in division. The will of the Nothing looks out in search of Something as light (love) and, having achieved self-revela- 74 Botis tion in the Son, draws it back to itself in desire as re. Yet, the two exist in union. They are a coincidence of opposites. God rests, as Boehme puts it, in love-play. All of life is endowed by an imprint. The KABBALAH calls it Tav, the mark of the SHEKINAH, or divine presence in the world. Boehme calls it Signatura rerum, the seal or signature of the eternal within things. The rediscovered harmonies of nature are a model for restoring harmony to the strife-torn world, a theme that would be taken up by the Romantic philosophers and poets a few generations later. FURTHER READING Stoudt, John Joseph. Jacob Boehme: His Life and Thought. New York: Seabury Press, 1968. Weeks, Andrew. Boehme: An Intellectual Biography. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991. Briah See KABBALAH. Briathos In the Testament of SOLOMON, angel who thwarts the dog demon Scepter. Briathos is not mentioned elsewhere in APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA TEXTS. Buer One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Buer is a president of HELL who appears when the sun is in Sagittarius. He teaches philosophy, ethics, logic, and the virtues of herbs. He heals all diseases and gives good FAMILIARS. In the Pseudo-Monarchia he is the seventh spirit. Botis (Otis) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. As a great president and earl of HELL, Botis commands 60 legions. He appears in the shape of an ugly viper, but he will take on human form with large teeth and horns when commanded to do so. He carries a sharp sword. He sees past, present, and future, and he reconciles friends and enemies. Bune One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. A duke in HELL, Bune appears as a dragon with three heads, one of them being that of a man. Despite his frightening appearance, he speaks with a divine voice. He can bring a man riches and make him eloquent and wise. He changes the places of the dead, causing DEMONS to crowd around the sepulchres. Bune answers to all demands. He commands 30 legions of demons. Bounteous Immortals See AMARAHSPANDS. Byron, Lord George See LITERATURE AND ANGELS. C f Caddy, Eileen and Peter See FINDHORN. with JACOB and appears to Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane. As Kemuel, he guards the gate of HEAVEN and gives way to MOSES when the patriarch comes to receive the Torah from God. In occultism, Camael is assigned to the FALLEN ANGELS, whom he rules as a Count Palatine. He can appear in the guises of a leopard crouched upon a rock. He is a god of war. His name is invoked for divine justice. Cahethel (Cahetel) One of the SERAPHIM and the 72 SCHEMHAMPHORAE. Cahetel rules over agriculture and is invoked for the increase of crops. Caim (Caym, Camio) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Prior to his fall, Caim was in the order of ANGELS. In HELL he is a great president with 30 legions. He appears rst as a thrush and then as a man carrying a sharp sword. The LEMEGETON says that he answers questions in burning ashes. He is good at settling disputes. He gives men the understanding of the songs of bird, the lowing of cattle, the barking of dogs, and the voice of waters. He gives true answers about the future. Martin Luther is alleged to have had an encounter with Caim. caretaking angels Angels who care for infants of untimely birth and the children of adultery. See CHILDBIRTH ANGELS; TEMELUCH. Cassiel (Casiel, Casziel, Kafziel) Angel of Saturn, a ruling prince of the seventh HEAVEN, and a PRINCE of the order of POWERS. Cassiel also rules Saturday along with Machatan and Uriel. He sometimes appears as the angel of temperature or the ANGEL OF TIME. Camael (Camiel, Camiul, Chamuel, Kemuel, Khamael, Camniel, Cancel) Angel who is chief of the POWERS, one of the sephirot of the TREE OF LIFE, and ruler of Mars. Camael means he who sees God. FRANCIS BARRETT lists Camael as one of the seven angels who stand before God. As Chamuel, he wrestles Cayce, Edgar (18771945) American psychic, called the sleeping prophet, renowned for his trance readings in which he diagnosed illness, prescribed remedies, and discussed past 75 76 Cayce, Edgar Edgar Cayce (Photograph copyrighted 1978, Edgar Cayce Foundation Archives. Used by permission) lives and spiritual wisdom. Edgar Cayce had only a grammar school education, but from a trance state he could accurately prescribe drugs and treatments. His calling was initiated by an ANGELOPHANY. On occasion angels came through in his trance sessions, including one who created disruption and divisiveness among Cayces supporters. Cayce was born on March 18, 1877, in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. He had psychic powers from an early age, including the ability to see nonphysical beings, who were his childhood companions, and the auras of others. As a child, Cayce received religious instruction along with his family, who attended the Liberty Christian Church in Hopkinsville. He was given a Bible at age 10 and quickly read it in its entirety over and over again. His biblical background formed the foundation of his spiritual work in his adult years, and it is evident in his trance readings. One of Cayces favorite activities was to go off alone in the woods to read. One afternoon when he was 13, he did just that with the Bible. He suddenly became aware of a woman standing before him. At rst he thought it was his mother; then he noticed that something on her back made shadows shaped like wings. Your prayers have been heard, the woman said to him in a voice that sounded like music. Tell me what you would like most of all, so that I may give it to you. Frightened, Cayce could barely respond, Most of all I would like to be helpful to others, and especially to children when they are sick. The woman vanished, and Cayce ran home. He shared the story with his mother, who accepted it. The next day, Caycewho was a poor student heard the womans voice as he struggled with his spelling lessons. She told him, If you can sleep a little, we can help you. Cayce put his spelling book beneath his head and fell asleep. When he awoke, he discovered that he mysteriously knew his lessons. He began sleeping with all his school books beneath his head. He would always awaken with the contents learned. Cayces powers to give diagnoses and remedies manifested in 1898 when he was 21 and working as a salesman. He suffered a persistent hoarse throat and intermittent laryngitis that resisted medical treatment and forced him to give up his job. As a last resort, he tried hypnosis. Under trance, he was asked for the cause of his afiction and a cure. He gave the answers, and at the end of the session he had his voice back. He began giving trance readings for others on March 31, 1901. On June 17, 1903, he married Gertrude Evans, with whom he had two sons, Edgar Evans and Hugh Lynn. Cayces success was so great that thousands began seeking him out for help. He could read for anyone anywhere in the worldhe needed only a name and address. In 1911, he made his rst reference in a reading to karma as a cause of physical ailment, and from then on, many of his readings concerned past-life karma. He sometimes spoke about the fabled civilizations of Lemuria and Atlantis, and how the latters inhabitants had misused their high-tech power. He came to believe in reincarnation, and his readings revealed that some of his own past lives were as one of the rst celestial beings to descend to earth prior to Adam and Eve; as an Atlantean; as Ra-Ta, a high priest in Egypt 10,600 years ago; as a Persian ruler; as a Trojan warrior; as Lucius of Cyrene, mentioned in the New Testament as a minor disciple of Jesus; and various other lives. He believed his scientic knowledge in readings came from a former life as a chemist in Grecian Troy. Cayce and his family moved to Virginia Beach, Virginia, where in 1928 he established the beginnings of the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.). celestial hierarchies On July 15, 1928, at a trance session with his study group, the archangel Michael made an appearance, speaking through Cayce: I am Michael, Lord of the Way! Bend thy head, O ye children of men! Give heed unto the way as is set before you in that sermon on the mount, in that on yon hill this enlightenment may come among me . . . for in Zion thy names are written, and in service will come truth! The hill referred to the site of what was to become the headquarters for the A.R.E., which was ofcially founded in 1931. Michael made other appearances during Cayce readings. His voice was so loud and booming that dishes rattled in the kitchen. Son Hugh Lynn asked his father who was Michael, and received the answer: Michael is an archangel that stands before the throne of the Father . . . Michael is the lord or guard of the change that comes in every soul that seeks the [spiritual] way, even as in those period when His manifestations came in the earth. The gist of Michaels messages was that the people present at the sessions had been chosen for service in a time when spiritual renewal was needed. He admonished people to hold to high spiritual values, and said he would protect those who sought to know the face of God. He was not tolerant of using readings for material gain. In 1940, Cayce gave a series of business readings for the purpose of locating oil wells in Texas in order to raise funds for the work of Cayce and others. Michael manifested and warned that this amounted to a deviation in the search for God. Michael was sometimes harsh. In one of Cayces last readings of his life, when his health was rapidly failing and his staff was quarreling, Michael lashed out, Bow thine heads, ye children of men! For I, Michael, Lord of the Way, would speak with thee! Ye generation of vipers, ye adulterous generation, be warned! There is today before thee good and evil! Choose thou whom ye will serve! Walk in the way of the Lord! Or else there will come that sudden reckoning, as ye have seen! Bow thine heads, ye who are ungracious, unrepentant! For the glory of the Lord is at hand! The opportunity is before thee! Accept or reject! But dont be pigs! In the mid-1930s, Cayces study group began collecting material from the readings that eventually was published in the two-volume work, A Search for God. A new angel, who identied itself as Halaliel, manifested through Cayce with a commanding tone that made some of the group uneasy. Halaliel indicated to the study group that he had been appointed to teach and guide them, and their acceptance of him would mark a change in the course of the group. Bitter arguments ensued, but ultimately the group voted to reject him. 77 Cayce also gave 24 readings dealing with the book of REVELATION. He interpreted the symbols described by John of Patmos as representative of forces that war within the human psyche. The fallen angels represent fallen ideals, which are necessary in order to attain the new Jerusalem of a higher state of spiritual consciousness. Cayce prophesied the Second Coming of Christ in 1998, accompanied by cataclysmic earth changes. Cayce drove himself to try to keep up with the demand for readings. In August 1944, he collapsed from exhaustion. He went to the mountains near Roanoke, Virginia, to recuperate, returning home in November 1944. On January 1, 1945, he told friends he would be healed on January 5, and they took it to mean his death. He died peacefully on January 3, 1945, at the age of 67. Gertrude died the following April 1. The A.R.E. now is under the direction of his grandson by Hugh Lynn, Charles Thomas Cayce. Three organizations are dedicated to Cayces work. Atlantic University, chartered in 1930 in Virginia Beach, offers graduate level transpersonal studies. The Edgar Cayce Foundation, chartered in 1948 in Virginia Beach, provides permanent custodial ownership for the Cayce readings and their supporting documentation. The Harold J. Reilly School of Massotherapy opened in 1986 under the auspices of Atlantic University, offering a diploma program certied by the Commonwealth of Virginia in massage, hydrotherapy, diet, and preventive health care practices based on the Cayce readings. FURTHER READING Grant, Robert J. Are We Listening to the Angels? Virginia Beach: A.R.E. Press, 1994. Sugrue, Thomas. There Is a River. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1942. Candombl See ORISHAS. celestial hierarchies Systems organizing angels into ranks (choirs) with designated duties, powers, and rulers. There is no general agreement on a single system, either in Judaism or Christianity. The Bible gives the names of nine groupsANGELS, ARCHANGELS, PRINCIPALITIES, POWERS, DOMINIONS, VIRTUES, THRONES, CHERUBIM, and SERAPHIMbut does not specify their respective rankings or their celestial duties. Those details have been lled in by theologians, philosophers, and artists. Jewish literature from the Second Temple period begins to differentiate classes of angels, perhaps due to inuences from the angelologies of Persia and Babylonia. In the KABBALAH, angels are organized into 10 78 celestial hierarchies Angel, from Eastern Orthodox Church, Romania (Authors collection) classes; some of the names overlap with Christian designations. The TREE OF LIFE has 10 stations, or sephirot, each of which has an archangel and angelic order assigned to it, as well as an archdemon and a demonic order. The Hebrew names of the ranks have equivalents in the Christian hierarchies. The great Jewish philosopher MAIMONIDES, who identied angels with the INTELLIGENCES who govern the celestial spheres, named the 10 orders from highest to lowest as HAYYOTH, OPHANIM, ERELIM, HASMALIM, ELOHIM, BENE ELOHIM, cherubim, and ISHIM. In Christianity, the best-known hierarchy was elaborated by PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS (Dionysius the Areopagite), said to be a man converted to Christianity by St. PAUL in Athens, but more likely an anonymous Christian Platonist and Gnostic writer of the fth or sixth century. Pseudo-Dionysius was heavily inuenced by Platonic thought and also by some of the opinions expressed in previous centuries by early church fathers. PseudoDionysius said that the hierarchy implies a holy order that aims to achieve the greatest possible assimilation to and union with God. Only God could know the true number of angels, their ranks and duties. PseudoDionysiuss celestial hierarchy survived at the forefront of angelic lore thanks in large part to its adoption several centuries later by St. THOMAS AQUINAS, one of the most inuential theologians of the church. Other early Christian theologians addressed the organization of angels as well. St. Ignatius Martyr made direct reference to ranks and hierarchies of angels. Saints Jerome, Ambrose, and Gregory the Great wrote about the rankings of angels, but they did not concur. St. Ambrose organized the nine groups in ascending order from angels to seraphim. St. Jerome specied only seven choirs, leaving out principalities and virtues, and wondered about the real differences between ranks. The Apostolic Constitutions, which also predate PseudoDionysius, list 10 choirs, adding AEONS and hosts but omitting dominions, and at another time give 11 choirs, adding dominions back in. St. AUGUSTINE said he did not know the difference between the ranks of thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers. Cellini, Benvenuto The church fathers argued over whether or not scripture had included all of the choirs, pointing to a vague statement by St. Paul. In Ephesians 1:21, Paul refers to Christ sitting at Gods right hand far above all principality and power and virtue and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come. Some argued that the statement implies an innite number of angelic choirs while others argued that Paul didnt know all of the choirs and mentioned only those that he did know. Still others suggested that Paul deliberately concealed the true numbers of choirs. In the Pseudo-Dionysian scheme, the hierarchy of nine choirs is split into three tiers. The higher tiers possess all of the wisdom, abilities, and illumination of the lower tiers, which in turn depend upon the immediate higher choirs for dispensation of the light and love of God. In the highest tier, the seraphim, cherubim, and thrones receive illumination directly from God and send it down through the layers. The second tier of virtues, dominions, and powers are concerned 79 with heavenly order, the ruling of other angels, and miracles. The third and lowest tier of principalities, archangels, and angels are concerned with the affairs of humanity. FURTHER READING Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Cellini, Benvenuto (15001571) Celebrated goldsmith, sculptor, and author during the Renaissance, who credited his GUARDIAN ANGEL with saving his life. Benvenuto Cellini tells in his amboyant autobiography, The Life of Benvenuto Cellini (published posthumously in 1728), how an angel rescued him while he served time in prison. Cellini, a hotheaded man, was constantly engaging in scrapes and ghts with other people. On several occasions he was imprisoned, and once was condemned to death. He was absolved once for murder, by Pope Paul III. In 1535, he was jailed in Rome on charges of stealing the jewels of Pope Clement. Cellini was incarcerated high in the towers of the Castel Sant Angelo. He made a daring attempt to escape by scaling down the castle walls on a rope made of bedsheets tied together. He suffered a broken leg, was captured, and thrown into a wretched dungeon. The dungeon lay below a garden that was lled with water, and Cellinis cell was damp and populated by big spiders and many venomous worms. His mattress quickly became watersoaked. A tiny shaft of sunlight trickled through a narrow opening for about an hour and a half every day, enabling him to read his Bible. In these horrible conditions, Cellini sank into despair and resolved to kill himself. As he wrote: Once, notwithstanding, I took and propped a wooden pole I found there, in position like a trap. I meant to make it topple over on my head, and it would certainly have dashed my brains out; but when I had arranged the whole machine, and was approaching to put it in motion, just at the moment of my setting my hand to it, I was seized by an invisible power and ung four cubits from the spot, in such terror that I lay half dead. Like that I remained from dawn until the nineteenth hour, when they brought my food. Seraph, from Eastern Orthodox Church, Romania (Authors collection) Upon reection, Cellini said, I came to the conclusion that it must have been some power divine and my good guardian angel. 80 Cerviel This angel manifested several times to Cellini while he was in prison: During the following night there appeared to me in dreams a marvellous being in the form of a most lovely youth, who cried, as though he wanted to reprove me: Knowest thou who lent thee that body, which thou wouldst have spoiled before its time? I seemed to answer that I recognized all things pertaining to me as gifts from the God of nature. So then, he said, thou hast contempt for His handiwork, through this thy will to spoil it? Commit thyself unto His guidance, and lose not hope in His great goodness! Much more he added in words of marvellous efcacy, the thousandth part of which I cannot now remember. Cellini took the angels advice to heart. He began to ignore his suffering and to sing the praises of God throughout the day and night instead. His good spirits continued, despite the fact that his teeth were rotting and falling out, his gums perforating and bleeding, and his nails growing so long that he wounded himself every time he touched himself. Cellinis good humor confounded his jailors. Once a party came to visit him: They found me on my knees; I did not turn at their approach, but went on praying my orisons before God the Father, surrounded with angels, and a Christ arising victorious from the grave, which I had sketched upon the wall with a little piece of charcoal I had found covered up with earth. This was after I had lain four months upon my back in bed with my leg broken, and had so often dreamed that angels came and ministered to me, that at the end of those four months the limb became as sound as though it had never been fractured. Cellini said he prayed daily, and every night he was visited by his guardian angel in his dreams. He told the angel that he had but one request, to see the sun again, and then he would be content to die. On October 3, 1539, he awoke to be taken away by his invisible angel, who was like a whirlwind. A vision then unfolded: Cellini was taken by the angel rst to a large room and then into the sunlight. An image of Christ upon the cross formed itself out of the light, followed by a Madonna and child. Cellini basked in the vision for about fteen minutes, he said, before it faded. According to Cellini, these celestial visitations and visions sustained him through the darkest period of his imprisonment. Not long after the sun-vision, he was released from the dungeon by the pope on the personal request of a cardinal. He went on to become one of the most celebrated artists of the Renaissance. The tone of Cellinis autobiography is orid, and some scholars opine that he exaggerated or fabricated some of the events he related. Whether or not the angel episodes were experience or exaggeration remains unknown. FURTHER READING Cellini, Benvenuto. Autobiography. New York: P F Collier, c. .. 1910. Cerviel (Cervihel, Zeruel) According to PHILO, the angel who was sent to David to help him slay Goliath. Cerviel also rules the order of PRINCIPALITIES; other rulers of this order are Haniel and Nisroc. chalkydri (kalkydras) In 2 ENOCH, 12-winged angels or brass serpents of the ying sun, mentioned with PHOENIXES as the ones who pull the chariot of the sun through the sky. The chalkydri are associated with CHERUBIM and SERAPHIM and live in the fourth HEAVEN. When the sun rises, they burst into song at the Lords command: The light-giver is coming, to give radiance to the whole world; and the morning watch appears. which is the suns rays. And the sun comes out over the face of the earth, and retrieves his radiance, to give light to all the face of the earth. The song of the chalkydri and phoenixes is the reason why birds sing in the morning. In GNOSTICISM, the chalkydri are demonic serpents with crocodile heads. Chamuel (Haniel, Camuel, Simiel) One of the seven ARCHANGELS and ruler of the order of DOMINATIONS and the order of POWERS. Chamuel means He who seeks God. Like Gabriel, Chamuel is named as the angel who appears to JESUS in the Garden of Gethsemane to give him strength. Chax See SHAX. chayot, chayoth, chayyoth See HAYYOTH. Chayyliel (Chayyliel H, Hayyiel, Hayyal, Haileal) In 3 ENOCH, Chayyliel is the ruling PRINCE of the HAYYOTH. The name Chayyliel means army. A powerful angel, Chayyliel has the capability to swallow the entire earth in one mouthful. The other angels in HEAVEN tremble before him, and if the MINISTERING cherubim do not chant the trisagion (see QEDUSSAH) at the right time he ogs them with whips of re. ANGELS cherubim (kerubim) In the Pseudo-Dionysian hierarchy of angels, the second highest angels to God. The etymology of the name cherub (cherubim in plural) is uncertain. The Hebrew term kerub, which means either fullness of knowledge or one who intercedes, is thought to be derived from the Akkadian term KARABU, a winged guardian being of Assyria. Karabu had the bodies of sphinxes or bulls and the heads of humans, and they guarded entrances to buildings. The cherubim of the Israelites corresponds to the sphinxes of the ancient Near East, serving as both guardian and throne. Cherubim are mentioned 91 times in the Hebrew Bible. They also are described in REVELATION in the New A cherub (Toome, in Heywards Hierarchie of the Blessed Angells, 17th c.) 81 Testament. The cherubim are not specically called angels. They make their rst appearance in the Bible in Genesis 3:22. God places them at the east entrance to the Garden of Eden, guarding it with aming sword. In Exodus 25:1022, God gives MOSES instructions for building the ARK OF THE COVENANT, a gilded wooden chest that shall bear the mercy seat of God with cherubim made of hammered gold on its two ends: The cherubim shall spread out their wings above, overshadowing the mercy seat with their wings, their faces one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubim be. (25:20) The mercy seat, from which God speaks to Israel, is to be placed on the top of the ark. 1 Kings 6:2335 describes the cherubim King SOLOMON placed in his temple. Two gilded olivewood cherubim 10 cubits high are placed in the inner sanctuary. Each wing spans ve cubits, and they are spaced so that their wing tips touch the walls on each side and each other in the middle. The inner wings form the throne seat for the invisible deity. Carved and gilded gures of cherubim are placed in the inner and outer rooms. The doorposts to the entrance of the nave are carved with cherubim, palm trees, and open owers, all of which are gilded. The Ark of the Covenant is placed beneath the wings of the two large cherubim. According to 2 Chronicles 3:1314, the Solomonic cherubim stand on their feet facing the nave, giving the impression that they are sphinxlike in form and are on their two back legs instead of on all fours; there is no throne formed by them. In EZEKIEL 1:428, the cherubim as carriers of the throne God appear as living creatures having four faces and four wings. Ezekiel is by the river Chebar when he has a vision of a great cloud ashing re, and a re gleaming like bronze in the middle. The four living creatures each have the faces of a man, an ox, a lion, and an eagle. They have four wings, two of which touch the other creatures and two of which cover the body. They stand on straight legs that end in calfs feet. They are like burnished bronze. They have beside them four wheels with spokes that seem like wheels within wheels and gleam like chrysolite. The creatures and wheels move in any direction simultaneously without turning, and with ashes of lightning and sounds of thunder. Over their heads is a rmament shinning like crystal. Above that is a throne like sapphire bearing the likeness of a human form like gleaming bronze and enclosed by re: This is the glory of the Lord, who speaks to Ezekiel. In Ezekiel 10:122, Ezekiel sees the cherubim again on a journey to heaven, and he gives the same description of them. They seem to have human hands under their wings. 82 Chesed In 3 ENOCH the cherubim are under the rule of Kerubiel, who beauties them and sings their praises. The cherubim stand beside the hayyoth with their wings raised up to the tops of their heads. The SHEKINAH rests upon their backs and illuminates their faces. Their hands are under their wings and their feet are covered by their wings; they have horns of glory upon their heads. They are surrounded by pillars of re and sapphire stones. They enfold each other in their wings and sing constantly songs of praise and glory to God. In other lore, the cherubim are the voice of divine wisdom, possessing a deep insight into God secrets. They enlighten the lower levels of angels. They emanate holiness through the universe in order to ensure the success of universal truths. They personify the winds. The Testament of ADAM includes them in the hierarchy of angels, making them second in rank. They stand before God and reverence his throne, keep the seals, and sing the hourly holy, holy, holy. (See QEDUSSAH.) Chiefs of the cherubim are Ophaniel, Rikbiel, Cherubiel, Raphael, Gabriel, Zophiel, and Satan before his fall. AGRIPPA says that the cherubim are associated with the earth element. They assist humans in the contemplation of the divine, by enabling light of mind, power of wisdom, very high fantasies and gures. According to the Koran, the tears Michael cries over the sins of the faithful form the cherubim. See ST. TERESA OF AVILA. FURTHER READING Cherub with thrones depicted as wheels with eyes (Copyright 1995 by Robert Michael Place, from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert Michael Place. Reprinted courtesy of HarperSan Francisco) van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. Kaplan, Aryeh. Sepher Yetzirah: The Book of Creation. Rev. ed. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1997. Chesed See TREE OF LIFE. The cherubim appear before he is lifted up to the east gate of HEAVEN. Revelation 4:68 describes the four living creatures seen by Ezekiel, but with six wings instead of four. They are full of eyes all around and within, and they ceaselessly sing, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is to come! They are not named as cherubim, however, but only as four living creatures. In Hebrew lore, the cherubim are sometimes equated with the HAYYOTH. In the KABBALAH, the cherubim govern Yesod (Foundation), the ninth sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE, where they are under the rule of Gabriel. childbirth angels In Jewish lore, angels invoked in MAGIC and inscribed on AMULETS to protect mothers and their newborn infants. Childbirth angels ward off illness and misfortune, usually attributed to demons. They are also invoked to aid the process of childbirth and prevent miscarriages and stillbirth. The magical names of the angels are written on some object and placed on the body of the woman. For example, one formula for easing labor pains calls for the inscription of an angel name upon virgin clay, which is then fastened to the navel of the woman. The amulet is to be removed as soon as the child is deliv- Curson ered. A formula for easy delivery calls for inscribing an angel name on the womans wedding ring. She places it under the tongue and repeats 10 times go out, you and all the company of your followers and then I will go out. The child will then be delivered without interference from negative spirits such as Lilith. In MERKABAH lore, there are 70 childbirth angels, The SEFER RAZIEL gives the following 70 names, several of which repeat: Michael Nuriel Tzadkiel Chafriel Yoel Udriel Rachmiah Krkiel Lahal Rachsiel Kadal Katchiel Chachmal Griel Rachmiel Rsassiel Tahariel Samchia Rigal Oriel Kenunit Chaniel Diniel Ahaniel Gabriel Kidumiel Padiel Zuriel Sturiel Lahariel Katzhiel Ahiel Malchiel Rumiel Chachmiel Aniel Machnia Tzartak Sensenya Ramiel Yezriel Ygal Tsuria Samchia Yeruel Zechriel Gdiel Raphael Malkiel Zumiel Ramuel Gazriel Chaskiel Schachniel Chaniel Shebniel Kadmiel Ramal Azriel Kaniel Oel Udrgazyia Sniel Neriah Tsirya Psisya Machnia Tatrusia Variel Briel Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Chockmah See TREE OF LIFE. choirs See CELESTIAL HIERARCHIES. Chonae See MICHAEL. Christianity, angels in See ANGELOLOGY. Cimeries One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Cimeries rules 20 legions as a marquis in HELL. He also rules spirits in Africa. He rides a black horse and teaches grammar, logic, and rhetoric. He nds lost objects and buried treasures. He can make a man appear as one of his own soldiers. Cochabiel (Coahabiath) According to AGRIPPA, one of seven PRINCES who stand before God and to whom are given the spirit names of the planet. Cochabiel probably was originally a deity in Babylonian lore; in Kabbalistic lore he is angel of the planet Mercury. Coleridge, Samuel Savedow, Steve. Sepher Rezial Hemelach: The Book of the Angel Rezial. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 2000. Taylor See LITERATURE AND ANGELS. confessors One of 12 orders of angels named in Thomas Heywoods The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. The confessors are ruled by the angel Barakiel. Crosell See PROCEL. See LAYLAH. FURTHER READING 83 curetes See POWERS. Curson See PURSON. D f Dabriel Angel who rules over Monday and resides in the rst HEAVEN. Dabriel is sometimes equated with Vretiel (Pravuil), the wise archangel who keeps Gods records and dictates heavenly wisdom to ENOCH. cities, where they presided over public and family life. They also are ministering spirits similar to MINISTERING ANGELS, godlike beings; and souls of the dead. Daimones are protective and/or attending spirits much like GUARDIAN ANGELS or Plotinuss notion of tutelary spirits. However, they can be either good or evil, but even good ones are capable of evil acts if they are angered by humans. Matthew 8:31 is the only New Testament reference to cast the term daimones in an evil light: And the demons begged him [Jesus], If you cast us out, send us away into the herd of swine. Belief in daimones dates to ancient Mesopotamia. The Babylonians had an elaborate daemonology, in which daimones were organized into armies and hierarchies, and, like angels, had specic duties. The Greeks also had a large daemonology. Daimones were said to haunt locales. For example, in Laws II. 914b, Plato warns pious Greeks not to disturb abandoned property, as it is guarded by the spirit of the wayside. Daimones could take over human bodies in the form of possession (especially for oracular prophecies), and they could also possess humans to cause physical and mental illness. Some were vampiric in nature. Daimones also were associated with the dead and the ghosts of the dead. The Greeks believed that the remains of dead people retained for a time a spark of life force, which could be conjured in magical prac- Dagiel (Daghiel, Daiel) Angel who rules over sh. In magical rites, Dagiel is invoked on Friday. He is supplicated in the name of Venus. daimones In Greek mythology and religion, one of many supernatural agents or INTELLIGENCES, lower in rank than a god, and holding a middle place between gods and humans. The name daimones originally meant divine beings. Early texts do not always distinguish between daimon and theos, or god. It was not until the Hellenistic period that the two terms became distinctly different. Daimon can have either a masculine or a feminine gender; a related and neuter term, daimonion, refers also to divine beings. Daimones, along with other gods and demigods, were assigned into the ranks of DEMONS in Christianity. Daimones include such entities as the corybantes, curetes, dactyls, satyrs, sileni, GENII, or spirits of place, and spirits of forests, rivers, glades, mountains, and 84 daimones 85 tices. Such daemonic entities could be asked for advice or dispatched on errands through necromantic rituals. Other daimones were akin to angels and were associated with stars and planets and plants and minerals of the earth. The term angelos, or messengerand the root of the word angelcould refer to either a human or a supernatural agent sent out to deliver messages. If supernatural, an angelos might be a higher being or a daimon, depending on who might be dispatching it and for what purpose. In the Hellenistic period, there was a popular belief in a good daimon, called an agathodaimon, who functioned as a kind of guardian angel. An evil daimon was referred to as a kakodaimon. Plato In Epinomis 984985, Plato distinguishes daimones as a middle rank of being. First comes the stars as visible gods: after them and below them, come in order the daimones and the creatures of the air, who hold the third and midmost rank, doing the ofce of interpreters, and should be peculiarly honored in our prayers that they may transmit comfortable messages. Both sorts of creature, those of aether and those of air, who hold the rank next to them, we shall say, are wholly transparent; however close they are to use, they go undiscerned. Being, however, of a kind that is quick to learn and of retentive memory, they read all our thoughts and regard the good and noble with signal favor, but the very evil with deep aversion. For they are not exempt from feeling pain, whereas a god who enjoys the fullness of deity is clearly above both pain and pleasure, though possessed of allembracing wisdom and knowledge. The universe being thus full throughout of living creatures, they all, so we shall say, act as interpreters, and interpreters of all things, to one another and to the highest gods, seeing that the middle ranks of creatures can it so lightly over the earth and the whole universe. As for the fth and last of our substances, water, the safest guess would be that what is formed from it is a demigod. Plato concludes: these ve sorts of creatures must surely exist, when it comes to beliefs of individuals or whole societies originating in the intercourse of some of them with us appearance in dreams of the night, oracular and prophetic voices heard by the whole or the sick, or communications in the last hours of lifeand those have been, as they will be hereafter, the resources of many a widespread cult. He adds that rulers need to be sensitive to these worship needs, inherited usages. Mnemonic gure with good and bad angels at head, similar to daimones (Authors collection) In Statesman 274 Plato retells a creation and fall myth that suggests humankinds failings are explained by its presence in a cycle bereft of the guardian care of the daemon who had governed and reared us up, . . . [and regressed to] become weak and helpless. In Timaeus 41 he gives another creation myth, saying in the voice of the creator of the universe speaking to the rst gods that their job is to create three tribes of mortal beings, but: the part of them worthy of the name immortal, which is called divine and is the guiding principle of those who are willing to follow justice and youof that divine part I will myself sow the seed, and having made a beginning, I will hand the work over to you. And do ye then interweave the mortal with the immortal and make and beget living creature. Socrates Socrates described his daimonion as an inner voice that warned him whenever he was about to do something wrong. 86 Dalkiel In Cratylus 397398 Socrates begins a denition of daimones as the golden [good] race of men who came rst by quoting Hesiods Words and Days 121: But now that Fate has closed over this race,/ They are holy daimones upon the earth,/ Benecent, averters of ills, guardians, of mortal men. I have the most entire conviction that he [Hesiod] called them daimones, because they were [Greek daemon, meaning knowing or wise] . . . and other poets say truly that when a good men dies he has honor and a mighty portion among the dead, and becomes a daemon . . . signifying wisdom. And I say too, that every wise man who happens to be a good man is more than human both in life and death, and is rightly called a daimon. In Apology 2627, Socrates defends himself against a charge that he does not believe in daimones, or demigods, by explaining that daimones are to gods as ute-playing is to ute-players, or horsemanship is to horses, therefore belief in supernatural and divine activities implies belief in supernatural and divine beings, and vice versa. In Phaedo 107108, Socrates discusses the immortality of the soul and explains that when anyone dies, the GUARDIAN SPIRIT, which was given charge of him in life, tries to bring the deceased to a place of assembly for judgment, and then sets out to Hades in the company of a guide whose job is escorting souls from this world to the other. The soul, which is deeply attached to the body, will not leave readily, and only after much resistance and suffering is it at last led forcibly away by its appointed guardian spirit. Iamblichus In On the Mysteries of Egypt, Iamblichus distinguishes daimones from visible gods (intelligible gods) and invisible gods (who transcend rational knowledge and perception tied to matter), and from heroes, a semidivine mortal. Though invisible, daimones are inferior to both visible and invisible gods. Daimones are produced according to the generative and creative power of the gods, while heroes are produced according to the vital principles in divine beings. Daimones fashion cosmic organisms and complete the authority of every single creature, whereas heroes are more concerned with the disposition souls. Other Views Daimones appear in the works of other early philosophers, such as Homer, Porphyry, Pausanias, Seneca, Apuleius, Philostratus, Plotinus, Eusebius, and others, and also in the works of Christian theologians. Plutarch developed a complex daemonology that assigns daimones functions traditionally assigned to gods. Daimones are spiritual beings that lived for centuries, he says, and their thoughts are so intense that vibrations are created that can be picked up by other spiritual beings and highly sensitive humans as well. St. AUGUSTINE devotes several chapters of Books 8 and 9 of The City of God to Greek and Neoplatonist beliefs and practices on daimones. His purpose is to discredit them and imply the superiority of Christian cosmology and theology. The churchs blanket condemnation of all pagan daimones was complete by medieval times, though Christians continued to believe in their existence. Demons, as they became known, were usually considered messengers and assistants of a single devil, in the same relationship to the devil as the angels to God. St. THOMAS AQUINAS declared as a dogma of faith that all bad weather and natural catastrophes are brought about by demons. Pope Eugene IV issued a bull against human agents of Satan who control weather-demons, and Pope John XXII complained of wizards trying to kill him through the agency of demons sent into inanimate objects. FURTHER READING Levinson, Ronald B., ed. A Plato Reader. Translated by B. Jowett. Boston: Houghton Mifin, 1967. Luck, Goerg. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. Dalkiel Angel of HELL and ruler of SHEOL, who serves under Duma, the angel of the stillness of death. In hell, Dalkiel punishes nations. He is equated with Rugziel. Dalquiel In Kabbalistic lore, one of three PRINCES of the third HEAVEN along with Jabniel and Rabacyal. The princes rule over re and serve under Anahel. Dalquiel is aided by the angel Oul. Damabiath Angel in the order of ANGELS who rules over naval construction. Damabiath also is one of the 72 angels of the SCHEMHAMPHORAE. Daniel Apocalyptic book in the Old Testament, featuring six stories and four dream visions narrated by Daniel, a pious Jew. The book of Daniel is the rst great apoca- Daniel lyptic work, followed by REVELATION, 1 ENOCH, and the Syrian manuscript of BARUCH. It is the rst book in the Bible to give individual identities and names to angels (PRINCES). One of the last books to be included in the Old Testament canon, Daniel was written in Aramaic about 165 B.C.E. It depicts some of the sufferings of the Jews under Hellenic domination, especially pressure to conform to idolatry. Daniel is purported to be present at the court of Nebuchadnezzar (604562 B.C.E.), but much of the allegorical prophecy actually describes events that were well past by the second century B.C.E. In the first chapters, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah are young Hebrews who have been educated and found favor in the Babylonian court and have been given the Babylonian names, respectively, of Belteshazzar, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. Daniel successfully interprets Nebuchadnezzars dreams, where the kings Chaldean priests fail to do so. The king makes a golden idol and orders people to worship it or be thrown into a furnace. They are pressured to worship idols or ordered not to worship any god besides the king. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego refuse to worship the idol, and the furious king has them cast into the fiery furnace. The flames are so hot that the kings men are burned up, but the three youths remain unharmed and walk about the flames singing praises to God. Nebuchadnezzar sees four men in the furnace; the fourth is like a son of the gods. The Aramaic word used in this phrase (chapter 3:25) is ir, usually translated as WATCHER, a term for angels that appears in the apocrypha, where it refers to FALLEN ANGELS. In the canonical Bible it is used only in Daniel. This word was associated in the ancient [Aramaic] Ugaritic language with irim, local protecting gods. The Israelite monotheists transformed these watchers into angels, and their old name, its meaning lost, came to be understood as wakeful. It was interpreted by some to mean archangels, and sometimes as fallen archangels in the apocrypha. In later tradition the watchers became GUARDIAN ANGELS. Nebuchadnezzar himself declares that God has sent his angel to protect the three youths. (Later in Daniel, in 7:15, it is one of those who stand bya watcherwho interprets a complex dream for Daniel.) The Hebrews remain safe and practically rule Babylonia while Nebuchadnezzar lives, but Daniel is thrown into a lion pit by the next ruler, Darius, for praying to his own God instead of to the king. Daniel is protected: My God sent his angel who sealed the lions jaws, they did me no harm, since in his sight I am blameless, and I have never done you any harm either, O king (6:1724). The villains who plotted 87 to trap Daniel are thrown to the lions and eaten immediately. THE DREAM VISIONS Daniels initial visionary experience is described in 7:1 as a dream and visions of his head as he lay in bed. He has a complex apocalyptic vision with four beasts and the ANCIENT OF DAYS. In 7:1314 there appears a much-discussed manlike gure: I gazed into the visions of the night, and I saw, coming on the clouds of heaven, one like a son of man. He came to the one of great age and was led into his presence. On him was conferred sovereignty, glory and kingship, and men of all people, nations and languages because his servants. His sovereignty is an eternal sovereignty which shall never pass away, nor will his empire ever be destroyed. In all the Old Testament, Jewish, and Talmudic literature, heavenly beings do not emerge from the transcendent sphere on clouds except to show themselves to man. Interpretations of this gure include the faithful of Israel, the Messiah, and an angel. In 7:1518, a gure who is one of those standing (a watcher) interprets the vision for Daniel: The four great beasts are the four kings who shall possess the earth, but the saints of the Most High will receive the kingdom and possess it forever. Some interpretations identify the interpreter as the archangel Michael, and the meaning of this passage to imply that the world will be ruled by HEAVEN and not by the evil host. Angel sent to protect Daniel from the lions, from a 19th-century Bible (Authors collection) 88 Daniel Chapter 8 presents a second vision, which he has when he is on the banks of the river Ulai. He sees a ram and a he-goat ght. The he-goat wins, but it is replaced by four horns toward the four winds of heaven. A small horn appears and rises up to the heavenly host, where it throws down stars and tramples them. Puzzled, Daniel then hears a mans voice command, Gabriel, make this man understand the meaning of the vision (8:16). Daniel falls on his face as Gabriel explains that the vision is for the time of the end. Daniel falls into a deep sleep, but the angel picks him up and sets him on his feet while he explains the symbolisms. The experience ends with Daniel falling into unconsciousness and being ill for several weeks. When he recovers, he is appalled by the vision. MAIMONIDES observes that Daniels falling into a deep sleep is consistent with visionary prophecy. When God or an angel speaks to man, the senses are depressed. In chapter 9, Daniel is in deep prayer, confessing his sins and the sins of the Israelites, when Gabriel suddenly appears in swift ight at the time of the evening sacrice. The angel says he has come to give Daniel wisdom and understanding: therefore consider the word and understand the vision (9:23). Gabriel goes on to discuss the restoration of Jerusalem and the coming of an anointed one, a prince (9:25). Daniels fourth vision occurs during the third year of Cyrus the king of Persia. After three weeks of deep mourning, Daniel is on the banks of the Tigris River when he sees above the waters a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz. His body was like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the noise of the multitude. (10:56) Daniel knows he is the only one who can see this vision. The men with him know something strange is happening, however, for they start to tremble and then they ee. When this apparition speaks, Daniel falls to the ground unconscious, but then he feels a hand touching him, setting his knees and hands trembling. The man/angel tells Daniel that he is again specially chosen to receive the prophetic news about the times to come. He tells Daniel he is ghting against the prince of Persia (possibly one of the PRINCIPALITIES who govern nations) and after that he will face the prince of Greece. He is aided only by Michael, your prince who has charge of Daniels people. This championing of opposed sides by different angels signies that the fate of nations is a secret awaiting Gods revelation and hidden from the angels themselves. The man/angel tells about the battles and kings to come. Finally, Michael shall arise and the Israelites will be delivered, every one whose name shall be found written in the book (12:1). The dead shall awake, the righteous ones to everlasting life and the sinners to shame and everlasting contempt. The wise will shine like the brightness of the rmament, and those who turn many to righteousness will become like the stars. Finishing the prophecy, the man/angel instructs Daniel to shut up the words and seal the book. Daniel asks when the end will come, but he does not understand the Register to View Answertime, two times, and a half time; and that when the shattering of the power of the holy people comes to an end all these things would be accomplished (12:7). Daniel is told to go, and he shall have his allotted place at the end of the days. Apocalypse of Daniel The Apocalypse of Daniel is a late Byzantine apocalypse written in the ninth century C.E., based upon the Byzanto-Arba wars of the eighth century, culminating in the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome in 800. It is primarily historical and political in nature, offering little in the way of theology or ANGELOLOGY. Its odd description of the origins and appearance of the Antichrist are noteworthy, however. The apocalypse describes how the Antichrist will rise up and lead a nal assault upon Christians. Chapter 9 describes how the Antichrist comes out of the chasms of Hades and enters into a type of small sh called a garidion (also gabridion). The sh is caught by 12 shermen, who then fall into ghting among themselves. The one named Judas prevails, and he takes the sh as his inheritance. He sells it for 30 pieces of silver to a virgin named Injustice, and whose last name is Perdition. She touches the head of the sh and becomes pregnant, giving birth to the Antichrist in three months. He suckles for four months, and then goes to Jerusalem and becomes a false teacher, appearing quiet, gentle, and guileless. In appearance, the Antichrist is 15 feet tall with hair down to his big feet. One eye is like the morning star (Venus) and one eye is like a lions. His lower teeth are iron and his lower jaw diamond. His right arm is iron and his left arm copper, and his right hand is four-and-a-half feet long. He is long-faced, longnosed, and disorderly, and his forehead is stamped with three letters, A, K, and T. A signies I deny; K signies And I completely reject; and T signies the foul dragon. The Jews make him king and worship him. He reigns for three years, and demons come out of the Dante Alighieri 89 abyss to tempt and kill Christians, especially babies. Then three men condemn him as a liar and expose him as the Antichrist. The great day of judgment arrives and the devil falls. The light and glory of Christ is established forever. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. FURTHER READING Beasley-Murray, G. R. The Interpretation of Daniel 7. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 45, no. 1 (January 1985). Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Introduction and Notes. Jerusalem Bible. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1966. Dantanian One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. According to the LEMEGETON, Dantanian is a mighty duke who appears in the form of a man with many faces, of men and women, carrying a book in hand. He knows human thoughts and can change them at will. He makes people fall in love, and can show visions of people to others. He teaches all arts and sciences. Dante Alighieri (12651321) Italian poet and writer, considered one of the greatest of the late Middle Ages. T. S. Eliot remarked once that Shakespeare and Dante divide the modern world between them, allowing no third. Dantes epic The Divine Comedy (La Divina Commedia) established his Tuscan dialect as the literary tongue of Italy and gave readers a detailed exposition of medieval mans conception of God and his perfect, changeless universe. Dantes travels into hell, purgatory, and heaven not only glorify God but also illuminate the follies and sins of past and present political and church gures, clarify the Catholic Churchs position on supposed heresies of the day, and extol and sanctify the memory of Beatrice Portinari, Dantes greatest love. Life Born in Florence in 1265 to a noble but impoverished family, Dante studied at the university in Bologna. He took an active interest in the byzantine world of Florentine politics about 1295, siding with the Guelphs, or the bourgeoisie, in their struggles against the aristocratic Ghibellines. When the Black Guelphs defeated the White faction in 1302, Dante went into exile in Ravenna, where he wrote The Divine Comedy. He rst met Beatrice in 1274, encountering her again in 1281, and again in 1283. Even though Dante Beatrice and Dante before the Empyrean (Gustave Dor) married Gemma Donati in 1284, his unrequited but pure passion continued. Beatrice died in June 1290. Grief-stricken, Dante immersed himself in the study of philosophy and Provenal poetry. He became active in politics in Florence, which led to his banishment from the city in 1302. He became a citizen of all Italy. He died in 1321 in Ravenna. Works Dantes most important work is The Divine Comedy, a vernacular poem in 100 cantos, more than 14,000 lines. It is an excellent representation of the medieval outlook of a changeless universe ordered by God. Virgil, the ancient Roman poet, accompanies Dante in his journeys through the Inferno and Purgatorio, but the angelic Beatrice guides his voyage into heavens holy spheres in the Paradiso. Along the way, she introduces him to various biblical and contemporary spirits who have earned the right to approach God at the center of the universe. These spirits populate several lower spheres; the highest sphere is the EMPYREAN. 90 Dardariel When Dante and Beatrice arrive at the Ninth Sphere, or the Primum Mobile, Dante sees a brilliant point of light surrounded by nine spinning, dazzling spheres. Conversely to what he would expect, the closer spheres are more radiant than those farther away, leading Beatrice to explain that they are more brilliant because of their absorption of Gods essence. These nine spheres are the Angel Hierarchy, organized into the nine ranks traditional in medieval thought: SERAPHIM, CHERUBIM, THRONES, DOMINIONS or dominations, VIRTUES, POWERS, PRINCIPALITIES, ARCHANGELS, AND ANGELS. They are too numerous to count, always concentrating on God and singing and praising his name. Beatrice explains that love created the angels as pure act without potential for further greatness. Since all Creation occurred simultaneously, according to Beatrice, Lucifers fall from grace happened before a person could count to 20. Dante calls him a principality, or PRINCE of HEAVEN, instead of an archangel. He fell because of pride, she explains to Dante, and those angels that remain do so because: These you see here were humble, undemanding, and prompt in their acknowledgment of the Good that made them capable of such understanding; whereby their vision was exalted higher by illuminating grace and their own merit, in which their wills are changeless and entire. (Paradiso, Canto XXIX: 5963) Totally focused on Gods light and secure in their own eternity, these angels have no understanding, memory, or will, as man comprehends these attributes. . . . these beings, since their rst bliss in the sight of Gods face, in which all things are revealed, have never turned their eyes from their delight. No angels eye, it follows, can be caught by a new object; hence, they have no need of memory, as does divided thought. (Paradiso, Canto XXIX: 7681) Proceeding upward into the lower levels of the Empyrean, Dante learns that the angels he rst saw are what Beatrice describes as the sacred soldiery: those mortal souls who, through their sanctity, encircle God the Father within their nine spheres. Beatrice sits as a Throne in the third sphere. Within the Empyrean are the Angelic Host: those angels created by God who never left Paradise. Instead of encircling the Father they y rapidly back and forth between God and his Son, represented by a mystic rose, much as bees swarm between the hive and the owers. Dantes translator and critic, John Ciardi, describes this swarming as taking the sweetness of Gods hive to the owers and returning to God the bliss of heavens souls. In Dantes vision, as opposed to Miltons in Paradise Lost, there are two angelic congregations: one created by God and one dedicated to God. Both, however, appear as beautiful, shining, gold-winged, and dazzling creatures. And all receive their happiness and grace through the redeeming ardor of love: Like living ame their faces seemed to glow. Their wings were gold. And all their bodies shone more dazzling white than any earthly snow. On entering the great ower they spread about them, from tier to tier, the ardor and the peace they had acquired in ying close to Him. (Paradiso, Canto XXXI: 1318) Dante was also an accomplished painter and sculptor. He writes in La Vita Nuova (ca. 1294), a work celebrating Beatrice and love that preceded The Divine Comedy, that as he was reecting on Beatrices ascension into heaven, among the angels in the realm of peace, he was painting angels on boardsperhaps part of a larger work commissioned for a church. See LITERATURE AND ANGELS. FURTHER READING Arthos, John. Dante, Michaelangelo and Milton. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963. Dante Alighieri. La Vita Nuova. Translated by Barbara Reynolds. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1969. . The Divine Comedy. Translated by John Ciardi. New York: W. W. Norton, 1961. Elledge, Scott, ed. John Milton: Paradise Lost, An Authoritative Text. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975. Levey, Judith S., and Agnes Greenhall, eds. The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983. Dardariel In the LEGEMETON, the ruling angel of the 11th hour of the night, called Alacho. Dardariel governs hundreds of dukes and lesser dukes. deathbed visions Dark Angel The angel or angel-man who wrestles with JACOB at Peniel. Different angels have been identied as the Dark Angel, including Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Metatron, Samael, or even God himself. St. Clement of Alexandria identied the Dark Angel as the Holy Ghost. Daveithe In GNOSTICISM, one of four great LUMINARIES who surround the self-begotten, the savior, or God. The other three are Oroiael, Harmozy, and Eleleth. Dead Sea Scrolls See QUMRAN TEXTS. deathbed visions Apparitions of angels, gods, religious gures, and the dead experienced by the dying. Deathbed visions have Angel taking away the soul of a child (Reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) 91 been recorded since antiquity and share common characteristics regardless of racial, cultural, religious, educational, age, and socioeconomic factors. The rst scientic study of deathbed visions was done in the early 20th century by William Barrett, an English professor of physics and psychical researcher. Barrett became interested in deathbed visions in 1924 when his wife, a physician specializing in obstetrical surgery, told him about a woman patient who spoke of seeing visions of a place of great beauty, and of her dead father and sister, shortly before she died. The visions were real to the patient, and transformed her into a state of great radiance and peace. Barrett was struck by the fact that the woman had not known that her sister had died about three weeks earlier. Several decades later, Barretts research interested Karlis Osis, then director of research for Eileen Garretts Parapsychology Foundation. Under the auspices of the Foundation in 195960, and later the American Society for Psychical Research in 196164 and 197273, Osis collected information from doctors and nurses on tens of thousands of deathbed and neardeath experiences in the United States and India. The Indian survey (197273) was conducted with Erlendur Haraldsson. Of those cases, more than a thousand were examined in detail. The ndings of these studies conrmed Barretts ndings, as well as research of the NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE (NDE) and research with the terminally ill. Deathbed visions may occur to individuals who die gradually, as from terminal illness or injuries, rather than those who die suddenly, as from heart attacks. The majority of visions are of apparitions of the dead, who usually are close family members and appear to be glowing and dressed in white. Other apparitions are of angels and other religious gures, such as JESUS, the Virgin MARY, and gods and semi-divine beings pertinent to a persons background. The primary purpose of these apparitions is to beckon or command the dying to come with them; thus, they are frequently called take-away apparitions. The dying person usually is happy and willing to go, especially if the individual believes in an afterlife. (However, deathbed visions do occur to people who do not believe in an afterlife.) If the person has been in great pain or depression, a complete turnaround of mood is observed, and pain vanishes. The dying one literally seems to light up with radiance. Osis and Haraldsson, in their book At the Hour of Death, relate this story: The condition of one man, suffering from a heart attack, had been serious for the last few days. Suddenly he gained consciousness. He looked better and cheerful. He 92 deathbed visions Angel guarding a tomb (Authors collection) talked nicely to his relatives and requested them to go home. He said, I shall go to my home. Angels have come to take me. He looked relieved and cheerful. Other persons present usually cannot see the apparitions. Sometimes people see a cloud or mist form over the patient at the moment of death, and they usually interpret it as the soul leaving the body. Approximately one-third of deathbed visions involve total visions, in which the patient sees another worldheaven or a heavenly place, such as beautiful gardens or alpine meadows. Some people also see gates, bridges, rivers, and boats, which are symbolic of transition, as well as castles and beautiful cities. Sometimes these places are lled with angels or glowing souls of the dead. Such visions are resplendent with intense and vivid colors and bright light. They either unfold before the patient, or the patient feels transported out-of-body to them. As with apparitional gures, visions of ethereal places ll the person with radiant joy and anticipation. Few total visions conform to religious expectations about the nature of the afterlife. Researcher Osis found only one case of a vision described as hell, from a Catholic woman who seemed to be carrying a great burden of guilt about her sins. A small number of persons in the Osis-Haraldsson research reported hearing heavenly or angelic music. The incidence of music is higher in cases collected around the turn of the century by earlier psychical researchers, and may reect the different tastes in music then. Most deathbed visions are short: Approximately 50 percent last ve minutes or less; 17 percent last from six to fteen minutes; and 17 percent last more than one hour. The visions usually appear just minutes before death: Approximately 76 percent of the patients studied died within ten minutes of their vision, and nearly all of the rest died within one or several hours. The appearance of the vision seems to have little connection with the physical condition of the patient. Some who seemed to be recovering, then had visions, decans of the zodiac quickly fell into comas and died. Consider the following anecdote from At the Hour of Death, involving a girl of 10 dying from pneumonia: The mother saw that her child seemed to be sinking and called us [nurses]. She said that the child had just told her she had seen an angel who had taken her by the handand she was gone, died immediately. That just astounded us because there was no sign of imminent death. She was so calm, sereneand so close to death! We were all concerned. Natural explanations of deathbed visions include drugs, fever, disease-induced hallucinations, oxygen deprivation to the brain, wish-fulllment, and depersonalization. These factors can cause hallucinations, but rarely do the hallucinations concern the afterlife. The Osis-Haraldsson research found that deathbed visions are most likely to occur in patients who are fully conscious. Deathbed visions are signicant to thanatology, the scientic study of death and dying, and also provide evidence in support of survival after death. The literature on Christian saints includes numerous accounts of saints who saw and heard angels prior to their deaths; sometimes the angels were heard or witnessed by others. St. Vincent Ferrar, a Dominican, was able to see and converse with the Guardian Angel of Barcelona, which caused a devotional cult for that angel to spring up there. Upon St. Vincents death, a multitude of angels gathered at his deathbed in the form of beautiful white birds. The birds vanished at the moment the saint expired. Hagiographies of early martyrs credit angels with providing comfort during their unspeakable torture, and with standing by as they faced death. St. Lawrence was being beaten and stretched on a rack when a voice suddenly boomed out of nowhere that he was reserved for still greater trials. The voice, attributed to an angel, surprised bystanders and convinced at least one soldier, Romanus, to convert to Christianity. St. Lawrence was then roasted slowly on a gridiron, and died. St. Eulalia, who was only 12 when she was threatened with horrible tortures if she did not renounce her faith, was consoled by three angels who told her to suffer with courage. She was burned alive, and angels reportedly took her soul to HEAVEN. See ANGEL OF DEATH. FURTHER READING Barrett, William. Death-Bed Visions: The Psychical Experiences of the Dying. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England: The Aquarian Press, 1986. First published 1926. 93 Osis, Karlis. Deathbed Observations by Physicians and Nurses. Monograph No. 3. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1961. Osis, Karlis, and Erlendur Haraldsson. At the Hour of Death. Rev. ed. New York: Hastings House, 1986. OSullivan, Fr. Paul. All about the Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1990. First published 1945. decans of the zodiac Thirty-six degrees dividing the 12 signs of the zodiac. The decans have ruling angels. In the Testament of Solomon, the deities of the decans are reduced to secondary DEMONS. King SOLOMON summons them to appear before him for interrogation to learn what they do and the names of the angels who thwart them. They appear with heads of formless dogs and also as humans, bulls, dragons with bird faces, beasts, and sphinxes. The demons are, by order of decan: 1st Ruax (also Rhyx), or the Lord: He causes headaches and is dispatched by the words Michael, imprison Ruax. 2nd Barsafael: He causes those who live in his time period to have pains in the sides of their heads. He is repelled by the words Gabriel, imprison Barsafael. 3rd Artosael: He damages eyes and is sent away by the words Uriel, imprison Artosael. 4th Oropel: He causes sore throats and mucus, and is thwarted by the words Raphael, imprison Oropel. 5th Kairoxanondalon: He causes ear problems and is dispatched by the words Ourouel (Uriel), imprison Kairoxanondalon. 6th Sphendonael: He causes tumors of the parotid gland and tetanic recurvation, and is quelled by the words Sabael, imprison Sphendonael. 7th Sphandor: He paralyzes limbs, deadens the nerves in hands, and weakens shoulders. He is subdued by the words Arael, imprison Sphandor. 8th Belbel: He perverts the hearts and minds of men and is dispatched by the words Karael, imprison Belbel. 9th Kourtael: He causes bowel colic and pain and retreats when he hears the words Iaoth, imprison Kourtael. 10th Methathiax: He causes kidney pains and is sent away by the words, Adonael, imprison Methatiax. 11th Katanikotael: He causes domestic ghts and unhappiness. To dispel him, write on seven laurel leaves the names of the angels who thwart him: Angel, Eae, Ieo, Sabaoth. 94 Decarabia 12th Saphthorael: He causes mental confusion. To get rid of him, write down the words Iae, Ieo, sons of Sabaoth, and wear the AMULET around the neck. 13th Phobothel: He causes loosening of the tendons and retreats when he hears the word Adonai. 14th Leroel: He causes fever, chills, shivering, and sore throats, and he retreats when he hears the words Iax, do not stand fast, do not be fervent, because Solomon is fairer than eleven fathers. 15th Soubelti: He causes shivering and numbness, and is dispatched by the words Rizoel, imprison Soubelt. 16th Katrax: He causes fatal fevers. He can be averted by rubbing pulverized coriander on the lips and saying, I adjure you by Zeus, retreat from the image of God. 17th Ieropa: He causes men to collapse and creates stomach problems that cause convulsions in the bath. He retreats if the words Iouda Zizabou are repeated three times in the right ear of the aficted person. 18th Modebel: He causes married couples to separate, but will retreat if the names of the eight fathers are written down and posted in doorways. 19th Mardeo: He causes incurable fevers and is sent away by writing his name down in the house. 20th Rhyx Nathotho: He causes knee problems and is repelled if the word Phounebiel is written on a piece of papyrus. 21st Rhyx Alath: He causes croup in infants and is dispelled if the word Rarideris is written down and carried on a person. 22nd Rhyx Audameoth: He causes heart pain and is dispatched by the written word Raiouoth. 23rd Rhyx Manthado: He causes kidney disease and is thwarted by the written words Ioath, Uriel. 24th Rhyx Atonkme: He causes rib pain. If a person writes Marmaraoth of mist on a piece of wood from a ship that has run aground, the demon retreats. 25th Rhyx Anatreth: He causes bowel distress and is quelled by the words Arara, Arare. 26th Rhyx, the Enautha: He alters hearts and makes off with minds. He is thwarted by the written word Kalazael. 27th Rhyx Axesbuth: He causes diarrhea and hemorrhoids. If he is adjured in pure wine given to the sufferer, he retreats. 28th Rhyx Hapax: He causes insomnia, and is subdued by the written words Kok; Phedisomos. 29th Rhyx Anoster: He causes hysteria and bladder pain, and is thwarted when someone mashes 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th laurel seeds into oil and massages it into the body, and calls upon Mamaroth. Rhyx Physikoreth: He causes long-term illnesses, but retreats when the sick person massages his body with salted olive oil while saying, CHERUBIM, SERAPHIM, help me. Rhyx Aleureth: He causes choking on sh bones. If one puts a sh bone into the breasts of the aficted one, the demon retreats. Rhyx Ichthuron: He detaches tendons and retreats when he hears the words Adaonai, malthe. Rhyx Achoneoth: He causes sore throats and tonsillitis. He is sent away by writing Leikourgos on ivy leaves and heaping them into a pile. Rhyx Autoth: He causes jealousy and ghts between people who love each other. He is subdued by writing the letters Alpha and Beta. Rhyx Phtheneoth: He cast the evil eye on everyone, and is thwarted by the much suffering eye amulet. Rhyx Mianeth: He holds grudges against the body, causes esh to rot, and demolishes houses. He ees when the words Melto Ardad Anaath are written on the front of the house. King Solomon orders the demons of the decans to bear water and prayed that they would go to the Temple of God (Jerusalem). FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Decarabia (Carabia) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Decarabia is a marquis in HELL with 30 legions reporting to him. He appears as a star in a pentacle, but changes into a man when ordered to do so. He makes magical birds y before a magician and leaves them as FAMILIARS, singing and eating like ordinary birds. Decarabia knows the virtues of herbs and precious stones. Dee, John (15271608) English alchemist, mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, who devoted most of his life to trying to communicate with the angelic realm. He was a credulous man, and his desire to speak with angels, coupled by his failure to do so on his own, made him a gullible target for fraudulent mediums. John Dee exhibited scholastic brilliance at an early age; he was made one of the original fellows at Trinity College at Cambridge. He was a respected lecturer at Dee, John home and abroad. He was fascinated by the occult and MAGIC, and he was well versed in Neoplatonic, Hermetic, and kabbalistic philosophy. He was sometimes called the last royal magician because of his astrological services to Queen Elizabeth I. His occult interests, however, landed him in trouble. In 1555 he was imprisoned on accusations that he had cast death spells on Queen Mary I. In 1583, a mob whipped up by witch-frenzy ransacked his home in Montlake, burning many of his valuable books. Queen Elizabeth reimbursed him for some of the 2,000 in damages. He was able to salvage some 3,000 books, most of which are currently in British museums. Dee suffered from continuous nancial problems, and he turned to alchemy for a solution. He desired to contact angels who would help him nd the philosophers stone (a mysterious substance that allegedly could turn base metals into silver and gold) or else discover buried treasure. He was inuenced by Cornelius Agrippas Three Books of Occult Philosophy, which describe the cosmic ladder of angels (see JACOB) and how one might ascend to the level of angels through magic. Dee also paid great attention to his DREAMS and to scrying with a mirror of black obsidian. Dee could not cultivate his own mediumistic ability, and so he advertised for mediums. His rst partnership was with a young man named Barnabas Saul, who got into trouble with the law after a few months. His second partner was Edward Talbot (who became known as Edward Kelly), a hot-tempered Irishman whod lost his ears as punishment for forgery. Kelly came to Dees house and demonstrated his ability by scrying into a stone. After about fteen minutes he said he could see an angel, who identied himself as Uriel. Dee felt uneasy about Kelly, and dismissed him. But Kelly persisted, and Dee then relented. For seven years, the two had an uneasy partnership which Kelly dominated and for which Dee paid Kelly a salary. Kelly would gaze into a crystal stone and summon spirits with incantations, or calls in a complex and secret magical language, Enochian, of unknown origin. It is a real language with its own grammar and syntax, and similar in sound to Sanskrit, Arabic, or Greek. Many believe Kelly and Dee invented it. Dee would ask the spirits questions and Kelly, as the medium, would relay their answers, which Dee took down in dictation. They conjured the angels with the Nineteen Calls or Keys of Enochian. The rst two keys conjured the element Spirit, and the next 16 keys conjured the four Elements of nature, each of which was also subdivided into four classes. The 19th key invoked any of 30 aethyrs or aires which they never dened, but which probably represent levels of consciousness, or are comparable to the AEONS of GNOSTICISM. 95 When the angels appeared in Kellys crystal, he communicated with them in Enochian by using charts of squares either lled with letters or left blank. The angels would spell out messages by having Kelly point with a rod to various squares. To further add to the air of mystery that he liked to engender, Kelly claimed the messages were always dictated backward, because to communicate them directly would unleash dangerous and powerful forces beyond control. When the messages were nished, he and Dee rewrote them in reverse order. In one of Dees own, few psychic experiences, he saw Uriel oating outside his window, holding a pale pink crystal about the size of an orange. The archangel Michael appeared and told Dee to use it for scrying. This crystal, and Dees obsidian magic mirror and other instruments, are in the British Museum. Dees Spiritual Diaries form an intriguing, rsthand account of alleged communication with angels. Many encounters are suspect; the angels wax on at great length, and some of the entries appear to have been rewritten in a neat, not scribbled, hand. Curiously, Dee, who professed to be on a search for spiritual truth, peppered the angels with the most mundane and trivial questions, of the kind one might pose to a fortune-teller. The occasional mystical philosophies and revelations of the angels seem to be regurgitations of material that could have been found in magical and kabbalistic texts available at the time. Kelly exhibited an unbalanced personality and was prone to ts of rage and darkness, which were reected in his sessions with the spirits. He offered up dark propheciesmany of which never came to passand descriptions of horrible, demonic beings. Sometimes he said he felt possessed by demonic beings and wanted to be exorcised of them. Dee, a devout Christian, was often wary of Kellys visions. Concerned that he might be tricked by evil spirits, he put various tests to screen them out. However, if Dee thought that Kelly was accessing good angels, he tended to accept whatever was transmitted without question. Dee and Kelly sold their services to a variety of noblemen, including Count Albert Laski of Poland, who brought them to Poland. From 1585 to 1589 Dee, Kelly, and their families toured the Continent, performing for royalty and nobility, but with only modest success. Whenever Dee and Kelly quarrelled, Kelly would stop scrying for a time. The pope accused Dee of necromancy (conjuring the dead), and they were thrown out of Prague. Kelly and Dee parted company shortly after Kelly announced that Madimi, one of their chief spirits, had ordered them to share wives, and that if anyone objected, God would strike them dead. Both wives were hysterical 96 demiurge at the idea, and Dee himself was not pleased. Nonetheless he acquiesced, and convinced his wife to do the same. But before the swap could be consummated, Dee and Kelly split up. The Dees returned to England and Kelly remained in Europe. He was killed in 1595 while trying to escape from prison in Prague. Back in England, Dee found a new medium partner, Batholomew Hickman. Queen Elizabeth made Dee warden of Christs College in Manchester in 1595, but Dee did not like the job. In 1604, he unwisely challenged James I, successor to Elizabeth, to try him for sorcery, but nothing happened. He was, however, dismissed from his college post a years later in 1605. He died in poverty and obscurity in 1608. His story has been resurrected in more recent times by historians of the Western magical and mystery tradition. The language Enochian sank into oblivion until the 19th century, when it was revived by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a magical order in England. Enochian also was studied at length by Aleister Crowley, who said the Keys were genuine, and worked. Crowley said that only properly initiated adepts could invoke all of the aethyrs in the Nineteenth Key (he claimed to be able to do this himself), which would produce visions of spirits and astral beings. Enochian magic as a path of inner work continues to be practiced by magical adepts who use the Keys for astral travel to different levels of consciousness. (See MAGIC.) FURTHER READING Cavendish, Richard. The Black Arts. New York: Perigee Books, 1967. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. New York: Facts On File, 1989. Harkness, Deborah E. John Dees Conversations With Angels. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. demiurge See GNOSTICISM. demons Lesser spirits usually regarded as malevolent, and also associated with FALLEN ANGELS. Pagan demons, called DAIMONES or daemones, are both good and evil according to their inherent nature, and they include a broad range of beings, from spirits to spirits of the dead to gods. But the Christian view, condemning all pagan spirits as evil, regards demons as agents of the devil whose purpose is to ruin souls so that they are condemned to HELL. Jewish demonologies have long and complex histories; popular beliefs were inuenced by exposure to the Demon harassing a woman, from Chartres Cathedral, France (Authors collection) lore of the Babylonians, Persians, and Egyptians. In Talmudic times, demons were ever-present enemies posing constant dangers to humanitybut not working under the aegies of any archend. Like angels, demons were held to be numberless, and could be invoked in MAGIC; however, demon-magic was met with strong disapproval. According to Talmudic tradition, demons were created by God on the rst Sabbath eve at twilight. Dusk fell before he nished them, and thus they have no bodies. They have wings and exist between humans and angelsroughly between the earth and the moonand are less powerful than angels. They frequent uninhabited and unclean places, and once they attach themselves to a person or family, bad luck follows. By the Middle Ages, rabbinic writings had elaborated upon demons. Some demons, who were produced by ADAM and Lilith or other female demons, had demons 97 Demons (Gustave Dor) bodies. There were different classes and types of demons, some of which were absorbed from French and German lore, including their names. Demons have their own duties, such as governing the night hours, causing diseases and malfortune, and sexually harassing people. The Zohar states that every pollution of semen spawns demons. According to KABBALAH, evil powers emanate from the left pillar of the TREE OF LIFE, especially from Geburah, the sephirah of the wrath of God. By the 13th century, the idea had developed of 10 evil sephirot to counter the 10 holy sephirot of the Tree. But medieval demon magic fell to a minor role in the larger scope of Jewish magic, surpassed by the magic of the NAMES of God and angels. They retained importance in divination. Apocryphal texts such as ENOCH and JUBILEES associate demons with fallen angels (see WATCHERS) and malicious beings who populate the lower air. In Christianity, demons are unrelentingly evil and are the minions of Satan, the devil. They live in hell but can prowl the world actively looking for souls to subvert. By the end of the New Testament period, demons were synonymous with fallen angels, the onethird of the heavenly host cast out of heaven along with Lucifer (later identied as Satan), who all descended into hell. As Christianity spread, the ranks of demons swelled to include the gods and demons of 98 demons the ancient Middle Eastern and Jewish traditions, and all pagan deities and NATURE SPIRITS. The fall of Satan and his angels is related in the book of REVELATION: And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole worldhe was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him (Revelation 12:9). St. AUGUSTINE attributed this fall to pride and will: good and bad angels have arisen, not from a difference in their nature and origin . . . but from a difference in their wills and desires. . . . While some steadfastly continued in that which was the common good of all, namely, in God himself, and in His eternity, truth, and love; others . . . became proud, deceived, envious. The church fathers and theologians who followed them wrote extensively on the evil nature and dangers of demons, whose attacks were certain to be caused by moral failings. Both demons and angels play roles in the Western magical tradition that evolved from the practical Kabbalah, alchemy, GNOSTICISM, Neoplatonism, and other inuences. The magical GRIMOIRES give NAMES, duties, SEALS, and incantations for demons as well as angels. In this respect, demons are negative entities but have useful functions when commanded, such as the procurement of treasures and lost objects. During the Inquisition, demons especially became associated with witches, who also were regarded as agents of the devil. Much was written about the specic ways demons tormented humans, especially by sexual assault. Male demons (incubi) and female demons (succubi) were believed to visit people in their beds at night to copulate with them. Monstrous births were explained away as the products of human-demon intercourse. The preeminent guide of the day, The Malleus Malecarum (The Witch Hammer), goes into great detail about the offenses of demons and witches. Written by two Dominican inquisitors, James Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer, The Malleus Malecarum was rst published in Germany in 1486, and it quickly spread throughout Europe in dozens of editions. The book is divided into three parts. Part I concerns how the devil and his demons and witches, with Gods permission, perpetrate a variety of evils upon men and animals, including sexual assaults, instilling hatred, obstructing or destroying fertility, and changing humans into beasts. According to the authors, God permits these acts, otherwise the devil would have unlimited power and destroy the world. Part II concerns details of how witches cast spells and bewitchmentssuch as conjuring and controlling demonsand how these actions may be prevented or remedied. Part III sets forth the legal procedures for trying witches, including the taking of testimony, admission of evidence, procedures for interrogation and torture, and guidelines for sentencing. Sex with Demons The Inquisition devoted attention to sex between humans and demons. Prior to the 12th century, the church denied the possibility of intercourse with demons. By the 14th century, as the Inquisition gained force and witchcraft was decreed a punishable heresy, intercourse with demons became accepted. Enemies of the church were said to not only have sex with demons but also copulate wildly and frequently with them and to worship them. In many cases, the distinction between the devil himself and demons was blurry, and witches said to copulate with the devil probably were accused of having sex with an incubus or succubus type of demon. Such tales served the churchs purpose of consolidating its power over the populace by branding all pagan deities and rites, and all acts of magic and sorcery, as instruments of the devil. Sex with demons invariably was portrayed as unpleasant and painful. Sometimes demons deceived people by appearing in the forms of spouses or lovers. After copulation, they would reveal their true identities and blackmail the victims into continuing the sexual liaison. Incubi were especially attracted to women with beautiful hair, young virgins, chaste widows, and all devout females. Nuns were among the most vulnerable, and could be molested in the confessional as well as in bed. While the majority of women were said to be forced into sex by the incubi, it was believed that some of them submitted willingly and even enjoyed the act. Incubi had huge phalluses, sometimes made of horn or covered with scales, and which ejaculated icy semen. When they appeared as demons and not as human imposters, they were described as ugly, hairy, and foul-smelling. Incubi were believed to have the ability to impregnate women. They did not possess their own semen, but collected it from men in nocturnal emissions, masturbation, or in coitus while masquerading as succubi. The demons preserved semen and used it later on one of their victims. Succubi were less prevalent. Because of the inherent evil of women, in the view of Christianity, women were morally weak and therefore more licentious than men. If a man was assaulted by a succubus, it was most likely not his fault. The sex act itself with a succubus was often described as penetrating a cavern of ice. There are accounts of men being forced to perform devas cunnilingus on succubi, whose vaginas dripped urine, dung, and other vile juices and smells. The wild copulation between witches (usually female) and demons was lamented in The Malleus Malecarum, which noted that in times long past the Incubus devils used to infest women against their wills [but] modern witches . . . willingly embrace this most foul and miserable servitude. Some incubi served as familiars to witches, who sent them to torment specic individuals. The church prescribed ve ways to get rid of sexual demons: sacramental confession, making the sign of the cross, reciting the Ave Maria, moving away, and exorcism. Reciting the Lords Prayer and sprinkling holy water also were effective. Sexual molestation by demons continues to be reported in modern times, often in connection with hauntings and poltergeist activities. ever, they are subject to the wheel of reincarnation. Their very happiness in their realm is an obstacle to their enlightenment, for they cannot come to terms with the truth of suffering, one of the four noble truths that form the basis of Buddhist philosophy. The truth of suffering holds that everything is suffering: birth, illness, death, dislikes, desires, and attachments of the personality. Devas in Theosophy Devas are discussed at length in the writings of Helena P. Blavatsky, cofounder of the Theosophical Society. According to Blavatsky, devas are types of angels or gods who can neither be propitiated nor worshiped by men. She quotes an Ascended Master, one of her mentors, as describing the devas, also called DhyanChohans, as progressed entities from a previous FURTHER READING Flint, Valerie I. J. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. Rev. ed. New York: Facts On File, 1989. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. A History of Witchcraft. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980. Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1971. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. deputy angels See MEMUNIM; MINISTERING ANGELS. destroying angel See ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION. devas Advanced spirits or god-beings who govern the ELEMENTALS and the well-being of all things in nature. In Sanskrit, deva means shining one. In HINDUISM, the term deva has various meanings. It is a brahman in the form of a personal God. A brahman is an abstract concept expressing absolute being or absolute consciousness, a state of pure transcendence that dees precise description. A deva also is a mortal who has attained a state of divinity, but remains mortal. A deva also is an enlightened person who has realized God. In Buddhism, a deva is a god who lives in one of the good celestial realms (there are 28 altogether). Such devas enjoy a long and happy life in these realms as a reward for having lived good lives while mortals. How- 99 Deva (Copyright 2003 by Robert M. Place. Used by permission) 100 devas planetary period. In the evolution of new solar systems, the devas arrive before either elementals or man, and they remain dormant until a certain stage of human evolution is reached. At that time the devas become an active force, and they integrate with the elementals(spirits of nature) to further the development of man. In classical Greece, Blavatsky says, a class of devas became symbolized by Prometheus, symbol of the purely spiritual man. Theosophists believe that all religions stem from the same roots of ancient wisdom, and they nd a belief in angels common to many religions. In fact the gods of ancient Greece and Rome, Assyria and Mexico, and those worshiped today by Indians, Native Americans, and practitioners of Vodun, Santera, and Candombl may actually be angels. Such beings are rays or emanations of the Divine Absolute, an impersonal, eternal ONE much different from the intensely personal God of Judeo-Christian tradition. However, the idea of Divine Breath, of a sending forth of the Word of God, does not differ from the Logos doctrine of Christianity: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. . . . And the Word became esh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth. John 1:14, 14 According to Blavatsky in her book The Secret Doctrine, creation is the utterance of the Word, the Great Breath of the Absolute, into nothingness. The Divine Idea subdivides into three aspectsmasculine, feminine, and androgyneeventually forming great patterns, called Archetypes, which are the basis of all life. These Archetypes rst become the Archangels, who transmit the Divine Will and Intelligence and serve as Lords of the planetary systems. As energy is sent outward, and an organized hierarchy of devas, nature spirits, humans, animals, plants, and minerals eventually forms under the ministry of the Archangels. This vast army of solar and planetary angels is called the Army of the Light, or the Hosts of the Logos. Each plant, each solar system, each type of being has an archangelic regent, supported by legions of lesser devas. Eternal emanations of the Word are continually transmitted, organized, and rened by the Archangels and angels. GEOFFREY HODSON, a Theosophist and clairvoyant, described this process of creation as a performance by the celestial symphony, conducted by the ONE as Divine Musician. Devas appeared before the creation of man and are not the spirits of former humans. They are the ministers and messengers of the Absolute and have no personality separate from the Divine Will. Although they were patterned after the same archetypes as humans, devas have no clearly dened bodies or gender, differing solely by the order to which they belong. There are orders of devas or gods responsible for every minute thing in the universe. Mountain Gods preside over the peaks, while Landscape Angels rule over the divisions and areas of the earths surface. Builder Angels use the Archetypes to create the lesser spirits, humans, animals, plants, and rocks. Guardian Angels watch over humans, their homes, children, and endeavors, while Healing Angels tend the sick, heal the wounded, and console the bereaved. Ruler Angels guide and direct nations in the fulllment of their destiny. Devas of Nature provide the spark of life to the Builders creations and nurture each beings existence. Within this category are the nature spirits who tend the earth, air, re, and water, as well as the gods of storms, re, and weather. Devas of Art and Beauty lift up the beautiful in all things, while the Angels of Music bear the Voice of God, in all its complicated melodies, to mankind. Borrowing from the KABBALAH, Theosophy also organized the devas into seven sephirot, usually designated the rst emanations from the Divine ONE. These Seven Sephirot are called the Archangels of the Face, the Mighty Spirits Before the Throne, the Seven Viceroys, the Cosmocratores. Along with the Three Supernal Aspects or the Trinitythe Masculine, Feminine, and Androgyne; the Father, Mother, and Holy Spiritthe Seven become the Ten. The rst three sephirot are the primary ones, as follows: 1. The Sons of Will. Imbued with omnipotence, the First Sephirah includes the agents of Manifested Will. They are robed in white radiance and are also called the Morning Stars. By directing creations rays they bring those forces together and atoms into being. 2. The Sons of Wisdom. The Second Sephirah forces embody and manifest cohesion, balance, and harmony. They also direct the vitalizing current of solar energy by which substances and forms are given coordination and life. They preserve the balance of Nature and are forever wise. 3. The Sons of Intelligence. The Third Sephirah forces order the patterns of formation and fashion the forms according to transcendental dreams. They are the artists and craftsmen of the universe, producing innumerable progeny of lesser devas and devotional cults the nature spirits. They mold Nature according to the Archetypes and control thought and law. Skipping to the secondary sephirot: 5. Fifth Sephirah. This order conceives of evolving forms. Through this emanation, Divine Ideation goes from the Archetype to the concrete. Whereas the Ideation, or Thought, was eternal in the First Sephirah, everlasting in the Second, and durational in the Third, it is controlled in the Fifth by Time. The Fifth Sephirah is the soul of the Third, containing many gods and devas in perpetual creative activity and represented by re. 6. Sixth Sephirah. This order, like the rhythmic waves of the ocean, constantly expresses the One Life at the lower levels, including the physical world, saturating it with divine, vitalizing uid. The Sixth Sephirah corresponds to the Second as the sustaining life-blood of Nature and is represented by air and water. 7. Seventh Sephirah. This order is the Lord of all Nature and the physical universe. The angels of this group are responsible for matter and the construction and maintenance of physical forms, representing the Logos in physical substance, and are symbolized by earth. The Seventh Sephirah expresses the Immanence of God, the Indwelling Presence, while the other six show Gods Transcendence. The Fourth Sephirah links the primary and secondary orders, acting as a powerful intermediary to maintain the Archetypes. All the powers, ofces, and attributes of the other six sephirot must be mastered by the fourth. It is the Center. As noted above, the gods or devas, in one way or the other, are associated with all major religions and the practice of many lesser faiths. To the ancient Mayans of Pre-Columbian Mexico, Ekxhuah was the god of travelers, a name quite similar to the Exus of Brazilian Candombl and the Eshus of Santera. In Hindu India, the devarajas are worshiped as gods or goddesses, but they may also be considered angels. All these religions share a belief in an all-powerful, distant Absolute, but they invoke the intervention of lesser gods or angels to deal with the more mundane affairs of humans. Angels will respond to any human, religious or not, who calls them through prayer, study, and meditation, and the practice of ceremony and ritual. Modern Concepts of Devas Through Theosophy, devas came to be regarded as high-level nature spirits. Modern views vary as to whether devas are part of, or work under, the angel kingdom. Channeling messages from devas increased 101 during the latter 20th century, as part of the New Age movement. Such messages have tended to focus on the devas displeasure with humanitys pollution of the earth and disrespect for nature. Devas as nature spirits received attention in the activities at FINDHORN, a community in northern Scotland that became renowned in the 1970s for spectacular produce grown with the advice of devas. Findhorn became the model for other similar gardens and communities, such as PERELANDRA, near Washington, D.C., and GREEN HOPE FARM in New Hampshire. Descriptions and impressions about devas are, like angels, subjective and dependent upon the experiencer. Some individuals perceive detailed hierarchies of beings, while others say that devas, angels, and nature beings are facets of a wholelike a diamondand resist categorization. Devas themselves may remain invisible to the percipient, or manifest as humanlike bodies of light, balls or points of light, or diffuse elds or grids of energy. They communicate via mental impressions, intuitions, the inner voice, or sometimes a clairaudient external voice, much like the DAIMONES who whispered in Socrates ear. See ELEMENTALS; MINISTERING ANGELS; NATURE SPIRITS. FURTHER READING Blavatsky, H. P The Secret Doctrine. Pasadena, Calif.: Theo. sophical University Press, 1977. First published 1888. Findhorn Community. The Findhorn Garden. New York: Harper and Row Perennial Library, 1975. Hawken, Paul. The Magic of Findhorn. New York: Bantam Books, 1976. Hodson, Geoffrey. The Brotherhood of Angels and Men. Wheaton, Ill.: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1982. . The Kingdom of the Gods. Adyar, Madras, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1972. Maclean, Dorothy. To Hear the Angels Sing. Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990. First published by Lorian Press, 1980. 2d ed. by Morningtown Press, 1988. Wright, Machaelle Small. Behaving As If the God in All Life Mattered. Jeffersonton, Va.: Perelandra, 1987. devotional cults Special devotion and veneration of the angels have been permitted, even sometimes encouraged, in Christianity since its beginnings. Catholic tradition regards angels as conscious beings of high intelligence, not bound by the limitations of physical laws, who can be of help to humanitybut who must not be worshiped or adored, or placed above Christ or God. Devotion to angels centers on imitating them, for they in turn imitate God. Veneration of saints is closely associated with angelic devotion, for saints are considered to be the 102 devotional cults real friends of angels and models of piety to men and women. The early Christian Church looked to St. PAUL as setting the standard for veneration of angels. On various occasions, Paul referred to angels within a context of respect and veneration. In 1 Corinthians 11:116, Paul discusses proper ways to worship. Women should worship with their heads covered, he says in 11:10, because of the angels. In this way, they would show respect for the divine order, which is administered by angels (also, women are assigned a lower status than men, whose heads signify Christ; men should not worship with their heads covered). Early church fathers were sometimes cautious about encouraging veneration of angels out of fear that it would lead to idolatry. The celestial intermediaries proved convenient substitutes for pagan gods and spir- Angel guarding a cathedral (Authors collection) its, but the fathers did not wish to see worship of pagan gods transferred to angels. Consequently, angel cults were occasionally suppressed. St. Justin Martyr defended veneration of angels, and the philosopher Celsus declared that angels were different from gods, else they would be called DEMONS. ORIGEN distinguished between worship of God and devotion to angels. In his Contra Celsum (IV 5), he states: , We indeed acknowledge that Angels are ministering spirits, and we say they are sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation, and that they ascend, bearing the supplications of men, to the purest of the heavenly places in the universe, or even to the supercelestial regions purer still, and they come down from these, conveying to each one, according to his deserts, something enjoined by God to be conferred by them upon those who are to be the recipients of His benets. . . . For every prayer and supplication and intercession is to be sent up to the Supreme God through the High Priest, who is above all the Angels, the living Word and God. . . . It is enough to secure that the holy Angels be propitious to us, and that they do all things on our behalf, that our disposition of mind toward God should imitate, as far as possible for human nature, the example of these holy Angels, who themselves imitate the example of their God. St. AUGUSTINE was among those who feared that veneration of angels would be confused with worship of pagan gods. We honor them out of charity not out of servitude, he said in De Vera Religione. Once the CELESTIAL HIERARCHY of PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS became established and accepted, veneration of angels achieved a level of comfort in Christianity. From about the sixth century on, devotion to the angels grew steadily. St. Benedict and Pope St. Gregory fostered this practice. By the eighth century, however, angels were so popular that prayer to them was discouraged, again out of fears of idolatry. Devotion to the angels still climbed, and reached a height during the Middle Ages; St. Bernard of Clairvaux was especially ardent about the GUARDIAN ANGEL. Citing Psalm 90:11, which states, God has given his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways, Bernard advocated lavishing great respect, gratitude, and love upon angels. Devotion to angels also has been expressed in the dedication of churches; many of these dedications sprang from apparitional experiences (see MICHAEL; DREAMS AND VISIONS). In Constantinople, a shrine to the archangel Michael was erected outside the city, and 15 churches within city limits were dedicated in his honor. In Rome, Michael had seven churches dedicated to him by the ninth century. Divine Wisdom Catholics observe a number of feast days in honor of angels. Only three individual angels are thus honored: the archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. There are feast days for guardian angels in general and all angels in general, but no feast days for any of the orders in the celestial hierarchy, such as SERAPHIM, CHERUBIM, and so forth. The feast of the GUARDIAN ANGELS (October 2) once was not separate from the feast of Michael (September 29 in the West and May 8 in the East). The custom began in Spain and spread. In 1518, Pope Leo X issued a bull creating a special ofce in honor of the guardian angels. The ofce was raised in rank by Pope Clement IX in 1667, Pope Clement X in 1670, and Pope Leo XIII in 1883. In places where veneration of the angels is particularly high, feasts also are held in honor of the guardian angel of the place. NAMES of angels have always been held in high regard for the power they invoke, but the Catholic Church has not encouraged litanies, in which the names of all the choirs of angels are invoked. Litanies were even forbidden in earlier centuries (such as by Pope Clement VIII and Pope Benedict XIV in the 17th and 18th centuries, respectively). However, certain litanies of the angels are allowed for private use if approved by a local bishop. Veneration of the angels also led to the establishment of confraternities, legal and approved associations whose purpose is works of piety or charity and advancement of public worship. The rst Archconfraternity of Saint Michael was established in 1878 in Italy (an archconfraternity has the right to afliate other confraternities). Confraternities were particularly popular during the 19th century; they have had renewed interest in the latter 20th century. In 1950, Philangeli was established in England with Episcopal approval, and it has spread worldwide. Members seek to become real friends with angels. The Opus Sanctorum Angelorum (The Work of the Holy Angels) is one of the newer Catholic movements intended to renew and bolster belief in guardian angels and to foster a collaboration between angels and humans for the glory of God, the salvation of humanity, and the regeneration of all creation. The Opus Sanctorum Angelorum was sanctioned by Pope Paul VI in 1968, who probably was influenced by POPE PIUS XII, who advocated a renewal of devotion to angels. Other sources of inspiration are the experiences of Padre Pio, and the appearance of the angel in Fatima, Portugal (see MARIAN APPARITIONS). The goal of the Opus is a divine conjugationa hieros gamosbetween humanity and the angelic king- 103 dom. The Opus teaches that the guardian angel will ward off danger to body and soul; prevent Satans suggestion of evil thoughts; remove occasion of sin; enlighten and instruct; offer our prayers for us; correct us if we sin; help us in the agony of death; conduct us to God or purgatory at death. Initiates are guided by priests who are part of the Opus. There are three phases. In the rst phase, the Promise, initiates make a promise to God and their angels that they will love their guardian angels and will respond to their instructions when heard through the voice of conscience. The Promise is done in the presence of a priest. This initial phase lasts for one year, during which time the initiates strive to learn to hear the voice of their guardian angels. The second phase involves a consecration to the guardian angel. The initiates participate in a candlelight ceremony in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, in which they consecrate themselves to their holy guardians. They pledge to become like angels, and to venerate angels, who have been given to humanity by God in a very special way in these days of spiritual combat for the Kingdom of God. The initiates ask their angels to obtain for them a love so strong that I may be inamed by it. In the third phase, the initiates participate in a ceremony of consecration to all the angel kingdom, which will enable the initiates to live in sacred communion with all things. What the Opus accomplishes is the bringing to life of powerful psychic forces within the individualthe unmanifest creative potential. FURTHER READING Grosso, Michael. The Cult of the Guardian Angel. In Angels and Mortals: Their Co-Creative Power, compiled by Maria Parisen. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books Theosophical Publishing House, 1990. Parente, Fr. Pascal P The Angels: The Catholic Teaching on the . Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1973. First published 1961. directions, angels of See NATURE SPIRITS. Diniel In Syriac magical rites, angel invoked to protect newborn infants, and also to bind tongues. See CHILDBIRTH ANGELS. Divine Wisdom See WISDOM. 104 djinn djinn (genii, ginn, jann, jinn, shayatin) In Arabic lore, a type of spirit demonized in Christianity. Like the DAIMONES, djinn are self-propagating and can be either good or evil. They possess supernatural powers and can be conjured in magical rites to perform various tasks and services. A djinnee (singular) appears as a wish-granting genie in many Arabic folktales such as the Arabian Nights. In pre-Islamic lore, the djinn are malicious, are born of liquid re, and are not immortal. They live with other supernatural beings in the Kaf, a mythical range of emerald mountains that encircles the earth. They like to roam the deserts and wilderness. They are usually invisible, but they have the power to shapeshift to any form, be it insect, animal, or human. Islamic theology absorbed and modied the djinn; some became beautiful and good-natured. According to lore, they were created 2,000 years before ADAM AND EVE, and they are equal to angels in stature. Their ruler, Iblis, refused to worship Adam, and so was cast out of HEAVEN, along with his followers. Iblis became the equivalent of the devil and the followers all became DEMONS. The djinn can be converted, as Surah 72 of the Koran indicates: It has been revealed to me that a company of the Djinn gave ear, then they said we have indeed heard a Koran wonderful, guiding to rectitude. King SOLOMON used a magic ring to control djinn and protect him from them. The ring was set with a gem, probably a diamond, that had a living force of its own. With the ring, Solomon branded the necks of the djinn as his slaves. One story tells that a jealous djinee (sometimes identied as Asmodeus) stole his ring while he bathed in the Jordan River. The djinnee seated himself on Solomons throne at his palace and reigned over his kingdom, forcing Solomon to become a wanderer. God compelled the djinnee to throw the ring into the sea. Solomon retrieved it and punished the djinnee by imprisoning him in a bottle. According to another story, Solomon brought djinn to his crystal-paved palace, where they sat at tables made of iron. The Koran tells how the king made them work at building palaces and making carpets, ponds, statues, and gardens. Whenever he wanted to travel to faraway places, the djinn carried him there on their backs. who rules the four elements and is a PRINCE of majesty, fear, and trembling. dominions (dominations, lords, lordships) In the Pseudo-Dionysian hierarchy, the fourth highest order of angels, who regulate the duties of other angels and make known the commands of God. Dominions also are channels of mercy. The term dominion refers to lordship, rule, or special meaning. Use of the term dominions as a class of angels occurs in apocryphal writings inuenced by the New Testament passages that suggest designations of heavenly powers. For example, Ephesians 1:21 states that God has raised Christ far above all rule and authority and power and dominion and every name that is named and Colossians 1:16 states that in Jesus Christ all things visible and invisible in heaven and earth are created, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers. FURTHER READING de Givry, Emile Grillot. Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy. New York: Dover Publications, 1971. First published 1931. Domiel (Abir Gahidrion, Dumiel) In Jewish lore, angel who guards the sixth hall of the seventh HEAVEN. In GNOSTICISM, Domiel is an ARCHON Dominion or domination (From The Hierarchie of the Blessed Angells by Thomas Heywood [1635]) dreams and visions 105 The Testament of ADAM describes dominions as rulers over earthly kingdoms who decide the outcome of wars; in battles they are angels riding on red horses. 2 ENOCH states that when Enoch is taken to the seventh HEAVEN, he sees an exceptionally great light, and all the ery armies of the great archangels, and the incorporeal forces and the dominions and the ORIGINS and the AUTHORITIES, the CHERUBIM and the SERAPHIM and the many-eyed THRONES. (20:1). The Ethiopic translation of 1 Enoch refers to angels of dominions. The Apocalypse of ZEPHANIAH sees angels who are called lords when he is taken to the fth heaven. In RUDOLPH STEINERs three-tiered structure of the angelic realm, the kyriotates may equate with dominions. St. AUGUSTINE agreed with St. PAUL that there exist seats (THRONES), dominions, PRINCIPALITIES, and POWERS in the heavens, but he did not know specically what they are or the differences between them. According to AGRIPPA, dominions are associated with the air element. They help humans overcome their enemies. In Kabbalistic lore, dominionsalong with Powers and VIRTUESform one of four triplicities of intelligible hierarchies. They are one of the ruling angelic orders of Hesed (Mercy), the fourth sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE. Dominions are sometimes equated with HASMALIM. FURTHER READING van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. dreams and visions Traditional means by which apocalyptic trips to HEAVEN and HELL take place, as well as revelations, prophecies, and messages/instructions from God. Angels serve as guides, interpreters, and messengers. Dreams were especially important for divination and prophecy in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Babylonia, Greece, Rome, and the Middle East. The divine will was held to be constantly revealed in dreams, and incubation procedures were followed to obtain dream answers to questions. Because of the connection between dreams and idol priests (who incubated and interpreted dreams, and who also practiced MAGIC), the Israelites were warned against them. Nonetheless, God often revealed himself through dreams, sometimes using angels as the messengers. Dreams in Judaism The early Jews placed a high value on dreams as real experiences of the direct voice of God. The Old Testa- The Vision of St. Joseph (Philippe de Champaigne; reprinted courtesy of the National Gallery, London) ment has many examples of dreams and visions, afrming these as primary ways that a concerned God speaks to human beings to provide direction and guidance. It is often difcult to distinguish between dreams and visions, however. Some are referred to as dreams, night visions, and simply visions. The recipient may awaken from sleep to have the vision, which may describe a lucid dream-within-a-dream. Some are clearly trance states, perhaps induced by consciousness-altering techniques such as found in MERKABAH. Descriptions such as a vision of the night (1 Samuel 3:5; Job 20:8; Isaiah 29:7; and Daniel 2:19 and 7:2), or in the night I saw (Zechariah 1:8), or in the visions of my head as I lay in bed (Daniel 4:13) probably refer to dreams. These biblical dreams/visions are characterized by the voice of God (direct audition); the appearance of angels as messengers; bright lights, re; and other- 106 dreams and visions The Angel of Dreams (Copyright 1995 by Robert M. Place; from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert M. Place) worldly images of heaven and hell. These images still appear in transpersonal dreams today. The rst biblical reference to a dream is found in Genesis 15:1216. While the prophet Abram (later renamed Abraham) is in a deep sleep, God gives him the prophecy that Abrams descendants will be enslaved in a foreign land (Egypt) for 400 years, but that they will be liberated with great possessions and return to their own land. Abrahams grandson, JACOB, had signicant dreams. Hunted by his twin brother, Esau, Jacob escapes to his uncle. En route, he has a dream of angels ascending and descending a ladder to heaven. God promises him and his descendants the land upon which he sleeps: I will not leave you until I have done all that I promised you (Genesis 28:15). Jacob is so awestruck by the dream that he declares the spot as the house of God . . . the gate of heaven. An angel again addresses Jacob in a dream in Genesis 31:1113, instructing him to return to the land of his birth. Jacobs son Joseph, sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers, excels in dream interpretation, and thus gains the pharaohs favor. The tradition for God to address prophets through dreams is established in Numbers 12:6, when God tells MOSES, Miriam, and Aaron, Hear my words: If there is a prophet among you, I the Lord make myself known to him in a vision, I speak with him in a dream. God goes on to say that Moses is different from other prophets, for God speaks directly (mouth to mouth) to him. (See ARK OF THE COVENANT.) Many other biblical prophets, patriarchs, and rulers were inspired and directed by dreams or visions, among them Samuel, Saul, SOLOMON, ELIJAH, Jeremiah, Job, ISAIAH, EZEKIEL, and DANIEL. Their experiences include the voice of God, the appearances of angels, and visions of heaven. These dreams were not experienced for personal enrichment, but were the instruments by which God speaks to the people; the prophets had a responsibility to report their dreams. In apocalyptic literature, the dream vision is reported in a formula: the initial dream-vision is experienced; questions are raised by the percipient; and answers and interpretations are given, usually by an angelic guide. Sometimes questions are answered by additional dream-visionary experiences. Losing contact with God through dreams was a crisisa serious loss of power. Saul, the rst king of Israel, suddenly nds that God no longer speaks to him in dreams. In desperation for guidance, he breaks his own law and hires a medium to perform necromancy, the summoning of the dead for divination. Saul seeks out the spirit of the prophet and judge Samuel. In apocryphal Jewish-Christian texts, the action takes place within dreams and visions. The prophets/visionaries see the heavens and hells rsthand, learn the secrets of the workings of the universe, and the secret names and duties of angels, and are taken into Gods presence. (See APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA TEXTS.) MAIMONIDES, writing in the 12th century C.E., interpreted angelic appearances in general as prophetic visions or dreams. According to Maimonidess cosmology, angels are intermediaries between God and man, but operate through the visionary imaginative plane in the human mind to convey Gods wishes to the patriarchs and prophets. Maimonides explains in Guide of the Perplexed: It is all the same whether the particular passage says rst that he saw an angel, or the phrasing implies that he dreams and visions thought at rst it was a human being and then in the end he realized it was an angel. Whenever it turns out in the end that what he saw, and was addressed by, was an angel, you must accept it as true that this was from the outset a prophetic vision or prophetic dream. In such a prophetic vision or prophetic dream the prophet sometimes sees God speaking to him . . . or he may see an angel who speaks to him, or hear someone speak to him without seeing anyone speaking, or he may see a human being speaking to him and afterwards he realizes that the one who spoke to him was an angel. (XLII) Despite the importance of dreams, scholars and theologians debated their reliability: How could it be proved that a dream was true and genuinely from God, or false and the work of demons? Many authorities, including the prophet Jeremiah were skeptical of dreams. However, after centuries of debate, dreams have continued to be held in high estimation. For example, the Zohar reafrmed dreams as a valid source of divine inspiration: Nothing takes place in the world but what has previously been made know, either by means of a dream, or by means of a proclamation, for it has been afrmed that before any event comes to pass in the world, it is rst announced in heaven, whence it is proclaimed to the world. (See KABBALAH.) Dreams in Christianity Initially, Christianity continued its inherited tradition of dreams and visions as a primary way in which God communicates with humans. Dreams and visions shaped the birthing and early development of Christianity. As in the Old Testament, distinctions are not always made between dreams and other kinds of visionary experiences. Christianity begins with a visionary experience in which Zechariah is visited by the angel Gabriel and told that his elderly wife will have a son, to be named John, who will become John the Baptist (Luke 1:111). Later, Gabriel is sent by God to inform the virgin that she will conceive a child through the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:2638). Her betrothed, Joseph, decides to leave her when he discovers she is pregnant. But an angel appears to him specically in a dream and tells him to marry her, that she has conceived with the Holy Spirit, and will bear a son to be named JESUS who will save his people from his sins (Matthew 1:1825). Joseph, in keeping with time-honored tradition to follow divine directives given in dreams, acts accordingly when he awakens. After Jesus is born, Joseph is again contacted by an angel through his dreams. The angel tells him to take Mary and Jesus and ee to Egypt until instructed otherwise, for King Herod will search for the child to destroy him (Matthew 2:13). Joseph fol- 107 lows directions; they remain in Egypt until Herod is dead. An angel appears in a dream to Joseph, telling him Herod is dead, and he should take his family and return to Israel (Matthew 2:1920). Other passages in Matthew (2:12 and 2:22) refer to Joseph receiving warnings in dreams, but do not state the messages are delivered by angels. In light of his other dreams, it is likely they were. Angels proclaim the birth of Jesus and direct people to where he can be found (Luke 2:9; 13). Joseph is given another dream warning him to take his family and ee to Egypt in order to save the baby Jesus from death at the hand of the jealous Herod (Matthew 2:1314), and he is told in yet another dream to return to Israel when Herod has died and it is safe (Matthew 2:1923). Jesus has numerous visionary experiences during his life, some of which involved the audition of the voice of God, and which were shared by others. He encounters angels and Satan, hears the direct voice of God speaking from the heavens, and becomes lled with radiant light in a transguration involving the presences of Elijah and Moses. After the arrest of Jesus, Pontius Pilates wife is warned in a dream that her husband should have nothing to do with him (Matthew 2 and 19). Acts is full of dream/visionary experiencesin fact, all major events are marked by them. When the apostles are lled with the Holy Spirit at Pentecost (2:311), it is seen as a fulllment of a prophecy in the Old Testament book of Joel: And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit on all esh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions (Joel 2:28). Sauls conversion into the evangelist PAUL is a visionary experience. Throughout his ministry, Paul is guided by nighttime visions that may have been dreams. Pauls epistles, and the book of REVELATION (attributed to John), are instructions and prophecy based upon direct visionary experience. Though early Christians accepted dreams and visions, they also had doubts about how to discern true and false dreams. Many church fathers wrote positively about dreams and visions, among them Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, Athanasius, AUGUSTINE, John Chrysostom, Anthony, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, Gregory the Great, and John Cassian. Views on dreams shifted signicantly in the fourth century C.E. with St. Jerome, who translated the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into the Latin Vulgate. Jerome called himself a Christian but was an avid scholar of pagan classics. During a severe illness, he had a dream vision that changed the course of his life: 108 dreams and visions Suddenly I was caught up in the spirit and dragged before the judgment seat of the Judge; and here the light was so bright, and those who stood around were so radiant, that I cast myself upon the ground and did not dare to look up. Asked who and what I was I replied: I am a Christian. But he who presided said: Thou liest, thou art a follower of Cicero and not of Christ. For where thy treasure is, there will thy heart be also. Instantly I became dumb, and amid the strokes of the lashfor He had ordered me to be scourgedI was tortured more severely still by the re of conscience, considering with myself that verse, In the grave who shall give thee thanks? Yet for all that I began to cry and to bewail myself, saying: Have mercy upon me, O Lord: have mercy upon me. Amid the sound of the scourges this cry still made itself heard. At last the bystanders, falling down before the knees of Him who presided, prayed that He would have pity on my youth, and that He would give me space to repent of my error. He might still, they urged, inict torture on me, should I ever again read the works of the Gentiles. . . . Accordingly I made an oath and called upon His name, saying Lord, if ever again I possess worldly books, or if ever again I read such, I have denied Thee. Dismissed, then, on taking this oath, I returned to the upper world, and, to the surprise of all, I opened upon them eyes so drenched with tears that my distress served to convince even the credulous. And that this was no sleep nor idle dream, such as those by which we are often mocked, I call to witness the tribunal before which I lay, and the terrible judgment which I feared. . . . I profess that my shoulders were black and blue, that I felt the bruises long after I awoke from my sleep, and that thenceforth I read the books of God with a zeal greater than I had previously given to the books of men. After the realistic experience of rebuke by God and severe beating by angels, Jerome retired to the desert as a hermit for several years. He then resumed his career as scholar and biblical consultant, and headed a monastic community in Bethlehem. Despite his own dream experience, Jerome sided with skeptics and said that dreams can be a vehicle of revelation to a soul, but the impure and unrighteous can twist dreams for their own selfserving ends. He declared that the word of God could not be sought through pagan practices of dream incubation. In his translation of the Bible, Jerome placed dreams with forbidden activities such as witchcraft. As Christianity spread, the church took an increasingly strong opposition to pagan and Jewish traditions that could hinder the authority of the new religion, especially MAGIC (including divination) and dreams and visions. The latter, dreams and visions, would still retain an accepted place, such as in the lives of saints and martyrs, in inspired instructions (see MICHAEL), and especially in the practice of sleeping at churches and shrines in order to be healeda form of dream incubation. But for the average person, divine experience through dreams and visions was discouraged. The church preached against dreams as dangerous instruments of deception caused by Satan and his demons. (However, in the Middle Ages, dreams of the dead were useful for promoting the doctrine of purgatory and the necessity of praying for the suffering souls there.) Dreams and visions remain outside religious importance in mainstream Christianity, though they still are pivotal experiences. For example, Ellen G. White, the founder of the Seventh Day Adventists, had signicant visionary experiences, as did JOSEPH SMITH JR., the founder of MORMONISM. See HERMAS. Dreams and Visions in Islam One of the nest examples of divine inspiration from an angel in dreams occurred to MUHAMMAD (c. 570 or 571632), the founder of Islam, who received the revelations that became the Koran in a series of angelic visions. In 610, Muhammad was 40 years old and living a life of asceticism when, one night in his dreams, the archangel Gabriel appeared and gave him the rst revelation of the Koran, the holy book that contains the doctrine of Islam. In Islamic tradition, the soul goes to Allah every night. Angels are recognized as the messengers of Allah, who enter dreams when appropriate. There are three types of dreams: 1. Good dreams containing good tidings from Allah. Only those who are on the true and righteous path are favored with these dreams; one need not to be a prophet or imam (teacher), however, to achieve the right closeness with Allah. In true dreams, Allah transmits wisdom, knowledge of the future, and tidings of reward. In pleasing dreams, a step lower than true dreams, a person is satised and happy. According to Muhammad, when the Resurrection is near, the dreams of believers will not be false. 2. Suggestions from ones own mind. These are mainly evil in nature and spring from desires, fantasies, and material attachments. 3. Evil dreams caused by Satan. These contain nightmarish or unpleasant themes or imageryessentially any dream not liked by the dreamer. They can occur because Allah is angry with the dreamer, and devils and Satan take advantage of the situation. The traditional folk remedy is to spit three times without saliva over the left shoulder, seek refuge in Allah in prayer, and refrain from revealing the dream to anyone. dynameis Tradition holds that while some dreams are simple and true, most dreams are of a superior code not understood by the average person; only a person specially empowered by Allah can interpret dreams. Divine Healing in Dreams Modern researchers of ANGELOLOGY, prayer, and healing have found anecdotal cases of dream angels being instrumental in a healing process. People who pray to be healed of an illness or problem sometimes have dreams in which angels tell them they are healed, or give them encouragement or information to help them heal. The appearance of angels in dreams can be interpreted from different perspectives. Many societies have, since ancient times, considered dreams not to be imaginary, but to be real events in a separate reality. The early Greeks and Romans believed that the soul traveled while the body was asleep. The soul would go to otherworldly realms wherein dwelled the lesser spirits who mediated between humans and the gods. Plato called this realm the between. Here the human soul had experiences and encounters that had the same validity as experiences had during waking life. In dreams, it was possible to meet the gods, to see the distant past or future, and to be healed of illness and disease. In psychology angels in dreams might be explained as a manifestation of the higher self, imparting wisdom already within and known to the dreamer, but buried. The angel is an archetypal construct that makes it possible for the dreamer to access this buried wisdom. See ARCHETYPES; DUMA; NICHOLAS FLAMEL. FURTHER READING Azam, Umar. Dreams in Islam. Pittsburgh: Dorrance Publishing, 1992. Fox, Robin Lane. Pagans and Christians. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1986. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Dreamwork for the Soul. New York: Berkley Books, 1998. Kelsey, Morton. God, Dreams and Revelation: A Christian Interpretation of Dreams. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1968, 1974, 1991. Maimonides. Guide of the Perplexed. Abridged. Introduction by Julius Guttmann. London: East and West Library, 1952. Dubbiel (Dubiel, Dobiel) GUARDIAN ANGEL of Persia and accuser of Israel. Dubbiel means bear-god. According to lore, Dubbiel became corrupted and fell along with other angels of nations, with the exception of Michael. Duma Angel who is the PRINCE of dreams. Duma is invoked for dream incubation, the solicitation of advice, and 109 answers to questions in dreams. The ritual must be done only on Sunday nights and only for important and urgent matters. The invocation is: I conjure you, Duma, prince of dreams, in the name of the Almighty God, that you come to me this night and answer my question. And when you wish to indicate good or evil, show me for evil: priests and churches, wells, cisterns, caves, and graves; but for a favorable sign show me: schools, synagogues, open books, and scholars studying them; and let me not forget the apparition. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. Dumah (Douma) Angel of silence, the stillness of death, and vindication; the tutelary spirit of Egypt. In Aramaic, Dumahs name means silence. He is a prince of HELL; in Babylonian legend he guards the 14th gate. The Zohar describes him as a chief of Gehenna (hell) with tens of thousands of ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION under his command, and 12,000 myriads of attendants whose job it is to punish sinners. A small reference in the Talmud holds that even sinners get a day of rest on the Sabbath and are released to roam the earth. At evening, Dumah herds them back into hell. In a midrash, Dumah releases all souls of the dead, not just sinners, to the earth each evening for the rst year after their deaths. dynameis Greek term for powers used as an appellation for supernatural powers and deities, and also to describe the powers of spirits, gods, stars, the elemental forces and forces of nature, and the Holy Spirit. References to dynameis are sometimes translated as the POWERS class of angels. The term also is applied to DEMONS: the DYNAMEIS of HELL and Satan. Plato uses the term to describe supernatural powers. Aristotle equates DAIMONES (spirits or INTELLIGENCES) with dynameis, or powers. In the New Testament, Gods power (dynamis) is transmitted through Christ, who stands above all other powers, celestial and earthly. The term dynamis also refers to the power to effect miracles or MAGIC, and the results of miracle power and magical power. See PRINCIPALITIES. FURTHER READING Luck, Goerg. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999 E f Eae In the testament of SOLOMON, one of the angels who thwarts Katanikotael, one of the DEMONS of the DECANS OF THE ZODIAC. El is one of the divine names of Chesed, the fourth sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE. El is an angel who impregnated a mortal a woman, who bore two children, Shahar and Shalim. The plural of El is ELOHIM. See ANGEL OF THE LORD; ELYON. eating and angels See ANGELS. El Roi See ANGEL OF THE LORD. eblis See IBLIS. Eleazar of Worms See SEFER RAZIEL. Eiael Angel who rules the occult sciences. Eiael is one of the 72 angels of the SCHEMHAMPHORAE. Eleleth (Heleleth) In GNOSTICISM, one of four great LUMINARIES who surround the self-begotten, the savior, or God. The other three are Oroiael, Daveithe, and Harmozy. Eisheth Zenumim (Iseth Zenumim) See ANGELS OF PROSTITUTION; SAMUEL. elementals A lower order of spirit beings that is the life-force in the natural world and whose task it is to maintain harmony. In occult lore, elementals are said to govern minerals, plants, and animals; the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water; the planets, stars, signs of the zodiac; and hours of the day and night. They are ruled by angels. Most are viewed as benevolent, though some are malicious or tricksterlike in behavior. El One of the Hebrew NAMES of God; also the name of an angel. El is one of the most powerful names of God and is used frequently in invocations, AMULETS, TALISMANS, and MAGIC. According to the Talmud, reciting sentences beginning and ending in El protects one from being harmed by any enchantment or sorcery. El is afxed to the end of many angel names; -iel means of God. 110 Elijah The Neoplatonic Greeks grouped elementals according to the four elements of life. Earth elementals are gnomes, ruled by the angel Ariel; air elementals are sylphs, ruled by Cherub; water elementals are undines, ruled by Tharsis; and re elementals are salamanders, ruled by Nathaniel or Seraph. In the fth century, Proclus added a fth group which lives beneath the ground, and in the eleventh century, Psellus added a sixth group, the lucifugum, which means y-thelight. The term elemental is applied to a broad range of spirit beings, also including elves, who live in the woods and along the seashore, and household spirits such as brownies, goblins, bogles and kobolds, and FAIRIES. Elementals appear in a variety of forms. Some are humanlike, such as the dwarsh gnomes. Sylphs appear as butteries and undines as waves. Some are more like angels and are amorphous shapes of white light surrounded by owing, colorful auras of energy. British Spiritualist Grace Cooke said that elementals enjoy human company, can understand human speech, and respond to music. They have their own karmic evolutions, progressing toward higher forms of life. British medium Geraldine Cummins channeled information about elementals, purportedly from the deceased Frederic W. H. Myers, one of the founders of the Society for Psychical Research in London. In automatic writing, Myers described elementals as the essence which emanates from forms of life such as trees and plants, and which coalesces into a form perceived by the human mind as a sprite. See DEVAS; FINDHORN; NATURE SPIRITS. way by spreading repentance, peace, and justice among Israelites. The biblical story of Elijah is told in 1 Kings and 2 Kings. Elijah is a prophet in Israel during the reign of King Ahab. Ahab and his foreign wife, Jezebel, sin by worshiping Baal and killing Gods prophets. God sends Elijah to warn of punishment by drought. Elijah departs the land, but returns in three years to nd the drought still going on. Ahab accuses him of causing it. Elijah challenges the kings prophets to prove that their god, Baal, is real. Both they and Elijah will prepare sacrices on Mt. Carmel. Whichever God sets the sacrices are will be declared the real god. The prophets of Baal dance, pray, and ritually cut themselves all day, but nothing happens to their sacrice. When Elijah prays, God sends re and burns his sacrice. The people turn on the priests of Baal, and they and Elijah slay them. The killings infuriate Jezebel, and Elijah flees for his life. After a day of wandering, he sits down and FURTHER READING Hall, Manly P Paracelsus: His Mystical and Medical Philoso. phy. Los Angeles: The Philosophical Research Society, 1964. Steiner, Rudolph. The Inuence of Spiritual Beings upon Man. Spring Valley, N.Y.: Anthroposophic Press, 1961. Eligor (Abigor) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Eligor is a duke who appears as a goodly knight carrying a lance, pennon, and scepter. He discovers hidden objects, kindles love and lust, and procures the favor of lords and knights. He marshal armies and causes war. He has 60 legions under his command. Elijah Prophet who is translated directly to heaven in a ery chariot. The name Elijah means my God is Jehovah. Elijah is the forerunner of the Messiah, preparing the 111 Angel bringing food to Elijah (Gustav Dor) 112 Elijah asks God to let him die. He sleeps, during which an ANGEL OF THE LORD appears and tells him to arise and eat. Elijah awakes to find a jar of water and a cake baked on hot stones. The angel urges him to eat and drink more in preparation for his journey. The food and water last him for 40 days and nights as he journeys to Mount Horeb. God tells Elijah that he has much work to do: He must anoint a new king, and train the prophet Elisha to carry on his work. Ahab is later killed in battle, and his son Ahaziah succeeds him to the throne. In 2 Kings 2:911, Elijah passes his role to Elisha in a dramatic scene. He strikes the waters of the Jordan River with his rolled-up mantle, causing them to part. The two cross. A chariot of re and horses descends from the sky, separating the two. It takes Elijah to heaven in a whirlwind. In Malachi 4:56, the prophet Malachi foretells the return of Elijah. In the New Testament, it is inferred that JESUS is Elijah, who is to come (Matthew 11:13). In Luke 9:2833, Jesus, on the Mount of Transguration, appears to his disciples in a vision along with MOSES and Elijah. In rabbinic lore, Elijah is credited with being an angel from his beginnings; he becomes Sandalphon, the angel of prayer, in heaven. He also serves as a guide for the souls of the dead: he stands at the crossways of Paradise and helps the righteous nd heaven. In midrashim, Elijah often is synonymous with the prophet ENOCH, who also translated directly to HEAVEN, and became the angel Metatron. Elijah translating to heaven in a ery chariot driven by an angel, from a 19th-century Bible (Authors collection) In Kabbalistic lore, the ANGEL OF DEATH is not happy with Elijahs translation, insisting that humans must die under his jurisdiction. God tells the angel that Elijah is not like other men, and can even replace the angel of death if challenged to do so. Elijah and the Angel of Death confront each other, but God holds Elijah back to prevent him from destroying the Angel of Death. God instructs Elijah to be the guardian his of children and to make himself known as Gods messenger throughout the world. Elijah then receives the name Sandalphon. In Talmudic lore, Elijah is a champion of the poor, losers, and victims. As the forerunner of the Messiah, Elijah will give three proclamations in Israel three days prior to the Messiahs appearance, according to Jewish lore. The archangel Michael will blow a trumpet, and Elijah will appear and introduce the Messiah. During the reign of peace, Elijah will be one of eight princes in the Messiahs cabinet. Apocalypse of Elijah The Apocalypse of Elijah is a composite work written between the rst and fourth centuries C.E. It is not typical of the apocalyptic style in that it is not a revelation transmitted by an angel to a prophet; rather, it is the word of the Lord delivered to the supposed author, who is identied simply as a son of man. It draws upon the book of REVELATION. The text mentions two angels by name, Gabriel and Uriel, and also refers to the prophets Elijah and Enoch. The text discusses the nal judgment, the punishment of sinners, and the rewards of the righteous who follow Christ. It describes the Antichrist and also contains a homily on the benets of fasting and prayer. The apocalypse opens with the call to the author/prophet, in which the Lord directs him to ask the people why they sin against the Lord God. God says he will have mercy upon the people, for he sent his son to the world to save them from the captivity of the age. God did not even inform an angel, an archangel, or any principality about his plans to send his son to the world; he changed himself to be like a man. The faithful will be rewarded and will have the Lords name written upon their foreheads and sealed on their right hands. The Lord exhorts people to fast and says that those whose fasts are not pure anger both him and the angels. A pure fast releases sin, heals diseases, and casts out DEMONS. As for prayer, those who are not single-minded in devotion to the Lord are mistrusted by the angels. The Lord discusses all of the evils that will befall the world under the Antichrist. The evil one will be recognized by his appearance: a skinny-legged young Emmanuel lad, having a tuft of gray hair at the front of his bald head. His eyebrows will reach to his ears. There is a leprous bare spot on the front of his hands (3:1516). The Antichrist will have the ability to transform himself in appearance and age, but the signs of his head will not be able to change and therefore he will always be recognized. The Antichrist will deceive people by imitating all of the miracles of Christ except for one: he will not be able to raise the dead. The true Christ will come surrounded and crowned by doves. He will walk in the clouds with the sign of the cross leading him, shining like the sun from one horizon to the other. His multitudes of angels will surround him. Elijah and Enoch will oppose the Antichrist. After seven days of ghting, the prophets will lie dead in the public marketplace for three-and-on-half days. On the fourth day they will rise up and denounce the Antichrist, who will not be able to prevail over them. He will then vent his fury on the saints. Sixty righteous ones will be martyred by being burned on altars. Christ will send to them 64,000 angels, each of whom has six wings. They will take the martyrs to heaven upon their wings. Gabriel and Uriel will become a pillar of light leading them into the holy land. (This is reminiscent of the ANGEL OF THE LORD who manifests as a pillar of re and a pillar of cloud to help MOSES lead the Jews to the promised land in the exodus from Egypt.) The righteous ones will be clothed in white and will eat from the Tree of Life in Paradise. The salvation of the righteous martyrs will be followed by great destruction upon the earth. The sun will darken, birds will fall dead, and the seas will dry up. Knowing his time is at end, the Antichrist will make one nal campaign against the saints, pursuing them upon his ery wings. Angels will come down from heaven and ght him with swords. The wrathful Lord will send re out upon the earth to consume all the sinners and devils. The last judgment will be rendered. Elijah and Enoch will receive their spiritual bodies and will kill the Antichrist, who will dissolve in their presence like ice in a re. He and all of his followers will be cast into the bottom of an abyss, which will close over them. Christ and his saints will burn the earth. Christ will spend 1,000 years upon it and create a new heaven and a new earth devoid of devils. Christ will rule with his saints, who ascend and descend (reminiscent of the ladder of angels dreamed by JACOB) in the company of angels. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. 113 Margolies, Morris B. A Gathering of Angels. New York: Ballantine, 1994. Elim (alim,elim) The proper name of an angel, and the name of a high order of angel whose name means mighty ones or gods. The term elim in the Bible has been translated in different ways: in Exodus 15:11 and Daniel 11:36 it is gods; in Psalms 29:1 it is heavenly beings; and in Psalms 89:7 it is holy ones. In 3 Enoch 14:13, the PRINCES of the elim (alim) order, along with the princes of the ERELIM and TAPSARIM, pay homage to Metatron. Elim is the proper name of the guardian angel of Libbeus the Apostle. Elim also is a divine name answering to the numbers of the moon. Elohim A Hebrew name for Yahweh and the name of an angelic order. As a proper name, Elohim denotes Gods anodrogynous nature. It is a divine name of Binah (Intelligence/Understanding), the third sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE, and also Tipareth (Beauty), the sixth sephirah. Elohim implies a plurality of forces and is used in Genesis in conjunction with the act of creation. Elohim Chaim (Chayim) is the Living God. The angelic order of the elohim ranks seventh in importance, and it is the order by which God produces vegetables. They rule Netzach (Victory), the seventh sephirah of the Tree of Life, ruled by the archangel Haniel. The elohim are sometimes equated with PRINCIPALITIES. See EL. Elyon (Elion) A Hebrew name of God and also the name of an angel. Elyon means Supreme or Most High. Elyon is one of the MINISTERING ANGELS, and he was invoked by MOSES to cause hail to rain down on Egypt during the plagues. He also is MELCHIZEDEK, whom ABRAHAM identied with Yahweh. Elyon is frequently invoked in magical rituals. See ANGEL OF THE LORD. Emmanuel In the Testament of SOLOMON, the angel who thwarts the Lion-Shaped Demon and the legions of demons under his command. Emmanuels name means God with us. Emmanuel also is the angel of Malkuth, the tenth sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE. The name refers as well to Christ, the Son of God. Though not named in the Bible, Emmanuel is considered to be the ANGEL OF THE LORD who appears in 114 Empyrean the furnace of King Nebuchadnezzar. DANIEL 3:1330 tells how the king summons three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and sentences them to be burned alive in his furnace for their refusal to worship his pagan gods and idols. The furnace is heated seven times hotter than normal, and the three men, bound in their clothing, are cast into it. The fire is so hot that the kings men near the furnace are killed. But Shadrach, Mesach, and Abednego are then seen walking loose in the flames, unharmed, accompanied by a fourth and unknown man who has the appearance like a son of the gods. The three men are pulled out, and they and their God are honored by the king. In other angel lore, Emmanuel is said to be the son of an angel and a human woman. In MAGIC he is conjured under the third Seal. In GEMATRIA, his name adds up to 644. Empyrean In Christian ANGELOLOGY, the residence of God and the angels. See DANTE ALIGHIERI; FIRMAMENT; MILTON, JOHN. encounter phenomenon See EXTRATERRESTRIALS. Enepsigos in the shape of a woman with two heads. Enepsigos has countless other names and can shapeshift into a goddess and other forms. Most often she takes three forms because she hovers near the moon (which has three forms: waxing, full, and new). Enepsigos is conjured up as Kronos, Greek god of time, and is thwarted by the angel Rathanael. In the Testament of Solomon, Enepsigos is bound by King SOLOMON with a triple-link chain and is made to prophesy. She predicts that Solomons kingdom will be divided and the Temple of Jerusalem will be destroyed by the kings of the Persians, Medes, and Chaldeans. The tools in the temple will be used to serve other gods. The vessels used to trap all the demons will be broken by men, and the freed demons will go throughout the world, leading men astray until the Son of God is crucied. This Son of God shall be born of a virgin and shall be the only one to hold power over demons. His name is Emmanuel. Solomon does not believe Enepsigos and has her bound in unbreakable chains. But later he witnesses the truth of part of her prophecy, when he is led astray by women to worship pagan gods, and his kingdom is divided by God. See INCANTATION BOWLS. DEMON Enoch Patriarch taken to HEAVEN on the orders of God, and transformed into the great angel Metatron. Enochs detailed descriptions of the heavens and HELLS he encountered, and the angels therein, are given in three versions of the apocalyptic book of Enoch, also called the Chronicles of Enoch, part of the MERKABAH literature. The book of Enoch offers a rich ANGELOLOGY. It also was a signicant inuence on the development of doctrines in the New Testament. Historical Background According to Genesis (5:1824), Enoch was of the seventh generation from Adam in the long-lived lineage of patriarchs. His father, Jared, was 162 years old when he was born, and he lived for another 800 years. Enoch fathered Methuselah at age 65, and lived another 300 years before translating directly to heaven. Genesis 5:24 says that Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him. The book of JUBILEES, a Jewish text from the second century B.C.E., says that Enoch was conducted into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honor, and behold there he writes down the condemnation and judgment of the world. The Enochian manuscripts were written by anonymous authors between the second century B.C.E. and sixth century C.E. (or much later according to some scholars) in Hebrew and possibly Aramaic; translations were made into Greek, Ethiopic, and Slavonic. The writings carried great authority. Tertullian, a Roman Christian theologian of the late first and early second centuries C.E., said the book was divinely inspired, and it had either been preserved by NOAH on the ark during the Flood or had been reproduced by Noah through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. ORIGEN, a second-century Christian philosopher, gave the same weight to the Enochian writings as he did to Psalms. Clement of Alexandria, a Greek theologian who converted to Christianity, and who died ca. 215, referred to the chronicles as a sacred text. The chronicles were declared apocryphal in the fourth century by St. Jerome, a father and doctor of the church. One of the chief objections to them was that they portray a multilayered heaven that contains hells populated by fallen angelsconcept contradictory to the heaven-above, hell-below model set forth in Christianity. St. AUGUSTINE, a doctor of the church and a contemporary of St. Jerome, said in his opus The City of God that certain Scriptures, such as the book of Enoch, were declared apocryphal because their origins were obscure and their errors many. He also considered Enoch Enoch to be too old to be of any value to Christianity. Augustine states: We cannot deny that Enoch, the seventh from Adam, left some divine writings, for this is asserted by the Apostle Jude in his canonical epistle. But it is not without reason that these writings have no place in that canon of Scripture which was preserved in the temple of the Hebrew people by the diligence of successive priests; for their antiquity brought them under suspicion, and it was impossible to ascertain whether these were his genuine writings, and they were not brought forward as genuine by the persons who were found to have carefully preserved the canonical books by a successive transmission. (XV:23) Thus kept out of the canon, along with the book of Jude, which quotes once from it (Jude 1:9), the book of Enoch subsequently fell into obscurity for hundreds of years. Today the different manuscripts of the book are of continuing scholarly and theological interest around the world. New translations and numerous commentaries have been written. General Story Enoch, the son of Jared and seventh descendant of ADAM AND EVE, is taken to heaven by angels, for God has chosen him to be a scribe and a witness to the consequences of sin and the rewards of righteousness. He makes one or more journeysaccounts varyand has many visions. He is taken to the different levels of heaven and hell, learns the mysteries of the cosmos and the celestial realms, and sees the future, including the Flood, the end of the world, and the Last Judgment. He is given a heavenly body of light and shown the books of knowledge. After these revelations, Enoch is sent back to earth in order to pass on the teachings to his sons and others. God then takes Enoch back into heaven. In some accounts God transforms him into Metatron, giving him 365,000 eyes and 36 pairs of wings. One of his functions as Metatron is to be the scribe of heaven. 1 Enoch 1 Enoch, also called the Ethiopic Book of Enoch, is the oldest of the three Enochian writings, and was authored between the second century B.C.E. and the rst century C.E. Scholars disagree as to whether it was originally written in Hebrew or Aramaic; it may have been composed in both. It is a composite work created in Judea, predating the Dead Sea Scrolls (see QUMRAN TEXTS). It was known to Jews, early Christians, and Essenes. 1 Enoch was important in the early church, and it was cited by numerous church fathers and 115 philosophers as well as the authors of other apocalyptic works, such as the Assumption of MOSES, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, 4 EZRA and 2 BARUCH, as well as JUBILEES. The oldest copies of 1 Enoch date only to the 15th century; earlier copies were lost or destroyed. 1 Enoch inuenced the language and thought of the New Testament, such as the doctrines of the nature of the Messiah and Son of Man, eschatology, demonology, and the messianic kingdom. In Ethiopian Christian theology, it shaped the ideas that Satan and his minions are equally responsible for the Fall, and that good angels are active in our defense. 1 Enoch has 107 chapters that are divided into ve books: THE BOOK OF THE WATCHERS (CHAP. 136) The first book opens with the prophecy of the fall of the WATCHERS, their judgment, and the destruction of all wicked ones. It describes how the Watchers, led by Semyaza, take human wives, beget giants (see NEPHILIM), and corrupt humans. Azazel teaches them the arts of metals, weaponry, dying, textiles, chemistry, sciences, herbology, magic, astrology, deception, and so on. Michael, Gabriel, and Surafel notice the resulting corruption, adultery, and bloodshed on earth and hear the peoples prayers for help. They appeal to God. God issues instructions to the angels. He sends Asuryal (Asuriel) to the son of Lamech NOAH) to warn him of the coming destruction of the earth and the Flood. He sends Raphael to bind Azazel and cast him into darkness. He sends Gabriel to destroy the children of adultery an expel the children of the Watchers. He sends Michael to tell Semyaza that the Watchers will be punished; they and all who are corrupt and unjust will be destroyed. In a dream vision (see DREAMS AND VISIONS) Enoch attempts to intercede on behalf of the fallen angels. He warns Azazel of Gods wrath, and the angels are frightened. But God tells Enoch that the prayers of the angels will not be heard. Their punishment is that they will not ascend into heaven for all eternity but shall remain imprisoned inside the earth. In another vision Enoch is take into heaven, where he beholds ery CHERUBIM and is taken before God, who is a brilliant shining being on a throne. God tells Enoch not to be frightened and explains to him why the Watchers and their children must be punished. Enoch is taken on a heavenly tour by angels. He is shown the foundations of the earth and the FIRMAMENT of heaven. He is told the names of the holy archangels: Suruel (Uriel), Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saraqael, and Gabriel. 116 Enoch Enoch takes a second journey to heaven. He is shown a terrible place where the fallen angels will be imprisoned forever. He is shown another place where the souls are gathered until the judgment day. Michael takes Enoch to the Tree of Life involved in the fall of ADAM AND EVE. The fragrance of this tree and its fruit will be given to the righteous. Enoch travels to the four directions. BOOK OF THE SIMILITUDES (CHAP. 3771) Enoch is carried by whirlwinds into the ultimate ends of the heavens. He is told about the coming judgment of the wicked and is shown the heavenly home of the righteous. He beholds multitudes of angelsa hundred thousand times a hundred thousand, 10 million times 10 millionstanding before the glory of the Lord of the Spirits. He sees all the cosmic secrets in heaven: the mysteries of lightning and thunder, the elements, the sun, and the stars and planets. Those who deny the name of the Lord will not ascend into heaven. Enoch meets the Son of man, who has existed before time and before the creation of the world. He is like the angels and full of grace. The angels tell Enoch that the Son of man shall be sent to depose kings from their thrones, and that the righteous will be saved in his name. The unrepentant shall perish. The righteous dead shall be resurrected. Enoch sees angels preparing iron chains of great weight for the imprisonment of the fallen angels. The ANGEL OF PEACE says that Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel will seize the fallen ones, bind them, and cast them into a furnace of re. Flood waters shall be opened upon the earth to destroy the wicked. Enoch prophesies Gods promise to Noah that his seed will be strengthened forever upon the face of the earth. Angels are involved in the construction of an ark of wood and they protect it against the oodwaters. Enoch is shown a valley full of turbulent sulfurous water where fallen angels will be punished. The water will be like poison to the bodies of the angels. Michael discusses the judgment with Raphael. The names and sins of the fallen angels are enumerated. In another vision Enoch is carried off in spirit to the heaven of heavens. There he sees a structure of crystal between crystal tongues of living re. It is encircled by rivers of living re. The SERAPHIM, cherubim, OPHANIM, and countless myriads of angels are present to guard the throne of Gods glory. Enoch beholds the Antecedent of Time: his head is white and pure like wool and his garment is indescribable. Enoch falls on his face to worship him. An angel tells him he is born in righteousness and the Antecedent of Time will not forsake him. He shall have peace forever and ever. THE BOOK OF THE ASTRONOMICAL WRITINGS (CHAP. 7282) In this book, Enoch describes in detail the workings of the cosmos that are revealed to him: the sun, the moon, the winds and elements, the stars and constellations, the four directions, and all astronomical laws. Enoch is instructed by the angels to reveal his experiences to his son Methuselah. Enoch shall be allowed to stay with his son for one year in order to write down his revelations and deliver warnings of Gods judgment. In the second year he shall be taken away from the people. THE BOOK OF THE DREAM VISIONS (CHAP. 8390) Enoch relates to Methuselah all the visions he has ever experienced, including those before the time of his marriage. Couched in symbols of animals, the visions relate history including the Flood, the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, their arrival in Canaan, the building of the temple of Jerusalem, the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah, the destruction of Jerusalem, the return of the Jews from exile, the Maccabean revolt, and the establishment of the messianic kingdom. THE BOOK OF THE EPISTLE OF ENOCH (CHAP. 91107) Enoch warns his children about the consequences of sin. He foretells the coming oppression and trials, and how a great plague will be visited upon the earth by the wrathful Lord. Sinners will be judged and thrown into eternal re and the righteous shall be rewarded with eternal glory. The eternal judgment will be executed by the angels. The rst heaven shall pass away, and a new heaven shall appear. Enoch admonishes his children to follow the ways of the righteous, and he describes the many woes that will befall the sinners. He says, I swear unto you that in heaven the angels will remember you for good before the glory of the Great One; and your names shall be written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful, because formerly you have pined away through evil and toil. But now you shall shine like the lights of heaven and you shall be seen, and the windows of heaven shall be opened for you. Your cry shall be heard. Methuselahs son Lamech fathers a son, Noah. Lamech is distressed because the infant looks like an angel. Enoch assures him that Noah has been born righteous and is the one who shall survive the coming Deluge. The book ends with the reassurance that the righteous will be seated on a throne of honor in heaven. 2 Enoch 2 Enoch, also called The Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch, is a text of mysterious origins. It probably dates to the late rst century C.E., although some scholars think it was written in the Middle Ages because it exists only in Enoch Slavonic. Most Slavonic manuscripts of this nature were translated from Greek, and no Greek text for 2 Enoch has been found. The Slavonic text exists in 20 manuscripts of varying lengths and completeness. The oldest of these manuscripts dates to the 14th century. 2 Enoch covers the events in the life of Enoch to the beginning of the Flood, and it includes the story of the birth and ascension of MELCHIZEDEK. It describes Enochs journey to the seven heavens, which takes place when Enoch is 365 years old. Enoch relates that one day when he is asleep on his couch, a great distress comes into his heart, which he cannot understand. Two huge beings appear before him: And there appeared to me two men, exceedingly big, so that I never saw such on earth; their faces were shining like the sun, their eyes too were like a burning light [lamps], and from their lips was re coming forth with clothing and singing of various kinds in appearance purple, their wings were brighter than gold, their hands whiter than snow. Enoch is frightened, but the angels call him by name and assure him to fear not, for they have been sent by God to take him into heaven. They bear him up on their wings to the clouds. Enoch is shown seven heavens with seven corresponding earths, all united to each other by hooks. Beyond the seventh heaven are three more heavens. The 10 heavens are: FIRST HEAVEN Ruled by Gabriel, this heaven is the one closest to earth, and it contains the winds and the clouds. The angels who live here are astronomers and rule the stars and heavenly bodies. There also are angels who are guardians of ice, snow, owers, and dew. SECOND HEAVEN The second heaven is ruled by Raphael and is a dark penal area where FALLEN ANGELS await judgment. They are 200 myriads of attendants to the Watchers, who are imprisoned in the fth heaven. Enoch says his guiding angels showed me darkness, and there I saw prisoners hanging, watched, awaiting the great and boundless judgment, and these angels were dark-looking, more than earthly darkness, and incessantly making weeping through all hours. Enoch is told that these prisoners are Gods apostates, fallen angels who have turned away from God with their prince, who is fastened in the fth heaven. The fallen angels ask Enoch to pray for them, but he wonders how he, a mere mortal man, can do for angels what angels are supposed to do for humankind. 117 THIRD HEAVEN The third heaven is ruled by Anahel and is a land of contrasts. One part of this heaven, the northern section, is actually hell, ice cold and sulfurous, lled with torturing angels who punish the evil souls who reside there. The condemned include those who dishonor God, sin against nature, and practice enchantments and witchcraft. However, the rest of this heaven is an Eden-like garden where manna (see ANGEL BREAD) is made and the souls of the holythose who are righteous and compassionatereside. Angels of light watch over this heaven. FOURTH HEAVEN The fourth heaven, under the jurisdiction of Archangel Michael, contains Holy Jerusalem and its Temple, all made of gold, surrounded by rivers made of milk, honey, wine, and oil. The Tree of Life is to be found in this heaven, as well as the sun and the moon. Here Enoch hears the singing of angels: In the midst of the heavens I saw armed soldiers, serving the Lord, with tympana and organs, with incessant voice, with sweet voice, with sweet and incessant voice and various singing, which is impossible to describe, and which astonishes every mind, so wonderful and marvelous is the singing of those angels, and I was delighted listening to it. Enoch also sees the workings of the sun, moon, and celestial bodies. The chariot of the sun carries dew and heat for the earth and is accompanied by 8,000 stars and 150,000 angels during the day and by 1,000 angels at night. In front of the chariot are 100 six-winged angels of aming re. There are also numerous PHOENIXES and CHALKYDRI, who pull the chariot. FIFTH HEAVEN The fth heaven is another prison, a ery ravine where 200 myriads of huge Watchers are imprisoned with their leader Satanail (Satan). They are dejected, miserable, and silent, and they perform no liturgy. Enoch urges them to perform the liturgy so that they will not enrage God to his limit. The Watchers respond and burst into song in unison. The scene, says Enoch, is piteous and touching. SIXTH HEAVEN The sixth heaven has seven brilliant, scholarly angels who study astronomy, nature, and the human race. They are the archangels who govern the angels of the cycles and functions of nature: the seasons, the calendar, the rivers and seas, the fruits of the earth, the grass, and so forth. The archangels also govern celestial 118 Enoch speech, and they harmonize all existence in the heavens and on earth. There also are angels who record all the lives and deeds of every human soul, to set forth before God. SEVENTH HEAVEN The seventh heaven is a place of exceptionally great light. Enoch sees the higher orders of angels, such as the THRONES, CHERUBIM, SERAPHIM, ORIGINS, AUTHORITIES, OPHANIM, and DOMINIONS, as well a ery troops of great ARCHANGELS. The angelic hosts bow down before the Lord, singing his praises. Enoch is frightened, but his guides tell him to be brave. He is shown a glimpse of God in the tenth heaven. Enochs two guides leave him at the end of the seventh heaven, however, and he falls down terried. Gabriel appears before him, catches him up as though a leaf in the wind, and transports him higher. EIGHTH HEAVEN In the eighth heaven, called Muzaloth, Enoch sees the changer of the seasons, of drought, and of wet, and of the twelve signs of the zodiac. NINTH HEAVEN The ninth heaven, called Kuchavim, holds the heavenly homes of the twelve signs of the zodiac. TENTH HEAVEN Michael escorts Enoch to the tenth heaven, where he beholds the face of God. It is like iron made to glow in re, and brought out, emitting sparks, and it burns. Thus I saw the Lords face, but the Lords face is ineffable, marvelous and very awful, and very, very terrible. And I cannot tell the quantity of his many instructions, and various voices, the Lords throne very great and not made with hands, nor the quantity of those standing round him, troops of cherubim and seraphim, nor their incessant singing, nor his immutable beauty, and who shall tell of the ineffable greatness of his glory? God instructs Michael to take Enoch from out of his earthly garments, and anoint him with my sweet ointment, and put him into the garments of my Glory. The oil is like sweet dew, smells like myrrh, and is like the glittering rays of the sun. Enoch takes on a shining appearance like the angels around him. God summons the angel Vrevoil (Vretiel or Pravuil), whose knowledge was quicker in wisdom than the other archangels, who wrote all the deeds of the Lord, to bring out the books of knowledge for Enoch to read and a pen for speed-writing. Vrevoil teaches Enoch all the cosmic secrets, talking for 30 days and 30 nights without stopping. Enoch writes 366 books in 30 days and 30 nights with his speed-writing pen. He tells the creation story, the Fall, and that the world will end on the eighth day of creation (or after 8,000 years), when time will cease and the righteous and the wicked will be judged. He tells all the rules of morality and righteousness for humans to live by. When Enoch is done instructing his sons and all the people, a gloom comes upon the earth, and angels come and carry Enoch into heaven for eternity. The light returns, and people nd a scroll entitled, The Invisible God. 2 Enoch relates the passing of Methuselah, his appointment of the priest Nir as the peoples leader, and the miraculous birth of Nirs son, Melchizedek. It ends with a brief description of Noah surviving the Flood. 3 Enoch 3 Enoch is also called the Hebrew Apocalypse of Enoch, the Sefer Hekalot (the Book of the Palaces), and the Chapters of Rabbi Ishmael. It is written in Hebrew and it most probably dates to the fth or sixth century C.E., although some scholars place it much later in the ninth century and even as late as the 15th century. It is the most complex and signicant of the three versions of the Book of Enoch, and it is an important work in the body of MERKABAH literature. 3 Enoch is attributed to Rabbi Ishmael and constitutes an account of his journey into the highest heaven to the throne of God and revelations made to him by the great angel Metatron. Rabbi Ishmael was an historical gure, a famous Palestinian scholar who died in 132 C.E. His name was used by the unknown author(s) of 3 Enoch to lend it authority. The text has four main sections: The rst section concerns Ishmaels ascension through the layers of heaven to the throne where he participates in the reciting of the QEDUSSAH (Sanctus). The second section reveals that Ishmael is Enoch and describes his translation. The third gives an elaborate description of the angelic hierarchies, the activities of the heavenly court of law, and the performance of the Qedussah. The fourth provides a tour of heaven. 3 Enoch begins with Rabbi Ishmaels arrival at the seventh palace in the seventh heaven; there is no explanation as to how he makes his ascent. He prays to God the Holy One that Prince Qaspiel, an ANGEL OF DESTRUCTION, and the angels with him will not cast him from heaven. God summons Metatron, Prince of Enoch the Divine Presence, to come to his aid. Metatron takes him to the camp of the SHEKINAH and presents him to the throne of glory so that he can behold the chariot. But the princes of the chariotthe SERAPHIM, CHERUBIM, and OPHANIM,x their ery and disapproving gaze on him and Ishmael shrinks back in terror, stunned by the brilliance of their faces and the radiance of their eyes. God rebukes the angels and tells them to hide their eyes, calling Ishmael his beloved friend. God opens the gates of Shekinah. Still disapproving, the angels challenge Metatron and ask him why a human has been allowed to come before the chariot. Metatron answers that Ishmael is blessed and has been chosen to minister in Gods presence. Metatron tells Ishmael that he has 70 names and once was the prophet Enoch. The angels protested Enochs translation but God appointed him as a prince and ruler among the MINISTERING ANGELS. Metatron relates that after the Fall and before the Flood he was taken up to the highest heaven and set by God to serve the throne of glory. God bestowed many blessings and great wisdom upon him and gave him a luminous body of splendor. Metatron describes in detail how he was physically transformed from Enoch into Metatron. Metatron was made to understand the mysteries of all things and was shown the letters (of the Hebrew alphabet) by which all things are created. (See gematria; names.) Metatrons elevation in stature was opposed by scholars on earth. God reduced him by sending the angel Anapiel to strike Metatron with 60 lashes of re. Metatron reveals to Ishmael the names of the angelic PRINCES who guide the world. He names the seven princes of the seven heavens and the angels who serve under them, the various orders of angels and their chiefs, and how the angels must bow down when they see a higher-ranking angel. He describes the WATCHERS and their roles and many names; these Watchers, however, are not the fallen ones of 1 Enoch, but rather four great princes who are Gods primary advisers in the heavenly court of law. Metatron explains that in the seventh heaven of Arabot, God covers his face, otherwise his brilliance would cause the heaven to burst open in the middle. Standing opposite his throne are 660 thousands of myriads of angels made of aming re. A bridge is laid across the heaven and the ministering angelsa thousand thousand and myriads of myriads of themcross over it to sing the Qedussah. There are 12,000 myriads of bridges, six above and six below; 12,000 myriads of rivers of re, six above and six below; 12,000 treasuries of snow, six above and six below; and 24,000 myriads of wheels of re, 12 above and 12 below, which sur- 119 round everything. At each entrance there are six MINISfor every single person, and they face the paths of heaven. Ishmael is shown how angels bathe in the RIVER OF FIRE that ows beneath the throne of Glory, and how the angels perform their devotional song, the Qeddusah. He learns how the heavenly law court functions, and how souls are judged and punished by angels of destruction. When the heavenly law court convenes only the great angelic princes who are called YHVH by the name of the Holy One are permitted to speak. There are 72 of these princes who rule kingdoms in the world, not counting the PRINCE OF THE WORLD, who is an advocate for the world. God sits on the throne of judgment with Justice on his right, Mercy on his left, and Truth directly facing him. The angels of destruction also face him and a scribe stands below him and a scribe stands above him. Seraphim surround the throne with walls of lightning and ophanim surround them like torches; clouds of re and ame surround them all. Beneath them are the holy creatures who bear up the throne of glory, each with three ngers, the height of each one of which is 8,766 PARASANGS. The rivers of re ow out beneath them. When a man comes for judgment the splendor of Mercy takes a position in front of him. The man falls prostrate and all the angels of destruction shrink from him. When God opens the book of judgmenthalf of which is re and half of which is amethe angels of destruction go out immediately to execute judgment against the wicked. Their unsheathed swords have the brilliance of lightning and pass through the world from end to end, striking fear in all the inhabitants of the world. Metatron says that God has 496,000 myriads of camps of angels in the seventh heaven and each camp has 496,000 angels. Every angel is as tall as the Great Sea (probably the Mediterranean) and has a face like lightning, eyes like torches of re, arms and feet like burnished bronze, and a roaring voice. They stand before the throne of glory in four rows and when time comes to say Holy, a storm wind goes out from God. Metatron reveals to Ishmael the cosmic letters by which all of creation comes into being, including the angels, and the cosmic power of divine names. Ishmael sees the souls of the patriarchs and the righteous, who have been raised from their graves and have ascended into heaven. They are praying to God for mercy upon the world. 3 Enoch ends with Ishmael reading all of earths history to the end of time, including the coming of the messianic kingdom, that is inscribed on the pargod, the curtain that veils God. TERING ANGELS 120 ephemerae FURTHER READING Augustine, St. The City of God. New York: The Modern Library, 1950. Blavatsky, H. P The Secret Doctrine. Pasadena, Calif.: Theo. sophical University Press, 1977. First published 1888. Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. ephemerae Angels who live for a day or less. The ephemerae chant the Te Deum and expire as soon as they are nished. See MUSIC AND ANGELS. Ephippas Arabian wind DEMON captured by King SOLOMON. In the Testament of Solomon, the cornerstone for the Temple of Jerusalem is so heavy that all the artisans and demon laborers cannot move it. Solomon sends a servant out into the Arabian desert to capture a wind demon in a ask. Solomon is astonished when the ask has the ability to move about on its own. The demon gives his name as Ephippas, and says he is thwarted by the one who is going to be born from a virgin and crucied by the Jews (JESUS). Ephippas tells Solomon that he has the ability to move mountains, carry houses from place to place, and overthrow kings. Solomon bids him to move the cornerstone. The demon says not only will he do that but he will also raise up the pillar of air from the Red Sea and place it wherever the king wants. Ephippas inserts the cornerstone at the entrance of the temple. Solomon takes this as a profound sign according to Scripture; Psalm 118:22 says: The stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner. Ephippas goes out with the demon of the Red Sea, Abezethibou, to raise up the pillar. They have been outwitted by Solomon, who binds the two of them to the pillar so that they remain suspended in air holding it up until the end of time. The pillar of air may be the same as the pillar of cloud referenced in the Old Testament, and it may mean the Milky Way. Erathaol (Erathaoth) According to ORIGEN, one of the seven great ARCHONS of GNOSTICISM along with Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Suriel, Onoel, and Thauthabaoth. Erathaol appears in the form of a dog. erelim (aralim, arelim, erellim) Angels made of white re who are 70,000 myriads strong and are equated with BENE ELOHIM, ISSIM, and THRONES. Erelim means valiant ones (though some sources say it is uncertain) and comes from Isaiah 33:7: Behold, the valiant ones cry without; the envoys of peace weep bitterly. The erelim are said to live in either the third, fourth, or fifth HEAVEN, from whence they govern grass, trees, fruit, and grain. They were involved in the capture of the sacred ark. Their chiefs are said to be either Michael or Raziel. The Maseket Aziluth names them 10th (last) in rank in the CELESTIAL HIERARCHY. In 3 ENOCH 14:13, the PRINCES of the erelim, along with the princes of the ELIM and TAPSARIM, pay homage to Metatron. The erelim are the angelic order of Binah (Intelligence), the third sephirah of the Kabbalistic TREE OF LIFE. They are under the rule of the archangel Tzaphkiel. Eremiel (Jeremiel, Jerimiel, Remiel, Hierimiel) In the Apocalypse of ZEPHANIAH, the great angel who presides over the abyss and Hades and cares for all of the souls who are trapped there from the end of the Flood to the present. Eremiel has a brilliant face like the sun and feet like melted bronze, and he wears a golden girdle. He serves the same function as Jeremiel in 4 EZRA to oversee the souls in Hades and forecast the coming of the new age. Similarly, Eremiel serves the same function as Ramiel in 2 BARUCH. In the Apocalypse of Elias, Eremiel is equated with Uriel. In REVELATION, he has a strong resemblance to the Son of Man. Eros The Greek god of love, called Cupid by the Romans. The name Eros means erotic love. Eros is often mistaken for an angel because of his occasional portrayal in art as an infant with wings, reminiscent of the Italian PUTTI. In mythology, Eros is the son of Aphrodite and Ares, and he is married to Psyche (soul). His brother Anteros is the god of mutual love. Eros often is portrayed as being about to shoot an arrow of love into a mortal. Once shot, the victim falls in love with the rst thing he or she sees. In MAGIC lore, the angel of love is Theliel. The invocation of Theliels name will secure the love of someone desired. erotes Winged, boyish gures prominent in Roman funerary art, and an inspiration for the IMAGES OF ANGELS. Erotes are ministers of the dead, and they help to transport the souls to the land of the dead or the Chris- extraterrestrials 121 FURTHER READING Berefelt, Gunnar. A Study on the Winged Angel: The Origin of a Motif. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell, 1968. excellencies In the Life of ADAM AND EVE, angels equated with VIRTUES who appear to Eve when she gives birth to Cain. The name excellencies may be a translation of the Hebrew term for partakers of the divine glory. The text says that 12 angels and two excellencies attend Eve. exousiai Greek term for celestial beings of authority, often equated with AUTHORITIES, DOMINIONS, POWERS, and VIRTUES. RUDOLF STEINER said exousiai are part of the CELESTIAL HIERARCHY, and he called them Spirits of Form. Winged Eros served as a model for angel art (Reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) tian HEAVEN. They are based on the myth of Psyche (soul), who marries Eros (erotic love). They function as eros psychophoros, or escorts of the soul. Sometimes they are called GENII comparable to the DAIMONES, though the association is not entirely accurate). Erotes were common on sarcophagi and funerary altars into the early centuries post-Christ. They were portrayed in pairs, either standing or hovering, and carrying one of three items: a gorgoneion, or Minervas shield with the severed head of the Gorgon, which was believed to be a powerful AMULET against evil; an inscribed tablet; or an image of the deceased. Typically they were shown nude, with mantles reaching down to the feet. Erotes often were depicted along with VICTORY, another early inspiration for the winged angel. They also were associated with the winged Roman goddess Aeternitas (Eternity), who functioned as a psychopomp to the dead. See EROS; PSYCHOPOMPOI. extraterrestrials (ETs) Alien angels. Since the advent of ufology around the time of World War II, hypotheses have been advanced that biblical descriptions of angels, and other ancient writings relating to shining beings and gods who come from the sky, were referring to extraterrestrial visitors from space. It is argued that advanced beings from other planets would have seemed godlike to earlier peoples, and their high-tech spacecraft would have been described in such nontechnical terms as ying disks and wheels. As a social phenomenon, ET encounters, which are reported worldwide, are as signicant as encounters with the devil or with angels, and reported sightings of the Virgin Mary throughout history. The age of modern interest in ETs began in 1947. On June 26, a Boise, Idaho, businessman and pilot, Kenneth Arnold, sighted a chain of nine bright objects while ying over the Cascade Mountains in Washington State. He estimated their speed to be at 1,600 miles per hour. Arnold said the objects motion resembled saucers that had been skipped over water, which gave rise to the popular term ying saucer to describe unidentied ying objects (UFOs). Since then more than 70,000 sightings and encounters have been reportedprobably a small fraction of the actual number. Approximately 95 percent of the cases have been explained as natural phenomena, aircraft, weather balloons, or hoaxes. The U.S. Air Force set up a project in the late 1940s to analyze UFO reports; the project ended in 1969. It was advised by J. Allen Hynek, chairman of the Astronomy Department at Northwestern University. Even though most cases 122 extraterrestrials appeared to have natural explanations, the minority that did not eventually led Hynek to conclude that UFOs were a reality. Parallels have been drawn between ancient descriptions of angels and aerial gods and modern-day descriptions of encounters with extraterrestrials; many modern encounters contain religious, especially Christian, elements. Passages in the Bible involving angels have been reinterpreted in modern ufological terms. Among the parallels cited by some ufologists are the following: Visitations by both angels and ETs are preceded by brilliant light. The visiting beings also are radiant or are clothed in radiant garments. They have large, burning eyes. They are superior to humans and travel about in the sky. Paranormal phenomena occur (telepathy, levitation, psychokinesis, out-of-body experience, etc.). Unusual physical effects occur (blindness, paralysis, heat, light, suspended animation, spontaneous healing, etc.). The beings present themselves as custodians who are always watching over the earth, know what people are doing, and can be anywhere instantaneously. The beings often seem to have a mission of imparting important informationmoral codes, apocalyptic warningsthat must be disseminated to others. Sometimes people are taken away with the beings, instructed, and then returned. The visiting beings may or may not be kindly. The encounters often have a dreamlike quality. The characteristics of ET encounters have changed over the decades. Early encounters were more likely to include benevolent, beautiful beings with angelic characteristics. Contactees who were unfamiliar with ufology interpreted visiting beings as angels. One of the most notable cases in ufology is that of Betty Andreasson Luca, who reported that her rst encounter occurred in 1944 at the age of seven, involving voices and a ball of light. According to Luca, numerous subsequent encounters took place over ensuing decades, all with a broad purpose of anointing Betty as a messenger to the world. The key event took place in 1967, when several small beings came through the wall of her house. Betty, a devout Christian, assumed them to be angels. They took her aboard their saucerlike craft, where she underwent some highly symbolic and religious experiences. She entered rooms and tunnels full of crystals, and she was shown a reenactment of the phoenix myth. Eight years elapsed before Betty reported her experience to UFO researchers. Through hypnosis, details of that and other encounters were uncovered. Betty later referred to her visitors as ETs. However, in their communication with her they exhibit knowledge of Christianity, and they seem to approve of her Christian background. Their message, like that of other ETs and otherworldly beings, is to wake up humanity to its multidimensional and spiritual nature, and to warn of dire apocalyptic events that will occur if people do not respond. Since the late 1970s another type of encounter decidedly unpleasanthas dominated ufology. Small beings with gray, rubbery skin and large, insectlike slanted eyes (called the Grays) reportedly abduct humans and subject them to terrifying and painful medical procedures and forced sex with other humans. They also extract semen and ova, allegedly for the purpose of creating a hybrid race of half-human, half-alien beings. Some ufologists equate these encounters with medieval stories of encounters with demons. The sexual cross-fertilization also is reminiscent of the fallen SONS OF GOD. Some Christians hold that these ETs are diabolical and are part of Satans FALLEN ANGELS, sent to earth to corrupt humanity and steal souls. Their warnings and their messages of salvation are tricks to lure people into spiritual enslavement. One way of looking at the angel-ET connection is through the encounter phenomenon hypothesis, which holds that encounters with otherworldly beings regardless of type of being or cultureshare fundamental common characteristics that pertain to the psychospiritual evolution of humanity. The encounters occur in a mythic, alternate reality springing from the human unconscious. The particularstypes of beings, what happens, and so forthtake on a framework that can be accepted by the society of the moment. It is argued that ETs, with their high technology, t our present-day mind-set. According to the encounter phenomenon hypothesis, such encounters are need-driven, on both an individual and a collective level. Individuals may unconsciously seek an otherworldly event in order to enhance their sense of purpose and self-esteem and give direction to their lives. On a collective level, these encounters may spring from the collective unconscious in answer to very deep longings for a sense of connection to the ineffable, and for spiritual development. It is interesting that ETs deliver apocalyptic messages to people just as angels did to prophets. These harbingers of the end times may represent an evolutionary or paradigm shift in human consciousness. (See similarities in NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE.) CARL G. JUNG considered the possibility that UFOs are truly extraterrestrial, but he emphasized their psychological implications, observing that they are a modern myth of things seen in the sky, a direct psychological consequence of mans intense interest in space. ET encounters cut across all social, educational, and cultural lines, but so far as is known, occur only to Ezekiel individuals who already are aware of the possibility of ET existence and contact. Jung also said that UFOs are harbingers of collective psychic transformation. (See ARCHETYPES.) The numerous descriptions of ETs who resemble sick and starving childrensuch as the Grays, who are small beings with enlarged heads, big eyes and spindly limbscan also be placed within the context of the encounter phenomenon hypothesis. Philosopher Michael Grosso suggests that ETs are mythical projections of the Child archetype, who in myth is the bearer of extraordinary powers, the harbinger of the future and always under threat. ETs may be symptoms of a racial self-healing (human beings putting themselves on the operating table) and the emergence of a new mythology. FURTHER READING Bramley, William. The Gods of Eden. San Jose, Calif.: Dahlin Family Press, 1989. Downing, Barry H. The Bible & Flying Saucers. New York: Lippincott, 1968. Evans, Hilary. Gods, Spirits, Cosmic Guardians: A Comparative Study of the Encounter Experience. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England: The Aquarian Press, 1987. Fowler, Raymond. The Watchers. New York: Bantam Books, 1990. Godwin, Malcolm. Angels: An Endangered Species. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990. Grosso, Michael. UFOs and the Myth of the New Age. ReVision, 11, no. 3 (Winter 1989): 513. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Harpers Encyclopedia of Mystical and Paranormal Experience. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Little, Gregory L. People of the Web. Memphis: White Buffalo Books, 1990. Ezekiel Jewish prophet taken to HEAVEN by CHERUBIM and THRONES. His account is one of the richest in angel lore of books included in the Bible. Ezekiel lived in Jerusalem, and he was taken captive by the Babylonians when Nebuchadnezzar invaded in 597 B.C.E. After about four years in Babylon, he received the call to be a prophet. In numerous visions and trances, he received apocalyptic messages with themes that were common among the Jews of the day. Ezekiel preached repentance; his main prophecy was that Jerusalem would fall because of the wickedness of its inhabitants (the city did fall in 586 B.C.E.). Thus says the Lord God became his signature line. The book of Ezekiel gives a dramatic description of Ezekiels ascent to heaven: 123 As I looked, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, and a great cloud, with brightness round about it, and re ashing forth continually, and in the midst of the re, as it were gleaming bronze. And from the midst of it came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the form of men, but each had four faces, and each of them had four wings. Their legs were straight, and the soles of their feet were like the sole of a calfs foot; and they sparkled like burnished bronze. Under their wings on their fours sides they had human hands. . . . [T]heir wings touched one another; they went every one straight forward, without turning as they went. [E]ach had the face of a man in the front . . . the face of a lion on the right side . . . the face of an ox on the left side . . . the face of an eagle at the back . . . And their wings were spread out above; each creature had two wings, each of which touched the wing of another, while two covered their bodies. And each went straight forward; wherever the spirit would go, they went, without Ezekiels vision (17th c. Bear Bible) 124 eye writing turning as they went. In the midst of the living creatures there was something that looked like burning coals of re, like torches moving to and from among the living creatures; and the re was bright, and out of the re went forth lightning. And the living creatures darted to and fro, like a ash of lightning. (1:414) Ezekiel then sees four WHEELS beside each of the living creatures. They gleam like chrysolite and have rims full of eyes. They go in any direction without turning. When the living creatures rise, the wheels rise with them. When the living creatures stand still, so do the wheels. The apping of the wings sounds like many waters, like the thunder of the Almighty. There is a FIRMAMENT over the heads of the living creatures, and there appears a throne like sapphire, and a human likeness seated upon it, glowing like re and surrounded by a RAINBOW. This is the glory of the Lord. Ezekiel receives a scroll, which he eats and which tastes like honey, and he also receives instructions to act as prophet. When the message is over, there is a sound of earthquakes, the cherubim rise up, and Ezekiel is deposited back among the exiles in Babylon. And I sat there overwhelmed among them seven days, he states (3:15). Ezekiel has other visions in which he is in the presence of God and is shown the evil ways of the Israelites. Once again he sees the winged cherubim and the whirling wheels, as well as a man clothed in linen who carries out the instructions of God to punish wrongdoers on earth. The four living creatures are also referenced in REVELATION 4:7. The wheels are the THRONES, third in the highest hierarchy of angels, who carry God. Four wheels also symbolize omnidirectional ability, and the four faces of the cherubim symbolize the ability to see in all directions at once. The man in linen is described also in Daniel 10:5 and is probably a reference to an angel, perhaps the ANGEL OF THE LORD. Ezekiels vision forms an important part of the MERKABAH mysticism. Apocryphon of Ezekiel The Apocryphon of Ezekiel is a text of Jewish origin probably written in the rst century C.E. and circulated to a Christian audience in the early centuries of Christianity. It survives only in ve fragments written in Hebrew and Greek, the longest of which concerns resurrection and judgment. According to some scholars, the Apocryphon of Ezekiel may have originally been a midrash on the canonical Ezekiel. The story in the longest fragment appears also in rabbinic literature and was quoted by St. Clement of Alexandria. The story goes that a king invites everyone in his kingdom except for two cripples, a lame man and a blind man, to attend a great feast. The cripples are offended and vow revenge. The lame man climbs onto the shoulders of the blind man; thus the two are able to enter into the garden of the king and eat his best fruit, or, by some accounts tear down his fruit trees. The two men are brought before the king. Each points to his handicap as proof that he could not have committed the crime. The king gures out how they did it, and he punishes them by ogging. As they are ogged the men accuse each other of being responsible for the deed. The moral of the story is that the crippled men are like body and soul: they must cooperate together in all deeds. Thus, when judgment comes, body and soul must be reunited in resurrection in order to receive their due. FURTHER READING May, Herbert G., and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1974. eye writing See ANGEL ALPHABETS. Ezra Jewish priest and teacher of the Law during the exile in Babylon. King Artaxerxes gave Ezra permission to take a group of Jews back to Jerusalem. There Ezra was dismayed to nd many people, including priests, had married outside the Jewish faith, and he ended many of these unions. Several apocalyptic pseudepigrapha are attributed to Ezra, in which angels assist in his visions and take him on tours of HEAVEN and HELL. 4 Ezra 4 Ezraalso known as 2 Esdras, 4 Esdras, and 5 Esdraswas written at the end of the rst century C.E. by a Jewish author, probably in Hebrew or Aramaic; additional Christian chapters were added in Greek in the second and third centuries. 1 Esdras and 2 Esdras are considered part of the apocrypha. (See APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA TEXTS.) Ezra is called by God to admonish the Jews who sin despite Gods mercies shown them. The Jews reject him and he turns to the gentiles. An angelprobably Uriel, who is later identied as his guideshows him a vision in which the righteous receive their crowns in heaven from the Son of God. The angel commands Ezra to go and tell the people about the wonders and greatness of the Lord. The text then describes seven apocalyptic visions shown to Salathiel, also called Ezra. The visions con- Ezra cern Ezras questions about the origins of sin, the ultimate fate of sinners, those who will be the saved, and the coming of the new age. He intercedes for sinners and asks for Gods mercy on them. Throughout, he is guided by Uriel. On one occasion, the angel Jeremiel comes forward when Ezra asks if he will be alive when the new age comes. Jeremiel replies, Concerning the signs about which you ask me, I can tell you in part; but I was not sent to tell you concerning your life, for I do not know (4:52). In the seventh vision, Ezra is sitting beneath an oak tree when he is addressed by the voice of the Lord emanating from a bush opposite him. The voice tells him about MOSES and directs Ezra to be like Moses and reveal what he has been shown. He is to take ve men as scribes and write in seclusion for 40 days. Some of the material is to be made public and some to be delivered in secret only to the wise. Ezra does as directed. Divine inspiration pours into him like re, and he dictates 94 books to the scribes, who write in a new script unknown to them. When he is nished, God tells him to give the rst 24 books to the public and reserve the last 70 books for the wise. Greek Apocalypse of Ezra The Greek Apocalypse of Ezra is a Christian composition based on Jewish and Christian sources, written between the second and ninth centuries C.E. Angels gure prominently in it as guides and participants in Ezras journeys to heaven and Tartarus (hell). The text opens with Ezras petition to God for a vision to see Gods mysteries. That nightpresumably in a dream visionthe angel Michael appears and tells Ezra to fast for 70 weeks. Ezra does as directed. The angel Raphael appears and gives him a staff, after which he fasts twice sixty weeks. Ezra is then granted his request and sees the mysteries of God and his angels. He says he wishes to plead with God on behalf of the Christian people. Ezra is taken up into the rst heaven where a great command of angels lead him to the judgments. He sees the fates of sinners and asks God for mercy for them, but God refuses, saying they are punished as they deserve. Michael, Gabriel, and all the apostles appear and greet Ezra. Ezra tells God that they all shall plead the case for mercy. The sins of ADAM and the punishment of SODOM AND GOMORRAH are discussed. Ezra again pleads for mercy for the sinners but God says, How can I have mercy upon them? They gave me vinegar and gall to drink and [not then] they repented (2:25). Ezra asks God to reveal his CHERUBIM and show him the character of the day of judgment. He says he will never cease to argue his case on behalf of sinners. God 125 relates how he created men and beasts, and how men fell into corruption. The opponent of menthe Antichristwill rise up from Tartarus and deceive men. Ezra says he wants to see Tartarus. Michael, Gabriel, and 34 other angels take him down 85 steps and then another 500 steps. At that level Ezra sees King Herod being punished for his sin of killing infants. Herod is an old man seated on a ery throne. The angels take Ezra lower still, too many steps to count, where he sees old men with ery axles revolving on their ears. They are being punished for being eavesdroppers. Ezra is taken down another 500 steps and sees there the unsleeping worm and re consuming the sinners (4:21). The angels take Ezra down to the Foundation of Destruction where he is shown the twelvefold blow of the abyss (probably a reference to the 12 last plagues of hell). A man hangs from his eyelids and is beaten by angels. Michael explains the man is being punished for incest. Ezra is taken to another spot and shown a man restrained by iron bars. He is the Antichrist who deceives people as the Christ. Ezra is told to tell others what he looks like. He has the face of a wild man with a right eye like a star rising at dawn and the left eye xed. His mouth is one cubit, his teeth are a span long, his ngers are like scythes, the soles of his feet are two span, and his forehead is inscribed with the word Antichrist. He has the ability to take on many guises, even those of a child or an old man. Ezra is shown more punishments, including that of a woman suspended in air with four wild beasts sucking upon her breasts. Her sins were not giving her milk and throwing infants into rivers. Ezra sees many other judgments that cause him to weep bitterly. God tells him he will not pardon sinners. Ezra then asks to see Paradise and is led away by angels to the east where he sees the Tree of Life. He also sees apostles, prophets, and patriarchsincluding ENOCH, ELIJAH, MOSES, Peter, PAUL, Luke, and Matthew, as well as the righteous. He is told the names of the angels who are over the consummation: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, Gabuthelon, Aker, Arphugitonos, Beburos, and Zebuleon. A voice tells Ezra he must die. He resists, demanding to know how his soul can be taken. He argues with the angels. They tell him they can draw his soul forth through his mouth, nostrils, eyes, feet, and toenails, but he give reasons why they cannot do so, saying he has experienced God with all of those parts of the body. The angels leave and tell God they cannot take his soul. God then tells Christ to go with a host of angels to take the soul of Ezra. Still Ezra protests, asking God who then will plead on behalf of sinners. Ezra argues with God and makes a nal prayer that all those 126 Ezra who pay attention to this book will be forgiven their sins on the day of judgment, but those who do not believe will be burned like Sodom and Gomorrah. God agrees and so Ezra gives up his soul. He is buried with incense and psalms. The apocalypse ends with a doxology: Glory, might, honor and worship to him for whom it is tting, for the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit now and always and forever and ever Amen. Vision of Ezra The Vision of Ezra is a Christian text written between the fourth and seventh centuries C.E. The original language was Greek; the surviving manuscripts are in Latin, dating from the 11th to 13th, centuries. Like the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra, the Vision of Ezra describes his visits to heaven and Tartarus, and his pleading on behalf of sinners. The vision dwells upon hell and is exceptionally dark and lled with terrible images; scant attention is paid to heaven. As every terrifying scene unfolds in hell, Ezra prays for mercy for those in torment. The text opens with Ezra praying to God for courage so that he does not fear when he sees the judgments of sinners. Seven angels of hell carry him beyond the 70th grade of Tartarus. There he sees ery gates guarded by re-breathing lions. He sees powerful men passing through the res unharmed and is told by the angels that these men are the just whose repute has ascended to heaven. But those who have denied the Lord and sinned with women on the Lords Day are consumed by the re and ripped apart by dogs. The angels take Ezra lower, beyond the 50th grade (which implies that the worst of Tartarus is lower at ground zero), where he sees men standing in torments. Angels throw re in their faces and whip them with ery scourges. The sinners are men who committed adultery with married women; the women are those who adorned themselves to please others besides their husbands. Ezra also sees women hanging and being whipped by angels with ery clubs. Further down is a cauldron boiling with sulfur and bitumen; sinners are burned in it but the righteous can pass freely over it. The sinners punished here committed lust, refused hospitality to strangers, did not give alms to the poor, and were generally selsh. Sinners who performed no confession or penitence stand in front of a giant, immortal worm which continually inhales and exhales them like ies. Ezra sees King Herod sitting on a ery throne attended by his counselors who are immersed in re. Elsewhere are bound men having their eyes pricked with thorns by the angels of hell. Women who had premarital sex are encased in 500-pound neck irons. Old men are lying prostrate with molten iron and lead poured continually over them. Great furnaces contain kings, princes, and other sinners who are burning with pitch and sulphur. Some of them are adulterers and some have killed their children. After this tour of the horrors of hell, Michael and Gabriel come and invite Ezra to see heaven. He refuses, vowing that he will not come until he sees every judgment of sinners. The angels oblige, leading him downward beyond the 14th level, where he sees lions and little dogs lying around ery ames. The righteous come through them and cross over into Paradise. Ezra is then lifted up into heaven where a multitude of angels instruct him to pray to God for the sinners. They take him to the Lord and he beseeches God for mercy. God says that those who break his commandments against sin are justly punished in torments. The text ends with the admonition to readers that eternal punishment can be avoided by following the ways of the Lord. Questions of Ezra Questions of Ezra concerns the fate of souls after death and at the end of time, presented in a dialogue between Ezra and the ANGEL OF THE LORD. The date of its composition and its original language are not known; surviving texts are in Armenian. Ezra sees the angel of God and begins asking him questions about the fates of the righteous and the sinners. The angel, who is not identied by name, says that the righteous shall enjoy great joy and eternal light and the sinners shall be punished with great darkness and eternal re. Noting that all people are sinners at some point, Ezra asks for mercy for those who have been seized by Satan. The angel says not to wait to do good deeds for the end can come unexpectedly. When it comes a good angel comes to take the good soul and an evil angel comes to take away the evil soul. The angel stresses that the angels who come for evil souls are not evil in and of themselvesfor everything that God has created is goodbut their role relates to the evil deeds of men. After death the souls pass through trials of elements, storms, hosts of Satan, high mountains, and ery rivers. There are seven camps and seven steps to the divinity. The rst are lodgings bad and wondrous; the second holds fearsome obstacles; the third is a hell of icy cold; and the fourth holds quarrels and wars. In the fth camp the soul is inspected. If the soul is just it shines and if it is a sinner it is darkened. In the sixth camp the righteous souls sparkle like the sun and in the seventh camp they can approach the great throne of the Divinity from the garden opposite the glory of God. Ezra Ezra wonders why the souls who pass successfully through all the harrowing cannot meet God instead of just approach the throne. The angel replies: You are one of the foolish and you think according to human nature. I am an angel and I perpetually serve God and I have not seen the face of God. How do you say that sinful man should be cause to meet Divinity. For the Divinity and wondrous and who dares to look toward the uncreated Divinity. If a man should look he will melt like wax before the face of God: for the Divinity is ery and wondrous. For such guardians stand around the throne of the Divinity. (2326) The guardians include incorporeal SERAPHIM and six-winged (not the four wings cited in other texts) cherubim. Of the cherubim, two wings cover their 127 face, two wings cover their feet, and with two they y. The guardians constantly sing, Holy, Holy, Holy Lord of Hosts, the heaven and earth are full of your glory. (See QEDUSSAH.) Ezra asks what will become of all sinners. The angel says that they can receive rest and mercy if their families or any other Christians offer prayers for them with fasts for 40 days. The angel likens prayer to the sowing of a crop that produces great fruit. The cares of the world and its deceits are like weeds that choke it. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. F f fairies Supernatural beings both helpful and harmful who are attached to the earth, and who sometimes are associated with angels. Fairy beliefs are universal and strikingly similar; they attempt to explain the reasons for illnesses, deformities, and untimely deaths among children; epidemics among livestock; and various disasters of weather. The term fairy comes from the Latin fata, or fate, which refers to the Fates of mythology, three women who spin, twist, and cut the threads of life. Contemporary popular Western beliefs about angels link fairies to angels as a subordinate class of beings, in accordance with the idea of MINISTERING ANGELSeverything in nature has its guiding angel. In folklore tradition, fairies are not a type of heavenly angel, but a separate class of being; conceivably an angel might be invoked to protect against the tricks and malice of fairies. Folklore traditions give various origins of fairies. They are: NATURE SPIRITS who are attached to particular places or elements; Small-statured human beings. Fairies are especially known for their roles in enchantments and bewitchments; in witch lore they are sometimes said to be the FAMILIARS of witches. Fairies have many names and descriptions; most are diminutive or even tiny. They may be beautiful or ugly, may resemble humans, or have wings and carry wands and pipes. Wings are small and not feathered as in depictions of angels, but more resemble buttery or gossamer dragony wings. They usually are invisible save to those with clairvoyant sight; they can make themselves visible to humans if they so desire. Some are morally ambivalent, whereas others are always benevolent, and still others are always malevolent. Some live as a fairy race or nation; the Land of Fairy, also called Elfland, has characteristics of the land of the dead: it exists underground and is accessed through barrows and mounds; time ceases there. The fairies come out at night to dance, sing, travel about, make merry, and make mischief. They steal human women for wives, and also steal unprotected human children, leaving their own children (changelings) in exchange. In order to stay in the good graces of the little people, the good people and the good neighbors, as they are called, humans souls of the pagan dead, caught between heaven and earth because they were not baptized; guardians of the dead; ghosts of venerated ancestors; FALLEN ANGELS, cast out of heaven with Lucifer but condemned by God to remain in the elements of the earth; 128 feather crown are to keep clean houses and leave out food and drink. In return, fairies bestow gifts and money and help humans with their chores. Fairies also are propitiated with offerings and rites at sacred wells, fountains, lakes, and tree groves so that humans may ward off illness and misfortune. FURTHER READING Briggs, Katherine Briggs. The Vanishing People. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978. . An Encyclopedia of Fairies: Hobgoblins, Brownies, Bogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976. Evans-Wentz, W. Y. The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries. New York: Carroll Publishing Group, 1990. First published 1911. fallen angels Angels who fall from Gods grace and are punished by banishment from HEAVEN. The three versions of the book of ENOCH associate fallen angels with the WATCHERS, 200 angels who come down from heaven to cohabitate with women and corrupt humanity. They are severely punished by God. 2 Enoch speaks of four grades of fallen angels: 1. Satanail, the prince of the fallen one. Satanail was once a high angel who thought he could be greater than God and thus was cast out of heaven on the second day of creation. He is imprisoned in the fth heaven. 2. The Watchers, who also are imprisoned in the fth heaven, dejected and silent. 3. The apostate angels, the followers of Satanail who plotted with him and turned away from Gods commandments. They are imprisoned in the second heaven, a place of darkness greater than earthly darkness. There they hang under guard, waiting for the measureless judgment. The fallen angels are dark in appearance, and they weep unceasingly. They ask Enoch to pray for them. 4. Angelspossibly some of the Watcherswho are sentenced to be imprisoned under the earth. In Christian lore, Lucifer is the arrogant, prideful angel cast out of heaven; he becomes identied with Satan. (See REVELATION.) The fallen angels become DEMONS who seek to ruin mens souls, a view reinforced by the inuential theologian St. THOMAS AQUINAS. One-third of the heavenly host133,306,668 angelsare fallen; according to lore, they fall for nine days. Various theologians have posited that a portion of each of the nine orders of angels fall; some said the fallen ones comprise a 10th order. 129 The Letter of Jude references the fallen angels of Genesis, the Watchers, as examples of the fate that befalls immoral ones: And the angels that did not keep their own position but left their proper dwelling have been kept by him in eternal chains in the nether gloom until the judgment of the great day; just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise acted immorally and indulged in unnatural lust, served as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal re. (67) Jude, attributed to Jude brother of the apostle James, was written by an unknown author to warn against false teachers in early Christianity. falling stars In The Testament of Solomon, DEMONS who have no way station in which to rest. The demon Ornias explains to SOLOMON that demons have the capability of ying up to heaven in order to eavesdrop upon God and learn his plans. But because they have no place to rest, they become exhausted and fall to earth like ashes of lightning, burning elds and cities. People think they are falling stars. Folklore traditions through history hold that falling stars are the souls of those who have just died, or who are coming to earth to be reborn. See LUCIFER. familiars Low-ranking servant DEMONS who assume an animal or insect form. In magical lore, familiars are summoned into the regular service of a magician, sorcerer, or witch to perform various tasks, such as carrying out spells and bewitchments. The ability to give good familiars is an asset in descriptions of FALLEN ANGELS and other spirits in magical texts known as GRIMOIRES. During the Inquisition, familiars were associated with evil. Accused witches were thought to have familiars, also called imps, usually in the forms of cats, toads, owl, mice, and dogs. In witchcraft trials, even a fly buzzing in the room was said to be a familiar, given by the devil or bought or inherited from other witches. The inquisitors took the Bible to heart: those who had familiars were an abomination unto the Lord (Deuteronomy 23:1012), and should be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be upon them (Leviticus 20:27). feather crown See ANGEL WREATH. 130 lm, television, and drama lm, television, and drama Like their literary counterparts, angels play roles in lm and television and onstage. They serve as ways for God to act in the world, Fate to play out, and humans to become inspired. Several thematic patterns have dominated angel lms: the HEAVEN-to-earth trip of a dead persons soul to revisit and rectify errors with angelic help and perspective; direct angelic intervention by angels to inspire people, usually on spiritual matters; comic or ironic twists of situations from angelic lore, such as Gabriel blowing the horn for the last judgment; battles with Satan for a troubled soul. A highly original Great Depressionera plot, Gabriel over the White House (1933), tells the story of a comatose president who revives and becomes a benevolent dictator via Gabriel. He gets jobs for the unemployed, conquers crime, collects foreign debts, and dies after signing an international peace treaty. The toll taken by World War II was felt deeply, and Hollywood produced many lms that dealt with death and bereavement in a variety of themes. An early classic in the angel-come-to-earth genre is Here Comes Mr. Jordan (1941). Boxer Robert Montgomery crashes his plane and a heavenly messenger escorts him to heaven, where an error is discoveredit is not his time to die. Mr. Jordan, the man in charge (Claude Rains), accompanies him back to earth to search for a suitable replacement body and uncover and rectify wrongdoings in his former lifetime. The true nature of Mr. Jordan is ambiguous. He is invisible to all but those who need to see him; the viewer is left to assume he is an angel. Montgomery takes over the body of another boxer, loses his previous identity, and resumes the activities the old Montgomery was meant to do. In 1947 a musical sequel, Down to Earth, reprises several roles from Here Comes Mr. Jordan, featuring Rita Hayworth as the muse Terpsichore who comes to earth because she is dissatised with a Broadway producers jazz treatment of the nine muses. Heaven Can Wait (1978), starring Warren Beatty, is a remake of Here Comes Mr. Jordan. The title comes from the Henry Seegal play from which the 1941 movie is adapted. In the 1978 version, Mr. Jordan (James Mason) is clearly identied as an archangel. Stephen Vincent Bents novel The Devil and Daniel Webster, rst adapted into a folk opera by Douglas Stuart Moore, became a 1941 lm featuring Eddie Arnold as mid-19th-century American statesman Daniel Webster undergoing Faustian despair and temptations by Mr. Scratch, played by Walter Huston. I Married an Angel (1942), a Jeanette MacDonald Nelson Eddy musical based on a Hungarian play by Vaszary Janos, was adapted into a Rodgers and Hart musical for Broadway. A playboy dreams he is married to an angel and wakes up to discover the love of a plain girl he has been ignoring. Heaven Can Wait (1943) features Don Ameche as a bon vivant reviewing his supposedly unworthy human existence on the doorstep of hell. In Happy Land (1943), Ameche plays a father who has lost his son in the war and who is helped through his grief by his long-dead grandfather Harry Carey, a Civil War veteran who has received permission from the authorities to intervene. A Guy Named Joe (1943) adds patriotism to the angelic agenda of assisting humans through bereavement. Joe, a pilotplayed by Spencer Tracydies and becomes the GUARDIAN ANGEL of new pilots during World War II, including a rival pilot played by Van Johnson, with whom he xes up his grieving girlfriend, played by Irene Dunne. In 1989 director Steven Spielberg made Always, a remake of A Guy Named Joe. It stars Audrey Hepburn as a guardian angel who assists a dead pilot played by Richard Dreyfuss to x up his girlfriend (played by Holly Hunter) with the right man. Cabin in the Sky, originally a Broadway musical in the early 1940s, was released as a movie in 1943 with an all-black cast in 1943: Ethel Waters, Lena Horne, Duke Ellington, and Eddie Rochester Anderson. Lucifer and the Lords General battle for a soul. Liliom went from a European play in 1921 to a Rogers and Hammerstein stage musical, Carousel, in 1945, to a lmalso titled Carouselin 1956. Dead carousel barker Billy Bigelow gets permission from the Starkeeper in heaven to go help his family on earth. The Horn Blows at Midnight (1945) features Jack Benny as Athanael, angel junior third grade, a nightclub trumpet player who ghts with two FALLEN ANGELS to prevent the earth from being blown up by a trumpet blast. The most famous lm with an angel is Frank Capras Its a Wonderful Life (1946). James Stewart depicts George, a man of moral worth rediscovering his own life at Christmas after his suicide attempt is foiled by his guardian angel Clarence Oddbody, played by Henry Travers, an apprentice trying to get his wings. When nancially pressed George declares, I wish I had never been born, Clarence shows George what life in his hometown of Bedford Falls would be like without him. It Happened One Christmas (1977) is a made-for-television movie remake of Its a Wonderful Life with a gender switch: Marlo Thomas plays the beleaguered lead, Mary Bailey Hatch. Clarence (1990), a made-for-cable television lm, develops the character of Clarence Oddbody. This script added a new twist: Guardian angels get younger as they gain rank with lm, television, and drama every good deed, and they reach the ultimate state of grace as cherubs. The Bishops Wife (1947) features Cary Grant as Dudley, an angel who intervenes when an Episcopal bishop, Henry Brougham (played by David Niven) loses his faith at Christmas season, making his wife Julia (played by Loretta Young) feel neglected. A remake is The Preachers Wife in 1996, starring Denzel Washington and Whitney Houston. In For Heavens Sake (1950) Clifton Webb and Edmund Gwenn play disguised angels doing good on earth. In The Angel Levine (1970), Harry Belafonte plays a Jewish angel on probation. Brother John (1971) features Sidney Poitier as an angel or an even higher ranking being who undoes wrongs in a southern town full of bigotry and strife. In Angels in the Outeld (1951, remake 1994) angels intervene to assist a losing baseball team to victory. Two of a Kind (1983) combines the biblical Flood and SODOM AND GOMORRAH: Four angels beg God to spare earth if they nd two souls who will perform a great deed of sacrice for one another. John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John play the two humans chosen at random to prove to God (played by Gene Hackman) that he should not destroy earth with a second ood. In One Magic Christmas (1985) angel Gideon (Harry Dean Stanton dressed as a cowboy who plays the harmonica up in a tree), stops time, saves lives, takes a little girl to the North Pole to see Santa Claus, and reverses history to rekindle the spirit of Christmas in an embittered midwestern housewife, played by Mary Steenburgen. A spate of 1980s lms about angels interacting with adolescents sought to appeal to the teenage market: The Kid with the Broken Halo (1982), Somewhere Tomorrow (1983), School Spirit (1985), Date with an Angel (1987), and The Heavenly Kid (1985). Earth Angel, a 1991 made-for-television movie, tells of a prom queen killed in a car crash, who returns 28 years later to perform good deeds. The German author/director Wim Wenders released Wings of Desire in 1987 and Far Away, So Close! in 1993. Both lms revisit literary and biblical apocryphal themes of angels desiring to come down to earth. In these lms, angels want to become more familiar with the world and people of West Berlin. One falls in love with a trapeze artist and forgoes his immortality to be with her. Along similar lines is City of Angels (1998), in which a restless angel, Seth, played by Nicolas Cage, falls for a mortal woman who is a doctor, played by Meg Ryan. The height of popular angel interest was matched by the nadir of angel movies in 1996 with the release of Michael, scripted by Nora Ephron. John Travolta plays 131 the archangel Michael, who is an unappealing slob. He comes to earth to intervene in the lives of three writers for a tabloid. His chief mission is to play matchmaker for two lonely hearts, played by William Hurt and Andie McDowell. The scratching, belching Michael does a disservice to the dignity of angels. People acting like angels is a popular theme in movies. In Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), James Cagney is Rocky Sullivan, a criminal who goes back to his old neighborhood and is challenged by friends to become a better person; he passes the tests of character and becomes a role model for young boys. In Dear God (1996), Greg Kinnear plays Tom Turner, a con man forced by a judge to get a job. He goes to work in the dead letter ofce of the postal service. Dear God letters lead him into the role of an angel-like miracleworker. In television, the angel-helper theme has been used as the basis of several series, the most popular of which is Touched by an Angel, which aired from 19942003. A team of angels, including a gentle and friendly ANGEL OF DEATH, help people through their spiritual and moral crises. Onstage, Tony Kushners Angels in America received Tony awards in 1993 and 1994. The rst part of the musical, Millennium Approaches, had a sensational season in London in 1991. The full work, adding part two, Perestroika, comprising a seven-hour epic in total, had its world premiere in Los Angeles in November 1992, and ran a successful two years more on Broadway. The play ranges from earth to heaven, politics, sex, and religion, switches between realism and fantasy, treating the tragedy of AIDS and the death of, or at least the absence of, God. The subtitle, A Gay Fantasia on National Themes, summarizes its intellectual content: a critique of Americas soul from a political perspective. One character says: There are no angels in America, no spiritual past, no racial past, theres only the political. At the heart of the drama of the lives of several mainly gay characters is Lucifer-gure Roy Cohn, the McCarthy-era lawyer and ruthless power broker, a vicious bigot who was secretly gay but persecuted homosexuals in public. At the end of part one, the character with AIDS is visited by an angel who emerges from an unzipped earth and ies down to hail him as a new prophet; Cohn gasps very Steven Spielberg. In Perestroika, the fantasia continues with the angel revealing herself as the Angel of Death, and the task of the AIDS patient to make sense of death and face loss with grace. Part of this grace is humor, moving toward resolutions that are darkly comic. Cohn is relentlessly conniving even in death, bursting into the afterlife to offer his legal services to the runaway God. 132 Findhorn FURTHER READING Parish, James Robert. Ghosts and Angels in Hollywood Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1994. Teague, Raymond. Reel Spirit: A Guide to Movies That Inspire, Explore and Empower. Lees Summit, Mo.: Unity House, 2000. Findhorn Experimental spiritual community in northern Scotland near the Arctic Circle, made famous in the 1960s and 1970s by the gardening guidance given by the overlighting DEVAS and NATURE SPIRITS that yielded spectacular produce in inhospitable terrain. Findhorn has grown beyond community to a foundation and college, attracting about 70,000 visitors annually from around the world. The Findhorn founders were Peter and Eileen Caddy, husband and wife, and their friend DOROTHY MACLEAN. The three never intended to establish a spiritual colony. Rather, Findhorn came into being after they were all laid off from their jobs running a resort hotel in Scotland. Out of work and with nowhere to go, they banded together in the Findhorn Bay Caravan Travel Park, where the Caddys had their trailer. The trailer park was a desolate place, situated next to a rubbish dump and a rundown building. However, the Caddys had moved there because of spiritual guidance received by Eileen in meditation, namely, that a purpose would unfold there. The Caddys and Maclean had known each other for years and had studied under the same spiritual teacher, a Quaker woman named Sheena Govan, who was Peters wife for ve years; she terminated the marriage, but they retained a close relationship. In addition, Peter Caddy, a Royal Air Force ofcer, had studied Rosicrucianism. Maclean was steeped in Susm. Both Eileen Caddy and Maclean had developed mediumistic gifts; of the two, Macleans dominated at Findhorn. Unable to nd work, Caddy turned to gardening in 1962 to pass the time, even though Findhorn was illsuited for it. The area is located on a narrow sandy peninsula jutting into the North Sea, and it is exposed to near-constant winds from all sides. The soil is mostly sand and gravel. In May 1963, Maclean, while meditating, received a message from an angelic beingwhom she later referred to as both angel and devainstructing her to tune into the nature spirits, and a cooperation could begin. Maclean did so, and she began to receive regular advice from an assortment of angelic spirits on how to cultivate the garden. Peter Caddy would pose questions for the devas, and Maclean would obtain the answers. The chief coordinating entity was a being Maclean called the Landscape Angel. Within a year, Findhorn was transformed. Cabbages, which normally reach four pounds at maturity, weighed over 40 pounds. Broccoli grew so large they were too heavy to lift from the ground. Flowers were nearly twice their normal size. Word of the Findhorn successes spread, but agronomists were at a loss to explain them. In 1966, a friend of Peter Caddys, scholar R. Ogilvie Crombie, paid a visit to Findhorn, an experience that opened him psychically. Shortly afterward, Crombie was sitting in the Royal Botanic Gardens near his home in Edinburgh, Scotland, when he saw a nature spirit dancing in front of him. The three-foot high, half-man, half-animal gave his name as Kurmos, and said he lived in the gardens and helped trees to grow. This meeting paved the way for a subsequent meeting with Pan, chief of the nature spirits. Pan told Crombie that he had been chosen to help renew the lost contact between mankind and the nature spirits. Crombie passed on to Caddy and the others at Findhorn what he learned from Pan about the spirits who lived and worked in the garden. For several years, the Caddys and Maclean were reluctant to talk about their invisible helpers, though word of their spectacular gardening successes spread. Agronomists could not explain their results, based just on the composition of the soil, and the methods they used. When they nally began to talk of the devas, they attracted disciples who wanted to live and work with them. Over time, Maclean sensed the creation of a new entity, the Angel of Findhorn, which started as a nebulous impression and grew slowly over the years. The Landscape Angel told Maclean that the Angel of Findhorn was being fed by the growth in the gardens, as well as the love generated by the human beings present. Maclean clairvoyantly perceived this being developing almost like a fetus, until it had acquired sufcient power to open to all devic knowledge. The angel took on a masculine presence, and, when it communicated with Maclean, described itself as the Spirit of a place. Findhorn became a model community for proponents of the New Age movement. By the early 1970s, it had more than 300 residents. Among them was the American philosopher and visionary David Spangler, who arrived in 1970 with his spiritual partner, Myrtle Glines. Residents viewed themselves as the vanguard of a new society based on the principles of cooperation between man and the kingdom of nature. After Spanglers arrival, an angelic presence called Limitless Love and Truth manifested. The being pro- Flamel, Nicolas vided revelations that had rst appeared, independently, to another man in Britain. Spangler published some of the transmissions in his book, Revelation: The Birth of a New Age (1976). By 1980, the Findhorn community had declined, due in part to the departures of some of the principals, including Maclean, Peter Caddy (he and Eileen divorced), and Spangler. Eileen remained, but she took a background position so that Findhorn could be cared for by a new generation of residents. Without someone like Maclean as a focal point, interest and involvement in the nature kingdoms faded. But a decade later, around 1990, interest and growth renewed as part of a broader upswing in interest in human cooperation with angelic and nature realms. Presently, Findhorn is an ecovillage residential community, a foundation that operates educational programs, and a college that offers a combination of mainstream academic and alternative experiential education courses. It has served as a model for other similar enterprises and communities, such as PERELANDRA, near Washington, D.C., and GREEN HOPE FARM in Meriden, New Hampshire. FURTHER READING The Findhorn Foundation: Who Are We? URL: http:// www.ndhorn.org. Downloaded December 18, 2002. Findhorn Community. The Findhorn Garden. New York: Harper and Row, 1975. Hawken, Paul. The Magic of Findhorn. New York: Bantam Books, 1976. Maclean, Dorothy. To Hear the Angels Sing. Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990. First published by Lorian Press, 1980. 2d ed. by Morningtown Press, 1988. Spangler, David. Revelation: The Birth of a New Age. Elgin, Ill.: The Lorian Press, 1976. rmament The vault of sky or space that separates HEAVEN and earth; or heaven itself. In Genesis 1:68 God creates the firmament and calls it heaven. In the Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah, the firmament refers to the space that separates the seven heavens from earth, and it is where dark angels struggle for control. As an angel escorts ISAIAH heavenward in his vision, the prophet sees Samael (Satan) and his hosts in the firmament, envying each other and struggling with each other. Isaiah is told by his escort angel that the struggle mirrors the struggles and darkness on earth (as above, so also on earth). The angel tells Isaiah that the struggle will last until the coming of the one, or Christ. 133 Flamel, Nicolas (13301416) French scribe, alchemist, and adept, whose successful career as an alchemist was launched by an angel, according to legend. Nicolas Flamel was born in 1330 in Pontoise, 18 miles north of Paris, to a modest family. As a young man he set up business in Paris as a public scribe, copying and illuminating manuscripts and performing other publishing services. He enjoyed a good reputation. Through his work he met Madame Pernelle Lethas, an older woman who was twice widowed and left with comfortable means. He fell in love with her. They married, and led a quiet and thrifty life. Alchemy, the transmutation of base metals to gold and silver, was popular at the time, and Flamel undoubtedly copied various alchemical manuscripts. He showed little interest in the subject, however, until he experienced a dream one night. An angel appeared to him and held out a beautiful book of obvious antiquity. The angel said, Flamel, look at this book. You will not in the least understand it, neither will anyone else; but a day will come when you will see in it something that no one else will see. In the dream Flamel reached out to take the book, but both it and the angel vanished in a golden cloud. Flamel paid scant attention to the dream until sometime later, in 1357, when an event occurred. For two orins, he acquired from a vendor a mysterious gilded book that was large, very old, and made not of paper or parchment but from the thin bark of tender shrubs. Its cover was made of copper, and it was engraved with strange symbols. Its contents included equally strange drawings, and a claim that it was authored by Abraham Eleazar, or Abraham the Jew, a prince, astrologer and philosopher. It also delivered curses against anyone who should set his eyes on the book, lest he be a sacricer or scribe. Feeling exempted from the curses, Flamel examined the book and determined that it was an alchemical text that told how to transmute metals into gold, so that Jews could pay levies due to the Roman Empire. The secret remained hidden in the drawings, some of which were not accompanied by explanatory text. On every seventh leaf there was an illustration of one of three icons: a caduceus (staff) with intertwined serpents; a serpent crucied on a cross; or a snakeinfested desert with beautiful mountains. Among other drawings was one of a winged Mercury with Saturn holding an hourglass and scythe, and a mountain with a rose (with a blue stalk and red and white owers) blowing in the north wind. The book remained inscrutable to Flamel and his wife for years. In 1378, Flamel made a pilgrimage to Spain, hoping to meet a learned Jew who was versed in 134 Flauros the Kabbalah who could help him to decipher the alchemical book. After a year of wandering he met a converted Jew, Maitre Canches, who identied copies of some of the drawings from the book as coming from an old Kabbalistic text, the Asch Mezareph, written by a Rabbi Abraham and believed to be lost. Maitre Canches decided to return to France with Flamel, but became ill on the journey and died when they reached Orleans. According to Flamel, Canches revealed enough secrets before he died so that Flamel could then decipher his book on his own. It took Flamel, assisted by Pernelle, three years of hard labor to make a successful projection of the philosophers stone. In 1382, Flamel claimed, they turned lead (according to some accounts it was mercury) rst into silver and then, on a second occasion, into gold. Legend has it that they made three projections, which gave them a handsome amount of gold, so much that they founded and endowed 14 hospitals, built three chapels, made generous gifts to seven churches, and paid for the repair of numerous church buildings. They made similar grants in Bologne, where Pernelle had been born. Flamel wrote about his experiences in a book, but he gave away no secrets. In addition, he painted some of the drawings from the book as frescoes in an archway he had built in the Cemetery of the Holy Innocents in Paris. The painting symbolizes the Great Secret, and was the object of many pilgrimages by alchemists into the 17th and 18th centuries. Pernelle died in 1397. Flamel died on November 22, 1416 (he is also said to have died in 1417 or 1418). His house was futilely ransacked by fortune hunters seeking the secrets of transmutation. It was widely believed by other alchemists that Flamel did achieve the philosophers stonethe substance that transmutes metals into goldbut apparently his secrets died with him, and his success was not achieved by others. Legend has it that Flamel did give some of his philosophers stone to a nephew of his wife named Perrier, who passed it on to a Dr. Perrier. When he died, his grandson, named Dubois, found it among his effects. He took it to Louis XVII, and he successfully transmuted some base metal into gold in the kings presence. The king asked him to make some more of the philosophers stone, which Dubois promised but failed to do. He was hanged, according to the story. Flamel and Pernelle entered legend, and they reputedly attained immortalitythe spiritual side of the philosophers stone. Stories about them circulated for centuries. They were reported to be alive in India in the 17th century, and to have been seen attending an opera in Paris in 1761. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. FURTHER READING Burckhardt, Titus. Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul. London: Stuart and Watkins, 1967. Grillot de Givry. Witchcraft, Magic & Alchemy. New York: Dover Publications, 1971. First published 1931. Holmyard, E. J. Alchemy. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1990. First published 1957. Seligmann, Kurt. The Mirror of Magic. New York: Pantheon Books, 1948. Thompson, C.J.S. The Lure and Romance of Alchemy. New York: Bell Publishing, 1990. First published 1932. Flauros (Hauras, Haurus, Havres) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Flauros reigns as a duke with 20 (or 36) legions. He appears rst as a terrible leopard, but, if commanded, will change shape into a man with ery eyes and a terrible countenance. If invoked into the magicians triangle, he will give true answers to questions about the past, present, and future; outside the triangle, he will lie. Flauros will talk openly of divinity, the creation of the world, and the fall of the angels, including his own fall. He will destroy and burn ones enemies, but he will protect those who invoke him from temptation, spirits, and other dangers. Focalor (Forcalor, Furcalor) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. In hell Focalor reigns as a duke with three legions (according to Davidson, 30 legions). He appears as a man with grifn wings. He has the power of the wind and the sea, drowns men, and sinks warships. If commanded, he will not harm anyone. Prior to his fall, he was in the order of THRONES. After 1,000 years, he hopes to return to the seventh HEAVEN. Forcas (Foras, Furcas, Fourcas) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. The LEMEGETON describes Forcas as a president who commands 29 legions and appears as a strong man. He teaches logic, ethics, and the virtues of herbs and precious stones. He makes people invisible, discovers hidden treasures and lost objects, and imparts wit, wisdom, eloquence, and longevity. forces See SERAPHIM. Forneus One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Forneus is a marquis of HELL who appears as a sea monster. He teaches rhetoric, art, and languages and Francis of Assisi, St. gives a good reputation. He causes people to be loved by their enemies. Prior to his fall Forneus was in the order of THRONES and also partly in the order of ANGELS. Frances of Rome, St. (13841440) Christian saint who was guided daily by angels. She reportedly was given two GUARDIAN ANGELS at birth, but neither one of these presented themselves in a dramatic way. Rather, she was guided rst by an ARCHANGEL and then by a POWER. Francess frequent angelic visits began with the death of her rst son, Evangelista, at age nine. Just before dying, he exclaimed that angels had arrived to take him to heaven (see DEATHBED VISIONS). On the one-year anniversary of his death, Frances had an extraordinary hour-long vision. Her oratory was lled with a brilliant light at dawn, and she beheld her son accompanied by a beautiful boy. Evangelista said that he now resided in the second choir of the rst hierarchy of angels, and introduced his companion as an archangel who had a place above his. He told his mother that God was sending her this archangel, who would not leave her day or night, and that she would be blessed by seeing the archangel with her bodily eyes. Evangelista then said he had to return to HEAVEN, but the sight of the angel would always remind his mother of him. Evangelista disappeared, never to manifest to Frances again. The angel remained, standing with arms folded across his chest. Frances fell to her knees, and begged for his help in guiding her spiritual growth and in defending against the devil. When she left the oratory the angel followed her, enveloping her in a halo of light. The angel, and this halo around Frances, could not be perceived by other people. (See ANGELOPHANIES.) Frances could not look upon the angels brightness without its hurting her eyes, so, she looked upon the glow around him. Over time she was able to more directly see his features while she was at prayer; it seemed that the angel purposefully dimmed his own light to help her. He looked like a boy of nine, with sparkling eyes, an ever-present sweet expression upon his face, and his eyes turned constantly toward heaven. He wore a white robe covered by a tunic that reached to his feet. He was clear as light, and an ethereal color like sky-blue and aming red. His hair, like spun gold, fell across his shoulders. The light coming from his hair was so bright that Frances frequently did not need a candle, even at night. She wrote that the angel was never soiled by dirt or mud when he walked beside her. If she committed 135 even the slightest fault, however, he disappeared from her sight, and would reappear only after she had confessed her transgressions. If she was plagued by doubts, he gave her a kind look that immediately made her feel better. When he talked, she could see his lips move; his voice was incredibly sweet. Much of the angels guidance centered around Francess worries as head of a family. The angel assured her that she was not lost in Gods sight. He also enabled her to supernaturally discern the thoughts of others. Thus she reportedly was able to short-circuit evil intent, reconcile enemies, and help wandering souls return to the fold. Frances also was engaged in a constant struggle against evil spirits. Whenever the devil would particularly plague her, she would appeal to the archangel for help. Like Samson, the angels power also lay in his hair, for when Frances asked him for protection, the angel shook his hair and frightened the evil spirits away. The archangelwho never offered a namestayed with Frances for 24 years. In 1436 she joined her own community and was granted a vision in which she saw God seated on a high throne and surrounded by myriads of angels. God appointed one of the high-ranking powers to replace the archangel. In his human form, the power was even more beautiful than the archangel, and he exhibited greater power and courage. He did not have to shake his hair to scare away evil spirits; his mere presence accomplished that. He carried in his left hand three golden palm branches, which symbolized three virtues that he helped Frances to cultivate: charity, rmness, and prudence. The power stayed with Frances for four years until she died. Her angelic experiences are characteristic of hagiographies. FURTHER READING Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Saints. New York: Facts On File, 2001. Parente, Fr. Pascal P The Angels: The Catholic Teaching on the . Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1973. First published 1961. OSullivan, Fr. Paul. All about the Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1990. First published 1945. Francis of Assisi, St. (1181?1226) Often called the most Christ-like of all the saints, Francis of Assisi is known for his love of animals and for his stigmata, given to him by an angel. Francis of Assisi was born in either 1181 or 1182 in the town of Assisi in Umbria, Italy, to Pietro Bernardone and his wife Pica. Although baptized Giovanni, 136 Francis of Assisi, St. The Stigmatization of St. Francis (Stefano di Giovanni, called Sassetta, reprinted courtesy of the National Gallery, London) or John, the boy was called Francesco, the Frenchman, because his father was often in that country conducting his successful cloth trade. Francis spent his early years in song, drink, and extravagance, going through his fathers money but showing no interest in his fathers business. In 1201 war broke out between Assisi and neighboring Perugia, and Francis was captured. He languished for a year in prison, then suffered a long illness after his release. During his convalescence he kept receiving signs that he should change his ways. Upon recovery he outfitted himself to join the forces of Walter de Brienne, who was fighting in southern Italy, but instead ended up trading his fine clothes and armor for the rags of a poor former knight he met on his journey. By 1204 he had stolen one of his fathers horses and a large amount of cloth, which he sold to rebuild the ruined church of San Damiano de Assisi. His father tried everything to dissuade Francis from his mad ideas, including beatings and shackles, but Francis was immovable. By 1206 he had completely renounced his patrimony and had taken a vow of absolute poverty. He and his growing band of followers wore long, rough tunics of undyed wool, shaved the tops of their heads, and preached as itinerants among the poor and sick, depending solely on the generosity of strangers. St. Franciss commitment to Christ caught the imagination of his day. Familiar with court poetry and the songs of the troubadours, St. Francis introduced into medieval worship a love of nature and creation, of song and praise, and of higher chivalric love. His poem the Canticle of the Sun is still sung in Christian churches all over the world. He introduced a crche at a Nativity Mass in Greccio in 1223, as a memorial to Jesus humble birth. St. Franciss simple appeal and total devotion, as well as the stories of his prophecies and miraculous healings, continue to attract followers to this day. Perhaps his most unusual achievement was the acquisition of stigmata after an ecstatic vision in 1224. During the summer of that year, close to the Feast of the Assumption (August 15), St. Francis returned in seclusion to a tiny hut on Monte La Verna, part of the property of Orlando, count of Chiusi. He intended to suffer a long fast in honor of the archangel Michael, requesting that he be left alone until the angels feast day on September 29. St. Francis was then 42 years old, racked with disease and fevers, and quite thin from self-mortication. On September 14, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, St. Francis continued his fasting and prayer by concentrating on Christs sufferings on the cross. As described in the Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi, he was contemplating the Passion so fervently that he believed himself transformed into JESUS. While in such an ecstatic state, his vision continued with the appearance of a seraph. The angels six fiery wings descended from heaven, and as they drew closer to St. Francis they revealed the crucified Jesus within their folds. St. Francis was filled with fear, joy, and sorrow. When the vision ended, the saint found to his amazement that his hands and feet were Furfur marked with black excrescences in the form of nail heads and bent nails, and that a wound on his side oozed blood frequently. St. Francis was embarrassed and frightened by these stigmata, and for the remaining two years of his life kept his hands within his habit and wore shoes and stockings. He told none of his followers about the miracle, but they nally deduced the situation after nding blood on his clothing and after noting St. Franciss inability to walk without hobbling. Modern research suggests that the marks were scar tissue from earlier, unknown wounds. In the days of the early church, any disgurement was known as stigmata. Today, stigmata are believed to result from the auto-suggestion of worshippers who brood intensely on Christs sufferings. Yet several surviving accounts from various of St. Franciss followers refer to his bleeding wounds, the saints inability to walk, and the blackness of the marks. St. Francis died on October 3, 1226, and he was canonized two years later by Pope Gregory IX. St. Franciss biographer, Thomas of Celano, reported that black marks resembling nails even appeared on St. Franciss esh after death. Two paintings of St. Francis, painted within 10 years of his death, both show the stigmata. FURTHER READING Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Saints. New York: Facts On File, 2001. Walsh, Michael, ed. Butlers Lives of the Saints, Concise Edition. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1985, pp. 314320. Wilson, Ian. Stigmata: An Investigation into the Mysterious Appearance of Christs Wounds in Hundreds of People from Medieval Italy to Modern America. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1989. 137 fravashis (farohars, favashis, ferchers, ferouers, pravashi) In ZOROASTRIANISM and Persian lore, preexistent souls and the spiritual primeval images of humans independent of the body. Fravashis, who reside in homes and communities, have both human and angel characteristics. They serve as GUARDIAN ANGELS to the faithful and to the seed of the prophet Zarathrustra, and his future saviors Hushedar, Hushedar-man, and Soshyant. They protect procreation and childbirth (see CHILDBIRTH ANGELS), do battle, and are invoked against miscarriage and danger. In the Zend Avesta (a commentary on passages from the Avesta, the sacred book of Zoroastrianism), the fravashis are described as female GENII who dwell in all things and are protectors of mankind. Furcas One of the FALLEN ANGELS. According to JOHANN WEYER, Forcas is a knight who commands 20 legions and who appears as a cruel man with a long beard and hoary head. He rides on a pale horse and carries a sharp weapon. Weyer says Forcas teaches rhetoric, philosophy, logic, astronomy, chiromancy (divination of the hands), and pyromancy (divination with re). Furfur One of the FALLEN ANGELS and the 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Furfur is an earl with 26 legions under his command. He appears as a hart with a ery tail. When summoned, he must be placed within the magicians triangle, or what he saysif he speaks at allwill be false. Once in the triangle, he changes form to that of a beautiful angel who speaks with a hoarse voice. Furfur causes love between a husband and a wife. He will give true answers about secret and divine things. He can raise thunder, lightning, and great winds. G f Gaap (Goap, Taap, Tap) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Once a member of the order of POWERS, Gaap is a president and mighty PRINCE in HELL, ruling 66 legions. He appears when the sun is in the southern signs as a human with huge bats wings and preceded by four powerful kings. Gaap teaches liberal sciences and philosophy, excites love and hatred, makes men insensible, gives true answers about the past, present, and future, and takes FAMILIARS away from other magicians. Upon command he will move people quickly from place to place. Gaap gives instruction in the consecration of things that belong to the divination of his master, Amaymon. ANGEL OF PRAYER; ANGEL OF TRUTH; and as one of the ANGELS OF THE EARTH; ANGELS OF THE LORD OF THE SPIRITS; ANGELS OVER THE CONSUMMATION; ANGELS OF MERCY; and one of the ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION sent to destroy SODOM AND GOMORRAH. He is an angel of Janu- ary, the moon, Mars, winter, and Aquarius. Gabriel in Jewish Lore In the Old Testament, Gabriel is named as Daniels frequent visitor, bringing prophetic visions of apocalyptic proportion (Daniel 8:16, 9:21). Angelic attribution of the visions, which were treasonous at the time of the writing of the book of DANIEL, might explain Gabriels prominent presence. Gabriels messenger mission probably inspired his presence in apocryphal and MERKABAH literature, where Gabriel gures in the stories of Adams creation, the punishment of the FALLEN ANGELS (see ENOCH; WATCHERS), the burials of ADAM, Abel, and ABRAHAM, and other events. The four archangels (Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael) bury Abraham; Michael and Gabriel witness the contract between Esau and JACOB. Gabriel also is among the candidates to be the dark angel who ghts with Jacob. Gabriel gures in various Hebrew folktales as well. There is a chain of midrashim concerning Gabriel and a magical stone that begins with Abram (later Abraham). Abram is left in a cave by his mother because of the Gabriel One of the three principal angels of Christianity along with Michael and Raphaeland the most important angel in Islamic ANGELOLOGY. Gabriel also appears in Jewish angelology. The name Gabriel means hero of God or the mighty one. Gabriel is the angel of revelation, wisdom, mercy, redemption, glad tidings, and promise. He sits at the left hand of God. He is mentioned four times in the Bible in connection with important news. Gabriel is among the angels identied as the ANGEL OF DEATH; ANGEL OF GREAT COUNSEL; ANGEL OF PEACE; 138 Gabriel The Annunciation (Eustache Le Sueur, c. 1650; reprinted courtesy Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio; gift of Edward Drummo Libbey) slaughter of newborn males by the king Nimrod. God sends Gabriel to tend the infant, feeding him with his thumb through which milk and honey ow. This enables the boy to grow at a spectacular rate of a year a day. The archangel also talks with him, so when his mother Amitlai returns, she is amazed at her sons speech. On his third day in the cave, Abram nds a glowing stone, which Gabriel places around his neck. This is the Zohar (light or window), the light of the Garden of Eden preserved by God after the fall of ADAM AND EVE. The angel Raziel gives the Zohar to Adam, who gives it to his son Seth, who uses it to become a great prophet. Eventually the stone is given to Enoch, who uses its light to read the Celestial Torah on his trip to the HEAVENS. Enoch gives it to his son Methuselah, who gives it to his son Lamech, who gives it to his son NOAH, who places it in his ark. After Noah lands on Mount Ararat, he celebrates with wine, gets drunk, and lets the Zohar slip into the sea. It eventually nds its way into the cave in which Abram is being hidden. Abraham wears the stone for his entire life, and all who look upon it are healed. He uses it as an astrolabe 139 with which to study the heavens. He passes the stone to ISAAC, who passes it to Jacob, who wears it during his famous dream of the angels going up and down the ladder to heaven. Jacob gives it to his son Joseph, but does not tell him of its power. When Josephs brothers take his coat of many colors and throw him into a dark pit, the stone begins to glow. Suddenly Joseph nds himself transported to an incandescent palace. Gabriel, a glowing being, announces himself and says this is his palace, and Joseph will remain there as long as he is held prisoner in the pit. Gabriel creates a cloth woven from the stones light and so Joseph is clothed. Gabriel points to a window, and there Joseph sees revelations of future generations. For three days and nights, Joseph remains in the palace, studying the Torah and the future of Israel. At the end of the third day, Joseph is rescued from the pit and sold into slavery. He keeps the Zohar inside a silver cup, and he prophesies the future and interprets DREAMS by gazing upon it. When Joseph dies, the stone is buried with it, but MOSES recovers it and hangs it in the Tabernacle. Gabriels palace figures in another Jewish mystical tale from the oral tradition in Germany. According to the story, Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg is imprisoned and declines to be ransomed. Instead, he asks only to be given scribes tools so that he can write down his thoughts on the Torah. One night, his soul ascends to Gabriels brilliant palace. Gabriel, also brilliant in light, introduces himself and says Rabbi Meir has been brought here to receive a Torah. In fact, he is getting one of the 13 Torahs that Moses wrote before his death, the one that was intended for the celestial academy. When Rabbi Meir awakens, he nds a Torah in his cell. He follows Gabriels instructions, and reads from it loudly enough for the heavenly host to hear him. When he does so, his cell lls with a holy light. He discovers numerous truths that can be obtained only from that celestial Torah. Rabbi Meir copies the Torah; as soon as he is done, Gabriel comes in the night and takes the original back to heaven. Rabbi Meir seals his copy in a waterproof wooden ark and sets it aoat down the Rhine River. It comes to Worms. Gentiles cannot catch it, and, after Jews capture it, Gentiles cannot lift it or open it. The Jews open it. The Torah remains in the city for many generations. In other midrashim, Gabriel is the angel who destroys Sodom, although he is not specically named in the Genesis account. In the courtship of Rebekah by Abrahams agent Eliezer, Gabriel is credited with exchanging a plate of poison food planned by Laban. 140 Galgani, Gemma, St. Like the angel Sandalphon who weaves garlands of prayers, Gabriel weaves shoes from the feet of Jews who dance to commemorate the Giving of the Torah. In the fervor of dancing, the shoes y off to the Garden of Eden, where they are swept up by angels and delivered to Gabriel. Gabriel in Christian Lore and Art In the New Testament, Gabriel gives his name when he appears to Zechariah to announce the coming birth of John the Baptist: I am Gabriel who stand in Gods presence (Luke 1:19). He is identied as the ANGEL OF THE LORD who makes the annunciation to MARY of the coming birth of JESUS (Luke 1:2638). Gabriel appears to her, tells her she has found favor with God, and she will become pregnant with a son who is to be named Jesus. When Mary wonders how this can happen, since she is a virgin, Gabriel tells her the Holy Spirit will come upon her, and the child will be holy. When she consents (Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be done to me according to your word.) the angel departs. Though the angel who announces the birth of Jesus to the shepherds (Luke 2:814) is called only an angel of the Lord, Catholic tradition credits that to Gabriel. Gabriel also is credited with other major acts of unnamed angels concerning Jesus: as the angel who appears in a dream to Joseph, warning him to take his family and ee to Egypt to avoid Herods hunt for the baby Jesus (Matthew 2:13); as the angel who appears in the Garden of Gethsemane to provide strength and support to Jesus in his agony (Luke 22:43); and as the angel of the Lord who has a countenance as lightning and a raiment as snow, who rolls back the stone from the tomb of Jesus and sits upon it (Matthew 28:2). In addition, Gabriel is said to be the unnamed archangel in 1 Thessalonians 4:15 who sounds the trumpet of judgment and the Resurrection. In Catholic devotion to angels, Gabriel is a saint and has a prominent place because of his role in the Annunciation. Gabriels salutation, Hail, O favored one, the Lord is with you! became the basis of the Hail Mary (Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women.). Gabriels feast day is March 24. He is patron saint to telecommunications workers, radio broadcasters, messengers, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors. Because of his role in the Annunciation, other lore about Gabriel holds that he guides the soul from Paradise to the womb and there instruct it for the nine months prior to birth. It is in his role as annunciator of the coming of the birth of Christ to Mary that Gabriel is best known and best depicted in art. In art, he is shown holding a lily, the symbol of purity. Gabriel in Islamic Lore In Islamic angelology, Gabrielwho has 140 pairs of wingsis equated with the Holy Spirit and dictates the Koran to MUHAMMAD. Gabriel is the Angel of Knowledge and Revelation, to whom the philosophers trace back their active INTELLIGENCE. He is the personal Holy Spirit, the companion and celestial guide. See RUDOLF STEINER. FURTHER READING Giudici, Maria Pia. The Angels: Spiritual and Exegetical Notes. New York: Alba House, 1993. Graves, Robert, and Raphael Patai. Hebrew Myths. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1964. OSullivan, Fr. Paul. All about the Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1990. First published 1945. Schwartz, Howard. Gabriels Palace: Jewish Mystical Tales. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Galgani, Gemma, St. See ANGELOPHANY. genii In Roman mythology, GUARDIAN SPIRITS comparable to GUARDIAN ANGELS, but attached to people, places, or things. The genius (singular) presides over the birth of a person, place, or thing and shapes its character and destiny. If attached to a person, the genius stays with him or her through life, and becomes the persons living soul after death. The genius of a place is perceived as the living spirit that animates a locale and gives it its unique powers and atmosphere. The Romans used a figure of a human being to symbolize the genius of a person, and a serpent to symbolize the genius of a place. See DAIMONES. George, St. See MONS, ANGELS OF. Gideon The book of Judges tells the story of Gideon and his encounter with the ANGEL OF THE LORD. In Judges 6, Gideon is commissioned by God to deliver Israel from the Midianites, their greatest enemy at the time. He is threshing his wheat at Ophrah when the angel of the Lord appears and apprises him of his mission. Gideon protests that his clan is weak, and asks for a sign that it is the Lord who is speaking. Gideon retires to his house, where he prepares food: a kid, unleavened cakes of bread, and broth. He returns to the angel and presents them. The angel tells him to place the meat and cakes on a rock and pour the broth over them. Judges 6:21: Then the angel of the Lord Gazardiel reached out the tip of the staff that was in his hand, and touched the meat and the unleavened cakes; and there sprang up re from the rock and consumed the esh and the unleavened cakes, and the angel of the Lord vanished from his sight. This is proof to Gideon, and he builds an altar on the site. To fulll Gods mission, he assembles an army of 300 men. Armed with trumpets, empty pitchers and torches, they storm the enemy at night, shouting, A sword for the Lord and for Gideon! (Judges 7:20) The Midianites fall into panic and ee. Under Gideons rule, peace reigns for forty years until his death. As in other biblical encounters involving angels, there is ambiguity over whether the divine entity is an angel or the Lord himself. Angel of the Lord often is interpreted as being another description of God. FURTHER READING Harpers Bible Commentary. James L. Mays, gen. ed. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1988. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apochrypha. Herbert G. May and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. ginn See DJINN. Gadreel (Gadriel) In 1 ENOCH, a FALLEN ANGEL. Gadreel means God is my helper. Gadreel leads Eve astray and teaches men how to make weapons of war. Gadriel Angel who rules the fth HEAVEN, where he crowns prayers and takes them to the sixth heaven. Gadriel also governs the wars among nations on earth. Galgaliel (Galgalliel) Angel who is PRINCE of the suna duty also ascribed to Raphaeland chief of the order of GALGALIM. According to 3 ENOCH 17:4, Galgaliel serves directly under the seven princes of the seven HEAVENS (Michael, Gabriel, Satqiel, Sahaqiel, Baradiel, Baraqiel, and Sidrel). He governs 96 angels who make the orb of the sun run 365,000 PARASANGS through the heavens each day. galgalim (galgallim) In Jewish lore, a high-ranking order of angels equal to the SERAPHIM. Galgalim, which means spheres, is a later name for the OPHANIM, the Many-Eyed Ones who are the wheels of the Merkabah (THRONES). Their 141 principal duty is to sing the QEDUSSAH. The order ruled by Galgaliel or Rikbiel. In 3 ENOCH, Rikbiel rules the eight wheels (galgalim) of the chariot of the throne of Glory. There are two wheels for each direction, and they are enclosed by the four winds: Storm, Tempest, Hurricane, and Gale. Four rivers ow out beneath them and four clouds encircle them: the Clouds of Fire, Clouds of Firebrand, Clouds of Glowing Coal, and Clouds of Brimstone. The movement of the wheels creates earthquake roars and thunder rumbling. When the time comes to recite the Qedussah, the wheels tremble and angels writhe in agony. Voices issue forth from beside the wheels. Galizur (Akrasiel, Gallitzur, Gallisur YHVH, Gallizur, Raguil, Raziel) In Talmudic lore, a great angel who rules the second HEAVEN and elaborates on the Torah. MOSES meets Galizur in heaven. In 3 ENOCH, he is Gallisur YHVH, a great angelic PRINCE of the seventh heaven who reveals all the secrets of the Torah, and who bows down to Zakzakiel. Galizur is sometimes equated with Raziel, the angel who gives ADAM the SEFER RAZIEL, the book of great secrets. Galizur spreads his wings over the HAYYOTH in order to prevent their ery breath from burning up the MINISTERING ANGELS. Gamaliel (recompense of God) In the Nag Hammadi and other Gnostic literature, a great AEON whose NAME is mentioned frequently for graciousness and protection. With Abraxas and Sablo, Gamaliel takes the elect into HEAVEN. The occultist Eliphas Levi described Gamaliel as an evil adversary of the CHERUBIM who serves under Lilith. Gamygyn (Gamigin) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. In HELL Gamygyn is a duke with 30 legions of demons. He appears in the form of a small horse or ass, and he then changes into a human. His voice is hoarse. Gamygyn teaches liberal sciences, and he delivers news about people who have died in sin. According to JOHANN WEYER, he can summon the souls of drowned men and those who are in purgatory. These souls appear as aerial bodies before the magician and give answers to questions. Gazardiel (Casardia, Gazardiya) According to the Zohar, angel who supervises the east and kisses the prayers of the faithful and takes them to 142 Geburah heaven. In Talmudic lore, Gazardiel oversees the rising and setting of the sun. Geburah See TREE OF LIFE. Geburatiel YHVH (Geburathiel) In 3 ENOCH, one of the PRINCES who guards the seventh HEAVEN. Geburatiel represents divine power and strength. He bows down to Arapiel. Gehenna See HELL. gematria A Kabbalistic system for discovering the secret and mystical truths of words and the NAMES of God and angels, and for interpreting biblical words and passages according to their numerical values. Each letter of the Hebrew alphabet has a numerical value and a certain spiritual, creative power; God creates everything in the universe by uttering certain words. The values of words and names are totaled, then equated with other words and names that have the same numerical values. These are analyzed within the context of Scripture and other factors. Gematria was developed into a sophisticated system by German Kabbalists during the 13th century, but it was known and used much earlier by other cultures. King Sargon II, who ruled Babylonia in the eighth century B.C.E., used the numerical value of his name to determine that the wall of Khorsabad should be built to the same equivalent, or 16,283 cubits. The ancient Greeks, Persians, Gnostics, and early Christians used gematria for a variety of purposes. The Greeks applied it to dream interpretation and the Gnostics to the names of deities. Early Christians arrived at the dove for the symbol of Christ because the Greek letters of alpha and omega (the Beginning and the End) and the Greek term for dove (peristera) add up to the same number, 801. The Kabbalistic system of gematria derived from Near Eastern Gnostic and Hellenistic cultures. It is more complex than merely tallying up numerical values of letters; it involves various methods of analysis by which the mystical purposes of the Scriptures, buildings, and objects may be determined. Not only are the numerical values considered but also the size and strokes of the letters. The Kabbalists of the 13th century, most notably Eleazar of Worms, applied gematria to the Scriptures, which were held to have been inspired by God and written in code. Thus, And lo, three men from Genesis 18:2 is interpreted as referring to the archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, for And lo, three men and Elo Michael Gabriel VeRaphael each have the same numerical value of 701. Gematria was used to ascertain the secret, ineffable, and indescribably powerful names of God. These names were incorporated into the incantations of MAGIC, used for conjuring and controlling DEMONS. Some names of angels also are secret names of God, such as Azbogah. Different systems of gematria were developed; Moses Cordovero said there were nine. Gematria spread into alchemical and esoteric Christian works. Hebrew wordswith or without gematriatook on greater importance for their mystical power or hidden meanings and connections. Lesser known than gematria are notarikon and temurah, other systems of decoding and analyzing mystical truths. Various methods exist in both systems. In notarikon, the rst letter of words may be extracted and combined to form new words; or, the rst, last, and sometime middle letters of words are combined to create new words or phrases. Names of God and angels Table of numerical values of Hebrew letters (Authors collection) Gemma Galgani, St. are revealed in this fashion (see AGLA). In temurah, letters are organized in tables or mathematical arrangements, which are then substituted for the letters in words; or, letters are rearranged into anagrams. For example, such tables can be used to discover the names of the good and evil angels of the planets and signs of the zodiac. FURTHER READING Patai, Raphael. The Jewish Alchemists. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: New American Library, 1974. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Gemma Galgani, St. (18781903) Italian saint known as the Passion Flower of Lucca, who had a strong relationship with her GUARDIAN ANGEL. Gemma Galgani was born on March 12, 1878, in Camigliano, a small town near Lucca in Tuscany, Italy, to a poor family. She was chronically ill, and, from an early age, she exhibited supernatural gifts: visitations, visits by Christ, assaults by the devil, and stigmata. Her ill health caused her to be turned away by the Passionists. At age 19, Gemma fell seriously ill with meningitis. She was miraculously cured, and she credited the intercession of the Venerable Passionist Francis Possenti (later canonized as St. Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows), to whom she had prayed for help. The stigmata appeared on her wrists, feet, and side from 1899 to 1901. The first visionary episode occurred on June 8, 1899. Gemma felt an intense sorrow for her sins and a willingness to suffer. She had a vision of her guardian angel and the Blessed Virgin Mary. MARY opened her mantle and covered her, and told Gemma she was much loved by Jesus, who was giving her a special grace. Then JESUS appeared with his wounds open; flames, not blood, issued forth. The flames touched Gemmas hands, feet, and heart, and she felt as though she were dying. Mary supported her for several hours. The vision ended, and Gemma found herself on her knees, a sharp pain in her hands, feet, and heart. Her guardian angel helped her into bed, and blood began to flow from her wounds. Thereafter, every Thursday evening to Friday afternoon, Gemma would fall into a rapture and the five wounds would open and issue a bright red blood. She would utter the words of Jesus and Mary. The 143 wounds would abruptly stop bleeding, close, and leave only white marks. Sometimes the obliteration took until Saturday or Sunday to complete. When the ecstasies ended, Gemma would serenely go about her normal business. However, she suffered great inner torments and trials from the devil. Throughout these difficult experiences, she maintained a great serenity and peace. A Passionist, Father Germano, took an interest in Gemma and became her spiritual director and confessor. An expert on fraudulent mystical phenomena, he had Gemma thoroughly tested and was convinced her experiences were genuine. He recorded her utterances and later became her biographer. With Germanos help, Gemma went to live with a family as a mothers helper, where she was shielded from unfriendly attention and had the freedom to experience her ecstasies. In 1901, Germano forbade her to accept the stigmata. She prayed and the phenomenon ceased, though the white marks remained. In 1903, she was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the spine. She died on April 11, 1903. Gemmas rich visionary life was recorded in detail in her diaries and letters, as well as in Germanos writings. She was especially known for her angelic visions. She saw her guardian angel and heard his voice. Her conversations with her angel were observed and recorded by others who could only hear her side of the conversation. Germano commented that whenever she saw or listened to her angel, she entered into an ecstatic state of consciousness, lost in another world; as soon as she turned her eyes away, she resumed her usual personality. Gemmas angel was her constant companion, so familiar that she often treated him like a brother. She was once admonished by Germanowho overheard one of her one-way conversationsthat she should treat him with more respect. She agreed, and vowed to remain 100 steps behind the angel whenever she saw him coming. Whenever Gemma was plagued by evil spirits, she called upon her angel. In 1900 she recorded an episode in which she was harassed for hours by the devil in the form of a horrible little fellow. She was assaulted by blows upon her shoulders while she prayed. Her angel appeared but attempted to beg off her request to stay with her all night. He told her he had to sleep. When she replied that the angels of Jesus do not need to sleep, he said he still needed to rest. Nonetheless, he remained and spread his wings over her while she slept. Sometimes the angel was severe with her, in word or expression, as a way of trying to keep her on the straight and narrow spiritual path. He would nd fault 144 Glasyalabolas with her and tell her he was ashamed of her. If she strayed from the path, he would depart from her presence for awhile (this departure of divine grace, either in the form of the presence of an angel or the presence of God, appears often in the literature of saints). Perhaps the most remarkable trademark of Gemmas angel was his couriership. She would send him off on errands to deliver verbal messages to people in distant places, and he would return with their replies. Gemma considered this angelic postal service to be a natural thing. Others reportedly received the messages. Sometimes replies were delivered back to her by the guardian angel of Father Germano. When some suggested this was the work of the devil, Germano subjected Gemma to various spiritual tests, asking for irrefutable signs, and got them. For one test, Germano told Gemma to give a letter addressed to him to her aunt Cecilia, who was to lock it in a place unknown to her. The aunt gave the letter to a priest who locked it in a chest in his room and pocketed the key. The next day Gemma sensed that the angel passed with her letter. She notied the surprised priest, who found the letter missing from the chest. The letter was received by Germanoapparently by angelic post. This test was successfully repeated a second time using different circumstances. Gemma was visited by other angels, and often by Germanos guardian angel, who, she said, had a brilliant star over his head. No thought or deed of hers ever escaped angelic attention. If she was distracted in prayer, her angel would punish her. If she did not feel well, or if she would not eat enough, the angel exhibited a tender side, inquiring after her welfare and urging her to eat. Though she never ofcially was a Passionist, Gemmas remains are interred at the Passionist monastery at Lucca. She had accurately predicted it would be built two years after her death. Gemma was beatied in 1933 and canonized on May 2, 1940. Her feast day is April 11. She is the patron saint of pharmacists and tuberculosis sufferers. FURTHER READING Cruz, Joan Carroll. Mysteries, Marvels, Miracles in the Lives of the Saints. Rockford, Ill.: TAN Books, 1997. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Saints. New York: Facts On File, 2001. Glasyalabolas (Caacrinolaas, Caassimola) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Glasyalabolas is a president in HELL. He appears as a winged dog. He can make men invisible and discern the past and the future. He is the leader of all homi- cides and incites people to bloodshed. He teaches all arts and science instantly. Glasyalabolas commands 36 legions of DEMONS. Gnosticism A popular cult of beliefs and practices contemporary with early Christianity, with older roots in the mythologies and philosophies of Egypt, Babylonia, Persia, and Greece. The term Gnosis means knowledge, and Gnosticism refers to the restoration of the truth of humanitys situation of being cut off from its real nature and God. Angels play prominent roles in Gnostic cosmology. When the Gnostics viewed the night sky, they saw the stars as angels who had erred and the heavens as a vault barring them from their souls home. Exalted higher beings caused mankinds fall, created the world, and facilitated the means for redemption. Background Gnosticism arose in the Hellenic Middle East, particularly Alexandria, an intellectual crossroads of cultures, and it was propelled by philosophical debates on the presence and power of ignorance, evil, and suffering on earth. The Gnostics were thoroughly familiar with the Scriptures of Christianity and Judaism, Neoplatonism, Hermeticism, and probably the religions of the East. The Gnostics wrote gospels and epistles. They combined lore and practices from many sources, expanding limits as they wished. The most notable proponents were Simon Magus (who met Peter in Acts 8); Basilides, who taught in Alexandria ca. 120140; and Valentinus, who was born Christian and who taught in Rome ca. 140160. Gnosticism developed both within Christianity and outside of it; evidence exists of Jewish Gnostic sects as well. Gnosticism eventually was pushed out of Christianity as a heresy, but it continued to exist alongside of it in the second and third centuries. Some remnants survived to the Middle Ages, and its followers were often considered sorcerers. Church fathers wrote extensively on it, mostly to denounce it. NAG HAMMADI LITERATURE Contemporary interest in Gnosticism was rekindled in 1945 when a cache of Gnostic documents was discovered in Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt. Two brothers out fertilizing their elds found a jar. Hoping it contained gold but fearing it really contained a djinnee (see DJINN), they opened it, only to nd papyrus fragments and dust. The jar resided in homes for a time; pieces of papyrus were even burned in an oven by a superstitious housewife. The texts were written in Gnosticism CopticEgyptian mixed with Greekand contained Christian references. The Coptic Museum in Cairo acquired some of the texts. Others, considered worthless, were sold for low prices. More jars were found at Nag Hammadi. Eventually the Jung Institute in Zurich acquired in 1952 what became known as the Jung Codex. The texts eventually were returned to the Coptic Museum. While the QUMRAN TEXTS found near the Dead Sea are in scrolls, the Nag Hammadi texts are codices, or bound pages. It took more than 20 years for scholars to access, translate, and begin to analyze them. CARL G. JUNG was among many scholars who compared Gnosticism to modern psychology. CENTRAL CONCEPTS There is no organized, denitive statement of Gnostic beliefs. Its several strains share a primary vision of the origin of humankind as inherently awed by earthly elements, yet keeping a spark of divinity, a touch of light from its exalted origin, and thus a breath of hope. Christian Gnosticism seeks transcendence to an ideal world from a physical world that has become dark and evil. Gnosticism is similar to Hinduism and Buddhism and differs from most Western religions in this negative view of the material world and its yearning toward an unknowable mystery. The feminine principle is honored and important; the women around JESUS, including his mother MARY, are gures of authority. Like Eastern practices, Gnosticism had many degrees of commitment and initiation. Basilides once required his advanced students to spend ve years in complete silence. For some, learning the magic NAMES of angels and partaking in rituals were sufcient. Gnostic Angelology Like the Platonists, the Gnostics viewed the cosmos as a series of concentric spheres. The spheres are called AEONS, each with its own ruler also called an aeon, who is comparable to a high angel. The 365th aeon is the highest and is ruled by Abraxas, the chief of the heavens. At the summit, or the center, is the good God, otherwise called the Father, unknowable to humans. Aeons can combine and subdivide and multiply themselves in a process called syzygy. Descending in tiers down to the terrestrial world are 30 circles, which, according to Valentinus, constitute the Pleroma. Sophia is the aeon of the 30th circle. According to her story, she desires to contemplate on her own the splendor of the Pleroma. This is an ill-fated wish, for when she crosses the last circle, she is dazzled by light and falls down to our world. Sophia is made pregnant by the Pleroma and gives birth to a creature, the Demiurge, who, after modications by the aeons of the Pleroma, creates humankind. Gnostics associated their 145 many versions of this accursed god with the God of the Old Testament. Another version says that Sophia (the active principle) desires to create a work without her consort (the passive Unknown good God). When she does so her thought became a work, an image of HEAVEN. But a shadow is cast; the shadow is envious of heaven, being superior to itself. Thus the beginning (arche) of envy enters all the regions in chaos and becomes matter. This Demiurge has no spirit. It creates the visible world and withholds knowledge from humanity, beginning with the warning to ADAM AND EVE not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil (Tree of Gnosis). When Sophia sees the resulting horror, she has compassion and breathes life into the world of matter. The Nag Hammadi text the Apocryphon Johannis, said to be a vision given to the apostle John, gives another variation on this story. Sophia is the third aeon of the fourth light, and, without the consent of the spirit or approval of her partner, she has a son, Ialdabaoth (child, pass through to here) of whom Sophia is ashamed because he is a being unlike her. She hides him in a cloud so other aeons will not see him. Ialdabaoth creates his own world with 12 angels after the pattern of the immortal aeons and subordinate angels for each of them. He also appoints seven kings of the heaven and ve to rule over the chaos of the underworld, all the hierarchies of heaven (ARCHONS). Their NAMES are taken variously from the Old Testament and magical texts: Iao, Sabaoth, Eloaeus (ELOHIM), Adonaeus (ADONAI), Astapheus, Horaeus. But Ialdabaoth gives his creatures no part of the power that he has inherited from his mother, and so he is able to rule over them. Ignorant of any higher being, he declares, I am a jealous God; beside me there is no other. By the time Sophia reencounters Ialdabaoth, he is full of power in himself and has created the lower heavens and earth. He states he needs no help: I have need of no one. I am God, and there is no other apart from me. Sophia cries out against him, You are Wrong, Samael. Samael means the blind god. This passage is crucial to comprehending the Gnostics, who regarded blindness or ignorance, not sin, as the seat of evil. Ignorance leads to pride, vanity, greed, ambition, and so forth. From a psychological perspective, the Gnostics projected the evil in the human heart onto the archons, the bad angel rulers under Samaels control. The archons abuse Sophia and she becomes blind. At length she understands all this has happened because she separated herself from her consort. She repents, asking the Father to hear her prayer. The highest God hears her and sends to Sophia redemption 146 Gnosticism in the form of the Logos, who takes the form of Jesus. Jesus restores Sophias sight with a touch and she begins the process that will bring redemption to all mankind. This reunication of Logos (masculine) and Eros (feminine) is another great Gnostic theme, which recurs when the creation story moves to the Garden of Eden. The Gnostics considered the rst man Adam to be an earlier and superior being to the Demiurge. He comes from the Unknowable God through the spheres, gaining more materiality at each stage. He is associated with the three son-ship scheme, wherein Jesus is superior to the Demiurge, but he has no real life in him until he is imbued by the pneumatic life substance by Holy Eve, the emanation of Sophia. The Apochryphon Johannis says that the Father reveals to Ialdaboaths seven archons his own image revealed in water, and they are so impressed that they resolve, Let us make a man after the image and likeness of God. Each of them contributes of his power, so that man has the powers of the seven. However, he is lifeless and neither the archons nor their 60 angels can quicken him to life. The Mother, however, intervenes with the Father, who sends Christ with his four great lights to Ialdabaoth in the form of Ialdabaoths angels. They advise him to breathe into the face of the new creature the power that he inherited from his mother. Ialdabaoth does so, and he transfers to Adam this power, so that Adam becomes superior both to his creatorsthe seven archonsand to Ialdabaoth himself. Ialdabaoth and his powers bring Adam down into the material world and fashion him a body made of the four elements. God in his mercy sends him a helper (the soul or spirit within), the Epinoia of light, whom he calls Zoe. This is hidden in Adam so the archons will not become aware of it. Ialdabaoth sets Adam in Paradise to deceive him, for its bliss is illusory. The Tree of Life is intended to lead Adam astray and keep him from reaching perfection; the tree of knowledge of good and evil (Tree of Gnosis) is Epinoia of lighthence the command from Ialdabaoth not to eat of it. It is Christ, not the serpent, who encourages man to eat of it. To prevent Adam from perceiving the truth, Ialdabaoth brings forgetfulness upon him and then creates another human being in the form of a woman. Epinoia inuences them to eat of the Tree of Gnosis, and they become aware of their true being. Realizing his failure, Ialdabaoth curses man and expells him. Ialdabaoth desires Adams wife and begets two sons, the righteous Eloim and the unrighteous Jave, whom men call Cain and Abel. He sets them over the four elements from which the material body of man has been made. Ialdabaoth also implants sexual passion in Adam, whose son is Seth. There are now two spirits in man, one divine and the other material. The former inspires him from his sleep and forgetfulness to Gnosis; the latter is the sexual instinct that serves the ends of Ialdabaoth. Other versions emphasize Sophias role, blending her with the soul (Epinoia) and the Holy Eve. She hides herself in the Tree of Gnosis when threatened by the archons, seeking to escape domination by Adam. They seek to dele her so that they will have control over her children, but they instead dele an image of herself that she creates. The archons tell Adam and Eve not to eat of the Tree of Gnosis, but the serpent intervenes and convinces Eve to eat. She gives Gnosis to her husband and their understanding is opened. In dismay, the archons cast them out of Paradise. Sophia drives the archons out of heaven and casts them down into the sinful cosmos, so they become the wicked DEMONS of the earth. In one of Basilidess several versions of creation, the unknowable God desires to create a world in seed form via its spoken word, inherent in which is the threefold son-ship that manifests in archons of greater and lesser purity. They bring matter into being, with angels emanating from them, and create spheres and rule over their realms, which eventually number 365. The Great Archon rules the Ogdoad (the eighth aeon) and is the father of Jesus, who is superior to all other sons. The Holy Spirit emanates from the Ogdoad into the Gospel. From the least sons come the Demiurge, who rules the Hebdomad (seventh aeon) and orders the earth. The Great Archon discovered from his son that he is inferior to him. In another version attributed to Basilides, the unknowable God (the Father) sends his rst-born son Nous (Jesus) to confront the God of the Jews. He performs wonders but does not suffer, for Simon of Cyrene is transformed to take the place of Jesus at the Crucixion. Hierarchical switches and revelations with different names in different spheres pervade Gnosticism and vary from sect to sect. Thus, there is no one denitive myth of Gnosticism. Many Gnostics believed that prophecy was inspired by both creator angels (aeons) and Satan. They regarded Satan with ambivalence because he had so opposed the Old Testament God. The Gnostics reputed sorcery arose from their ability to name and invoke various aeons and archons (see MAGIC). Spells and passwords enabled the Gnostic to ascend through the aeons to the highest realms. These were secrets of initiation. The Gnostics practiced rituals to celebrate the union of Logos and Eros. Simon Magus and his companion Helen represented themselves, and were regarded by some as the apotheosis of the Father and Mother of the Universe, Logos and Sophia. Like many Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von Gnostics, Simon was an advocate of unbridled sexuality. Whereas the Christian fathers accused the Gnostics of free love, all impure acts and abominations, later Gnostics were to adopt a practice of total asceticism, or the refusal to procreate. These poles indicate the Gnostics ambivalence toward human behavior, and their belief that redemption comes through grace and not through good works. Therefore, either asceticism or debauchery might be the right path for an individual at a particular time, depending on their Gnosis, or their current holistic apprehension of existence. The fact that the Gnostics were persecuted by the Romans along with the Christians led them to become more and more secretive. Their long-hidden documents have come to light in an age that can appreciate and apprehend more clearly the forces behind the stories they used to explain life. Islamic Gnosticism Similar to the worldview of Christian Gnosticism, one sect of Shia Gnostics, the Ismaili community, explains human esoteric history as a recovery from a catastrophic prehistoric mistake made by an angel, the Third Intelligence, Adam ruhani, the celestial spiritual Adam and angel-archetype of humanity. Adam ruhani refuses to respond to the summons of the First Intelligence and remains motionless in a state of bedazzlement. He nally recovers only to realize he has been overtaken and has fallen behind himself, and was now the Tenth Intelligence. This interval of time in stupor he must redeem, corresponding to seven other INTELLIGENCES, who are called the Seven CHERUBIM, the Seven Divine Worlds, and who assist the Angel-Adam to come to himself. This delay introduces into a being of light an alien dimension that expresses itself in the form of an opaqueness. Each archangelic intelligence in the Pleroma contains a pleroma of innumerable forms of light. All the forms who comprise the Pleroma of the celestial Adam are immobilized with him in the same delay. He communicates to them the eternal summons. They angrily reject him, and their denial darkens the essential ground of their incandescent being. The Angel-Adam realizes that if they are to remain in the pure spiritual world, they will never free themselves of their darkness. He makes himself the Demiurge of the physical cosmos, the instrument through which the Forms who had once been of Light will nd their salvation. Through several cycles of rulership of the three dimensions of cosmic space, the rst human being arises like a plant growing out of the earth, to be distinguished from both his celestial archetype (the spiritual Adam, the Third Intelligence who became the 147 Tenth), and from the partial Adam who inaugurates our present cycle. He is described as the integral primordial Adam (Adam al-awwal al-kulli), who is surrounded by 27 companions, who in physical forms are the faithful humanity of the Tenth Angel, and whose delity is manifested by their physical and spiritual superiority over all other humans of other climes. The rst earthly Adam is simultaneously the epiphanic (manifest) form and the veil of the celestial Adam. He is the founder of the permanent esoteric hierarchy, uninterrupted from cycle to cycle, up to and since Islam. After having invested his successor, the first Adam is transferred to the Pleroma, where he succeeds the Tenth Angel, the celestial Adam, who rises with the entire hierarchy of intelligences to a level higher. This ascending movement will not cease until the Third Angel Intelligence has regained the sphere of Second Intelligence. The cycle of epiphany is followed by one of occultation (necessitating the arcane sciences and philosophy, for most of humanity is unworthy of the revelations), which is followed by a new cycle of epiphany and so on in rotary succession. This will continue until the ultimate Resurrection of Resurrections, which will be the consummation of our Aion and will restore humanity and its Angel to their initial state. FURTHER READING Hurtak, J. J. Pistis Sophia: A Coptic Gnostic Text with Commentary. Los Gatos, Calif.: The Academy for Future Science, 1999. Jonas, Hans. The Gnostic Religion. 2d. ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1963. Laccarriere, Jacques. The Gnostics. Translated by Nina Rootes. New York: City Lights, 1989. Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Gospels. New York: Random House, 1979. Robinson, James M., ed. The Nag Hammadi Library in English. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1977. Singer, June. Seeing through the Visible World: Jung, Gnosis, and Chaos. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1990. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (17491832) German writer and poet with strong mystical interests. Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust ranks with JOHN MILTONs Paradise Lost and DANTEs Divina Commedia as the spiritual manifesto of a great poet of an epoch. Life Goethe was born at Frankfurt-on-the-Main on August 28, 1749. His father was a lawyer. At an early age, he demonstrated an ability to draw and an interest in 148 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von drama. By his early teens, he was writing and also learning several languages: Italian, Greek, Latin, English, and Hebrew. Goethe entered the university at Leipzig with the intent of becoming a lawyer. Although he successfully became an advocate, he preferred studying the classics and writing prose and verse. In 1771 he returned to Frankfurt; he wrote poems and also critiques for the newspapers. The publication of his love poems for Lilli Schonemann, the daughter of a local banker, made him instantly famous, and Duke Carl August invited him to court at Weimar. He performed numerous administrative duties and founded a court theater. He maintained a rigorous schedule of writing, producing some of his best works. In 1795 Goethe met Frederich von Schiller, noted poet and playwright, and entered into a collaboration with him to produce a literary magazine intended to educate the masses. He wrote plays. His work impressed Napoleon Bonaparte, who decorated him with the cross of the Legion of Honor. In 1806, Goethefamous also for his love affairs married. He enjoyed a celebrated life and met other famous people, such as Beethoven and William Makepeace Thackeray. In his later years his health declined, and he died on March 22, 1832. Works Goethe produced numerous plays, poems, prose works, and translations of other works. In relation to angels, his most signicant work is the one most familiar, Faust, about a mans pact with the devil and his redemption. It shows Goethes knowledge of religion and alchemyhe actually had an alchemical laboratory where he conducted long experimentsand his mystical speculations. Goethe began Faust in 1774 and worked on it for 60 years, leaving parts of it to be opened posthumously. Its poetic heights, virtuosity, breadth and complexity, gripping drama, and philosophical vigor are unparalleled in the German language, and it ranks among the worlds greatest literary achievements. The story is of a genius made sport of by the devil, who sells his soul, then sins, repents, dies, and is redeemed. Faust the man projects a noble aspiration of the human spirit, despite his sinister side. In a poem called Dedication at the head of his collected poems of 1794, Goethe described being dazzled by an apparition whom he recognizes as the Goddess of Truth, comparable to Sophia. She says to him, you see how necessary it was to reveal only a small part of my essence to you. . . . Scarcely having overcome the crudest error, scarcely having mastered thy rst childish willfulness, thou deemest thyself straight- way a superman who can afford to ignore the ordinary duties. Art thou really so different from the others? Get to know thyself. Live in peace with the world. Faust acts out a next step toward development of national self-consciousness and the self-consciousness of mankind. The Prologue in Heaven (probably written in 1799 after Goethe read Paradise Lost by John Milton) presents God with Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel. Mephistopheles, the devil, enters as a court jester and asks the Lord about mankinds wretchedness. God mentions Faust, my serf, and agrees to let Mephistopheles try to sway him. Faust is doctor of all knowledge of all the realms, but he has no solace. Goethes faith in the future of mankind was unshakable, but he was not sentimental. He sees the struggle between good and evil as a necessary part of evolution. Mephistopheles says he himself is a part of that force which always wills evil and always produces good. The seeds of good can lie hidden in evil, but at the same time, there can be something satanic in the most lofty feeling, or the satanic can even grow out of it. This balancing on the razors edge is what constitutes the inner drama of Faust. In Part I, Faust is in despair with weariness and emptiness; his immense knowledge and magical power have been rebuffed by the Earth Spirit, the lesser deity that dwells in the earth. He is miffed that he, godheads likeness, more than cherub, has been withered by the Earth Spirits rejection. Faust is about to commit suicide when Easter bells and a chorus of angels interrupt him. Mephistophelesa symbol of the libidos greed for gold and lustarrives on the scene with attendant spirits he calls my airy cherubim. The seduction of Faust through his limitations begins and Faust sells him his soul. His youthful vigor restored by a witch, he descends into sensuality, which destroys Gretchen, an innocent woman who loves him. Faust attends a witches sabbat. He watches Gretchen die and pray to the heavenly hosts for protection. A heavenly voice proclaims she is redeemed while Mephistopheles insists she is damned. As Part II opens, it seems lifetimes later. Faust wakes in a charming landscape with fairies and Ariel (the same spirit of the air from Shakespeares play). Mephistopheles next takes Faust to Greece for an inside view of an Emperor, lovemaking with Helen of Troy, frolic among the gods, satyrs, fauns, and nymphs. His steady movement to damnation contrasts with the glories of knowledge and sensuality. After Faust dies he is buried by angels and DEMONS. In Act V the heavenly angels confront Mephistophe, les and his devils to seize Fausts soul and carry it off. In the epilogue male and female saints and blessed chil- Graham, Rev. Billy dren sing of Gods plan as the ranks of angels comment on the ascent of Fausts immortal essence. Gretchen is heard among the chorus of penitent women, and Fausts soul is received by the Sophia-like Woman Eternal. Both Goethe and his contemporary, the philosopher Georg Hegel, held the Enlightenment conviction that the human race is capable of indenite perfection once it has freed itself from the fetters of the Middle Ages. Goethe wrote in Conversations with Eckermann, Man must be ruined again. Every exceptional man has a certain mission . . . once he has done so, he is no longer needed on earth in this gure. Hegel wrote in The Phenomenology of Mind, From the struggle, from the destruction of the particular, the universal results. For Goethe and Hegel both, the unceasing progress of the human species results from a chain of individual tragedies. Man ever errs the while he strives, says the Lord to Mephistopheles. Faust is a tool of divine progress. Goethe wrote in Conversations with Eckermann that all supreme productivity, every important observation, every invention, every great idea that bears fruit and has lasting effect, stands not in anyones power and is above earthly force. Man must regard these things as gifts from on high, as pure children of God, and he must receive and venerate them with joyful gratitude. It is related to the daemonic which can overpower him and do with him as it pleases and to which he gives himself up unconsciously, while believing himself to be active under his own power. In such cases man can often be regarded as the tool of a higher world government, as a vessel that has been found worthy to receive a divine inuence. Goethes view of life is expressed in Parade of Masks: I gave him to understand that life is properly given to us to live. . . . While we have life, let us be alive! FURTHER READING Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Faust. Edited by Cyrus Hamlin. Translated by Walter Arendt. New York: Norton, 1976. . The Autobiography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Vols. 1 and 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. Lukacs, Georg. Goethe and His Age. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1969. Gomory One of the FALLEN ANGELS and the 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Gomory is a powerful duke in HELL with 26 legions. He appears as a beautiful woman with a 149 duchess crown, who rides a camel. He discovers hidden treasures and gives true answers about the past, present, and future. He procures the love of women, especially girls. Graham, Rev. Billy (1918 ) Prominent American Protestant evangelist. Reverend Billy Grahams classic book Angels: Gods Secret Agents, written in 1975 and revised in 1986 (the second edition was republished in 1994 under the title Angels), outlines his belief that angels are with people at all times and all places. In it, Graham comments on the rise of evil, Satanism, UFOs, and other supernatural phenomena, but bemoans the lack of interestat least in the mid-1970sin the existence and power of angels. Angels, he says, act on Gods behalf to perform supernatural feats of healing and salvation, to provide comfort and guidance at death, to ght the devils evil intentions, to serve as Gods messengers, and to dispense justice as Gods avengers. Graham has been an evangelist nearly all his life. Born William Franklin Graham on November 7, 1918, he was ordained a Southern Baptist minister in 1939 and received his rst church in Western Springs, Illinois, in 1943. Since that time Graham has founded various religious and evangelical organizations, written several books and columns, and produced the Hour of Decision radio broadcast. He has spoken to hundreds of thousands at Billy Graham Crusades over the years and reached millions more by television. He embodies Christian living for many, having never been implicated in the scandals that have soiled the reputations of other televangelists. Graham uses Scripture to describe the angels characteristics and how they differ from humans. He notes the ironic situation that while humans were created lower than the angels, the angels were created to serve humankind, who are the only real heirs to salvation. Graham asks how can angelsholy beings that know no sinbe redeemed at the Final Judgment by people who were rst sinners? He comments that although the angels serve God and his son JESUS, they do not fully comprehend Jesus power as Savior. Nevertheless, until that day, angels remain superior to humans. Graham says that God is not Father to the angels because they cannot look to Him for redemption from sin: They are not sinners. And while there is eventual redemption for sinful man, the sinful angels were not enticed as ADAM AND EVE were into sin, so they cannot be forgiven their choice to defy God. As Gods ministering spirits, angels will remain exalted at the Final Judgment, but only man, who has tasted death, can receive everlasting life. And while Graham reports that 150 Great Angel the angels rejoice each time someone accepts Jesus as his or her savior, they cannot personally attest to the saving grace of God, as they have never experienced the need for such salvation. Neither do they receive the Holy Spirit, for the same reason. Based on Jesus observation in Matthew 22:30 that at the resurrection men neither marry nor are given in marriage but become as the angels in HEAVEN, Graham deduces that angels neither marry nor procreate. Since the obedient angels do not die, their numbers are xed. Although medieval scholars tried to count them, Graham simply says that the host is innumerable. They do not need food, but when occasionally in human form they eat and drink. Graham ascribes great knowledge and power to angels, but they are neither omniscient nor omnipotent. They cannot be in more than one place at one time. They do not know when the Lord will return to make his Final Judgment. But at that time, one angel, probably Michael, will take a chain and bind Satan, throwing him into the bottomless pit. And while the heavenly choirs may refer only to the various ranks of angels, Graham believes that the angels capacity for praise does make them singers. The angels work is personal, ministering to a particular group or even one individual. He cites the biblical struggles of JACOB with angels; the angel who closed the lions mouth and saved DANIEL; the angels who appeared to ABRAHAM and MOSES; and the angels who ministered to the disciples after Jesus resurrection. Graham tells of a woman and her daughter who called on the angels for protection in the Nazi concentration camp at Ravensbruck. The angels shielded her and her daughter and allowed them to keep their woolen underwear and a small Bible. While everyone else in line was searched, the guards appeared not even to see the woman and her daughter and their hidden treasure. Angels protect everyone, whether they are Christians or not, according to Graham. They also stand in judgment, warning of Gods power, and carry out his dreadful commands against the wicked. Graham cites the near destruction of Jerusalem after David counted the Israelites; the angel who killed all the Egyptian rstborn before the Exodus; and the angels who will separate the good from the evil at the Final Day. Principally, however, angels are messengers. They brought the message of Jesus conception and birth, and the birth of John the Baptist. They spoke to the apostles and directed them to people who were eager to accept the gospel of Jesus. Angels announced Jesus Resurrection to the women at the tomb, and they explained the Ascension to the bewildered disciples. Graham says that angels also will prophesy and bring the message of upcoming salvation to a weary world. Perhaps the angels greatest ministry, according to Graham, is to help the dying cross over into their new life. Often described today as NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES, several stories of the dying seeing Jesus and a light ahead are recounted by Graham. Jesus is surrounded by angels. Angels also bring balm to the bereaved, helping them to deal with loss and giving them hope of the life to come. Finally, Graham issues this warning: Remember that evidence of the devil is everywhere, but do not let the sometimes overwhelming presence of evil lead man to forget the holy angels. They are a mighty force for good, and a bright promise that Gods goodness and mercy will overcome. FURTHER READING Graham, Rev. Billy. Angels: Gods Secret Agents. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1975. Great Angel See ANGEL OF YAHWEH. Green Hope Farm Cocreative garden in Meriden, New Hampshire, similar in concept to FINDHORN and PERELANDRA in that its activities are guided by INTELLIGENCES of nature. The garden is privately owned and is not open to the public. It produces plants for ower essences. Green Hope Farm was founded by Molly and Jim Sheehan. Molly Sheehan, a longtime gardening enthusiast who grew up on a farm in Connecticut, experienced a psychic opening in 1984, and she began a spiritual quest that led to communion with the devic and angelic kingdoms. One day something shifted in her consciousness, and she began getting little messages from the plants. She was then able to identify the voices as those of angels, DEVAS, and ELEMENTALS, who began to give her gardening guidance. They told her what, how, and when to plant, how to cultivate, and also how to design gardens. Sheehan prefers not to precisely dene the beings such terms as angels and devas are human labels, she saysbut denes them only as a spectrum of energy whose nuances can be detected by shifts in vibrations. She senses that devas possess a bigger energy than do angels, and they are more evolved. But there are contradictions, for the energy of the archangel Michael is bigger yet. Initially, Sheehan spent hours in meditation in order to communicate with the intelligences. Over time, she perfected her ability so that communication became easier, especially through automatic writing. In grimoires 151 Sheehan, Molly. The History of Green Hope Farm. URL: http://www.greenhopeessences.com. Downloaded October 7, 2002. Grigori See WATCHERS. Deva departing the gardens, top of photo (Reprinted courtesy of Molly Sheehan) 1990 the intelligences began guiding her in the design of certain geometric patterns for gardens that would enhance the energetic properties of the ower essences. In 1993 the gardens were opened formally to the public, but were closed the following year; the angels and nature spirits felt it was in the best interests of maintaining the energetic levels of the plants. The purpose of Green Hope Farm is to demonstrate how the angelic, elemental, and human kingdoms can work harmoniously together and with God. The angelic kingdom holds the vision and divine plan for the place and inspires the human kingdom with love and inspiration. The elementals bring the divine plan into physical form, using humans as their hands and feet. FURTHER READING Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Behold the Kingdom of the Nature Gods, Parts I and II. FATE (May 1994): 4655; (June 1994): 3741. grimoires Handbooks of MAGIC that include the lore and NAMES of angels, DEMONS, and spirits, and instructions for invoking them for various purposes. Grimoires, some of which reputely date to ancient sources, came into common circulation in the Middle Ages and were particularly popular from the 17th to early 19th centuries. The black books as they were often called, were used by magicians, sorcerers, alchemists, physicians, noblemen, and students of the occult and mystical. Grimoires still are sometimes consulted by students of ceremonial magic in modern times, though newer books have replaced them. The purpose of most grimoires is to conjure and control spirits and cosmic forces for protection, wealth, luck, power, curses on enemies, and so forth. Grimoires give precise and sometimes laborious instructions for various rituals, instructing the magician what to wear, what tools to use, and what prayers and incantations to recite at precise astrological times and various hours of the day and night, according to the ruling angels and intelligences. They give recipes for incenses to burn, descriptions of the creation of magic circles, AMULETS, TALISMANS, SEALS and sigils, instructions on the slaughtering and sacrices of animals, and ways to deal with unruly demons. They admonish the magician to prepare with periods of fasting, sexual abstinence, cleanliness, and prayer, and to use only virgin materials in rituals. They describe the duties and powers of angels, demons, and spirits. The material in grimoires is drawn largely from Hellenistic Greek and Egyptian magical texts, and from Hebrew and Latin sources. The ancient Jews had a rich magical lore involving the invocation of the names of God and the angelic forces of good against the interferences of demons. Some grimoires are devoted to theurgy, or white magic, while others concern goety, or black magic. Some include both. The greatest grimoire is The Greater Key of Solomon, which has provided material for many other grimoires. The book is attributed to the legendary King SOLOMON, who asked God for wisdom and commanded an army of demons to do his bidding and build great works. A book of incantations for summoning and thwarting demons attributed to the authorship of Solomon was in existence in the rst century C.E. It is mentioned in literature throughout the centuries, grow- 152 guardian angels ing in size and content. So many versions of this grimoire were written that it is difcult to ascertain the contents of the original text. A Greek version which dates to 11001200 C.E. is part of the collection in the British Museum. Around 1350, Pope Innocent VI ordered a grimoire called The Book of Solomon to be burned; later, in 1559, Solomons grimoire was condemned by the church again as dangerous. The Greater Key of Solomon was widely distributed in the 17th century. Another grimoire attributed to Solomon is the LEMEGETON, or Lesser Key of Solomon. A major Jewish magical text is the SEFER RAZIEL, supposedly based on the cosmic secrets passed to ADAM and said to be the book passed to Solomon. With the rise of the KABBALAH in the Middle Ages, a system of magic called practical Kabbalah emerged, though it had little to do with the theoretical Kabbalah. AGRIPPAs Occult Philosophy is one of the greatest Western works on occult and magical lore, published in 1531. FRANCIS BARRETT drew heavily upon Occult Philosophy for his book The Magus, published in 1801. Other major grimoires are: Grimorium Verum. Drawn on The Greater Key of Solomon and written in French, this book probably was written in the mid-18th century, though claims were made that it was translated from Hebrew by a Dominican priest and was published by Alibeck the Egyptian in 1517. Grimoire of Honorius. First published in Rome between 1629 and 1670, it gained wide circulation during the 17th century. The authorship is attributed to Pope Honorius, a reputed sorcerer, though this is doubtful. It claims to be based on the practical Kabbalah, but its connection is tenuous. As a magical text, it is viewed as having little foundation. The Book of Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage. Authorship is attributed to Abramelin (AbraMelin), a Jewish mage of Wrzburg who supposedly wrote the grimoire for his son in 1458; most likely, it was written in the 18th century. The book was a major inuence in the 19th-century occult revival carried out by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. This text was written in 1898 by Arthur Edward Waite, a leader of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. In the rst part of the book, Waite discusses other grimoires; the second part comprises a Complete Grimoire of Black Magic. True Black Magic, also called The Secrets of Secrets. An 18th-century grimoire that draws heavily upon The Greater Key of Solomon. Grand Grimoire. A French grimoire probably authored in the 17th century. A book of black magic, this grimoire includes instructions for necromancy that only a dangerous maniac or an irreclaimable criminal would attempt, according to Waite. Red Dragon. Published in 1822 but reported to date back to 1522, this is nearly identical to the Grand Grimoire. The Black Pullet. Probably authored in the late 18th century in Rome, The Black Pullet does not claim to be a manuscript of antiquity. It places particular emphasis on magic talismans and rings. It has appeared in altered versions as Treasure of the Old Man of the Pyramids and Black Screech Owl. FURTHER READING Grillot de Givry, Emile. Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy. New York: Dover Publications, 1971. First published 1931. James, Geoffrey. Angel Magic: The Ancient Art of Summoning and Communicating with Angelic Beings. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. guardian angels Angels who are attached to a person from birth to death, providing constant guidance, protection, and companionship. The concept of GUARDIAN SPIRITS is ancient and universal; guardian angels are developed most in Christianity and are particularly prominent in Catholicism. The Judeo-Christian guardian angel evolved from guardian beings of other cultures, such as the FRAVISHIS of ZOROASTRIANISM, the KARABU of the Assyrians, the DAIMONES of the Greeks, and the GENII of the Romans. Guardian spirits and SPIRIT GUIDES also are comparable to the guardian angel. Guardian Angels of Individuals Guardian angels are not expressly named so in the Bible, but the concept of personal angels is established in various passages. Genesis 32:1 tells that JACOB went on his way and the angels of God met him, implying that he had personal angels protecting him on his journey. In Psalm 91:1113, God will give his angels charge of you to guard you in all your ways. On their hands they will bear you up, lest you dash your foot against a stone. You will tread on the lion and the adder, the young lion and the serpent you will trample under foot. guardian angels In the New Testament, JESUS also refers to the personal angels of children: See that you do not despise one of these little ones; for I tell you that in heaven their angels always behold the face of my Father who is in heaven (Matthew 18:1011). In Acts 13:617, St. Peter, imprisoned by Herod, is freed by an angel who wakes Peter up, causes the chains to fall off of him, and takes him outside. Peter thinks he is having a vision. Once in the street, the angel vanishes, and Peter realizes the experience is real. He refers to the angel as one of Gods: Now I am sure that the Lord has sent his angel and rescued me from the hand of Herod and all that the Jewish people were expecting (13:11). But when Peter shows up at the house of MARY, mother of John, people mistake him for his own personal angel. Rhoda the maid announces he is at the gate, but the people present in the house say, You are mad. . . . It is Victorian postcard of guardian angel and children 153 his angel! (13:15) Peter convinces them it is himself in the esh. Apocryphal texts such as The Shepherd of HERMAS speak of companion angels similar to the daimones, in that one is good and one is bad. Hermas says, The good angel is sensitive, modest, sweet, calm . . . the wicked angel, by contrast, is prone to anger, is bitter and rash. When anger or bitterness takes possession of you, know that the evil angel is within you! (Precept VI, 2, 4). Islams RECORDING ANGELS, who watch all of a persons activities, are a type of guardian angel. OPINIONS OF CHURCH FATHERS The church fathers agreed about the existence of personal, or guardian, angels. They disagreed, however, over whether pagans and the unbaptized were entitled to guardian angels, and also when exactly a guardian angel assumed his duties over ones life. St. Basil the Great, citing Matthew 18:1011, said that each one of the faithful has an Angel who directs his life. St. John Chrysostom concurred. ORIGEN states in De Principia that all the faithful receive guardian angels: Every one of the faithful we are told, however insignicant he may be in the Church, is assisted by an angel, and Christ is our witness that these angels behold the Fathers face continually (II, 10, 7). St. Hilary of Poitiers associated guardian angels with the ANGEL OF THE LORD: All the faithful are helped in a very considerable way by these divine messengers in accordance with what has been written, namely, that the angel of the Lord stays near those who fear the Lord (Treatise on Psalm 124). Saints Basil and Cyril of Alexandria likewise believed that only the faithful qualied. St. Jerome made no distinction between souls of the righteous and souls of sinners as deserving of guardian angels, but he agreed with St. Basil that mortal sin would put guardian angels into ight. St. Ambrose said that God sometimes withdraws a guardian angel in order to give someone the opportunity to struggle alone, and thus gain more glory. St. THOMAS AQUINAS qualied that view by stating that he did not believe that a guardian angel would completely abandon a person, but an angel might leave temporarily. Some church fathers believed that the guardian angel was installed at baptism, whereas others, such as Aquinas, Jerome, and Anselm, believed that the guardian angel appears at birth. Aquinas also said that out of envy, a demon also appears at the time of birth. After baptism the good angel is strengthened. DUTIES OF GUARDIAN ANGELS The primary purpose of the guardian angel is the salvation of the soul. It serves as messenger, bringing Gods 154 guardian angels inspiration and guidance, and as protector against harm and evil. The guardian angel has also been called the ANGEL OF PRAYER, ANGEL OF PEACE, and ANGEL OF REPENTANCE. CATHOLIC TEACHINGS The Catholic Church has taught from the Middle Ages on that every person has a guardian angel. There are no exceptions for any reason, not race, age, religion, sex, or virtue. Even the most wicked people on the earth have guardian angels. While guardian angels protect and guide, their ultimate purpose is to enlighten and help the soul achieve salvation (thus it could be argued that the wicked need guardian angels more than the righteous). Hebrews 1:14 states, Are they [angels] not all ministering spirits sent forth to serve, for the sake of those who are to obtain salvation? and 1 Timothy 2:4 notes that God desires all men to be saved and to come to knowledge of the truth. The Catholic Church teaches that guardian angels watch over humanity as a shepherd watches his ocks. Jacobs ladder (Genesis 28:12) provides testimony to this; his dream shows angels descending from heaven The Angel of Hope (Reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) to protect and ascending back up to sing praise to God (see JACOB). Angels are joyful and happy to promote the welfare of human souls, for it is the will of God, and angels serve God. The church further teaches that the dignity of the angels given to us depends on the dignity of the persons to whom they are assigned. Ordinary Christians have one of the lower order of angels; priests, bishops, kings, and so forth have nobler spirits to guard them. Feasts of the guardian angels are observed on October 2 and in some places on the rst Sunday of September. There are several primary ways that guardian angels help people, according to the catechism: 1. They put good thoughts into minds, and move will to what is good. Although angels manifest when necessary, such as their appearance to the shepherds at Bethlehem to announce the birth of Jesus, and their appearances at his tomb and after his Ascension, guardian angels inuence us without being seen or heard. They accomplish this through secret impulse, or what otherwise would be described as intuition. They incite pious and salutary thoughts and desires, and, when necessary, fear of Gods judgment. Guardian angels correct people when they stray. 2. They pray with people and for people, and offer their prayers and good works to God. It is not that God doesnt hear people when they pray, but the angels mingle human prayers with theirs and thus make them more acceptable to God. Aquinas, who wrote extensively on angels, observed that angels help people obtain all of Gods benets. 3. They protect in danger. Guardian angels rescue people from the dangers in the physical world, but their chief task in this regard is to protect from the snares of the devil. People must commit themselves to the care of their guardian angels at all times, especially when undertaking a journey or starting any new enterprise. 4. They reveal the will of God. Among the biblical examples of this are ABRAHAMs attempt to sacrice ISAAC, in which an angel stays his hand at the moment of slaughter (Genesis 22:1112); the angel who interprets the word of God for the prophet Zechariah in the Book of Zechariah; and Gabriels annunciation to MARY of the birth of Jesus (Luke 1:2838). The appearance of angels in such circumstances often causes fear initially, but that soon gives way to joy and consolation. With evil angels, the effect is the reverse: they engender feelings of consolation at rst, which then disintegrate into fear and confusion. The way to obtain the protection of guardian angels is to imitate them by living guardian angels a holy life, to honor them, and to always invoke their aid. They are attracted to innocence; evil drives them away like smoke drives away bees. The Church advocates that people congratulate their guardian angels on their faithfulness to God, and thank them for all their benets. 5. They receive and protect the soul at the moment of death. The guardian angel guides it to the afterworld, protecting it from the onslaught of demons who attempt to steal it away to HELL. The biblical basis for this belief can be found in Luke 16:22 concerning the death of the beggarman Lazarus: The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abrahams bosom. (The rich man who refused to feed Lazarus, meanwhile, died and went to hell, and was refused mercy by Abraham.) According to Catholic belief, if the soul goes to purgatory, the guardian angel visits it frequently to bring relief and comfort. When the soul becomes puried of all debt of sin, the guardian angel will, at the request of Mary, Queen of Angels, y it to heaven, accompanied by jubilant martyrs and choirs of angels. Numerous liturgical prayers to guardian angels ask for their presence at the hour of death. (This role of PSYCHOPOMPOI overlaps with the ofcial ANGEL OF DEATH, one of the many titles held by Michael.) 6. Guardian angels praise God. Angels continuously sing the glory of God, and they encourage humans to do the same. Various popes have publicly acknowledged their close relationships with their guardian angels, and they have advocated that others cultivate the same (see Popes PIUS XI, PIUS XII, and JOHN XXIII). EXPERIENCES OF SAINTS The hagiographies of the Christian saints feature guardian angels (see St. GEMMA GALGANI). Descriptions speak of guardian angels who were not always cheerful, but capable of remonstration. In accordance with the opinion of St. Ambrose, they even withdrew their presence whenever the saints in question acted in a displeasing or ungodly manner (see St. FRANCES OF ROME). St. Francis de Sales, prior to preaching, would silently address the guardian angels of everyone present and ask that the listeners be well disposed to what they were about to say. St. Padre Pio, following the advice of Pius XII, had a constant and close relationship with his guardian angel. Lore has it that God used the angel to make it possible for Pio to understand foreign languages he had not learned, and to have clairvoyant knowledge of 155 secrets within the heart (especially useful to him during confessions). Pio would tell people that whenever they were in need of his prayer, to address his guardian angel through their guardian angels. One story goes that a busload of pilgrims, enroute to San Giovanni Rotondo where Pio lived, got caught at night in a violent lightning storm in the Apennine Mountains. They followed his advice, and weathered the storm unscathed. When they arrived the next day, and before they could tell their story, Pio announced that he had been awakened by his guardian angel during the night and had prayed for them. Similarly, St. Theresa Neumann used her guardian angel to discover whatever she needed to know about the secrets and hidden lives of her visitors. She could see her own angel as well as the guardian angels of others. Aquinas acknowledged that the mere presence of our angels inuences us for the better; however, if we are not aware that we are being enlightened, then we are not enlightened. St. Ignatius of Loyola observed that the more we advance ourselves spiritually, the more we are able to discern the subtle inuences of our angels, and thus the more receptive we are to their help. St. John of the Cross opined that when we attain higher spiritual levels, we no longer need the mediation of angels, but obtain our enlightenment directly from God. Not only are angels no longer necessary, but words, forms, and images fall away as well. GUARDIAN ANGELS IN EASTERN ORTHODOXY Guardian angels have a presence in the Eastern Orthodox Church. A liturgical prayer in the Litany before the Communion of the Faithful asks, For an angel of peace, a faithful guide, a guardian of our souls and bodies, let us entreat the Lord. OTHER VIEWS The visionary EMMANUEL SWEDENBORG states in Arcana Coelestia everyone has two angels, one to affect what is our will and one to affect what is our understanding. In Angeloglia, Karl Rahner, a contemporary Christian theologian, speaks approvingly of the humanguardian angel relationship providing that we do not try to visualize this relationship in too anthropomorphic or infantile a manner. Modern popular thought casts guardian angels as ever-present and ever-loving beings. Guardian Angels of Stars and Nations People are not the only recipients of guardian angels; the early church fathers assigned a particular angel to the stars and everything in the heavens; to everything in the natural world; and to the elements. Aquinas 156 guardian spirits thought such a belief to be rather exaggerated, but he opined that there were guardian angels for every species of living things, and for nations, cities, churches, and communities. The heads of state and church thus had two guardian angels, one for themselves and one for their ofces. Earlier, Clement of Alexandria supported the idea of guardian angels for countries and cities, but he said they perchance might be assigned to some individuals as well. The existence of guardian angels of nations is established in Deuteronomy 32:8: When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he xed the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the SONS OF GOD (a reference to angels). Other biblical references to guardian angels of nations refer to them as PRINCES. DANIEL 10:13 refers to the prince of Persia and to the archangel Michael as one of the chief princes who is guardian of Israel. St. Pauls vision of the man of Macedonia in Acts 16:9 is widely interpreted to refer to the guardian angel of Macedonia: And a vision appeared to Paul in the night: a man of Macedonia was standing beseeching him and saying, Come over to Macedonia and help us. See DEVOTIONAL CULTS. FURTHER READING Giudici, Maria Pia. The Angels: Spiritual and Exegetical Notes. New York: Alba House, 1993. Huber, Georges. My Angel Will Go Before You. Westminster, Md.: Christian Classics, 1983. Lang, Judith. The Angels of God: Understanding the Bible. Hyde Park, N.Y.: New City Press, 1997. Parente, Fr. Pascal P The Angels: The Catholic Teaching on the . Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1973. First published 1961. The Catechism Explained. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1921. guardian spirits Spirits that protect individuals, tribes, and clans, or provides magical or shamanic power. In terms of their abilities, guardian spirits are the approximate equivalent of angels; however, they usually have animal forms, which stems from a deep belief that humans and animals are related to one another. The purpose of guardian spirits is to help in the spiritual development of a person and to provide sources of spiritual and psychic power. Other names for them are totems, power animals, spirit helpers, tutelary spirits (in Siberian shamanism), assistant totems (among Australian Aborigines), spirits of the head (used by the Vasyugan of Siberia), and nagual (used among Mexican and Guatemalan shamans, from the Aztec term nahualli). Guardian spirits are considered to dwell within the body, rather than exist externally. Unlike GUARDIAN ANGELS, who come at birth and remain until death, guardian spirits change during the course of a persons life, depending on spiritual development and needs. Like angels, guardian spirits represent the human conscious and the unconscious, what is obvious and what is hidden. They are sources of knowledge, wisdom, and inspiration, and they help human beings to connect to otherworldly realms. As intermediaries between the physical world and the Creator, or Great Mystery, they are sources of power that can be tapped by the individual. Guardian spirits can shapeshift to other forms, including human, when necessary. The innate animal form of a guardian spirit represents the collective power of an entire species or genus, which has magical powers that enables the guardian spirit to perform extraordinary feats. Guardian spirits can converse with humans, regardless of their form. Beliefs about guardian spirits vary. In many tribes it is more important for males than females to have guardian spirits. Such spirits are acquired during rites of passage into adulthood (which are more elaborate for males than for females) and during vision quests. Males who do not acquire guardian spirits will suffer weakness and failure in life. Some tribal societies have totem guardian spirits that protect entire tribes or clans on both a collective and individual basis. Shamans must acquire guardian spirits, who empower them with magical powers, in order to function in their roles. The guardian spirits share much in common with angels in terms of their powers and roles. The guardian spirit serves as the shamans power animal, or his alter ego. When the shaman enters an altered state of consciousness he merges with his power animal and uses it for guidance. It accompanies him on his journey to the Underworld, where he searches for sick or lost souls, or on his mystical ascents to the sky, where he goes to obtain revelation and prophecy. Communication with guardian spirits is made through ecstatic dancing, in which the dancer enters a trance state and assumes the form of the animal, and also through drumming and chanting, and in meditation. Spirit helpers are minor powers with specialized functions, as the healing of specic illnesses or diseases. The spirit helpers are used collectively by a shaman, who in turn works with his guardian spirit, or power animal. Gzrel FURTHER READING Eliade, Mircea. Shamanism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1964. Harner, Michael. The Way of the Shaman. New York: Bantam, 1986. Hultkrantz, Ake. The Religions of the American Indians. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1979. First published 1967. guardians of the doors (guardians of the palaces) Angels who guard the gates of the seven palaces of God in the seventh HEAVEN. The guardians of the doors appear in MERKABAH literature. According to the Hekalot Rabbati, there are eight guardians at each of the seven gates and each group has its own leader. 3 ENOCH mentions the guardians but names only one leader, Prince Qaspiel, of the seventh palace. (See PRINCES.) In general, angels are guardians of the doors of consciousness; the door is a symbol of a passageway or portal to another place. In Christian art of the Annunciation, Gabriel and MARY are in the foreground and open doorways and arches often are in the background. The openings reveal perhaps a river, treed landscape, or castle in the distance, which evoke the kingdom to come, a return to Edenbut 157 only if one passes through the thresholds of higher spiritual consciousness. FURTHER READING Lang, Judith. The Angels of God: Understanding the Bible. Hyde Park, N.Y.: New City Press, 1997. Guriel Angel of the zodiac sign of Leo. Guriel means whelp of God. Gusion (Gusayn) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. In HELL Gusion is a duke who appears as a cynocephalus (Xenophilus). He discerns the past, present, and future, answers all questions, gives honor and dignity, and reconciles enemies. He commands 40 legions of DEMONS. Gzrel Angel who can countermand any evil decree that has been issued against a person in HEAVEN. Grzel is taken from part of the 42-letter name of God. See NAMES. H f Hadraniel (Hadariel, Hadarniel, Hadriel) Angel who stands at the second gate in HEAVEN. Hadraniel means majesty of God. Hadraniel is a large angel, bigger than Kemuel but smaller than Sandalphon, the twin of Metatron. He is sometimes identied with Metatron, and his name is one of Metratons many names. Hadraniel is mentioned in the Zohar in connection with the SEFER RAZIEL; he is sent by God to ADAM to tell him to keep the book secret, even from the angels. Tradition holds that Hadraniel proclaims the will of God with 12,000 flashes of lightning emanating from his mouth; his voice penetrates 200,000 firmaments. MOSES sees Hadraniel in heaven and is awestruck, but he makes the angel tremble when he speaks the Supreme Name. (See NAMES.) Sarai is old and childless when she suggests to Abram, who is 86, that he conceive children through Hagar. Abram agrees. When Hagar becomes pregnant, she considers herself better than her mistress. Enraged, Sarai curses Abram. He tells his wife to do as she pleases with Hagar. Sarai punishes the maid, who ees into the wilderness. As Hagar rests by a spring, an Angel of the Lord appears to her and inquires where she has come from, and where she is going. When Hagar replies, the angel instructs her to return to Sarai and submit to her punishment. As reward, the angel says he will so greatly multiply your descendants that they cannot be numbered for multitude (Genesis 16:10). He also tells her she will bear a son, and should name him Ishmael. He shall be a wild ass of a man, his hand against every man and every mans hand against him; and he shall dwell over all his kinsmen (Genesis 16:12). Hagar calls the angel a God of seeing, and wonders, Have I really seen God and remained alive after seeing him? (Genesis 16:13). The spring becomes known as Beerlaharoi, which means the well of one who sees and lives. Hagar follows the angels instructions. Her troubles, however, are not over; the story resumes in Genesis 21. Fourteen years later, Sarai bears a son, ISAAC, following a visit by three angels. By the time Isaac is weaned, Sarah (as she was renamed by God) frets that Hadriel (Hadraniel) In GNOSTICISM, angel who is among the guardians of the gates of the East Wind. Hagar The Egyptian handmaid of Sarai (Sarah), wife of Abram (ABRAHAM). Hagar was aided by an ANGEL OF THE LORD in her times of distress. The story is told in the Old Testament book of Genesis 14 and 21. 158 Halaliel his inheritance will be threatened by Ishmael. She orders Abraham (as he is renamed) to cast out Hagar and Ishmael. Abraham does not wish to do so, but he is reassured by God that Ishmael shall have his own nation. Abraham packs bread and water and sends the two off into the wilderness of Beersheba. When the water runs out, Hagar sets Ishmael under a bush. Certain they will die, she cries out loud that she cannot bear to look upon the death of her child. Ishmael begins to cry. God hears the weeping. An angel calls from heaven to Hagar, What troubles you, Hagar? Fear not; for God has heard the voice of the lad where he is. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast with your hand; for I will make him a great nation (Genesis 21:1718). To Hagars astonishment, she sees a water well. They have plenty of water and survive. Ishmael grows up and becomes an expert archer. Hagar secures for him an Egyptian wife, and Ishmael lives in the wilderness of Paran. The moral of this tale is to call upon ones inner strength to survive adversity. The role of the angel here is not to rescue, but rather to call attention to selfreliance. FURTHER READING Ginzburg, Louis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1992. Margolies, Morris B. A Gathering of Angels. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. Hagenti One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Hagenti is a president who commands 33 legions. He appears in the shape of a bull with grifn wings but can change into human form. He turns wine into water, transmutes all metals, and imparts wisdom. Hagith One of the seven ruling angels of the 196 Olympic provinces of HEAVEN, according to the Arbatel of Magic. As the fth angel, Hagith rules all matters pertaining to Venus, 21 provinces and 4,000 legions of spirits, each legion having 490 beings. Hagith has the ability to transmute gold into copper and copper into gold. Halahel In the LEMEGETON, a spirit who is part good and part evil, and under the rule of Bael. In the Zohar Halahel is equated with the archangel Raphael, but in the demonology of JOHANN WEYER, he is a king of HELL. 159 Halaliel In the EDGAR CAYCE readings, an archangel who as the Lord of Karma governs the Iaw of karma. The name Halaliel has no known etymology and is not mentioned elsewhere in angel literature. Halaliel appeared suddenly in the mid-1930s during a session of Cayces study group, which was collecting material for a spiritual study guide. Cayce, in trance, would give answers to questions. Halaliel made his debut in a commanding tone: Come, my children! Ye no doubt have gained from the comment this day that a new initiate has spoken in or through this channel [Cayce]; Halaliel, that was with those in the beginning who warred with those that separated themselves and became naught. In a subsequent session, the angel further identied himself as coming from the higher spiritual realms, and being on the side of Michaels righteous angels who fought against the FALLEN ANGELS: One in and with whose courts Ariel fought when there was the rebellion in heaven. Where is Ariel, and who was he? A companion of Lucifer or Satan. In a reading Cayce rened Halaliels role, saying he has made the ways that have been made heavybut as the means for understand, a reference to his governance of the law of karma. Halaliel also indicated that he was as important on other worlds as Christ is on this one. Members of the study group, including Cayce himself and his immediate familyespecially his son, Hugh Lynn Caycewere alienated by the commanding and dark tone of Halaliel. They were uncertain whether the angel intended to intervene in the group or interfere with it. The angel said he had been appointed to serve as their teacher and guide who could give clearer and better organized material. Disagreement broke out over whether to accept or reject him; accepting him would mean a marked change in the direction of the group. Those who wanted to accept Halaliel pointed out that Cayce had been giving messages from Michael, and so perhaps Halaliel, as Lord of Karma, would help them in their struggle with hard lessons about karma. Meanwhile, the Cayce readings took on a darker character with predictions of dire disasters and catastrophes in the world. Hugh Lynn Cayce consulted noted medium Eileen J. Garrett to ask if it would be wise to follow Halaliel. Garretts spirit control, Uvani, had corroborated that the angel would be able to give clearer material than the group had been receiving in the past. But the answer given to Hugh Lynns question was a question: 160 haloes Does Uvani claim to know better than the Master who made him? Hugh Lynn interpreted it to mean that the group should send Halaliel away. The study group remained divided and undecided. Halaliel became irritated at the groups indecision and then forced the question. All but two members of the group voted to reject Halaliel and stay focused on the Christ Consciousness as the source of their material received through Cayce. The dissenters left the group, and Halaliel withdrew his presence. Cayce scholars have cast Halaliel in a positive light as an important teacher whose duty is to make people face their spiritual lessons and shortcomings. FURTHER READING Grant, Robert J. Are We Listening to the Angels? Virginia Beach, Va.: A.R.E. Press, 1994. haloes See IMAGES OF ANGELS. Halpas One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. In HELL Halpas is an earl who appears in the form of a stork and speaks with a hoarse voice. He burns towns; it is also said that he builds towns and lls them with armed men. Halpas takes a sword to the wicked, and he sends men to either the elds of war or other places. He rules 26 legions. Hamaliel Angel who rules the order of VIRTUES, the month of August, and the sign of Virgo. Hamon In 3 ENOCH, a great, terrible, honored, beautiful and dreaded PRINCE who makes all other angels in HEAVEN quake when it comes time to recite the QEDUSSAH. Hamon bows down to Tatrasiel. St. Jerome said Hamon is another name for Gabriel. Haniel (Aniel, Hanael, Hamiel, Onoel, Simiel) One of the seven ARCHANGELS and the 10 sephirot of the TREE OF LIFE. Haniel means glory or of God or he who sees God. Haniel rules the orders of PRINCIPALITIES and VIRTUES and also all innocence. He is sometimes said to be the angel who carries the prophet ENOCH to HEAVEN, a role usually ascribed to Anael. He governs the planet Venus, the month of December, and the signs of Libra and Taurus. In magical lore Haniel is an angel of benevolence, grace, and mercy who is invoked for the winning of favor. Haniel also rules love and beauty and is invoked in spells for the increase of love and affection, peace and harmony. Harahel In the KABBALAH, the angel who oversees libraries, archives, and rare cabinets. Harahel also is one of the 72 angels of the SCHEMHAMPHORAE who bear the name of God. Harmozy (Harmozel, Armogen) In GNOSTICISM, one of four great LUMINARIES who surround the self-begotten, the savior, or God. The other three are Oroiael, Daveithe, and Eleleth. Hasdiel Angel of benevolence who also is a ruler of the planet Venus. Hasdiel is named as angel of benevolence in MEZUZOT of Germany; another angel of benevolence is Zadkiel. In the Zohar, Hasdiel also acts as one of two angelic chiefs who accompanies Uriel into battle as he carries his standard. Hasmal (Hashmal) Ruling angel of the HASMALIM. Hasmal is a re-speaking angel who surrounds the throne of God. Hasmal denotes primeval wisdom and wonderful light. According to the Zohar, Hasmal is associated with a hidden, inner sphere in which the mysteries of the celestial letters of the Holy Name are suspended. hasmalim (chasmalim; hasmallim) In Jewish lore, a high-ranking order of angels, along with the CHERUBIM and SERAPHIM. The hasmalim are sometimes equated with DOMINIONS. Their name means brilliant ones and the HAYYOTH or living creatures, also a reference to a high class of MERKABAH angels (see SERAPHIM). The ery hasmalim support the throne of God. In his heavenly journey, the prophet EZEKIEL sees a sapphirelike throne occupied by a humanlike form, in a reference to the glory of the Lord or also one of the hasmalim: And upward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were gleaming bronze, like the appearance of re enclosed round about; and downward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it was a brightness round about him. (Ezekiel 1:27) Hasmalim have been given different rankings. The Zohar places them sixth highest; the Maseket Azilut heaven seventh; and the Berith Menucha fourth, by which EL (God) framed the efgies of bodies. Angels named as rulers of the hasmalim are Hasmal, Zadkiel, and Zacharael. In the KABBALAH, the hasmalim belong to Yetzirah, the World of Formation, ruled by Metatron. Their sweat from carrying the throne of God forms a ery river, Dinur. Hasmed Angel of annihilation and one of the ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT. Hasmoday See ASMODAY. Haurus See FLAUROS. Haurvatat In ZOROASTRIANISM, one of the AMARAHSPANDS, who is a spirit of the waters and personies salvation. Haurvatat is a female angel who may be the precursor of the fallen angel Harut in Islamic lore. Hayliel YHVH (Chayyiel, Hashmal, Hayyel, Hayyliel, Johiel, Yayael) Great angelic PRINCE in the seventh HEAVEN and chief angel of the HAYYOTH. Hayliel rules wild beasts whom he whips with lashes of re. He extols the beasts when they offer praise and glory. He is able to swallow the entire world in one gulp. hayyoth (chaioth ha-qadesh; chayoh; chayot; chayyoth; chiva; haioth hacadosch) High-ranking MERKABAH angels who live in the seventh HEAVEN, and who are sometimes equated with CHERUBIM, HASMALIM, and SERAPHIM. Hayyoth means holy living creatures or creature of holiness. EZEKIEL refers to the four living creatures in his heavenly visions who are running and returning, like the appearance of lightning (Ezekiel 1:14). The hayyoth are angels of re and support the throne of Glory; they move the wheels and support the universe. According to the Zohar, there are 36 hayyoth. 3 ENOCH cites only four, who comprise the camp of the SHEKINAH. The four holy creatures face the four winds. Each one has four faces and every face looks like the sunrise. Each one has four wings and every single wing would cover the world. Each one has faces within faces and wings within wings. The size of each face is 248 faces and the size of each wing is 365 wings. Each creature wears 2,000 crowns, each of which is like the rainbow and as bright as the sun. 161 On the TREE OF LIFE, the hayyoth are rulers of the sephirah Kether (Crown), and are governed by Metatron. According to the Sefer Yetzirah, the hayyoth exist in the universe of Yetzirah (Formation). They rank below the seraphim and above the OPHANIM. Haziel Angel who is both good and bad. The name Haziel is Hebrew for vision of God, and probably was taken from the man named Haziel in 1 Chronicles 23:9. As a good angel, Haziel is one of the CHERUBIM who governs the pity of God, and is one of the 72 SCHEMHAMPHORAE who bear the name of God. Haziel is an angel of darkness when he is equated with Bernael. Head of the Dragons Name of a DEMON in the form of a three-headed dragon with awful skin. In the Testament of SOLOMON, the Head of the Dragons describes himself as a three-pronged spirit who is responsible for birth defects and epilepsy. He can enter the wombs of women and blind the unborn as well as turn their ears around backwards and make them deaf and dumb. He makes men fall down, grind their teeth, and foam at the mouth. The Head of the Dragons is thwarted by an angel of the Counselor (Christ) at Golgotha. The demon tells King SOLOMON that a great deal of gold lies beneath the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem, which Solomon has under construction. Solomon finds the gold and seals the demon with his magical ring. He sentences the demon to make bricks for the temple. heaven Abode of souls in the afterlife. In Christianity there is one heaven, a place of eternal rest and reward for the righteous in the presence of God and JESUS and in the company of angels. The opposite of heaven is HELL, a separate and lower realm of terrible, eternal punishment ruled by Satan and DEMONS. In GNOSTICISM and Jewish mysticism, there are multiple heavens, each of which is different and may be pleasant or unpleasant. Some levels are more hellish places where different kinds of sinners and FALLEN ANGELS are punished. In Jewish mysticism, an early belief held that all souls are initially woven into the curtain (pargod) that veils Gods throne of Glory. (In 3 ENOCH, all of history is written upon the curtain.) The past history and future destiny of each soul is recorded. Wicked souls, however, will not have a home in the curtain. The curtain of souls appears in KABBALAH works. 162 heaven Sahaqiel, prince of the fourth heaven, Zebul Satqiel, prince of the fth heaven, Maon Gabriel, prince of the sixth heaven, Makon Michael, prince of the seventh heaven, Arabot Angel showing the New Jerusalem heavenly city to St. John (Gustave Dor) In later Kabbalistic doctrine, the soul first crosses a purgatorial RIVER OF FIRE, then ascends to a terrestrial paradisethe world of soulswhere it retains its individuality, and then to an eternal celestial paradisethe world to comesometime interpreted as one of the sephirot of the TREE OF LIFE, in which the soul partakes of life in the Godhead. Jewish apocryphal and MERKABAH texts describe ascents into the heavens with detailed descriptions of the characteristics and angels therein. There usually are seven heavens, each of which has seven halls or palaces; God resides in the seventh hall of the seventh heaven. The heavens have names and ruling angels; texts are inconsistent. 3 Enoch gives the names of the PRINCES and their heavens as follows: Sidriel, prince of the rst heaven, Wilon Baraqiel, prince of the second heaven, Raqia Baradiel, prince of the third heaven, Sehaqim Each of the seven princes of the heavens is attended by 496,000 myriads of MINISTERING ANGELS. The Midrash Konen says that the heavens are all xed and vaulted over earth, one above the other. Wilon, the lowest, shades the uppermost earth from the heat, but at sundown it is rolled back to enable the moon and stars to shine from Raqia, the second heaven. According to the Hagiga, Sehaqim, the third heaven, holds a pair of millstones that grind manna for the righteous. Zebul, the fourth heaven, is home to the heavenly Jerusalem, the temple and altar, and the angels Sandalphon, Michael, Zazagel, Shamsiel, and Sapiel. In Maon, the fth heaven, hosts of ministering angels sing hymns to Gods mercy all night long, but fall silent at dawn, thus allowing him to hear his praises sung by Israel below. Makhon, the sixth heaven, contains storehouses of snow and hailstones, lofts of dews and rains, chambers of storms, and caves of fog. In the seventh heaven, Arabot, abide Justice, Law, and Charity, the treasures of Life, Peace and Blessing, the souls of the righteous, the souls of the yet unborn, the dew with which God will revive the dead, the chariot seen by EZEKIEL in a vision, the ministering angels, and the Divine Throne. Mystical literature describes seven palaces in the garden of Eden; souls go there both in prayer and after death. Seven heavens also are referenced in the Koran (sura 23) and in ancient Persian and Babylonian lore. In 2 Enoch there are 10 heavens. The garden of Eden and the paradise Tree of Life are in the third heaven. The eighth heaven is Muzaloth, although this is sometimes interpreted as really the seventh heaven. The ninth heaven, called Kukhavim, contains the 12 signs of the zodiac. The tenth heaven, called Aravoth, is where Enoch sees the vision of the face of the Lord. The name Aravoth refers to the 12 signs of the zodiac thus causing confusion with the ninth heaven. Fewer or more heavens are described in some texts; for example, in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs the prophet LEVI references only three heavens. The Zohar speaks of 390 heavens and 70,000 worlds. In Gnostic cosmology, there are 365 heavenly spheres or AEONS. Characteristics of Heaven In Scripture and apocryphal texts, heaven can be a place of lush, earthlike abundance in the fashion of the heavenly court of law garden of Eden enjoyed by ADAM AND EVE before their fall; or can be a realm of brilliant light and gold in which souls enter the presence of God. It is the new city or the new Jerusalem from which evil is permanently banished. Heaven is lled with myriads of brilliant angels who constantly sing praises to God. (See MUSIC AND ANGELS; QEDUSSAH.) Souls in heaven are rewarded with eternal rest, peace, love, and happiness. Other views of heaven present it as more like an idealized earth. EMANUEL SWEDENBORG saw heaven as multilayered and a happier continuation of life on earth, but in the form of angels. (See also INSTRUMENTAL TRANSCOMMUNICATION.) See BARUCH; DREAMS AND VISIONS; ISAIAH; EZRA; REVELATION; SHEOL. FURTHER READING 163 Artemis. The Worst does not name a thwarting angel. Solomon sentences the seven demons to dig the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem. Chapter 18 describes 36 heavenly bodies, demons who correspond to the DECANS OF THE ZODIAC and call themselves the world rulers of darkness. Solomon forces them to bear water for the Temple of Jerusalem. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. heavenly court of law See ENOCH. Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. heavenly bodies In the Testament of Solomon, DEMONS of the world of darkness, which cause misery and strife in the world. Chapter 8 describes seven heavenly bodies who are demonic powers of the world. Interrogated by King SOLOMON, the demons say they live together in Lydia or on Mount Olympus, and their stars in heaven look small. Six of them are thwarted (nullied) by certain angels. The seven are: 1. Deception, who deceives and causes heresies. He is thwarted by the angel Lamechiel. 2. Strife, who provides weapons for ghting and warfare. He is thwarted by the angel Baruchiel. 3. Fate, who causes men to ght instead of make peace with those who are winning. He is thwarted by the Angel Marmaroth. 4. Distress, who divides and separates men into opposing factions and creates jealousy, and who is followed by Strife. He is thwarted by the angel Balthioul. 5. Error, who leads men astray by causing them to kill each other, dig up graves, and do other wicked things. He is thwarted by the archangel Uriel. 6. Power, who feeds the greed for power, establishes tyrants, and deposes kings. He is thwarted by the Angel Asteraoth. 7. The Worst, who tells Solomon he will harm the king by causing him to be bound with the bonds of The archangel Michael weighs souls of the dead (By Johann Weissenburger, Ars Moriendi, 1514) 164 Heleleth Heleleth See ELELETH. hell The underworld, which in Christianity is the home of Satan and the FALLEN ANGELS, as well as of the souls of all the sinners throughout eternity. The geographic location of hell is unknown; it is down somewhere, perhaps inside the earth according to some descriptions. The name hell comes from the Scandinavian death goddess Hel, whose name refers to her home. The concept of hell, or someplace where souls go after death, probably predates written history. The first extant accounts of a Land of the Dead appear on Sumerian clay tablets found in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is modern-day Iraq. The peoples from that areaSumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, collectively called Mesopotamianshad underworlds that shared many characteristics that reappeared in later civilizations and religions: mountain barriers, rivers, boats and boatmen, bridges, gates and guardians, and an important tree. Hell or the Land of the Dead is somewhere in the Great Below. For the Greeks, Hades, the underworld, was not a place of punishment but simply the land of the dead; souls, or shades, were believed to be generally unhappy there, longing continually for physical life. The blessed dead, including the souls of the valiant killed in battle, went to a happier place, the Elysian Fields. Stories of descents into hell symbolize a conquering of death. The most famous Babylonian epic is Gilgamesh, in which Inanna, the Queen of Heaven and Earth (Queen Ishtar in Akkadia and Astarte in Assyria, both goddesses of fertility), goes to visit her sister Ereshkigal, the ruler of the dead. Inanna seems destined to stay below until her faithful vizier petitions Ereshkigal for his mistresss rescue. Reluctantly, Ereshkigal lets her go, provided she can provide ransom. Inanna sends her lover, Dumuzi, who stays below for six months and returns to the Great Above for six months. This descent story closely resembles the Greek myths of Demeter and Persephone, Orpheus and Eurydice; the Egyptian stories of Isis and Osiris; and the Roman myth of Ceres and Proserpina. Such accounts explained the perpetual changes of seasons and the resurrection of the soul. Christ made the same journey in his harrowing of the souls of hell after his crucixion. Sekhet Hetepet, the body and soul travel by the boat of Ra, the sun, along the river of the Milky Way, much like later Greek souls navigated the river Styx. Upon disembarking, the dead must pass through seven gates, each with a gatekeeper, watcher, and herald, then enter the Hall of Justice. Thoth, god of wisdom, prosecutes the case of the soul before Osiris the Judge, and the soul may defend itself. Eventually Anubis places the petitioners heart on the scales of justice, and if the heart sinks lower than a feather from the headdress of Maat, goddess of truth, the soul is eaten by the horrid monster Ammit. Christian parallels are St. Peter as gatekeeper of heaven, and the archangel Michael as psychopomp and weigher of souls. (See PSYCHOPOMPOI.) The cult founded by the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) in Babylon, called ZOROASTRIANISM, inuenced the later concept of Christian hell. Zoroastrianism introduced dualism, in which the forces of good continually battle the forces of evil. The divine Good, Ahura Mazda (wise lord), lives in the Great Above with his seven AMARAHSPANDS, or angels. On the other side is Angra Mainyu or Ahriman (evil spirit), the Lord of Lies who dwells under the earth and sends out his daevas or devils to torment the world. Law, love, and light oppose darkness, chaos, lth, and death in an epic struggle for mans soul. In another powerful parallel to Christianity, Zoroaster taught there will be a nal cosmic battle between good and evil, and that evil will be conquered. A savior named Soshyans, born of a virgin impregnated by Zoroaster, will harrow hell, forgive sinners, and facilitate a universal resurrection of the body and reunion with the soul. Hell will be destroyed and the kingdom of God will reign forever. Similarly, Isaiah 7:14 and 9:6 tell, Behold, a young woman shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel . . . and his name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. REVELATION 20:710 says, And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be loosed from his prison and will come to deceive the nations which are at the four corners of the earth . . . to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. . . . And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of re and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night for ever and ever. Afterlife Punishments in Jewish Mysticism is the initial destination of most souls. Some move on to paradises. Sinning souls go to Gehenna, where subtle spiritual res burn off their sins. Moses de Leon, a 13th-century Spanish Jew who authored the SHEOL Judgments and Battles The idea of judgment after death may have originated with the Egyptians. In order to reach paradise, or hell Zohar (see KABBALAH), argued against the idea of eternal punishment, contending that the soul is consubstantial with God and God would not inict such suffering on himself. The Zohar states that the highest part of the soul, the neshamah, is not capable of sinning; it leaves the sinner the moment a sin is committed; after death it returns to its home in the Garden of Eden. The atonement of sins also is accomplished through transmigration (gilgul), a reincarnational recycling into new lives in which the sins are punished through misfortunes and suffering. The Kabbalah does not make clear which sins are expiated by Gehenna and which are expiated by transmigration. (Some medieval Kabbalists held that gilgul affected all life from angels to inorganic matter.) In Jewish apocryphal texts, certain levels of heaven are places of punishment. For example, 2 ENOCH tells that the second heaven is where the WATCHERS are being punished, and the third heaven is half paradise and half hell. More Watchers, miserable and dejected, are in the fth heaven. The Horrors of Christian Hell Central to the Christian concept of damnation is the Fall, both the descent into hell by Lucifer and his angelic followers and the Fall from Paradise by ADAM AND EVE. The torments of hell were quick to be emphasized in early Christianity. Most of the Gospel references to hell occur in Matthew, wherein JESUS warns his listeners over and over again about the certainty of damnation to those who do not believe. Matthew 13:4142 states, The Son of man will send his angels and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers, and throw them into the furnace of re; there men will weep and gnash their teeth. Some of the starkest and darkest early descriptions of the tortures in hell (Tartarus) are in the Greek Apocalypse of EZRA, a Christian work written between the second and ninth centuries C.E. Sinners are hung by their eyelashes, repeatedly eaten by a re-breathing worm, beaten and continually attacked by wild beasts and punishing angels. (See ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION.) Eventually, the concepts of death, hell, Satan, and sin became merged, so that no one would be spared unless he had truly believed and lived a godly life. The churchs position that all people are born in original sin became so strong that, by the Middle Ages, few people expected to go to heaven, and lived in fear of spending eternity in the unspeakable horror of hell. Dying became a terrifying prospect, with a good angel and bad angel or demon wrestling for control of the soul in ones nal moments. 165 Priests lavishly detailed hells res and punishments, and religious art and drama portrayed heinous aspects of Satans minions. The most colorful aspect of such religious theater was the hellmouth, or the entryway into the pit of hell. The hellmouth was an elaborate creation, usually a papier-mch beasts head with wide jaws that opened and closed with winches. Smoke, ames, foul smells, and noise emitted from it, and actors playing demons would dance out on stage from the opening. Very low humor accompanied the antics of the devils. The hellmouths nest moment came when Christ descended through its fetid doorway to release the Old Testament prophets. Perhaps the greatest literary visit to hell was DANTE Alighieris Inferno (ca. 1300), wherein Dante is led by the Roman poet Virgil through the nine levels of hell, narrowing to the nal center at Satan himself. The architecture of Dantes Inferno together with the authors extensive knowledge of classical mythology and his involvement in Renaissance Italys turbulent Last judgment scene with devil and hell in foreground, from Eastern Orthodox Church, Romania (Authors collection) 166 Hemah politics make his the most exhaustive and fascinating portrait of hell. But although the church embraced his vision, Dantes presentation of hell as an allegory, not revelation, paved the way for later intellectuals to reject hells threat. The PROTESTANT REFORMATION focused even greater attention on hell. Authors both Catholic and Protestant wrote extensively on hell, describing in gruesome detail the terrors there and identifying contemporary sinners, usually politicians, tax collectors, and corrupt church ofcials, as some of hells more colorful and deserving inhabitants. By the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the Jesuits had reformed hell into a less dramatic place devoid of cavorting demons. Instead they made it a ery landscape overrun with diseased, repugnant, foul-smelling peasants, merchants, aristocrats, and all types of sinners, crowded together like grapes in a wine press. Many were heretics, Protestants and scientists. The English poet JOHN MILTON redened hell in his mammoth work Paradise Lost. Unlike the vision literature of the past, which concentrated on the tortures of damnation, Milton eshed out the story of Lucifers battle with God and the Fall of Adam and Even. Lucifer is a proud man, jealous of the power God gives his Son, and he chooses to ght God rather than obey. When he loses, Lucifer turns his wiles upon innocent man. Miltons hell is dark and dreary, inhospitable, both frozen and ery, a parched desert. It is a cavernous underworld, more notable for its separation from God than for its diabolic creatures. Although fire-and-brimstone preachers exhorted their congregations to seek salvation, many intellectuals of the 1700s viewed hell as more Miltonian than Dantean. The mystic EMANUEL SWEDENBORG described hell as a place peopled with monsters and monstrous activities, but it was a place created by the humans who had chosen lives of evil and self-love rather than as a place into which sinners were cast. Evil itself was Satan and hell, so there was no need for a separate devilish leader. Sinners made their own misery. By the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution led many to speculate that life was hell on earth. There was no much lth, poverty, degradation, and economic disparity that no one need fear another place after death. And if there were no longer a social contract, no accountability, then anything was possible, even the cruel fantasies of the Marquis de Sade, the horror of Bram Stokers vampiric count, or even the ghoulish experiments of Mary Shelleys Dr. Frankenstein. In contrast to their ugly surroundings, the Romantic poets retrieved the shining gods and heroes of classic mythology, but they still equated hell with the ravages of government and poverty they saw around them. Some groups optimistically reject any notions of hell, saying that a just and loving Christ will save all people, not just the godly elect, and that there is no hell for a loving God. Some have taken a Swedenborgian bent, believing that hell is what a person chooses who denies love and charity. Others believe that at death souls do not go to either heaven or hell but simply into the abyss of nothingness. See DREAMS AND VISIONS; HEAVEN; LITERATURE AND ANGELS. FURTHER READING May, Herbert G., and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. The Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Revised Standard Version. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. Swedenborg, Emanuel. Heaven and Hell. Translated by George F Dole. New York: Swedenborg Foundation Inc., . 1976. Turner, Alice K. The History of Hell. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1993. Hemah Angel of wrath, fury, and destruction who governs the death of domestic animals. In Jewish lore, Hemah lives in the seventh HEAVEN; he is 500 PARASANGS tall and is made of chains of black and red re. In the Zohar, Hemah is one of three angels in Gehenna (HELL)along with Af and Mashitwho punish those who sin by idolatry, incest, and murder. Hemah swallows MOSES with the help of his brother angel Af. God intervenes and forces him to spit Moses back out. Moses then kills Hemah. See ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT. Heman In 3 ENOCH, the leader of a heavenly choir who sings hosannas every morning. Heman means trust. Hermas Converted slave and author of an important Christian visionary work known as The Shepherd of Hermas, in which angelic guides interpret visions that convey church teachings. The text, which appeared in the late rst century C.E., probably was composed as an aid to the early church in convincing people to convert and to renounce sinful behavior. The Shepherd of Hermas describes the importance of the church and central teachings for all Christians. It was widely circulated Hermas among Christians; however, it was omitted from the canon. Written in Greek, no full text has survived. Hermas, most probably a Jew, was sold as a slave to a Roman woman named Rhoda in the late rst century C.E. He describes how he became aware of his sins and desired to purify himself of them. After being sold to Rhoda, he recognizes her, that is, he realizes she is a Christian. He then loves her as a sister, which probably refers to his own conversion. One day he sees Rhoda bathing in the Tiber and helps her from the water. He has sinful thoughts, complicated by the fact that he is married himself. Later he walks toward Cumae, praising Gods creations. He enters into a sort of slumber or trance and is seized by the Spirit and lifted up out of the countryside to a level plain. This marks the beginning of his visionary life. (See DREAMS AND VISIONS.) Hermas prays and sees a vision of Rhoda, who tells him she has been taken up, probably in death, to denounce his sins against her. He does not know what she means until she reminds him of the wicked desire in his heart. The heavens shut and Rhoda disappears. Hermas is terried that he will not be able to overcome his sin in the eyes of God. While he worries about this, another vision appears: a white chair covered with white wool eece, occupied by an old woman in white who is reading a book. She asks him why he is upset. She tells him that even though his sin is grave, God is even more displeased with his wife and children, who are not believers. The woman prophesies terrible things to come upon the earth, which will end in the imminent rule of God. While she speaks, four young menprobably the four great angels of the inner host of HEAVENappear and lift her by the elbows, taking her away to the East, which is the center of Paradise. The vision ends. Hermas spends a year reecting on this experience, not writing anything about it. One day while walking to Cumae, he has another trance and is transported again to the same realm, where he sees the same old woman. She asks him if he can still preach her message, but he tells her he cannot remember it and must be given her book to copy. She does so. Hermas still cannot understand the message and prays and fasts for its meaning to be revealed. After 15 days it becomes clear. He is told to discipline his family and his wife and to live with her as with a sister, that is, to remain chaste. He is also told that every Christian who genuinely repents will be forgiven for all sins up to the day upon which Hermas reveals his book; but after that, they will have no such opportunity for unconditional mercy. Hermas himself will be saved despite his bad dealings and neglect of his family, thanks to his chastity and simplicity of heart. 167 Until now, Hermas has believed the old woman to be the Sibyl, a prophetess of pagan and Jewish tradition whose center was near Cumae. That night Hermas has a dream in which a beautiful young manprobably an angelcorrects this misconception, and tells him that the woman is actually the church; she looks old because she has existed since creation. The old woman appears and tells Hermas to send out two copies of his book: one to Clement, probably the bishop of Rome, and one to a man named Grapte, who will teach it to widows and orphans. Hermas also must give a public reading of the book in the presence of the elders of an unspecied city. The old woman promises Hermas another vision. After a period of fasting, Hermas has a dream vision in which the woman agrees to meet him at his chosen place, a remote and beautiful field. There Hermas finds an ivory bench with linen rugs and cushions. He becomes frightened and confesses his sins over and over again. The woman arrives accompanied by six angels. She sits on the bench and invites Hermas to sit on her left, the place normally reserved for eldersan indication of Hermass privileged status. She raises a shining staff and a vision unfolds before him. Hermas sees a body of water upon which a tower is being constructed from stones of different qualities. The woman explains that the tower is the church and the stones represent different classes of Christian sinners and penitents. Some of the sins are so great that the stones are unusable, and soon the building will stop. By publishing his visions, Hermas will help wavering Christians. He must do so after three days have passed. The woman denounces the leaders of the churches, whom she describes as sorcerers with poison in their hearts. Christians, she says, should not eat excessively while others go hungrya reference to spiritual food, not literal food. The woman disappears and then returns by night to tell Hermas he must undergo strict fasting in order to receive answers to any additional questions. That night, a young managain probably an angelappears to Hermas in a dream vision and explains more about the woman, for each time Hermas sees her she becomes younger and fairer. These changes are due to spiritual improvements in Hermas himself. Another vision follows in which Hermas is pursued by a terrible monster and the woman appears as a fair virgin. The monster symbolizes the fate of Christian sinners at the end of the world; the virgin is their hope and salvation. Hermas escapes the monster, which symbolizes his salvation by his faith; he returns home. This is not the last vision, however, for after praying he sees a glorious gure dressed as a shepherd. 168 Hermesiel The man identies himself as the ANGEL OF REPENTANCE, who has been sent to be with Hermas for the rest of his life. Thus begins a new phase of revelations. The Angel of Repentance teaches Hermas 12 new commandments, which are not laws or rules but rather admonitions to virtues. Hermas asks the angel questions. For example, if a man has a Christian wife who commits adultery, is it a sin to continue to live with her? This question concerned a despised Roman law that mandated divorce under such circumstances. Hermas learns that the angels agree with this law; a man must divorce his adulterous wife. Hermas also learns that Christians have two conicting angels with them throughout life, a good angel and a bad angel (similar to DAIMONES). He learns that fasting alone is not a sufcient spiritual practice but must be combined with giving to the poor the food that would have been eaten. In one vision Hermas travels on a plain where he sees angel shepherds guarding sheep. One mean-looking angel has a knotted staff and a huge whip. Whenever a sheep seems happy and well fed, he forces it down a ravine full of briars. This is the Angel of Punishment (see ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT), who will also remain with Hermas throughout his life to chasten him for the sins of his family. Another important lesson learned by Hermas, one central to the teachings of the church, is that the rich should give to the poor and the poor should pray for the souls of the rich. After much instruction, the shepherd Angel of Repentance tells Hermas that he has become virtuous enough to see his visions directly from the Holy Spirit. He is taken away immediately in spirit to Arcadia, where there are 12 mountains. Hermas sees a giant white rock on which six men are handing stones to a group of virgins, who are building the tower that Hermas had seen in his earlier vision. A giant inspector comes along and orders the shepherd angel to sort the stones. Hermas spends the night with the virgins, the holy powers, and the virtues of God. Though kissed and embraced by the virgins, he remains chaste and in the process becomes a younger man. Hermas is told that he will continue to prosper if he lives blamelessly in the company of the shepherd (the Angel of Repentance) and the virgins. After the completion of his visions, Hermas sent his account of them to the churches. His message of a nal repentance was circulated by other contemporary visionaries, who also couched their messages within the context of visions and interpreting angels. Though the Shepherd of Hermas was an important work in the early history of the Church, it has received little attention from contemporary scholars. FURTHER READING Fox, Robin Lane. Pagans and Christians. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986. Koester, Helmut, ed. Shepherd of Hermas: A Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publications, 1999. Hermesiel Angel who leads one of the heavenly choirs along with Hemah, Metatron, Radueriel, Tagas, and other angels. The name Hermesiel is derived from Hermes, the Greek god who invented the lyre. Hinduism Hindu cosmology has no exact counterpart to the angel, but acknowledges major and minor deities (DEVAS or shining ones) and numerous other INTELLIGENCES: demigods, spirits, attendants, and a host of infernal and celestial beings, all of whom have the corresponding characteristics and functions found in the angelic realm. Hinduism is nondual and does not share the Christian concept of absolute evil. According to ones choices, certain powers will be obstacles or helpers. Suras (gods) and devas generally are helpful and embody godly qualities. Among the various entities in this pantheon are krda (play), vijigisa (supremacy), vyapara (relation), dyuti (light), stuti (praise), moda (joy), mada (ecstasy), svapna (dream), kanti (radiance), gati (movement). Asuras (antigods) are associated with powerful instincts and attachments that keep humans within the power of Nature. The main kinds of asuras are daityas (GENII), danavas (giants), kalakanjas (stellar spirits), kalejas (demons of Time), khalins (threshers), nagas (serpents), nivata-kavacas (wearers of impenetrable armor), and raksasas (night wanderers). Serpent kings and queens are half-snake, halfhuman. They are beautiful, richly adorned, and dangerous, and they defend their sumptuous underground cities ercely against both gods and men. They are the guardians of the scriptures and esoteric knowledge, and often they live under water. Later Vedic mythology explains the asuras similarly to the fall of the angels in the Judaic-Christian story. As they multiplied, they became jealous of the devas and proud; a series of struggles with the gods followed, and they gradually became incorporated with the demons, spirits, and ghosts worshiped by the aboriginal tribes, as well as non-Vedic gods of the other Indian populations. However, the functions of devas and asuras are more mixed than in the Judaic-Christian belief system. The asuras can win boons from the gods by penance, and, if they repent, they may end up as great devotees, or benefactors of mankind. Hinduism Hindu metaphysics takes up questions of reality in ancient Sanskrit scripture, the Vedas and Upanishads. The Vedic seers stated what Buddhists, Plato, the Neoplatonists, Sufis, and Christian mystics were to observe centuries later: deities are both projections of our minds and objectively outside us. These divine and/or infernal beings are experienced as outside ones individual ego, but as the consciousness expands, one realizes the gods true nature to be that unbounded Consciousness in which everything exists; the gods are within us, as everything else in the universe. The infinitely complex web of relationships that is the universe operates through a network of correspondences that connect each part of the whole and link the subtle to the gross levels. The system operates as a vast hologram. Thus each deity, itself an aspect of the universal Consciousness, is at the same time intimately associated with particulars through its connections with elements, senses, names, sounds, colors, diagrams, symbols, and so forth. Traditionally, a devout believer will worship three kinds of deity: the local deity, the family deity, and the personal deity. The outer world of reality and the inner world of imagination are equally real, continuously inuencing and shaping each other, polarities in a unied eld that is itself the dream of the Divine. The epic poems the Puranas the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata contain all aspects of Hindu lorereligious, ritual, spiritual, mystical, scientic, philosophical, legal, and historicalin their thousands of legends and stories. Beyond the solar sphere are immense spheres that no longer belong to the world of man, representing the transcendent aspects of the Cosmic Being, the boundless powers from which universes are born, the Unknowable. The higher principles, the higher gods, dwell in these supersolar worlds known as the spheres of the stars, as to the spirits of the Ancestors. Mountains, trees, rivers, animals have in them a common yet multiple life and are guided by conscious beings who are attendants of the earth goddess. The Adityas (sovereign principles) are the sons of the Primordial-Vastness (Aditi) which is the primal power, the unbroken totality, the boundless HEAVEN. The 12 sovereign principles are generally given as Mitra (solidarity), Varuna (fate), Aryaman (chivalry), Daksa (ritual skill), Bhagra (the inherited share), Amsa (the gods given share), Tvastr (craftsmanship), Savitr (the magic power of words), Pusan (prosperity), Sakra (courage), Vivasvat (social laws), and Visnu (cosmic law). The regents of the directions are: east/Indra (power, courage), south/Yama, (justice, lord of dead), west/Varuna (knowledge), north/Kubera (wealth), northeast/Siva (purity), southeast/Agni (ritual sacri- 169 ce), southwest/Surya (the sun) and/or Nirrti (misery), and northwest/Vayu (life, health). All of these gods and demigods have beings under them who intervene in human affairs under their various dominions of inuence. For instance, Kubera, god of wealth, has dominion over the yaksas (the speedy ones, spirits of the earth), guardians of the earths treasures. Legend has it that Kubera and they were originally asuras (antigods), but they withdrew from the raksasas (night wanderers). The Maruts and the Rudras are the divinities of the subtle world, the middle sphere, or sphere of space, situated between earth and sky. The Rudras appear as faithful companions of Rudra-Shiva (an aspect of the third person of the Hindu Trinity, Shiva). They are his friends, his messengers, whom everyone fears. The Rudras are not celestial aristocrats but the working class of heaven. The Maruts (immortals) are a restless, warlike horde of ashy young men, the embodiment of heroism and youthful exuberance. The Vedic polytheistic universe became organized under the Trinity of Brahma the Immense Being, Vishnu the Redeemer, and Shiva the Destroyer/Transformer. Hindu metaphysics associated them with cohesion (Vishnu), disintegration (Shiva), and balance (Brahma). In addition, the tension between the opposites, the creative aspect of divinity, Shakti, the all-pervading divine Energy, had been personied in the great goddess since the early Rig Veda. The Trinity was thus one of divine couples: Brahma and Sarasvati (the Flowing One, goddess of speech, poetry, music, representing the union of power and intelligence); Vishnu and Lakshmi (Fortune, the power of multiplicity); Shiva and Shakti (all pervading active energy), Parvati (Daughter of the Mountain, peaceful, permanent energy, ether personied), and Kali (Power-of-Time); subaspects of the gods and goddesses were personied in further versions of the couples. One manifold name of the goddess as Star, Golden Embryothe cosmic location from which the world developsand the power of hunger (not just for food, but for transcendence) is Tara, who is also worshiped by Jains and Buddhists. Minor forms of the goddess were Yoginis (ogresses or sorceresses, powers of realization), dakinis (female imps, eaters of raw esh), grahis (seizers, witches who cause new babies to die), bhairavis (fearful ones, servants of Durga and Siva), and sakinis (able ones, female attendants of Durga). Dakinis have important functions in Tantric Buddhism, far more elevated than in Hindu lore. A panoply of demigods (devatas), spirits, and fabulous creatures also have been featured since earliest Hindu times. The ghandarvas (Fragrances, or celestial harmonies) and apsaras (Essences, or unmanifest 170 Hod potentialities) are the celestial beings born of the centripetal sattva tendency, the tendency toward light. They are minor forms of Vishnu. The apsaras are essences of the waters, forms that take shape within the causal ocean. In later myth they are represented as water nymphs, eternally young women who are the courtesans and dancers of heaven. They are also called the women of the gods (surangana) and the daughters of pleasure (sumad-atmaja). They are depicted as uncommonly beautiful, with lotus eyes, slender waists, and large hips. By their languid postures and sweet seductiveness they rob those who see them of their wisdom and intellect. Apsaras have been known on several occasions to have been sent by the gods to lure from their austerities ascetics who might endanger their supremacy, the most famous being Menaka, who succeeded in bringing down the great sage Vishwamitra. The number of apsaras is large; one source records 35 million. They choose lovers among the dead fallen on the battleeld. They have the power of changing their form, are fond of playing dice, and give luck to those whom they favor. They produce madness, and the Atharva Veda gives charms against them. The ghandarvas are said to possess limitless sexual power and to be attracted by women. They play the part of lovers, give or refuse fecundity. Varuna is said to have regained his virility by an aphrodisiac provided by a ghandarva. Ghandarvas vibrations soothe and nourish the earth plane. Amorous intelligences, the ghandarvas like scented oils and incense. They gave the gift of music to mankind. Their preferred instrument is the vina, whose sweet tones rene emotions of love and devotion. The charanas (wanderers) are the bardic historians of the heavens. Their speciality is to recount ancient tales, sing the praises of heroes, and teach the arts of dance, at which they excel. The attendants of Siva are the ganas, which include all the minor deities that are counted in groups: the Adityas, the Rudras, and the Vasus, which are, respectively, the divinities of the sky, the atmosphere, and the earth. In addition there are the Visvadevas, the 10 Universal Principles, the Satised (Tusitas), the 64 Shining Ones (Abhasvaras), the 49 divinities of the winds (Anilas), the Princely Ones (Maharajikas), and the Meansof-Realization (Sadhyas). Realized human beings who have attained liberation are known as Siddhas. They are perfect and blessed spirits, also dened as divinities, but there remains a difference between beings who have become deities after having been through the bondage of life and gods eternally unbound. The human being may dissolve into Basic Nature, while a divinity is forever free. Ribhus were men who attained immortality by performing with skill a large number of propitiatory rites; they are guardians of the ritual sacrice, clever craftsmen who dwell in the solar sphere. Vidyadharas resemble men but have magic powers and change form at their fancy. They are generally benevolent aerial spirits. They can marry with humans, who then themselves become Vidyadharas. Village-Angels (grama-devata) and Village-Goddesses (grama-kali) are local tutelary deities. The latter are also divinities of forests. Many temple guardians are fabulous hybrids, yalis, often the heraldic emblem of the temple builder. They combine various powerful creaturesdragons, elephants, lions, horsesand are usually shown destroying enemies, with the pop-eyes of a god expecting blood sacrifices. Tree spirits (yakshis) abound in both Hindu and Buddhist art, as fertility icons and protagonists in myths and legends. FURTHER READING MacKenzie, Donald A. Indian Myth and Legend. Boston: Longwood Press, 1978. Shearer, Alistair. The Hindu Vision. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993. Zimmer, Heinrich. Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, N.J.: University Press, 1946. Hod See TREE OF LIFE. Hodson, Geoffrey (18861983) English clairvoyant and Theosophist who wrote more than 40 books on the occult and, most especially, angels and nature spirits. Geoffrey Hodson believed he was contacted by the angels in the mid-1920s, and he spent much of the rest of his life trying to see angels and understand their universal wisdom. Hodson was born on March 12, 1886, in Waineet, Lincolnshire, England, to a family of yeomen farmers. He was the oldest of ve children. When he was 15, his family suffered hard times, and he was forced to quit school and go into business to earn a living. During his childhood years, he had several psychic experiences that showed natural clairvoyant abilities. Perhaps these experiences led to his early interest in metaphysics. He sampled Spiritualism, but it did not appeal to him. Around 1912, he heard Theosophist Annie Besant lecture on The Great White Brotherhood, and decided to join the Theosophical Society lodge in Manchester. He later became an important gure in the society. From 1914 to 1918, Hodson served as an infantry trooper for the British in World War I. In 1919, he Hodson, Geoffrey resumed a civilian life, marrying Jane Carter, whom he had met during his military training. The couple lived in Preston. The Hodsons would take frequent trips to the countryside, researching local fairy and nature spirit lore. These experiences opened Hodsons awareness of the angelic realms. In 1924, Hodson began a series of clairvoyant experiments at the behest of the London Research Group of the Theosophical Society. He and his wife moved to London. For the next ve years, he worked in the clairvoyant diagnosis and occult treatment of disease. He invoked divine and angelic aid for patients. Also, he used his clairvoyance in researching angelology, embryology, anthropology, geology, psychology, physics, and astronomy. In 1929, Jane fell ill with multiple sclerosis. Her illness, however, did not prevent the couple from touring America for three years, during which time Hodson lectured and pursued studies of occultism and Native American history and archaeology. Hodsons fame as a clairvoyant spread, and international lecture invitations arrived. The couple traveled around the world. Hodson distinguished himself in the 1960s when he used his clairvoyance on fossils found in South Africa. The Hodsons settled permanently in New Zealand. Janes health deteriorated, and she died on October 27, 1962, in Auckland. Hodson later married Sandra Chase, a friend of the couple who took care of Jane during her long illness. Hodsons later years were full of international travel, lecturing, research, and writing. He wrote 47 books, plus scores of articles and pamphlets. He became active in animal welfare rights. From 1953 to 1955 and in 1961, he served as director of studies of the Theosophists School of the Wisdom in Adyar, India. He was awarded the Theosophical Societys Subba Row gold medal for his contributions to theosophical literature. Hodson began his angel research in 1921. In 1924 or 1926 (Hodson gives both dates in two different books), he was sitting quietly on a hillside in Sheepscombe, Gloucestershire, gazing at the countryside. Through meditation Hodson hoped to enter natures hidden life and see fairies, gnomes, and other spirits at work. Suddenly the skies were filled with light, and his consciousness was completely subsumed by that brilliant radiance. Gradually he became aware of a shape, a Heavenly Being, within that light, who blended its mind with Hodsons to impart the wisdom of the universe. Hodson claimed he was completely awake and able to write. The Being, who called itself Bethelda, was godlike, beautiful, and 171 majestic, yet at the same time quite passive and impersonal. Bethelda explained to Hodson the organization of the Heavenly Host, their purposes and activities, and the close relationship angels have to maneven though most of mankind is completely blind to the angels ministrations. The angels stand ready at all times to foster cooperation between themselves and mankind to uplift the human race. But, Bethelda told Hodson, man must quietly listen and watch. If mans consciousness melds with that of Nature, concentrating on purity, simplicity, directness, and impersonality, he will perceive the angels, for they are always there. Angels have no personality separate from the Divine Will and are ministers and messengers of the Divine Ideation. They were present before mankind and are not the spirits of deceased humans. Geoffrey Hodson (Reprinted courtesy of Theosophical Publishing House) 172 Hodson, Geoffrey In Hodsons book The Brotherhood of Angels and Men, published in 1927, he organized the angels into categories, groupings he believed were the easiest to contact by man and the most benecial. The Angels of Power are those able to teach men and women how to release the deeper levels of spiritual energy within them and to inspire them to infuse their entire lives with the angels ery and motivating energy. These angels are attracted to ceremonial and religious functions and use such gatherings as channels for their power. If the mental attitudes of all participants in a ceremony are in harmony, the angels ability to transmit this energy is increased. The Angels of Healing are those that work tirelessly to heal the sick and injured, stand ready to provide a healing touch, suffer with those who are dying, and offer consolation to the bereaved. Healing angels serve under Raphael, whom Hodson identified as an archangel. Unfortunately, too few healing angels actually get the chance to help mankind, for overcoming the barriers erected by mankinds closed minds and hearts dissipates the energy necessary for healing. The Guardian Angels of the Home are those that delight in mans labors, the laughter of children, the warmth and security of shelter and sustenance. They guard against danger and disease, against strife and discord, and hear each simple prayer. Harmony and love are their watchwords. The Builder Angels are those that supervise the creation of all forms and worlds, from the greatest planetary system to the smallest grain of sand. They take on the universal ARCHETYPES, the patterns for all life forms, and aid in the incarnation of each being. Angelic organization is hierarchical, and builder angels especially have their assigned levels of work and responsibility. At the point of human conception, the angels take the divine emanations from the Word and attach the cells of the persons physical and his etheric, or spiritual, bodies together. At childbirth, Builder Angels working under their Queen help mothers to deliver children in joy, not pain. Hodson does not identify the Queen as the Virgin MARY per se, but describes her as a Holy One who has won freedom from the burdens of the flesh and ascended to the Angel Hosts. In the name of Him (most probably Christ) whom she bore long ago, she uplifts all womanhood and stands ready, through her angelic assistants, at every human birth. The Angels of Nature breathe life into the Builders creations. This orders hierarchy includes the lower nature spirits, such as brownies, sylphs, undines, gnomes, and salamanders, who control agriculture, the growth of fruit and owers, the formation of earth and minerals, water and re. Hodson said that if man would only understand these spirits presence and inuence, he could learn to control the weather and other natural disasters. The Angels of Music embody the creative Word of God and the expression of his divine Voice. They sing Gods Word, sounding like a million harps or the rolling of the sea. Their songs emanate from the center of the Universe in great, glorious waves, giving harmony to the world and providing the radiance of light and sound which is the Voice of God. Their mission is to pour forth this heavenly music; it is up to mankind to hear. The Angels of Beauty and Art express the perfect beauty of the Absolute Divinity that is in everything. They help the Builders to hone and perfect each form so that even more loveliness is revealed. Beauty is eternal, and one of Gods most treasured offerings. Each time mankind attempts to create anything, no matter how insignicant, that object or act should be judged beautiful. And when that search for the beautiful becomes mans permanent aspiration, he comes closer to the angels at the Hand of God. Bethelda told Hodson that in order to foster this brotherhood between angels and men, humans must take the initiative. For their part, the angels always are ready and eager to work with mankind. But in order to build a bridge of communication, rst there must be more humans willing to try. They must be quiet and listen to Nature, approaching it from within as well as from without. They must practice such angelic communication daily, always choosing the path to the highest sensibility. Ceremony and ritual are very important. Supplicants would be wise to set up a shrine exclusively for the invocation of the angels, decorated with religious symbols, pictures of the holy ones in each religion, owers, and candlesowers and a single beautiful object at the very least. Prayers of invocation should be offered in the morning, and those of thanksgiving at night. Communicants must be completely clean and pure, much as any priest should be. In The Brotherhood Hodson provides simple prayers for contacting each order of angels and suggests that supplicants wear certain colors associated with the orders, much as the priests and priestesses of Santera and Candombl do when they call upon their ORISHAS, or gods: rose and soft green for the Guardian Angels, deep sapphire blue for the Healers, sky blue for the Builder Angels associated with childbirth, white for both ceremony and Angels of Music, apple green for the Nature Angels, and yellow (the color of wisdom) for the Angels of Beauty and Art. Hutriel Much as Virgil guided DANTE through hell and purgatory, Bethelda revealed different types of angels to Hodson, who continued to see angels and nature spirits long after Bethelda departed. Hodson claimed that Mountain Gods in the Sierra Nevada range of California were colossal, rising 30 to 60 feet in height. They were surrounded on every side by brilliantly colored auric forces, resembling wings emanating from a golden center, which changed color as the energy ebbed and flowed. Each had a visible face with a broad brow, wide-set eyes, and a square jaw. Fire Lords, masters of the salamanders (nature spirits of fire are called salamanders after mythical beings, especially lizards or reptiles, which were thought to be able to live in fire), stood like enormous human blast-furnaces. Bethelda guided Hodson through their searing flames unscathed. Storm Angels, who resembled bats and had terrifying expressions, controlled the elemental forces. Gods of gold appeared as feminine in shape, with radiating auras that resembled flaxen hair. Bethelda taught Hodson about the angels mental communications and their use of auric color to convey emotion. Rose is the color of love. Illustrations by Ethelwynne M. Quail of all the angels and nature spirits Hodson has described appeared in his book The Kingdom of the Gods. The angels, said Hodson, ask only to receive love from mankind, and to have humans always seek the highest, the best, the most beautiful, the most loving and giving in all their endeavors. Angels are eager to impart the Divine Fire of healing, power and beauty. Through humanitys search for the angels, Hodson concluded they will develop patience, peace, wisdom, joy, vision, thoroughness, unity and complete knowledge of the Self and its oneness with the Divine. 173 FURTHER READING Hodson, Geoffrey. The Brotherhood of Angels and Men. Wheaton, Ill.: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1982. . The Kingdom of the Gods. Adyar, Madras, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1972. Geoffrey HodsonMan of Words 18861983, Theosophy in New Zealand, Vol. 44, No. 2, AprilJune, 1983, pp. 3840. Hofniel Angel who rules the order of the BENE ELOHIM, according to the Zohar. Hofniel means ghter for God. Holy Living Ones See CHERUBIM; HASMALIM; HAYYOTH. Holy Ones See ARCHANGELS. Holy Spirit See ANGEL OF THE LORD. huarna In Persian lore, a protective force or power. In ZOROASTRIANISM, the huarna is symbolized by the luminous, winged emblem of OHRMAZD. In Persian art, angels often hold rings which symbolize the huarna. See IMAGES OF ANGELS. Hurdat See AMARAHSPANDS. Hutriel One of the ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT who lives in the fth camp of HELL and helps to punish the 10 nations. Hutriel means rod of god. Hutriel is sometimes equated with Oniel. I f Ialdabaoth See GNOSTICISM. and to destroy those who wondered at the dead. I am the one who ordered your fathers house to be burned with him, for he honored the dead. I am sent to you now to bless you and the land which he whom you have called the Eternal One has prepared for you. (10:716) Iameth Angel who has the power to thwart the sea-horse demon Kunopegos. Iaoel is visible to Abraham as he accompanies him on a 40-day fast and purication, but after Abraham makes a required sacrice to God, the angel becomes invisible forever. Iaoel In the Apocalypse of Abraham, the ANGEL OF THE LORD sent to take ABRAHAM to HEAVEN in a visionary experience. Iaoel appears in the likeness of a man whose body was like sapphire, and the aspect of his face was like chrysolite, and the hair of his head like snow. And a kidaris [headdress] (was) on his head, its look like that of a RAINBOW, and the clothing of his garments (was) purple; and a golden staff (was) in his right hand (11:14). Iaoel describes himself: Iaoth In the Testament of SOLOMON, one of seven ARCHANGELS, and the angel who has the power to thwart Kourtael, DEMON of the ninth DECAN OF THE ZODIAC. Iblis In Persian and Arabic lore, angel who is the equivalent of Satan or the devil. Variations of his name are Eblis and Haris. In Islamic lore, Iblis/Eblis was known as Azazel, and once was one of the most exalted of angels, serving as treasurer of Paradise. But when God created Adam and commanded the angels to worship him, he refused and was cast out of heaven along with a band of his followers. They all became DJINN. I am Iaoel and I was called so by him who causes those with me on the seventh expanse, on the rmament, to shake, a power through the medium of his ineffable name in me. I am the one who has been charged according to his commandment, to restrain the threats of the living creatures of the cherubim against one another, and I teach those who carry the song through the medium of mans night of the seventh hour. I am appointed to hold the Leviathans, because through me is subjugated the attack and menace of every reptile. I am ordered to loosen Hades 174 ibn Sina ibn Sina (9801037) Great Islamic philosopher and physician. For centuries ibn Sina was known by his Latinized name, Avicenna; his Arabic name has returned to usage. His full name is Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina. Life Ibn Sina was born in Kharmaithen near Bukhara (Bokhara), now part of Uzbekistan. His father, a Persian, governed a village in one of the estates of the Samanid ruler, Nuh ibn Mansur, the sultan of Bukhara. Ibn Sina was quick studentlater in life he claimed to have been largely self-taughtand by age 10 he had completely memorized the Koran and various poems. He gravitated to Aristotlean and Neoplatonic philosophies, metaphysics, and logic. By age 13, he was studying medicine, and at 16 he performed charitable medical work with the sick. He often would spend nights in a mosque praying for answers to his questions about metaphysics, aided by wine. In 997 the sultan fell seriously ill with colic and his own physicians were unable to cure him. Ibn Sina succeeded, and he was granted his desired reward, to have access to the royal library of the Samanids. But two years later Bukhara fell to invading Turkish Qarakhanids, and within ve years the Samanids had suffered complete defeat. Ibn Sinas father died, and both that and the fall of his royal patrons caused him to wander about, working as a physician and writing. He also indulged his passions for wine and women in a sensuous lifestyle. In Hamadan (now in Iran) he was made court physician. He was appointed twice as vizier by Shams ad-Dawlah, the ruling Buyid prince. Ibn Sina did not do well in politics; he spent time hiding from his opponents and even was jailed as a political prisoner. He escaped prison disguised as a Su. In 1022 the prince died and ibn Sina left Hamadan and went to Isfahan, where he joined the court of Prince Abu Yafar Ala Addaula. He completed his major works and wrote additional ones. As court physician, he had to accompany the prince on military campaigns. On a military march to Hamadan, he was stricken with colic and died, despite his attempts to minister to himself. According to some sources, he may have been poisoned by a servant. On his deathbed he repented his licentious ways, freed his slaves, and gave all his belongings to the poor. Works Ibn Sina is credited with authoring more than 450 works, of which about 240 have survived. Of those, 150 are on philosophy and 40 are on medicine, the two topics on which he wrote most frequently. His greatest 175 works are Qanun al-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), an encyclopedic text that inuenced medicine for centuries, and Kitab al-Shifa, an encyclopedic work on philosophy, science, metaphysics, and Muslim theology. He also composed works on alchemy, philosophy, theology, philology, astronomy, music, physics, and mathematics. Ibn Sinas Recital of Hayy ibn Yaqzan is a visionary recital (in which an angel speaks to a human) that concerns the journey into the Orient, the souls return to its home under the conduct of its Guide, its celestial Self. This metaphoric journey aligns the emanation of origin, spheres of existence, and the subtle dynamics of the soul with ANGELOLOGY. It features the archangels or pure INTELLIGENCES, the CHERUBIM, and the angels who emanate from them and who are the moving the souls of the celestial spheres. The human souls are terrestrial angels who move and govern earthly human bodies. Human souls are in the same relation to the angel from whom they emanate as is each soul to the intelligence from whose thought its being is an emanation. Human souls also harbor the domain of the demonic agencies. The human soul has the ability to realize its angelic nature, or to develop demonic qualities. Celestial souls and human souls share the function of ruling and governing physical bodies. To do this they must imagine, and the imagination can be either angel or demon. The whole immense world of the imaginable, the universe of symbol (alam al-mithal), would not exist without the soul. The celestial souls are superior, for their bodies are made of celestial matter. Unlike human imaginations, they are not dependent on sensible knowledge; their imaginations are true. The love between the angelic intelligence and the soul is compared not only to the affection between parent and child, between master and disciple, but also to the reciprocal love of lovers. The celestial souls offer themselves as models to be imitated; the human soul is to hear and obey. These two complementary aspects dene the journey into the Orient, in the terms of the Recital of Hayy ibn Yaqzan, as traveling in company with the Angel. Below the greater Orient of the pure cherubinic intelligences, there is an intermediate Orient, the world of symbols, which is the clime of the celestial angels or souls. These inspire humans and make visible to the imagination the symbolic visions of prophets and sages in a seal of prophecy. The human soul can raise itself step by step toward the world of pure intelligence after death by becoming enveloped in the subtle celestial body that will have been organized for it by the images, the symbols, and the DREAMS dispensed by the celestial souls. The world 176 leo of symbols and of archetypal images is also the world of remembrance, and it is the celestial souls who preserve the traces of all particular things. (See ARCHETYPES.) The relation of the soul to the active intelligence is like child to parent. See AL-SUHRAWARDI; ANGELOLOGY. FURTHER READING Corbin, Henry. Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. Translated by William R. Trask. Bollingen Series 66. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968, 1988. Goodman, Lenn Evan. Avicenna. London: Routledge, 1992. Morewedge, Parvis. The Mystical Philosophy of Avicenna. Binghamton: Global Publications at State University of New York Binghamton, 2001. Ieo In the Testament of SOLOMON, one of the angels who thwarts Katanikotael, one of the DEMON DECANS OF THE ZODIAC. Illuminator In Gnostic literature, the Photor, the bringer of knowledge and redeemer of souls. More than one Illuminator is mentioned: Jesseus, Mazareus, and Jessedekeus, the latter of whom is the living water. The Illuminator comes from various origins, and descends to the water, or the material world. The Apocalypse of ADAM gives the origin of the Illuminator according to the 13 kingdoms of man: First kingdom: The lines pertaining to origin are missing, but the text says the Illuminator was nourished in heaven and received his power and glory of that one. He came to the bosom of his mother, and then into the world. Second kingdom: The Illuminator came from a prophet. A bird carried him to a high mountain and nourished him. He received his strength and glory from an angel. Third kingdom: He came from a virgin womb, was cast out of his city, and went to a desert place with his mother. There he was nourished and received his power and glory. Fourth kingdom: He came from a virgin womb and was nourished in the desert. The demon armies of SOLOMON were sent to look for the virgin. The DEMONS did not nd her but found another virgin, whom Solomon impregnated. She nourished the child on the edge of the desert, and he received his power and glory. Fifth kingdom: He came from a drop from HEAVEN, was cast into the sea, and then taken to heaven, where he was nourished and received his power and glory. Sixth kingdom: The text concerning the origin is missing; the Illuminator was nourished by the angels of the ower garden, where he received his power and glory. Seventh kingdom: He came from a drop from heaven, brought down to caves by dragons (similar to the story of Zeus being hidden and nourished in a cave). A spirit took him back to the place in heaven from whence he came, and he received his power and glory. Eighth kingdom: He came from a cloud that came upon the earth and enveloped a rock. Angels nourished him and he received his power and glory. Ninth kingdom: A Muse went away to a mountain by herself in order to become androgynous. She conceived from her own desire and brought forth the Illuminator. He was nourished by angels and received his power and glory. Tenth kingdom: The god of the Illuminator loved a cloud and begot him in his hand. The god cast some of the drop on the cloud near him, and the Illuminator was brought forth. He received his power and glory. Eleventh kingdom: The text says the father desired his own daughter. She also conceived from her father. The daughter put the child in a tomb in the desert, where he was nourished by angels and received his power and glory. Twelfth kingdom. He came from two LUMINARIES, the sun and the moon. He was nourished there and received his power and glory. Thirteenth kingdom: The text says that every birth of their ruler is a word, and this word received a mandate there. He received his power and glory. The text says that the race without a king says that God chose the Illuminator from all the AEONS to carry the undeled knowledge of truth, for the benet of the race of men. Those people who accept the Illuminators knowledge of truth will live for aeons and aeons, or forever and ever. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. images of angels The representation of angels in art has undergone many changes since the inception of Christianity. images of angels 177 Angel images of contemporary times differ signicantly from the angels of 2,000 years ago. That angels can be depicted at all was the subject of a heated controversy in early Christianity. In Judaism, gurative representations of religious concepts, including angels, are prohibited. Angels are described in various mystical texts, but images of them are not in religious devotion. The fathers of the early Christian church inherited a ourishing angel cult based on Jewish and pagan beliefs. Though Jews eschewed images, the pagans the great masses to be convertedexpected them. The faithful were attracted to numerous angel shrines, especially those devoted to Michael, where images abounded. The church fathers were divided on the desirability of any images of the sacred. Many, such as Theodotus of the second century and Methodius (d. 311) pointed to the scriptural evidence that angels have no form. For example, Psalm 104:4 establishes angels as incor- poreal: who makest the winds thy messengers, ame and re thy ministers, as does Hebrews 1:7, And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a ame of re. Thus, as beings of pure spirit, re, or even intellectual re, angels cannot be represented correctly by an image, for artists can never perceive their true form. Christ, being part human, at least had bones and sinew, and saints were entirely mortal; both could be accurately portrayed in images. But angels were never incarnate and have only assumed humanlike form as a symbolic representation and a matter of necessitya concession to the limitations of human perception. The human mind cannot possibly fully understand divine things, and the only way to approach the unknowable is through inner contemplation, not through incomplete or inaccurate images that could lead people astray. Many church fathers also were concerned about the dangers of idolatry posed by images. Angels essentially Angel at Pre Lachaise Cemetery, Paris (Authors collection) Cathedral angel with censer (Authors collection) 178 images of angels Gabriel, from Eastern Orthodox Church, Romania (Authors collection) had absorbed the characteristics and functions of pagan gods, and images of angels might easily encourage angel worship. The worship done at the shrines to Michael pointed to those dangers. In 325 the Council of Nicaea decreed belief in angels a part of dogma, which stimulated more theological debate for several centuries. Particularly inuential were the anti-image views of Epiphanus of Salamis (ca. 315403), an esteemed orthodox theologian. Epiphanus stated point-blank that anyone who endeavors to perceive the divine character of the holy Logos in the esh, should be anathematized. Divinity, he said, can only be worshiped in spirit and truth, as stated in John 4:24: God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. The disagreements over imageswhich extended beyond angelsreached a peak in the eighth and ninth centuries in the Iconoclasm dispute, one of the major factors leading to the eventual split between the Western (Latin) church based in Rome and the Eastern (Byzantine) church based in Constantinople. The issue of images was especially volatile in the East, where opponents held that images (icons) were idols that fostered superstition and hindered the conversion of the Jews and Muslims. Emperor Leo III (the Isaurian) instigated persecutions against icon worship. In 731 Pope Gregory III defended images by holding a synod in Rome that declared that anyone who broke or deled holy images would be excommunicated. The response of Leo III was to send a eet to Rome to punish the pope, but it was wrecked by storms. When Leo III died in 741, his persecutions were carried on by his son Constantine V. In 754 a synod in Constantinople declared that the only lawful image of Christ was the Eucharist; all others were heretical, since they confounded or divorced his two natures. Furthermore, names alonesuch as Christ, images of angels and by inference angelsconstitute an image acceptable for worship. Iconophiles countered that there was an unwritten tradition in the church from its beginnings condoning images. The earlier writings of PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS provided support for their position. In discussing the angelic orders, Pseudo-Dionysius said that symbols offer the primary access to God; thus, angel images give people access to God in a way they can understand. Nicephorus (ca. 750828) argued that images of angels had existed throughout the churchs history (see discussion of Wings below) and contributed to Christians correct discrimination. St. John Damascus was among iconophiles who argued that image raises consciousness to a higher level. Damascuslike other iconophiles also cited Gods instructions for the building of the ARK OF THE COVENANT with its two golden CHERUBIM as evidence supporting the use of material images. Because of his views, Damascus was anathematized by the iconoclastic council of Hiereia in 754. Nonetheless, the destruction of images and relics continued in the East. When Constantine V died in 775, his son Leo V maintained the persecutions, though less vigorously than his father. Leo V died in 780 and the throne went to his nineyear-old son, Constantine VI. The boys mother, Empress Irene, served as regent. She began a campaign to reverse Iconoclasm and reopen and restore the monasteries. Pope Adrian I demanded restitution of the property conscated by Leo III. The lawfulness of venerating holy images was reestablished at a synod at Nicaea in 787. But peace did not last, for the Iconoclast party still existed, especially in the army. Twenty-seven years later, a second Iconoclastic persecution erupted. There were countering synods that rejected and upheld icons, and much ghting. The Iconoclasts regained the upper hand. The persecutions became so great that many monks ed to the West. The situation did not change until 842, when another empress regent, Theodora, gained control and restored icon worship. The Iconoclasts were excommunicated. The Feast of Orthodoxy was established to commemorate the defeat of Iconoclasm, and became symbolic of the defeat of all heresies. The Iconoclast party gradually died out. Images of the divine, including angels, are now incorporated into both Eastern and Western churches. Angel images bring them nearer to humans; however, their fundamental bodiless state makes them absent from their images. Artistic styles differ between East and West. Eastern icons have a distinctive style that attempts to portray the tension between reality and abstraction, physicality 179 and incorporeality. The Western angel has become a model of human perfection with wings. Both styles represent different aspects of the angel. The Eastern angel is transcendent and mysterious; the Western angel is the idealized human. Wings The image of angels as humanlike beings with wings more or less taken for granted in contemporary timesdid not become established in art until the fourth century C.E. The evolution of the angel wing has a long history. Wings denote spirituality and divine purpose, speed, and the ability to mediate between physical and nonphysical realms. The endowment of wings on spiritual beings is an ancient idea, but one that developed in the West more so than in the East. Eastern deities, saints, and spiritual beings move about without the benet of wings, which are not necessary to navigate in Fifteenth-century stone carving of angel guarding a house in Dinan, France (Authors collection) 180 images of angels the world of illusion. In art, they are shown descending from the sky or hovering in the air, held up by the weightlessness of their own divinity. Wings also indicate mystic or shamanic travel. Indias Garuda, the golden-winged sun bird, was a mysterious gure similar to the Persian simurgh. Garuda was variously pictured as a man, a bird, a man riding a bird, or a curious combination of human and avian characteristics. Though probably older than the religion of Vishnu, Garuda is now regarded as the vehicle of Vishnu, bearing the god either within or upon his back. In Egypt, the BA was one of each persons seven souls. Its usual form was that of a human-headed bird, and linked to the ancient worldwide concept of ancestors and ancestral divinities in bird shapes. The hawk was the totemic form of the god Horus, shown as a mans body with a falcon or hawk head. Thoth, the Egyptian god comparable to Hermes, god of magic, spells, writing, and recordkeeping, was depicted with the head of an ibis. In the ninth century B.C.E., the Assyrians began placing wings on the shoulders of their protective geniuses, despite the fact that their bodies seemed too heavy and muscle-bound for celestial flight. These divine beings were depicted in art as human figures with wings. The KARABU, a half-human, halfanimal figure that guarded buildingserpahs, also had wings. In about the eighth century B.C.E., the gure of a lordly helmeted four-winged man carrying corn and oil, called a genius of blessing by historians, (see GENII), was carved and painted in the Assyrian palace of Sargon and now rests in the Louvre. In the same museum stands a bronze statue of a demon with a similar wing arrangement from the same area and period. In Persepolis is a stone relief of Ohrmazd, the upper half of a man on a winged sun-disc. Winged lions, grifns, sphinxes, centaurs, bulls, enthroned or standing guard, abound in the ancient Middle East, along with bird-headed demons with wings. Wings can often be found on East Asian gods and demons. In Judaism, the angels of the MERKABAH are described as having ery, brilliant, human-like forms with multiple, even thousands of wings. (See ENOCH.) Some of them have angel faces but bodies of eagles. (The NEPHILIM, the offspring of angels and mortal women, y like eagles in the QUMRAN TEXTS, suggesting mystical or shamanistic ascent.) The Old Testament gives scant information on the appearance of angels. There are the four-faced, winged creatures seen by ISAIAH, six-winged and sometimes serpent-like SERAPHIM, and four-winged CHERUBIM; otherwise angels appear like men. See ABRAHAM; DANIEL; JACOB; SODOM AND GOMORRAH. In Greek and Roman mythologies, wings commonly denoted divine or semi-divine status and ability to access the realms of the gods. A winged siren-handled cauldron dates from the eighth century B.C.E., a winged sphinx from 560 B.C.E. NIKE, the victory aspect of Athena, goddess of war, was always pictured or sculpted as winged. Nike was adopted as Victory by the Romans, who saw her as the symbol of the invincibility of the Roman Empire. In art, the winged Victory was shown with one breast exposed and was sometimes depicted naked with a mantle or drapery owing around her. Her image was adopted into sacred art in Egypt and Syria. EROS, son of Aphrodite, is a winged messenger, both ANCIENT OF DAYS and naked graceful boy. In other contexts, like winged shamanic gures from diverse cultures, Eros acts as guide of the soul, the guardian or spiritual double of man, representing both spiritual master and beloved, and also trickster and magician. Some of these qualities and many more were ascribed to Hermes (a universal Indo-European god much older than Greece, the original Hermaphrodite) whose iconography called for a helmet with wings and wings on the feet of his naked body. Dark-winged gures include the Furies, also called the Eumenides, and the Erinyes, the personication of the vengeful aspect of Demeter. In Phaedo Plato associates the wing with qualities that apply to spiritual ascent: The wing is the corporeal element which is most akin to the divine, and which by nature tends to soar aloft and carry that which gravitates downwards into the upper A haloed angel shows Mary Magdalene, Salome, and Mary the empty tomb of Jesus. images of angels region, which is the habitation of the gods. The divine is beauty, wisdom, and the like; and by these the wing of the soul is nourished, and grows apace. (246) Plato adds the aspect that became important to the concept of angelic INTELLIGENCES: the mind of the philosopher alone has wings; and this is just, for he is always, according to the measure of his abilities, clinging in recollection to those things in which God abides, and in beholding which He is what He is. And he who employs aright these memories is ever being initiated into perfect mysteries and alone becomes truly perfect. But as he forgets earthly interests and is rapt in the divine, the vulgar deem him mad, and rebuke him; they do not see that he is inspired. (249) In Rome, Mercurius (Hermes), the genii of the seasons and the four directions, Fate and Victory continued to be winged. Winged gures were painted on the walls of Pompeii. The New Testament sheds little light on the appearances of angels. Gabriel, in announcing the pending birth of JESUS to MARY, merely comes in and departs. The angel who announces the birth of Jesus to the shepherds just appears suddenly and came upon them in the night. Early angel art portrays angels as ennobled, ethereal male humans without wings. The earliest such extant image dates to the early third century C.E. in the Catacomb of Priscilla in Rome. It portrays the Annunciation, with Gabriel looking like a tunic-clad man standing on the earth. Though angels played an important role in Christian piety from a very early stage, they acquired greater importance in 325 with the Council of Nicaeas approval of them. Art mirrored the theological debate. The manlike angel evolved into the winged, hovering angel during the fourth century. By the end of the fourth century, Christian artists had turned to the pagan religions for inspiration. They borrowed heavily from the Greek idea that divinity has shape, and it is human-like, and from the Roman image of Victory. However, they refrained from frank nakedness and sexuality. Their angels were adult males but without pronounced sexual characteristicsalmost androgynous in appearanceand were fully clothed, with a standard tunic and mantle. Their wings often were not pronounced in size or detail. By the end of the fth century, the winged, hovering angel had become standard, even in Persian art that was absorbed into Islam (Persian angels tend to have smaller, thinner wings than Christian angels). The androgynous, hovering winged angel dominated angel art through the sixth century. This formula reappeared again in Carolingian art (eighth century) 181 and the Romanesque art of Italy and southern France (mid-11th to mid-12th centuries). Angels sometimes appeared alongside images of Victory and the EROTES in funerary art, especially in early art. They were readily distinguished from those gures by their maturity, clothing, and lack of sexual features. They were often shown in pairs, holding wreaths with the medallion of Christ, or the wreaths with the cross of Christ, or other ceremonial symbols. Generally, however, angels were reserved for depiction of the central themes in Christianity and not the mundane affairs of humans. The purposes of these winged angels included demonstration of their role as: divine messengers of God sent to execute the will of God guardians of, and attendants to, Christ guides of the soul to eternity, or HEAVEN important participants in ceremonies heralds of the Last Judgment By the 14th century, theological interest in angels had peaked and began to decline. The Inquisition focused attention on FALLEN ANGELSthe DEMONS who tempted people into sin and witchcraft. These beings were given ugly, batlike wings by artists. The Reformation of the 16th century further diminished the importance of the heavenly angel. This decline was mirrored in changes in angel art. Renaissance artists began portraying angels as male youths and especially women, signifying that angels no longer held a central stage in theology. Ironically, this shift produced some of the greatest and most beautiful angel art: glorious beings with enormous, elegant wings and exquisite, owing garments. Artists turned to birds such as the eagle and swan for models of wings. They gave them RAINBOW hues. The rainbow is a symbol of the bridge to heaven, and it underscores the angels role as intermediary between heaven and earth. The Renaissance started the stylization of angels that remains in Western art: the idealized human form, winged, rendered somehow more genuinely mystical. Botticelli, Raphael, Fra Angelico (who was given his name for his beautiful angels), Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese, Perugino, Murillo, Rembrandt, Rubens, El Greco, and other artists created images that continue to serve as models. Angels in art are just as likely to be feminine as they are masculine; children often are used as models as well. (See PUTTI.) One contemporary trend in media and popular art has been to make angels as humanlike as possible. These depictions show cute gures in country dress 182 images of angels with pigtails, and as winged human children and adults performing ordinary tasks of daily life. This type of art removes angels from the incorporeal realms of celestial re and places them in the domain of earth. It remains to be seen whether this descent from heaven ultimately will enhance the angel (in terms of human ability to relate to it) or will lead to its demise (as a gure that is reduced in stature and thus in respect). Haloes The halo signies divine radiance and nearness to God. One prototype of the halo is the HUARNA, an angel-like protective power symbolized by the luminous, winged emblem of Ohrmazd in ZOROASTRIANISM. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used halos to depict supernatural force, mystical states, and superior intellect. In Egypt and Greece, the halo was associated with the sun and resurrection. In the Eleusinian mysteries, the sacriced and reborn god, usually Dionysus, was portrayed with a halo. In Christian art, the became a common feature of the angel and all heavenly beings around the fourth century C.E. Symbols of Angels Persian angels often are shown with rings, which, like haloes, symbolize the huarna power. Various symbols or details have become identied with certain angels or types of angels, such as in the following descriptions: Seraphim The seraphim have six wings of ery red and bear a aming sword; their feet are bare. Cherubim Cherubim have two blue wings and shod feet, and they may hold open books representing their fullness of knowledge. They may stand on wheels. Thrones Thrones are two ery wheels with four eye-lled wings each; they may carry thrones or scales representing divine justice. Dominions Dominions are two-winged, wear long albs, golden girdles, and green stoles, hold the seal of Jesus Christ in their right hands and a golden staff topped by a cross in their left hands. They also have crowns and they carry scepters, orbs, swords, or books. Virtues Like dominions, virtues are two-winged, wear long albs, golden girdles, and green stoles, hold the seal of JESUS Christ in their right hands and a golden staff topped by a cross in their left hands. Virtues are vested in the garments of high ecclesiastics and carry other liturgical items, including lilies or red roses symbolic of Christs passion. Powers Like dominions and virtues, powers are twowinged, wear long albs, golden girdles, and green stoles, hold the seal of Jesus Christ in their right hands and a golden staff topped by a cross in their left hands. Powers sometimes hold rods or swords, wear knightly armor, and lead demons in chains. Principalities Principalities appear as soldiers with two wings, golden belts, and lance-headed javelins. They wear princely robes over armor, with crowns and sword or scepter. Archangels Archangels appear as soldiers in armor with two wings, golden belts, and lance-headed javelins, and also as deacons in albs. Angels Angels are two-winged and may appear as soldiers, or they may wear ecclesiastical garments. They frequently wear a diadem with a cross in the front. A late medieval variation was to show them in clothing made of feathers. They carry many objects: candles, musical instruments, scrolls, and inscribed shields. Michael Michael, whose ofce of PRINCE of the Hebrew nation became, after Christian revelation, the Seraph (Copyright 1995 by Robert M. Place; from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert M. Place) images of angels guardian of the Church Militant in Christendom, is depicted as young, beautiful, and powerful. He is usually clothed in a coat of mail with sword, spear, and shield, wings rising from his shoulders and sometimes wearing a jeweled crown. Frequently he is battling with Satan, represented as a dragon, serpent, or DEMON. Medieval and Renaissance paintings also depicted his intercession in the Old Testament in scenes from ABRAHAM, JACOB, MOSES, and the battles led by Joshua. He plays an important role in the legends of the Virgin, as it is Michael who is sent to announce to MARY her approaching death and then carry her body to heaven. Gabriel Gabriel is the guardian of the celestial treasury, the Angel of Redemption, and the Chief Messenger. He is most often portrayed in his role as the angel of the Annunciation to Mary. In fact, the Annunciation is the most frequently depicted scene in all of Western art. Gabriel is a majestic gure who wears a crown and is richly robed. He evokes purity with a lilya detail not mentioned in the Gospels. Raphael Raphael, the guardian angel of all humanity, is represented as a benign friend and fellow traveler, protector of the young and innocent, rendered in episodes from the book of TOBIT. He is dressed as a pilgrim, wears sandals, and carries a staff and some supplies on his belt or slung over his shoulder. He is often shown with a sh, a signicant element in the story of Tobias. When he is portrayed as a guardian spirit, he is richly dressed, has a casket of provisions, holds a sword in one hand, and makes a gesture of warning with the other. Christian tradition holds that it is Raphael who announces to the shepherds the arrival of the Savior on Christmas night: Fear not; for behold, I bring you tidings of great joy (Luke 2:10), although the text identies the angel anonymously as the ANGEL OF THE LORD. Uriel Uriel, an important angel in Jewish mystical literature but not part of the ofcial Catholic canon, appears less frequently in art than the aforementioned three archangels. Early legend holds that it is Uriel who, as ambassador of Christ, appears to the disciples at Emmaus (Luke 24:1316). In art, Uriel is usually represented carrying a scroll and a book indicating his role as interpreter of judgments and prophecies. Islamic Images of Angels Islam does not prohibit images. In Su iconography Isral, the Angel of the Day of Judgment, has hairs and 183 tongues over which are stretched veils. He glories Allah with each tongue in a thousand languages, and Allah creates from his breath a million angels who glorify him. Isral looks each day and each night toward HELL, approaches without being seen and weeps. His trumpet or horn has the form of a beasts horn and contains cells like a bees honeycomb, in which the souls of the dead repose. Mikail (Michael) has hairs of saffron from his head to his feet, and his wings are of green topaz. On each hair he has a million faces and on each face a million eyes, from which fall 70,000 tears each, and a million tongues, which speak a million languages. The tears become the kerubim, who lean down and rain over the owers, trees, and fruit. Jibrail (Gabriel) has 1,600 wings and hair of saffron. The sun is between his eyes. Each day he enters the Ocean of Light 360 times. When he comes forth, a million drops fall from each wing to become angels who glorify Allah. When he appeared to the Prophet to reveal the Koran, his wings stretched from the East to the West. His feet were yellow, his wings, green, and he wore a necklace of rubies or coral. Between his two eyes were written the words: There is no God but Allah, and MUHAMMAD is the Prophet of God. In icons and late medieval paintings, he takes his more usual shape, that of a delicate and beautiful youth. One Su vision of Jibrail showed him like a maiden, or like the moon amongst the stars. His hair was like a womans falling in long tresses. . . . He is the most beautiful of angels. . . . His face is like a red rose. Azrael, the ANGEL OF DEATH, is veiled before the creatures of God with a million veils. His immensity is vaster than the heavens, and the East and West are between his hands like a dish on which all things have been set, and he eats what he wishes. He has four faces, one before him, one on his head, one behind him, and one beneath his feet. He has four wings, and his body is covered with innumerable eyes. When one of these eyes closes, a creature dies. Angel Images in Visionary Encounters If angels have no physical form and no consistent symbolic shape, how can they be recognized in a visionary encounter? (See ANGELOPHANY.) Ancient descriptions associate angels with re, pillars of light, and sensational displays of the elements, such as thunder and lightning. From these phenomena, one might infer the presence of an angel in certain circumstances. In many ancient encounters, however, angels are not recognized unless they identify themselves, such as the three men who visit Abraham and the man who accompanies Tobias on his journey. (See TOBIT.) In the legendary apparition 184 Imamiah of Michael at the Monte Gargano sanctuary in southern Italy (see MICHAEL), the archangel appears as a fearsome man riding a white horse, and he is not recognized as an angel unless he identies himself to the man who is having the vision. Contemporary appearances of angels in visionary experiences have been heavily inuenced by Western art and the media, though they can range from pillars of light to MYSTERIOUS STRANGERS who look like ordinary people to human gures with wings. Some bowls inscribed in Jewish Aramaic seem to refer to the ANGEL OF THE LORD with this or similar inscriptions: YYY the Great, the angel who has eleven names. FURTHER READING Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israels Second God. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. FURTHER READING Berefelt, Gunnar. A Study on the Winged Angel: The Origin of a Motif. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell, 1968. Cicciari, Massimo. The Necessary Angel. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Angels of Mercy. New York: Pocket Books, 1994. Halewood, William H. Six Subjects of Reformation Art. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982. Highet, Gilbert. An Iconography of Heavenly Beings, Horizon 3, no. 2 (November 1960): 2649. Peers, Glenn. Subtle Bodies: Representing Angels in Byzantium. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2001. Wilson, Peter Lamborn. Angels. New York: Pantheon, 1980. Imamiah In the KABBALAH, a FALLEN ANGEL who was once in the order of PRINCIPALITIES and also formerly one of the 72 angels of the SCHEMHAMPHORAE. As a fallen angel, Imamiah governs voyages and destroys and humiliates enemies. incantation bowls In early Jewish and Babylonian MAGIC, bowls inscribed with charms for capturing DEMONS or invoking angelic powers for protection. The bowls, about the size of soup tureens, were placed upside down at the four corners of houses and in cemeteries. Presumably the bowls caught or overturned demons who caused a variety of ills and problems. The bowls are inscribed in ink in a spiral from the inside out; some centers contain drawings of chained demons. The charms specify protection of homes, families, and possessions against witchcraft, diseases, and demons. They call upon powerful angels or SOLOMON and the power of the seal of his magical ring. Dating of incantation bowls is uncertain; they were in use in the fourth and fth centuries C.E. and as late as the seventh century. Metatrons name appears often on incantation bowls in invocations for angelic help. Various titles given him are the Great Prince of the Whole World, PRINCE OF THE WORLD, and Great Prince of Gods Throne. Inias One of the seven REPROBATE ANGELS in a church council trial in 745 in Rome. instrumental transcommunication Electronic communication with nonphysical beings, the dead and angels. Instrumental transcommunication (ITC) involves a three-way partnership: living people, people who have died and now exist on the astral plane, and spiritual beings who act as guides, advisors and facilitators. Communication, often two way, is made via telephone, radio, television, fax, and computer. Historical Background Human beings have always sought to communicate with otherworldly realms, including the abodes of angels and the dead. In ancient times, visions, dreams, raptures, divination, and oracles were the primary means of communication. When photography was invented, people used it to try to capture spirit images on lm. Mediumship and channelling, which turn human beings into mouthpiece for the delivery of messages, enjoy contemporary popularity. ITC evolved from the electronic voice phenomenon (EVP), which is the receiving of voices on audio tape for which there is no known physical source. The voices are captured by a tape recorder left on for periods of time. They often are very faint and are heard only on playback. Words, phrases, and short sentences are captured. The first recorded experiments in EVP date to the 1930s and involved record players rather than tape recorders. In the 1950s, EVP was popularized by Friedrich Jurgenson, a Swedish opera singer, painter, and film producer. In 1959, Jurgenson tape recorded bird songs in the countryside near his villa. On playback, he heard a male voice discussing nocturnal bird songs in Norwegian. Jurgenson conducted more experiments and captured more voices. instrumental transcommunication In 1965, he met Konstantin Raudive, a Latvian psychologist and philosopher, and inuenced him to devote himself to EVP Over a period of years, Raudive . recorded more than 100,000 voices. His and Jurgensons successes inuenced others all over the globe to research EVP . Spiricom and Beyond One of the persons fascinated by EVP was George W. Meek, an American engineer whose interest in survival after death led him to meet medium William ONeill in 1977. At a sance, a deceased guide told Meek he would provide instructions for building a device that could communicate with the dead. The result was Spiricom, a device built in a partnership between Meek and ONeill. Meek founded the MetaScience Foundation to pursue more research. Meek also explored metaphysics. He saw creation as hundreds of universes that share space with our universe. Each has its own frequency. The spirit worlds have much higher frequencies than we have on earth. They remain imperceptible to us, even to our technology. Special technology and assistance from the other side can make a communications bridge possible. Such communication would be pure rather than ltered through a human medium. Mediumship had failed to provide solid proof of survival after death, but direct communication via technology promised to provide evidence that could not be refuted. Spiricom enabled two-way conversations to take place between the living and the dead, which Meek recorded on tape. He gave others the instructions for building the device, but no one who did reported any success. The Spiricom work began in 1979 and ended in 1982. Meek then sought to establish communication with higher realms populated by angels and beings of light. Project Lifeline involved the development of sophisticated equipment that could send and receive the higher frequencies possible. Meek hired psychics and mediums to get technical advice from the other side. But despite all efforts, no technical contacts were made. Timestream What became known as ITC began in 1985 in Luxembourg. Interested in EVP Maggy Harsch-Fischbach , began experimenting with audio tape. She was immediately successful, and soon a single, recognizable voice appeared repeatedly. The voice began talking authoritatively on a broad range of topics, surprising Maggy with its wisdom. The voice eventually identied itself as TECHNICIAN, a member of THE SEVEN, a council of angel-like, higher beings who were seeking to estab- 185 lish a reliable communications link with the living on earth. The Seven referred to their spiritual brethren as RAINBOW PEOPLE, so named because when they lowered their vibration to manifest on the astral plane, they shimmered in rainbow colors. According to Technician, the Rainbow People were attracted to her sincerity and interest, and they had chosen her to assist in their efforts to build a communications bridge to earth. She would be aided by Timestream, a team of deceased scientists, relatives, technical experts, celebrities, and others who live on the astral plane. The ultimate goal would be to set up receiving stations around the world. Maggys home would be the rst fully functioning receiving station. Maggy was joined by her husband, Jules Fischbach, in setting up a system of televisions, radios, telephones, and computers for the experiments. Within a few years, they were receiving photos from the spirit world on their TV set, phone calls, and long and clear messages through their radio. Most of the phone calls came from Raudive. The Seven told them that humanity was at crucial stage in its development. This was the seventh era; the preceding six, extending back beyond recorded time, had all ended badly. ITC would be the most important way to wake up human consciousness in order to survive the End Time. The only way for ITC to be successful would be to establish a harmonious, unied partnership of researchers in many countries. Efforts to Organize Maggy and Jules began quietly publicizing their work, attracting the attention of Meek and other prominent researchers in the eld, many of whom were getting high-tech communications of their own. At rst, an international cooperative effort looked promising. Breakthroughs with computer technology expanded communications. The researchers had difculty uniting, however. Despite many good intentions and meetings, ITC never took rm hold as a unied international effort. The researchers disagreed over agendas, research protocols, what to make public, and how to handle the media. Some were skeptical of the results obtained by others. Meanwhile, the higher beings and Timestream kept stressing that without a unied consciousness of sincerity, ethics, morals, and harmony among the researchers, the work ultimately would not succeed. ITC transmissions continued, however, while researchers tried to organize and collaborate. In 1991, Mark H. Macy, who would head American ITC interests, met Meek, who was living in North Carolina. Macys interest in spiritual matters had been expanded after overcoming cancer of the colon in 186 instrumental transcommunication 1988. Through Meek, Macywho was already successful in EVP tapingmet the European ITC researchers a year later. Maggy and Jules authorized Macy to disseminate and promote their work in North America, which he did from his base in Colorado. By 1995, serious rifts had developed among the researchers. In September that year, a group of them including Maggy, Jules, and Macymet at a symposium and made another attempt to organize. They established the International Network for Instrumental Transcommunication (INIT), with headquarters in Luxembourg. Macy was named head of the North American effort. Membership doubled in INITs rst two years. But friction and problems continued, and the organization lasted only four years. Most of the researchers went their separate ways or formed small collaborations. In 1999, Macy met Jack Stucki, who had developed a machine called the Luminator for facilitating spirit photography with Polaroid cameras. The advantage of the Polaroid is that lm cannot be double-exposed. The two began a collaboration. In 2000 a special Luminator was developed for Macys researchthe GT-21 (Galileos Telescope of the Twenty-rst Century). Images obtained with the Luminator show a spiritual world superimposed upon the physical world. After INIT ended, Maggy Harsch-Fischbach and Jules Fischbach continued to receive communications from Timestream and The Seven. ITC research organizations in various countries have continued their own independent work, as have many independent researchers. The Afterlife According to Timestream, after death humans go to the astral plane, which is much like earth but with different physics and more of a paradise. This conforms with nearly all the major spiritual traditions, which hold that earth is a reection of the spiritual world. On the astral plane, people continue to do many of the same things they did on earth; they live in houses, work at jobs, have relationships and families, and share common interests with others. But they are not limited by time and space. They can shed their astral body to merge with the environmentthough they retain their individualityand move freely through time and space. Images of this astral existence transmitted to televisions and computers proved to be a signicant topic of dispute among ITC researchers involved in Timestream. It was hard for some researchers to believe that heaven or afterlife would so closely duplicate life on earth. The Seven explained that material things exist in many dimensions simultaneously. If pictures were sent directly from the higher realms, nothing would be recognizable to people on earth. After death people may spend a long time on the astral level, but at some point they feel a need to move on. Some may reincarnate on earth. Others seek to raise their vibration and ascend to more subtle realms. In these higher reaches, forms become more ethereal and then give way to pure consciousness. In order to attain these levels, souls must purge themselves of negativity. Some souls who go higher become what would be called angels. They acquire white ethereal bodies and live in love, peace, and beauty, immersed in Light. These souls shimmer in gold and white or in rainbow colors when they move down to the lower astral planes. Earths History The Seven provided information about the history of the earth that corroborated some of the writings of Zecharia Zitchin, Erich von Daniken, and others. A planet named Marduk had once existed between Mars and Jupiter, with a highly sophisticated and advanced human civilization. Their world was a paradise free of disease, aging, and even the need to eat or procreate. Their consciousness enabled them to have knowledge of the spiritual realms and the afterlife. They could travel through a time-space doorway into subtler dimensions. The people of Marduk visited Mars (also inhabited) and earth, which was populated by various primates, including primitive humans. They colonized earth. But back on the home planet, science and technology took a dangerous turn and destroyed Marduk in a gigantic explosion. The explosion also destroyed the life on Mars. The marooned earth colonies survived and interbred with the humans. The colonists developed the civilization of Atlantis. But the Marduk technology also destroyed Atlantisthe true fall of humankind. FURTHER READING Macy, Mark H. Miracles in the Storm: Talking to the Other Side with the New Technology of Spiritual Contact. New York: New American Library, 2001. Macy, Mark. Welcome to World ITC! World ITC website. Available online. URL: http://www.worlditc.org. Downloaded on October 10, 1999. Macy, Mark. How ITC Works, Contact! 97, no. 2 (1997): 810. Miracles in Europe. World ITC website. Available online. URL: http://www.worlditc.org/miracles.htm. Downloaded on October 10, 1999. Our Seven Colleagues from the Ethereal Realms, Contact! 96, no. 3 (1996): 89. intelligences intelligences A type of astral power or intercessor of God. Intelligences can refer to cosmic powers that rule the celestial bodies and forces of nature, to the ARCHONS of GNOSTICISM, and to intercessory beings such as angels. Intelligences, or active intelligences, also refers to forces acting within human consciousness in terms of opening to divine and imaginal realms. (See ARCHETYPES.) Intelligences gure prominently in Neoplatonic philosophy. Plato understood that certain governing aspects of human consciousness exist beyond the physical. In Phaedo, he states that: in the heaven which is above the heavens . . . there abides the very being with which true knowledge is concerned; the colorless, formless, intangible essence, visible only to mind, the pilot of the soul. The divine intelligence, being nurtured upon mind and pure knowledge, and the intelligence of every soul which is capable of receiving the food proper to it, rejoices at beholding reality once more. (247) Platos most famous student, Aristotle, considered intelligences as secondary movers of the heavenly bodies (the prime move is God). In Metaphysics, Aristotle says: there are other spatial movementsthose of the planetswhich are eternal . . . each of these movements also must be caused by a substance both unmovable in itself and eternal. . . . Evidently, then, there must be substances which are of the same number as the movements of the stars, and in their nature eternal, and in themselves unmovable. (XII, 7, 1073a) Intelligences are developed in the work of Plotinus, an Egyptian who taught philosophy in Rome in the third century C.E. and the rst and most inuential of Neoplatonists. Plotinus used the term Divine Thought (in Greek ho Nous, variously translated Mind, Divine Mind, Intellect, or Intelligence) is a sort of mediation to human beings of the Unknowable One, and connotes the highest reality knowable. Universal Intelligence contains all particular intelligences, and the totality of the Divine Thoughts known in the language of Plato as Ideas or Ideals. Intelligence or Intelligible applies to various expressions of the Divine Thought (Nous). Plotinus rejected the idea of astral intelligences inuencing people, but he believed people to be guided by increasingly powerful higher forces indwelling tutorial spiritsas they ascended to Divine Mind. These forces or intelligences kept the soul focused on God. In his treatise On Our Tutelary Spirit, Plotinus said: 187 Our tutelary spirit is not entirely outside of ourselves, is not bound up with our nature, is not the agent in our action; it belongs to us as belonging to our soul, as the power which consummates the chosen life; for while its presidency saves us from falling deeper into evil, the direct agent within us is something neither above nor equal to it, but under it; man cannot cease to be characteristically man. PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS (fthsixth centuries C.E.), referred in The Celestial Hierarchy to angels as heavenly and godlike intelligences and said the sacred truth about them was hidden to the masses. His threetiered hierarchy of nine orders of angels inuenced Christian philosophy, including the works of St. THOMAS AQUINAS. The Islamic philosopher IBN SINA was inuenced by Neoplatonic ideas on intelligences. He associated the Active Intelligence with the Holy Spirit, and with Gabriel, the Angel of Humanity and Angel of Knowledge and Revelation. The Islamic theosophists following him looked upon the Angel as intimately related to the spiritual existence of humanity. The Active Intelligence is the 10th in the hierarchy of the CHERUBIM or pure separate Intelligences, and this hierarchy is paralleled by the secondary hierarchy of the Angels who are the Souls which move the celestial Spheres; at every degree of these hierarchies couples or syzygai are formed between them. These celestial Souls have no sense perception but possess Imagination; they are Imagination in its pure state. They are the Angels of the intermediate world, where prophetic inspiration and theophanic visions have their place. The Holy Spirit is the source from which human souls emanate, the source at once of their existence and their light. All knowledge and all reminiscence are a light projected by the Intelligence upon the soul. Through the Intelligence the human individual is attached directly to the celestial pleroma without the mediation of any teacher or ecclesiastical reality. This radical spiritual autonomy of the individual alarmed orthodoxy and created an adverse reaction to the ibn Sina line, led by Averros in the 12th century. Averros accepted the existence of a human intelligence independent of the organic world, but he said this intelligence is not the individual, who is perishable. The eternal in the individual pertains exclusively to the separate Active Intelligence. He also excluded from his cosmology the entire second angelic hierarchy, that of the celestial Angel-Souls, who govern the world of the active Imagination: visionary events and archetypal beings. He was inspired by the idea that all minds have not the same degree of discernment; to 188 intelligences Magical tables, seals, and characters of planetary intelligences, from The Magus by Francis Barrett Isaac some men the literal aspect, the zahir, is addressed, while others are capable of understanding the hidden meaning, the batin. Psychoses and social disasters result from the revelation of the hidden to those who cannot understand it. One who gained the best insight into the matter of the Active Intelligence was Abul-Barakat, a 12th-century Jewish philosopher who converted to Islam toward the end of his life. He envisioned neither the separate Active Intelligence nor an active Intelligence immanent in each individual, but a plurality of separate and transcendent active Intelligences, corresponding to the differences among the multitude of souls. He wrote that: some souls . . . have learned everything from invisible guides, known only to themselves. . . . The ancient Sages . . . taught that for each individual soul, or perhaps for a number of souls with the same nature and afnity, there is a being of the spiritual world who, throughout their existence, adopts a special solicitude and tenderness toward that soul or group of souls; it is he who initiates them into knowledge, protects, guides, defends, comforts them, brings them to nal victory, and it is this being whom the Sages called the Perfect Nature. And it is this friend, this defender and protector, who in religious language is called the Angel. MAIMONIDES, the great Jewish rabbi and legal scholar educated in Islamic Spain in the 12th century, was well acquainted with the works of Plato, Aristotle, the Neoplatonists, ibn Sina, and Averros. He held that Intelligences were pure form, existing in their own plane, that of the angels, which is arranged in a causal hierarchy. Angelic Intelligences are the medium through which humans experience prophecy and vision, sometimes in DREAMS. (See ANGELOLOGY.) Maimonides points out that dreams and prophecy both involve the seeing of aspects and the reception of experiences that, unlike most imagination, are not under the control of the people involved. This process is almost entirely a natural phenomenon, but it involves a complex system like that of ibn Sina, of interconnecting spheres. AGRIPPA, one of the leading European occultists (15th16th centuries) described intelligences in his great work Occult Philosophy as forces governing all things. They are an intelligible substance, free from all gross and putrifying mass of a body, immortal, insensible, assisting all, having inuence over all; and the nature of all intelligences, spirits and angels in the same. FURTHER READING Corbin, Henry. Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. Translated by Willard R. Trask. Bollingen Series 66. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960. 189 Corbin, Henry. Creative Imagination in the Susm of Ibn Arabi. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Bollingen Series 91. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969. Leaman, Oliver. Moses Maimonides. New York: Routledge, 1990. Levinsion, Ronald B., ed. A Plato Reader. Translated by B. Jowett. Boston: Houghton Mifin, 1967. Turnbull, Grace H., ed. The Essence of Plotinus. Translated by Stephen MacKenna. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948. Ioel One of the seven ARCHANGELS, a companion to Metatron, a prince of the law, ruler of Saturn and INTELLIGENCE of Jupiter. Ioel means beauty of God. Ipos One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Ipos is an earl and PRINCE who rules 36 legions. The LEMEGETON gives his appearance as an angel with a lions head, goose feet and a hares tail; JOHANN WEYER said he appears either as an angel or an evil and crafty lion. Ipos knows the past and future and imparts wisdom and courage. irin (irin qaddisin) Twin angels who live in either the sixth or seventh HEAVEN and who act as the supreme judgement of the heavenly court. Irin means watchers; they are the WATCHERS mentioned in Daniel 4:17. The irin have a higher rank than Metatron. In the Revelation of Moses, Metatron shows MOSES the irin in the sixth heaven. Isaac In the Old Testament, the son of ABRAHAM and Sarah, whose life is saved by an intervening ANGEL OF THE LORD. In Genesis 22, God tests Abrahams obedience by ordering him to take Isaac to the land of Moriah and sacrice him to the Lord. Abraham does as ordered, binding Isaac and placing wood on him for a sacricial re. He raises his knife to slit the boys throat, but at the last moment, the Angel of the Lord intervenes and stops the sacrice: Then Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. But the angel of the Lord called to him from HEAVEN, and said, Abraham, Abraham! And he said, Here am I. He [the angel] said, Do not lay your hand on the lad or do anything to him; for now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son from me (22:1012). 190 Isaac Abraham then spies a ram caught in the thicket, and he sacrices it to the Lord instead. God reiterates his earlier covenant with Abraham: And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven and said, By myself I have sworn, says the Lord, because you have done this, and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will indeed bless you, and I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven and as the sand which is on the seashore. And your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies, and by your descendants shall all the nations of the earth bless themselves, because you have obeyed my voice (22:1518). In rabbinic literature, a midrash from the eighth century tells the story of what happens to Isaac at the moment he is about to be slain. Abrahams knife touches the boys throat, and at that moment, his soul flies out of his body and rises into heaven. There angels take him to the celestial academy of Shem and Eber. He remains there for three years studying the Torah as a reward for his suffering. All of the treasuries of heaven are opened to him: the treasuries of prayer, souls, ice, and snow; as well as the palaces of heaven, the celestial Temple that has existed since creation, and the Chambers of the Chariot (perhaps a description of the throne of God). Isaac is shown his past lineage on earth as well as the future generations that would come from Abraham. The End of Days also is revealed. Meanwhile, Abraham stands frozen, his hand upraised. Though three years pass for Isaac, only a single breath transpires for Abraham. The instant the angel speaks and tells him not to lay a hand on the lad, Isaacs soul returns to his body. When he is back in his body, Isaac realizes the dead will have future life and exclaims, Blessed is He who quickens the dead! Abraham unbinds the boy and he arises as if reborn. Christian inuence is apparent in this story, which underscores the theme of death and resurrection as well as passage of time marked by three: three years for Isaac, three days between Jesuss crucixion and his resurrection. The story also resembles modern-day accounts of the NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE. There is the ascent to heaven and the meeting with the angels; the revelation of mystical secrets; the life review; the revelation of the future and the end of times. The distortion of time also is characteristic of an NDE. Near-death experiencers often feel that time is expanded or stretched, and that what takes place during their encounters is over a much longer period of time than what actually passes on earth. Testament of Isaac The Testament of Isaac is a pseudepigraphon written in the second century and tells the end of his life. It is sometimes in the voice of Isaac and sometimes in the voice of a narrator. When it is time for Isaac to die, God sends Michael to take his soul, as he did with Isaacs father, Abraham (see ANGEL OF DEATH). Michael casts sleep over the household and comes to Isaac in his bed. He says that in heaven Isaac will be with the saints and will have a throne beside his father, and a throne shall be prepared for Isaacs son Jacob. Isaac will be entrusted with the name of the Patriarchs, the name of all future generations and the fathers to all the world. Isaac mistakes Michael for Abraham, but the angel corrects him and tells him to make his house ready. Isaac asks what he should do about Jacob (in terms of taking away his brother Esaus birthright), and the angel says the blessing upon him cannot be undone, and he will create 12 tribes. After Michael leaves, Jacob awakens and Isaac breaks the news of his departure. Isaac weeps and wants to come along, but Isaac dissuades him, telling him of his destiny. Isaac dispenses advice about righteous living to throngs that gather around him. When he stops to rest, an angel of God appears and takes him to the heavens, where he beholds things in fear: strange, wild beasts who are pursuing people. Several times Isaac is eaten and swallowed by a beast, but each time he returns to his original state. This punishment, endured by the people here, is visited upon those who hated their neighbors without reconciliation before death. They are punished one year for every hour of their enmity. Isaac then beholds a great river of re that rolls with the sound of thunder. It is lled with crying and groaning souls of sinners. At the bottom are the weeping and screaming souls of those who committed the sin of Sodom. They are, says the angel, due a drastic punishment. The overseer of punishment is a being of re who urges his minions on to greater torments of the damned. The angel commands Isaac to look at all the punishments but he cannot do so. The angel says the punishments will go on until God has mercy on the souls. The angel takes Isaac to heaven, where he sees Abraham and the saints, who take him to the curtained throne of God. They prostrate themselves and worship. God blesses the lineage of Abraham. Abraham delivers a discourse on how to gain entry into heaven. When he is done, God asks Michael to call in all the angels and saints. God mounts the chariot of the seraphim and goes to Isaiah Isaac, with the cherubim preceding, and Isaac is filled with radiant joy. He gives Isaac some final instructions about his covenant. God takes Isaacs soul, white as snow, and ascends to the heavens in his chariot, while the cherubim and other angels sing praises. The kingdom of heaven and the fulllment of the covenant are bestowed upon Isaac. and and says that God loves to forgive. Isaiah prophesies the coming of the Messiah (9:6) and the creation of a new heaven and new earth (65:1725) in which the wolf and the lamb shall feed together. A fuller account of Isaiahs journey through the seven HEAVENS is given in the Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah, a composite apocryphal work written between the second and fourth centuries. Part one of the text tells how Isaiah suffers at that hands of Manasseh, son of the king Hezekiah of Jerusalem. Isaiah prophesies that Manasseh is under the inuence of Beliar and Samael. Inspired by Beliar, he will cause the death of Isaiah. Isaiah has a vision in which he is shown the seven heavens and sees the Lord and the Holy Spirit. He hears God commission the Lord (Christ) to descend to the world, and then he witnesses the miraculous birth of JESUS, and his life, death, resurrection, and ascension. It is Isaiahs claim that he saw God in his vision and lived that serves as one reason for Manassehs hatred of him. According to MOSES, no one can see the face of God and survive. But Isaiah claims to see more than did Moses. Beliar also is angry at Isaiah because his vision revealed the coming of the Lord to the world. Beliar would attempt to reign as a false king, but he would be cast into Gehenna (HELL). For these and other prophecies, Beliar inames the heart of Manasseh against Isaiah. When a Samaritan accuses Isaiah of treason and blasphemy, Manasseh has him arrested and executed by being sawed in half. Part two of the text describes the prophets heavenly vision, which takes place six years before his execution. Isaiah visits Hezekiah. Before a large assembly of the king and his counselors and prophets, Isaiah enters a trance and begins speaking in the voice of the Holy Spirit. He then falls silent as his vision begins with the appearance of an angel from the seventh heaven. The angel tells Isaiah he is going to take him up into the heavens. Isaiah asks his name, but the angel does not give it, saying only that when the journey is completed the prophet will understand who is the angel and what is the purpose of the vision; but he cannot divulge his name because Isaiah must return to his body. Isaiah rst sees the rmament, where Samael and his evil hosts struggle with one another in envy. The angel says that this struggle will last until the one come whom you are to see, and he will destroy him (7:12). The prophet then sees the seven heavens (79): that will also First Heaven A throne sits in the middle of the heaven with angels on both sides. The angels sing the praises of FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Schwartz, Howard. Gabriels Palace: Jewish Mystical Tales. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Isaiah One of the great prophets of the Old Testament, whose call to duty involved a grand vision of the heavenly court attended by SERAPHIM, the highest of angels. Isaiah received his call in 740 B.C.E., the year the Uzziah, king of Judah, died. He prophesied for 40 years, and he had the ear of kings. In Isaiah 6:18, the prophet describes his initial heavenly vision: I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and his train lled the temple. Above him stood the seraphim; each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he ew. And one called to another and said: Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory. And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was lled with smoke. And I said: Woe is me! For I am lost; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for my eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts! Then ew one of the seraphim to me, having in his hand a burning coal which he had taken with tongs from the altar. And he touched my mouth, and said: Behold, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away, and your sin is forgiven. And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then I said, Here I am! Send me. God then endorses Isaiah as a messenger instructs him to make people listen to the word warnings of God. The main thrust of Isaiahs many prophecies is the nation must depend on God alone, and God judge all who turn away from him. However, he 191 192 Islam, angels in God in the seventh heaven. The angels on the right are more glorious than the angels on the left. Second Heaven The second heaven is as tall as the distance from the rst heaven to earth. There is another throne, more glorious than the rst, and angels on the right and left who have a greater glory than the angels of the rst heaven, and give more glorious praise to the throne. Isaiah falls on his knees to worship God, but the angel tells him to wait until he is in the seventh heaven, where his robes and crown of martyrdom await him. Third Heaven The third heaven is like the lower two, only more glorious yet. Fourth Heaven The height from the third to the fourth heaven is greater than the distance between earth and the rmament. The fourth heaven is like the lower ones, only still more glorious. Fifth Heaven In the still more glorious fth heaven, Isaiah praises God who cannot be named. Sixth Heaven In the sixth heaven, there is no longer a throne and angels on the right and left. The more glorious angels here are directed upward to the seventh heaven, wherein dwell God and Christ. The escort angel tells Isaiah that no man can see the sixth heaven and return to the body, but the angel has been empowered to make an exception for Isaiah, who will become equal to the angels in the seventh heaven. Entry to the sixth heaven is made via going rst into the heavens air. The heaven itself is so brilliant that the lower heavens are dark by comparison. Isaiah is so overwhelmed that he wishes to remain, but the angel tells him that it is not yet time for him to come there. The thought of returning to his body makes him sad. Seventh Heaven As Isaiah enters the air of the seventh heaven, the angel in charge of praise in the sixth heaven challenges his right to ascend higher. The Lord answers that he has permission, for his robes are in the seventh heaven. In this highest heaven, Isaiah sees angels without number and all the righteous from the time of ADAM onward, including ENOCH. They are clothed in brilliant robes like the angels, but they have no thrones or crowns. Isaiah is told about the descent of Christ into the world, and his persecution, crucixion, resurrection, and ascension. At that time, the righteous will rise with him and receive their crowns and robes. Isaiah is shown record books that contain all the deeds of the chil- dren of Israel. He also sees arrayed the crowns and thrones that await the righteous when Christ will ascend into the seventh heaven. Isaiah then beholds the Lord, who becomes like an angel, and he joins in the worship and praise of him. He sees a second brilliant gure who is also worshiped and praised; this is the angel of the Holy Spirit. Isaiah hears the worship and praises sent up by the lower six heavens. He then is given a vision of the descent of Christ, his life and return to the seventh heaven (1011). Reminded that he has things seen witnessed by no other man, Isaiah is returned to his body. The text ends with the assertion that because of his vision and what he witnessed, Samael, by corrupting Manasseh, caused him to be executed. See DREAMS AND VISIONS; MERKABAH; QEDUSSAH. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 2. New York: Doubleday, 1985. May, Herbert G., and Bruce M. Metzger, eds. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Islam, angels in See ANGELOLOGY. issim (aishim; ashim; ischim; izachim) Angels who live in the fth HEAVEN and who are made of snow and ice. Their primary duty is to extol the glory of God. Issim means valorous men or men of God, and is applied to both saintly men and angels. In the KABBALAH they are the beautiful souls of just men (saints). The Zohar equates them with the BENE ELOHIM (THRONES) and says they are ruled by Azazel and also Zephaniah as their chief. The issim are ranked the 10th order of angels in importance in the Zohar; sixth in the Maset Azilut; and second in the Berith Menucha. They also are sometimes equated with the ERELIM. The issim are known as the Flaming Ones and the Souls of Fire, and are referenced in Psalms 104:4: who makest the winds thy messengers, re and ame thy ministers. The issim are mentioned in the Book of Judges. Manoah and his wife, who are childless, are visited by an ANGEL OF THE LORD or man of God who tells them they will have a son. The wife tells Manoah: A man of God came to me, and his countenance of the angel of God, very terrible; I did not ask him whence he came, and he did not tell me his name, but he said to me, Behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. (Judges 13:67) Izrail MOSES sees the issim where he visits the fth heaven. The issim also is a name of the ANIMISTICS (dii animalie) or Blessed Souls, who are half human and half angel or god and who rule the 10th sephirah, Malkuth (Kingdom), governed by Metatron. Isral Angel prominent in Islamic lore, though not named in the Koran. Isral means the burning one. Isral serves as the angel of resurrection who blows the trumpet on Judgment Dayto bring of his own demise, for he and other angels supposedly will be destroyed in the universal conagration that will be unleashed. According to lore, Isral served as a companion to the prophet MUHAMMAD for three years before being succeeded by Gabriel. A well-known Islamic story says that Allah dispatched Michael, Gabriel, Isral and Azrael to the four corners of the earth, to get seven handfuls of dust for the creation of ADAM. However only Azrael, the ANGEL OF DEATH, was able to accomplish this. izads (izeds) In ZOROASTRIANISM, 27 or 28 angels who comprise the second level of emanations below the AMARAHSPANDS. Sometimes equated with the CHERUBIM, the izads are charged with governing the innocence, happiness, and preservation of the world, and with protecting GENII and guardians. The chief of this order is Mithras. Izrail The Islamic ANGEL OF DEATH. Izrails name is mentioned in the Koran, and his characteristics and duties are elaborated upon by commentators. He is one of the four principal ARCHANGELS of Islamic angelology. In Hebrew lore, he is known as Azrael, whose name means whom God helps. While the angel Isral breathes life into souls, Izrail takes breath away. He is associated with writing, in the idea that writers take away ideas from the realm of thought and cause them to fall into the world of matter. 193 On the macrocosmic level, Izrail represents the human soul. He removes the soul from the world and delivers it to Gods forgiveness, and thus the soul is displayed in a nobler form. In this respect, Izrail is considered the bringer of good news, because he helps the soul on its path to spiritual perfection. Izrail is supposed to be the biggest of the angels, with his shape pleasing to the believer, in order to facilitate the release from life. Su teacher Abdul Karim Jili says that Izrail appears to the soul in a form provided by its most powerful metaphors. He may even manifest invisibly, so that a man may die of a rose in aromatic painor of a rotting stench. When the soul sees Izrail it falls in love, and its gaze is thus withdrawn from the body as if by seduction. Great prophets and saints may be invited politely by Izrail in corporeal form, as he did to MOSES and MUHAMMAD. When the Su poet Rumi lay on his deathbed, Izrail appeared as a beautiful youth: I am come by divine command to inquire what commission the Master may have to entrust to me. Rumis human companions almost fainted with fear, but the Su master replied: Come in, come in, thou messenger of my King. Do that which thou art bidden, and God willing thou shalt nd me one of the patient. Islamic angelology holds that Izrail is another form of RAPHAEL, and possesses 70,000 feet and 40,000 wings. He has as many eyes and tongues as there are people. Arabic mythology tells that Izrail constantly writes and erases in a large book. The writing brings birth and the erasing brings death. Still another story, regarding the creation of Adam, has Izrail fullling a crucial task. The angels Michael, Gabriel and Isral do not produce seven handfuls of earth necessary to make Adam; Izrail does. Thus, he is endowed with the power to separate the soul from the body. See DEATHBED APPARITIONS. FURTHER READING Klein, F A. The Religion of Islam. London: 1906, reprint . 1971. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, ed. Islamic Spirituality. New York: Crossroad, 1987. J f Jacob Son of the patriarch ISAAC, grandson of ABRAHAM, and father of Joseph. Jacobs dream of angels on a ladder to heaven (Genesis 28:1017) and his wrestling with an angel (Genesis 32:2231) are two of the most striking angel stories in the Bible. placing his head on the stone. Some rabbis interpret the ladder as a symbol of the angels constant interventions and frustration with the previous patriarchs from the beginning of creation up until this point, when Jacob at last is found worthy. Jacobs acceptability is signied by the choice of him as the model for the man-faced angel on the chariot of EZEKIEL. Some see the ladder as a political allegory, a prophecy of the ascent and descent of Israel that was to come. In John 1:51, JESUS tells his disciples: I tell you most solemnly, you will see heaven laid open and, above the Son of Man, the angels of God ascending and descending. MAIMONIDES interprets the ladder to represent the hierarchy of the INTELLIGENCES. A glimpse of angelic activities, particularly the image of a ladder, denoted the interdependence of the angelic hierarchies, and it was an obvious interpretation in ANGELOLOGY. Analogies were applied to stages of spiritual ascent for human seekers, for example by St. Bonaventure. Various scholars since have taken the ladder to represent every kind of correspondence, system, and parallelism between worlds and planes of being, ranging from the esoteric motto as above, so below to the rough model of 18th-century science, the Great Chain of Being. Jacobs Dream Ladder After stealing his twin brother Esaus birthright with the aid of his mother Rebekah, Jacob leaves to escape his father Isaacs shame and Esaus wrath. Rebekah suggests her brother as a destination. On his way to his uncle Labans country, Jacob stops for the night, taking a stone as his pillow. He dreams: a ladder was there, standing on the ground with its top reaching to HEAVEN; and there were angels of God going up it and coming down (Genesis 10:12). Next in the dream Jacob hears the voice of Yahweh explaining his high spiritual destiny: this land will be the dwelling of his innumerable descendants and Yahweh will never desert him. When he wakes up Jacob calls the place Bethel, the gate of heaven, anoints the stone pillow with oil, and sets it up as a monument, with which he promises faithfulness and to give a 10th of his wealth to Yahweh in return for his preservation and safe return to his father. There are many rabbinic and midrash comments on this dream and its context. Some note the union of the land and the people destined for it, signied by Jacob Jacob Wrestling With the Angel After working 14 years to win Rachel, the bride of his choice (having had first to marry Leah by Labans 194 Jacob deception), fathering 12 sons, and working many more years with the help of the ANGEL OF THE LORD to gain great flocks of his own (Genesis 31:11), Jacob departs from Laban with all his wives, children, and flocks of livestock to return to his father and the unknown factor, his brother Esau. Along the way angels of God met him, and on seeing them he said this is Gods camp, and he named the place Mahanaim (Genesis 32:23). Jacob had sent a party out to meet Esau and has found out that Esau is coming to meet him with 400 men. After sending gifts ahead to Esau, and praying, Jacob leaves everyone on one side of the Jacob River and goes alone to the other side. And there was one [literally, a man] that wrestled with him until daybreak who, seeing that he could not master him, struck him in the socket of his hip, and Jacobs hip was dislocated as he wrestled with him. He said, Let me go, for day is breaking. But Jacob answered I will not let you go unless you bless me. He then asked, what is your name? Jacob, he replied. He said, your name Angels on Jacobs ladder 195 shall no longer be Jacob but Israel, because you have been strong against God, you shall prevail against men. Jacob then made this request, I beg you, tell me your name, but he replied, Why do you ask my name? And he blessed him there. (Genesis 2429) Jacob names the place Peniel because he had seen God face to face and had survived. The sun rises as he leaves Peniel, limping because of his hip. That is the reason why to this day the Israelites do not eat the sciatic nerve which is in the socket of the hip; because he had struck Jacob in the socket of the hip in the sciatic nerve (Genesis 32:3032). This dramatic scene has spurred much commentary from Judaic, Catholic, and Protestant theologians, biblical scholars, and literary critics. Does Jacob wrestle with God or with an angel? If it is an angel, is it one of the heavenly host such as Michael, Gabriel, or Uriel, or is it a fallen angel such as Samael? There is no definitive answer, but the story has been rationalized, romanticized, treated as myth, and treated symbolically. Jacob wrestling with the angel (Gustave Dor) 196 Jacob A midrash presents Esau as Jacobs unknown adversary at Peniel, continuing their competitive relationship from birth, a struggle that Jacob ultimately wins. Another midrash (Rabbah) identies the assailant as Esaus guardian angel. The implication is that Jacob knew with whom he was wrestling and was reassured by his success that he would have nothing to fear from his imminent reunion. The reason why the angel is required to depart before dawn is that he is required to be present among the heavenly host to praise God. Let your brothers praise him, objects Jacob, to which the angel replies that if he does not praise God today, the angels will not let him do so tomorrow. According to this midrash the injury to Jacob is only temporary. Early Christian commentaries identied the angel who wrestled with Jacob as a gure of Christ. Jacobs victory, which is with the angels consent, indicates that the Jews would appear to overcome Christ at his passion. St. AUGUSTINE understands the name Israel to mean seeing God, and this will be the reward of the saints. The paradox that Jacob emerges from the encounter both blessed and lame points forward to the fact that some Jews will believe in Christ and others will reject him. MAIMONIDES treats Jacobs wrestling match as he treats other angelic visitations, namely, as a prophetic vision. The wrestling match is foreshadowed when the angels meet Jacob in Genesis 32:2. In his lectures on Genesis of 154244, Martin Luther rejects the Jewish interpretations as well as the allegories of his Christian predecessors. He assumes the assailant is Christ, even though Jacob thinks it is a man, and that the assailant had tried to convince Jacob that the promises to him had been revoked. Anguish from this causes Jacob to ght beyond his normal physical strength and enables him to overcome his opponent. The request for a blessing is a demand that the assailant should revoke the earlier suggestion that Jacob has been forsaken by God and is without hope. Only when Jacobs name is changed does Jacob realize who his opponent was, and that during his struggle he has been close to heaven as well as hell. In his joy at dawn he exclaims that he has seen God. For Luther, this means that there is a dark side to the nature of God, and it is a mystery that the aspiring soul must encounter and struggle with while clinging to faith. John Calvin regards the incident as a vision and states that Jacob is wounded so that the content of the vision would leave a permanent visible mark on him. God knows what the outcome will be, so Jacob really does not overcome God. Calvin holds that if God ghts with us, he provides us with the means of resistance. Thus, God ghts both against us and for us. Another idea put forward is that the angel is Gabriel, who symbolizes the coming of Christ consciousness. Thus the wrestling match represents the souls struggle to free itself from the prison of darkness. Yet another twist is that the struggle is not Jacobs, but Gods struggle with Jacob. God graciously gives Jacob a new name and courage to face the future. Jacob in Apocryphal Texts TESTAMENT OF JACOB The Testament of Jacob is a pseudepigraphon probably written in the second or third centuries C.E. Like the Apocalypse of Abraham and Testament of Isaac, the text concerns the death of Jacob, preceded by a tour of heaven. Jacob is in Egypt when his life nears an end. God sends Michael, as he did for Abraham and Isaac, to announce to Jacob his impending death and that he must close his affairs. By now Jacob is accustomed to speaking with angels, and he says he is ready to die, especially since he has been able to visit his son Joseph in Egypt. But when another angel resembling Isaac appears, Jacob is frightened. The angel introduces himself as Jacobs GUARDIAN ANGEL who has been with him throughout his life and has saved him from many crises. Jacob prepares Joseph for his death and requests to be buried in the ancestral tomb in Canaan. He delivers a blessing to his 12 sons. Jacob is taken on a heavenly tour, rst to see the torments of HELL and then to preview the rewards of heaven. The text does not offer the detail found in the Apocalypse of Abraham and Testament of Isaac, though more description is devoted to the suffering sinners than to the heavenly realms. In heaven Jacob sees Abraham and Isaac and is shown all the joys of the redeemed. He returns to earth and dies at age 147. God sends Michael and Gabriel to take his soul to heaven. His body is embalmed according to Egyptian technique and is taken to Canaan for burial. THE LADDER OF JACOB This is a short text that elaborates on Jacobs dream at Bethel. The date of its composition is unknown but is thought to be around the rst century C.E. Portions of the text have been corrupted and are considered by some scholars to be unreliable. Its nal portion, chapter 7, most probably is a separate work that was appended to it. According to the text, Jacobs dream includes fourfaced CHERUBIM, many-eyed SERAPHIM, and Gods throne of glory. There are 12 steps on the ladder and on each step there are two human faces on the right and on the left, so there are 24 faces altogether. Angels ascend and descend the ladder. Jeduthun Jacob prays to God for an interpretation of the dream. God sends the angel Sariel, who is in charge of dreams, to explain the meaning. Jacob says, And Sariel the ARCHANGEL came to me and I saw (him), and his appearance was very beautiful and awesome. But I was not astonished by his appearance, for the vision I had seen in my dream was more terrible than he and I did not fear the vision of the angel (3:35). Sariel tells Jacob that his name shall now be Israel. He says the ladder represents this age and its 12 steps are the periods of the age. The 24 faces are the kings of the ungodly nations of the age. The sins of Jacobs grandsons will make the place desolate. A palace will be built, a temple in the name of God, but it will become deserted. God will raise up kings from the grandsons of Jacobs brother Esau and they will receive the nobles of the tribes of the earth who will mistreat Jacobs descendants. Jacobs descendants will be exiled into slavery, but the Lord will judge the people who enslave them. The descendants will be released. Angels and archangels will hurl bolts of lightning before them for the sake of the salvation of Jacobs tribe. God will grant his mercy upon them and ght on their behalf. He will punish the enslavers with famine, swarms of reptiles and deadly things, and earthquakes and destruction. Jacobs children will walk in justice. The nal chapter that is probably a separate text concerns a prophecy that speaks in symbolic terms of Christs descent to earth. PRAYER OF JACOB The Prayer of Jacob, written sometime between the rst to fourth centuries C.E., consists of four invocations, three petitions, and one injunction and is similar to charm prayers found in Greco-Egyptian and Jewish magical texts. The prayer uses secret NAMES OF GOD and asks for the petitioner to be lled with wisdom and power as an earthly angel, as having become immortal. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 2. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Corbin, Henry. Creative Imagination in the Susm of IbnArabi. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969. Graves, Robert, and Raphael Patai. Hebrew Myths. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1964. Luther, Martin. Luthers Works. St. Louis: Concordia, 1971. Maimonides. Guide of the Perplexed. Abridged. Introduction by Julius Guttmann. London: East and West Library, 1952. 197 Rogerson, John. Wrestling With the Angel: A Study in Historical and Literary Interpretation, Hermeneutics, the Bible, and Literary Criticism. Edited by Ann Loades and Michael McLain. New York: St. Martins Press, 1992. Jael (Joel) Cherub who, with his twin Zarall, guards the ARK OF THE COVENANT. Jael also is the angel of the zodiac constellation Libra. The Apocalypse of MOSES gives Jael as a name of God. Jahoel (Jehoel, Shemuel, Kemuel, Yaoel, and Metatron) A member of the ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE, who mediates the ineffable name of God. The name Jahoel may have been an early form of Metatron. Jahoel is said to be chief of the SERAPHIM (a job also held by Seraphiel), and governs heavenly singing. He is responsible for holding in check Leviathan, the monster of evil who will swallow the souls of sinners on Judgment Day. Jaoel (Joel, Yahoel, Yahoel Yah) Great angel, GUARDIAN ANGEL, and ARCHANGEL who lives in the seventh HEAVEN; also a proper name of God. Jaoel the angel is associated with Michael and Metatron. In the Apocalypse of Abraham, Jaoel is the angel sent by God to guide ABRAHAM on his heavenly journey of revelation. He has the likeness of a man and is robed in purple with a turban of RAINBOW around his head. His hair is white and his body is like sapphire. He carries a golden scepter. Jaoel reveals to Abraham the history of his people, and he brings the blessings of Michael as well as of himself. In the Slavonic Life of ADAM AND EVE, the angels Joel and Michael pray for the couple. The Apocalypse of MOSES also names an archangel Joel. In 3 ENOCH, the angel is called Yahoel and Yahoel Yah, also names for Metatron. The Apocalypse of Abraham gives EL, El, Jahoel as one of the names of God. FURTHER READING Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israels Second God. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Jeduthun In Kabbalistic lore, angel known as the Master of Howling who leads myriads of angels in the chanting of hymns of praise of God every evening. Originally, Jeduthun was a man who served as a director of music 198 Jescha in the temple and was transformed into an angel with similar duties. Jescha In the LEGEMETON, the ruling angel of the fourth hour of the night, called Ramersy. Jescha rules 101,550 dukes and other servants who are divided into 12 orders. Jehudiel Angel who is sometimes included in the seven ARCHANGELS and who rules the movements of the celestial spheres. Jeremiel Archangel whose name means mercy of God or whom God sets up. Jeremiel is included in the earliest lists of the seven ARCHANGELS who stand before God. In 4 Ezra (4:36ff) Jeremiel is equated with Eremiel, the angel who watches over the souls in the underworld. When EZRA asks how long he must wait until the new age, Jeremiel answers that the righteous are in the underworld and the chambers of the souls, which, like wombs, will bear their fruit when the time is ready. Jeremiel shows Ezra a parable, but says he cannot say if Ezra will be alive when the new age comes, for he does not know. 1 ENOCH and 2 Edras equate Jeremiel with Remiel and Uriel. High, but also that her cousin Elizabeth is with child. When John is circumcised, Zechariah regains his speech after he follows the angels instructions, writing on a tablet that the child is named John. The Angel of the Lord next appears to the shepherds the night Jesus is born (Luke 2:914) and announces his birth; a great throng of the heavenly host then appears to sing praises to God. The Angel of the Lord appears three times to Joseph in dreams: before the birth of Jesus to explain that Mary has conceived by the Holy Spirit (Matthew 1:2021); to warn him to take Mary and Jesus away to Egypt to avoid the wrath of Herod, which would unleash the slaughter of Innocents (Matthew 2:13); and to tell Joseph when it is safe to return to Israel (Matthew 2:19). Joseph has a fourth dream warning (Matthew 2:23) that causes him to go to Galilee for safety. Though an angel is not mentioned as the messenger, it can be assumed so based on the pattern of the other three dreams. (See DREAMS AND VISIONS.) In Matthew 4:111 and Luke 4:112, Satan tempts Jesus three times in the wilderness in a key confrontation between good and evil. The devil appears after Jesus has fasted for 40 days and 40 nights. First the devil challenges Jesus to turn stones into bread, but Jesus declines, saying, It is written, Man shall not live Jerome, St. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. Jesus Son of God in Christianity. Both divine and human, Jesus is higher than all angels. He supplants many of the functions of angels, especially their intercessory and intermediary roles between God and humanity. The New Testament portrays angels mostly in secondary roles in the life of Jesus, with the exception of the devil, Satan, who tempts Jesus. Angels are messengers and supporters. The ANGEL OF THE LORD announces the coming birth of Jesus forerunner, John the Baptist, to Johns father Zechariah, instructing him on the name and upbringing (Luke 1:1122). The angel says, I am Gabriel who stand in Gods presence, and strikes Zechariah dumb because he has doubted the message. Gabriel is sent to MARY in the sixth month of Elizabeths pregnancy with John (Luke 1:2638) to tell her not only of her own impending conception of Jesus, Son of the Most Angel with swanlike wings announcing birth of Jesus Jesus by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God (Matthew 4:4). The devil then challenges Jesus to prove he is the Son of God by throwing himself off a parapet. The devil quotes Psalm 91: He will put you in his angels charge. Jesus deects, You shall not tempt the Lord your God (Matthew 4:7). Finally, the devil takes Jesus to a high mountain where they can see all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them, and promises them to Jesus if he will fall down and worship him. Jesus declares, Begone, Satan! for it is written, You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve (Matthew 4:810). Satan departs, and at that point angels make their appearance, ministering to Jesus. Angels do not participate in the activities of Jesus ministry, though Jesus does acknowledge them. In Matthew 18:10 he tells his disciples never despise any of these little ones [children], for I tell you that their angels in heaven are continually in the presence of my Father in heaven. This passage is one of the key scriptural proofs for the belief in GUARDIAN ANGELS. John 5:19 relates that Jesus goes to a pool in Jerusalem (Bethzatha, or Bethesda) where he heals a paralyzed man. The text implies that healing occurs at the pool when the water is troubled, that is, when there is some sort of divine intervention. Some ancient authorities inserted into the text at 5:4, for an angel of the Lord went down at certain seasons into the pool and troubled the water: whoever was the rst person after the troubling of the water was healed of whatever disease he had. The episode involving Jesus has no angelic presence, however. The paralyzed man tells Jesus that there is no one to help him be rst in the water. Jesus says, Rise, take up your pallet and walk, whereupon the man is instantly healed. In the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus prays about his ensuing passion and death and surrenders to Gods will. Some ancient authorities inserted into the text at Luke 22:43, And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. Jesus does not call on angels for help when he is betrayed by the kiss of Judas Iscariot, who has been taken over by Satan. Jesus is arrested by priests and a mob. One of Jesuss disciplesSimon Peter according to John 18:10attempts to defend him by cutting off the ear of a slave of the high priest. Jesus says, Put your sword back. . . . Do you think that I cannot appeal to my Father and he will at once send more than twelve legions of angels? But how then should the scriptures be fullled, that it must be so? (Matthew 26:5254). (According to Luke 22:51, Jesus heals the mans severed ear.) 199 After Jesus is crucied and buried, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary go to the tomb on the third day. According to Matthew 28:27: And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow. And for fear of him the guards trembled and became like dead men. But the angel said to the women, Do not be afraid; for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucied. He is not here; for he has risen, as he said. Come, see the place where he lay. Then go quickly and tell his disciples that he has risen from the dead, and behold, he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him. Lo, I have told you. Mark 16:56 says that a young man in a white robe greets the women. Luke 24:45 says that two men in brilliant clothes suddenly appeared at their The Agony in the Garden (Albrecht Drer, 1508) 200 Joan of Arc Angels holding image of Christ, from Eastern Orthodox Church, Romania (Authors collection) side. John 20:1114 says that Mary Magdalene nds two angels in white sitting where the body of Jesus had been, one at the head, the other at the feet. They speak with her just before Jesus appears to her. A controversy arose in Christian theology about the identity of the Angel of the Lord. Some authorities said it was the pre-incarnated Christ, although this would make him the announcer of his own birth and would make him a presence throughout the Old Testament. In portraying scenes in the life of Jesus, artists throughout the centuries have taken license to insert angels. They guard him as an infant, are in the background as witnesses to his experiences, weep bitterly at his crucixion, and rejoice at his ascension. See ANGELOLOGY; IMAGES OF ANGELS. Joan of Arc (14121431) French peasant girl, known as the Maid of Orleans, whose communion with saints and an angel led her to become a military hero of France. Joan of Arcs success was short-lived, for her enemies succeeded in executing her as a heretic. Her story is especially interesting to scholars because of the extensive documentation of her trial, in which she was interrogated in depth about her visions and voices. Joan was born to a farming family in Domremy, a village between the Champagne and Lorraine regions. At the time, France was torn by civil war and had an unstable throne. Henry V of England had invaded and was claiming the crown of the insane King Charles VI. Charles VII, or the dauphin, put up no resistance. Joans mission, guided by her supernatural aides, appears to have been ensuring the coronation of the dauphin and the defeat of the English. At the age of 13 she began to experience visions and voices. At rst it was a single voice accompanied by a brilliant light. Other voices manifested. They instructed her to be a good girl, and go often to church. The voices then began to intervene often in Joan of Arc her life, and to be accompanied by forms that Joan identied as the archangel St. Michael and saints Catherine and Margaret. The voices usually came to her during a waking state, but sometimes they roused her from sleep. Sometimes they were unintelligible. They manifested almost daily. Over time the voices gave Joan more instructions and predictions of the future, and they revealed her mission. She was to take up arms like a man, raise the English siege of Orleans, and see that the dauphin was crowned king of France. The voices told her that she 201 would be wounded in battle, and that a great victory would be won over the English within seven years. When Joan protested to the voices that she could not possibly accomplish these things, the voices replied, It is God who commands it. The voices became so insistent that she nally sought an audience with Robert Baudricourt, who commanded the kings forces in the town of Valcouleurs. Baudricourt dismissed her with laughter. But when one of her prophecies later came truea serious defeat for the French in battleBaudricourt Joan of Arc (Jules Bastien-Lepage, c. 1879; reprinted courtesy of Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, gift of Erwin Davis, 1889) 202 Joan of Arc agreed to send her to the dauphin. For protection she traveled in male clothing, something that later would contribute to her demise. She had an audience with the dauphin on March 8, 1429. He purposely disguised himself, but she recognized him instantly. She impressed him because she knew his daily personal prayer to God, which she had received from the voices. She persuaded him about her mission, and asked for troops to lead to Orleans. Court advisers considered her a lunatic, so Charles sent her to a council of theologians for interrogation. They found no quarrel with her and sent her back to Charles. According to Joan, Charles accepted her not because of the clergy, but because she had presented him with a divine sign. She said Michael had accompanied her to her meeting with Charles, and had bowed to him and presented him with a marvelous crown. The angel had told him that with Joans help, the English would be banished from France. Charles gave her troops, which she led into battle against the English at Orleans, ying a special standard that bore the words Jesus: Maria and a representation of the Eternal Father being presented a eur-de-lis by two angels. Joan raised the siege of Orleans in May 1429, and won another important campaign against the English on the Loire River. Charles was crowned Charles VII on July 17 of that year. In gratitude, he ennobled Joan and her family. Among the people, she was hailed as the savior of France. Despite the victories, the English retained a firm hold on Paris and parts of Normandy and Burgundy. Joan attempted to wrest control of Paris, but she was ordered to retreat before the battle was decided. She then attempted to raise the English siege of Compigne on May 23, 1430, but she was wounded, unhorsed, and captured. The duke of Burgundy, an ally of the English, imprisoned her in the tower of Beaurevoir castle. Joan attempted to escape twice by jumping out of the toweragainst the instructions of her saintsand was apprehended. For several months, she languished in the tower; Charles VII never made a single effort on her behalf. The English, still stung by their defeat at her hands, persuaded the duke of Burgundy to sell her to them for 10,000 francs. She was delivered to the bishop of Beauvais, an English ally. Joan was imprisoned in Castle Rouen. At first she was placed in an iron cage, and then she was chained to a bed and watched around the clock by guards. On February 21, 1431, she appeared before an ecclesiastical tribunal, who interrogated her about her visions, voices, wearing of male clothing, and faith in the church. Joan honestly described her communication with the saints and said that she could see, hear, kiss, and embrace them. When it came to answering questions, Joan demurred until she was permitted to do so by her voices. She admitted to hearing them daily. The tribunal declared her revelations diabolical; she also was vehemently denounced by the University of Paris. Joans interrogators were especially interested in why she thought her spirits were saints rather than demonic deceptions. Had she been given a sure sign? A consultant to the investigations, the bishop of Lisieux, had stated that prophets should be believed only if there were accompanying signs, miracles, and references to Scriptures. A sign would be something imprinted on the physical world, which could be perceived by at least one of the ve senses and could be veried independently. Joan could offer no such evidence. She said she knew her spirits were good because they always helped her. She could identify Michael, she said, by his angelic speech and language. However, she also admitted that initially she was uncertain that it was indeed Michael; she was afraid; she saw him many times before she knew it was Saint Michael. The interrogators were not impressed by the alleged sign given to Charles, for no testimony was forthcoming from the court as to the verity of what she claimed. Joans world may have been full of visions, voices, apparitions, and a crown, but no one else couldor wouldverify the truthfulness of it all. From the outset the interrogators were inclined to believe that Joans experiences were of evil spirits, and they relentlessly attempted to link them with FAIRIES (because fairies were pagan, they were evil in the view of the church). Joan testified over and over again that the spirits filled her with joy and guided her. When Michael appeared, she said, she felt carefree and not in a state of mortal sin; she was always unhappy to see him depart. The spirits even kissed and embraced her, she said. The alleged physical contact repulsed the interrogators, who associated that too with evil. Furthermore they were put off by the spirits instruction to her to wear mens clothing and to ignore many of their questions. Ultimately what sealed her fate was her spirits counsel to fight the English. Joan was charged with 70 counts of sorcery, witchcraft, divining, pseudo-prophecy, invoking of evil spirits, conjuring, being given to the arts of magic, and heresy. The charges of sorcery and witchcraft could not be substantiated, and they were dropped. The remaining charges were reduced to 12, chief among them being heresy, the wearing of mens clothing, and the ability to see apparitions. She remained unrepentant and refused to recant, even Jubilees when threatened with torture. On May 24, 1431, she did make a partial recantation before a large, jeering crowd at the cemetery of St. Ouen. She was sentenced to life in prison. But upon returning to her cell, she resumed male dress. She declared again that the voices were from God, and that God had sent her on her mission. She was accused again of dressing as a man on the instructions of her saints. (Some modern historians speculate that guards stole her own clothing and left her nothing but mens clothing to wear.) On May 28, 1431, Joan was condemned as a relapsed heretic. On May 30 she recanted her confession and was excommunicated from the church. She was burned at the stake the same day in Rouen. According to legend her heart refused to burn, and the executioner discovered it whole in the ashes. The ashes were cast into the Seine. Nearly 20 years after her execution, at the behest of Joans mother and two brothers, Charles VII initiated an investigation into her rehabilitation. The report, written in 1449, takes a much more sympathetic view of her experiences. It emphasizes as a virtue, not a sin, her willingness to accept the counsel of her saints, her distaste for violence, and the accuracy of her prophecies. It also emphasizes that she possessed ve saintly virtues that were deemed signs at the time: humility, willingness to accept counsel, patience, accuracy, and charity. It notes her lack of fear whenever she dealt with her spirits, which various experts throughout the centuries had stated was characteristic of a good rather than an evil person. Pope Calixtus III annulled her sentence in 1450. She was canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV. A national festival in her honor is held in France on the second Sunday in May. Her feast day is May 30. Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research in 1882 in London, hypothesized that Joans visions and voices were externalizations of her own inner voice coming from her subconscious, which Myers called the sublimal self. He compared her saint-guides to the DAIMON of Socrates, an inner voice Socrates credited to a guiding spirit that had been with him from childhood. Joans case, Myers said, exhibited characteristics of motor automatism, in which voices are accompanied by an overwhelming impulse to act in obedience to them. FURTHER READING Butler, Alban. One Hundred Saints. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1994. Christian, William A., Jr. Apparitions in Late Medieval and Renaissance Spain. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981. 203 Myers, Frederic W. H. Myers. Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death. Vols. I and II. New ed. New York: Longmans, Green, 1954. First published 1903. Pernoud, Regine. Joan of Arc: By Herself and Her Witnesses. New York: Dorset, 1964. First published 1962. John XXIII (18811963) Pope John XXIII (195863) maintained a deep and abiding faith in GUARDIAN ANGELS, thanks to the inuence of Pope PIUS XI. John XXIII often used his radio addresses to exhort followers never to neglect devotion to their guardian angels, who, he said, stand ready at all times to help. He particularly urged parents to educate their children that they were not alone but always in the company of their guardian angels. Like Pius XI, John XXIII brought his guardian angel into all his dealings with other persons, especially those with whom he was having trouble. He followed the advice given to him by Pius XI and asked the guardian angels of both him and the other person to work out an accord between them on the angelic level, which then would manifest on the physical level. Even if no difculties were present, John XXIII always at least acknowledged and paid respect to all guardian angels present at any meeting or gathering. He often acknowledged to his secretary how his guardian angel had inspired him to do various things. He conded to a Canadian bishop that his angel had given him the idea to call the Second Vatican Council in 1962, which became the high point of his ponticate. John XXIII was warm and outgoing, and one of the best-loved popes of modern times. He worked for world peace, dialogue with other faiths, and social welfare causes around the world. FURTHER READING Huber, Georges. My Angel Will Go before You. Westminster, Md.: Christian Classics, 1983. Jubilees Apocryphal text that sets forth an account of the revelations of chronology and law made to MOSES during his 40 days on Mount Sinai. Forty-nine of the 50 chapters are a long revelation made directly to Moses by one of the ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE, who instructs Moses to record what he says in a book. Though the angel is not named, he is thought by some to be Michael. The book of Jubilees is so named because it divides history into periods of jubilees, or about 50 years. Called The Little Genesis, the book probably was written by a priest between 160140 B.C.E. The earliest mention of it appears in the QUMRAN TEXTS, which 204 Judaism, angels in include ve fragments of the book written in Hebrew. The book draws upon the Old Testament and also the rst book of ENOCH. Jubilees gives stories about the creation of the world and ADAM AND EVE; NOAH and the ood; ABRAHAM; JACOB and his family; Enoch; the trials of Joseph; and Moses. It also tells about the creation of angels and demons, their characteristics, duties, and activities. According to Jubilees, evil originates in the angelic kingdom and not with the fall of Adam and Eve. Angels are described only by their ranks; the only angel to be named is Mastema, or Satan, whose origin is not disclosed. Beliar is mentioned, but this is a reference to worthless men and not Satan or a demonic power (1:20). The angels are created on the rst day, along with the HEAVENS, the earth, and the waters. There are two high ranks of angels, the angels of the presence and ANGELS OF SANCTIFICATION. These angels are born circumcised, which enables them to participate with Israel in all its religious observances. Lesser ranks of angels govern the forces of nature: the angels of the spirits of re; the spirit of the winds; the spirit of the clouds and darkness and snow and hail and frost; resoundings and thunder and lightning; cold and heat and winter and springtime and harvest and summer; and all the spirits of his creatures that are in heaven and on earth. Seeing the wonders of creation, the angels praise and bless God (2:13). After creation, God tells the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctication that they are to keep the sabbath with him in heaven and on earth. He announces his intention to separate a nation of people to keep the sabbath; this is Israel (2:19). Jubilees describes the many duties of the good angels. Besides governing the forces of nature and providing knowledge and skill instruction to humans, they convey Gods will to people, test them, report their sins to God, reveal the future, disclose secret cosmic knowledge, bind evil spirits, guard men, and assist those who are attacked by the forces of evil. Angels are assigned to rule over nations, but no angel is assigned to rule over Israel, because God has a direct connection to that nation. Angels who are assigned to the nations of gentiles lead those peoples astray (15:32). A particular class of angels called the WATCHERS are sent to give instruction to humanity, but they fall in love with women and corrupt themselves, spawning giants called the NEPHILIM and a host of evil DEMONS Revolted by the corruption that has spread across the earth, God decides to open the seven oodgates of heaven and send oodwaters to wipe out every living thing save NOAH and his ark. Enoch, taken up into the heavens by angels to see all of creation, bears witness against the Watchers and condemns them for their evil. Enoch is taken to Eden, and, because of his presence there, the waters of the ood spare Eden (56). The corruption of the Watchers marks the beginning of evil upon earth. Two generations later, the polluted demons begin leading the children of Noahs sons astray. Noah prays to God to shut the demons up so that they do not have power over the children of the righteous. God tells the angels to bind the demons. But Mastema appeals to God to let him to keep one-tenth of the demons to be subject to him on earth. This request is granted. The angels bind nine-tenths of the demons into the place of judgment and let Mastema have the rest. The angels then teach herbal healing lore to Noah, so that the remaining evil spirits could be restrained (10:114). Jubilees treats dreams as important events; they serve as a medium of communication with God and provide information about the future. Abraham is told by God in a dream that his reward will be great (14:15); Rebecca learns in a dream that Esau intends to kill Jacob, and she warns him to go away (27:112); Jacob is sent away, and he has his famous dream of the angels ascending and descending a ladder (27:1927); later he dreams that he has been appointed and ordained priest of the Most High God, he and his sons forever (32:12); Rebecca dreams the time of her own death (35:6); Joseph impresses the Egyptian pharaoh with his dream interpretation (39:16ff). See DREAMS AND VISIONS; HAGAR. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 2. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Judaism, angels in See ANGELOLOGY. Jung, Carl Gustav (18751961) Swiss psychiatrist, founder of depth psychology, and one of the most inuential minds of the 20th century. Carl Jung was unique among his peers, possessing immense knowledge of ancient and modern world mythology, Eastern and Western mysticism, alchemy, GNOSTICISM, poetry, music, art and architecture, anthropology, and cross-cultural spiritual experience and practice. From an early age he had numerous extraordinary experiences of his own. He believed that science and religion could be compatible. Life Jung was born on July 26, 1875, in Kesswil, Switzerland, and he grew up in Klein-Huningen near Basel. In early childhood, he began to experience mystical Jung, Carl Gustav realms in dreams. He felt he had two personalities. One was a wise old man who stayed with him and had increasing inuence on his thought throughout his entire life. Jung experienced precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, and hauntings. His psychic sensitivity may have been hereditary, for both his mother and maternal grandmother were known as ghost seers. Jung began to take serious interest in occult phenomena in 1898. In 1890, he decided to become a psychiatrist, and he did his medical training at Basel. Throughout his career, the paranormal played a signicant role in his vision of humanitys psychic realm. He married in 1903. In 1906, he published one of his most signicant early works, The Psychology of Dementia Praecox. Jung became interested in mythology around 1909, the year he resigned a post at Burgholzki Mental Clinic, where he had been practicing for nine years. Also in 1909, he traveled to the United States with his mentor, Sigmund Freud, and received an honorary degree from Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. (Jung also received an honorary doctorate from Harvard in 1936, Oxford in 1938, and the University of Geneva in 1945.) In 1910 he was appointed permanent president of the International Congress of Psycho-Analysis. Jung resigned this position in 1914, one year after he also resigned a professorship at the University of Zurich. From 1907 to 1913, Jung was greatly inuenced by Freud, but then they parted company over diverging viewpoints, especially concerning the spiritual aspects of the psyche. The break with Freud had a profoundly disturbing effect on Jung, and he suffered a six-yearlong breakdown during which he had psychotic fantasies. He was labeled a mystic and was shunned by his peers. During this psychotic phase of Jungs life, he experienced numerous paranormal phenomena. Following his emergence from this period, Jung pursued work on his own theories, guided in part by his visionary dreams. He also was intensely interested in GNOSTICISM, particularly its Sophia or WISDOM. This interest, joined with an interest in alchemy, paved the way for a modern revival of interest in the spiritual dimensions of both subjects. Jung also became intensely interested in mandala symbolism. In 1944, Jung suffered a heart attack. He recovered, and he later recounted a NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE (NDE) in which he attained a mystical understanding of the meaning of his life. In the aftermath, he experienced a remarkable transformation in which he felt he was in the happy state felt by the unborn. He had a vision in which he was Adam and a Jew, and his nurse was his Magna Mater, who proceeded to teach him the 205 mystery of the hieros gamos, or sacred marriage with the divine. After the death of his wife, Jung built a castle of stone on newly acquired property in Bollingen, Switzerland. He carved numerous alchemical and mystical symbols into the stone. The ongoing building and altering of his tower signied for him an extension of consciousness achieved in old age. The tower and its symbolic role in his life is a leitmotif in Jungs writings. During his retirement at Bollingen, Jung reworked many earlier papers and developed further his ideas on many topics. Jung believed in reincarnation and was inuenced by The Tibetan Book of the Dead. He believed his own incarnation was not due to karma, however, but a passionate drive for understanding in order to piece together mythic conceptions. He feared greatly for the future of mankind, and said the only salvation lay in becoming more conscious. He said he believed his work proved that the pattern of God exists in every person. Three days before he died, Jung had the last of his visionary dreams, and a portent of his own impending death. In the dream, he had become whole. A signicant symbol was tree roots interlaced with gold, the alchemical symbol of completion. When he died in his room in Zurich on June 6, 1961, a great storm arose on Lake Geneva and lightning struck a favorite tree of his. Works Jungian principles have been found to be applicable to nearly all academic disciplines from mythology to religion to quantum physics, and to nearly all aspects of modern life. His prolic writings have been collected into 20 volumes plus a supplement. One of his most important contributions was his general theory of psychological types, rst published in 1921. He distinguished two basic psychological types, extroverts and introverts, who could be grouped according to four basic functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. Other signicant theories include the anima (feminine principle) and animus (masculine principle), psychic images that exist in everyone as feminine and masculine aspects; the collective unconscious; and ARCHETYPES. Of symbols, Jung termed them an intuitive idea that cannot yet be formulated in any other or better way. Of dreams, he maintained that they are the private property of the dreamer and seek a private language that only the dreamer can interpret; some dreams, however, come from the collective unconscious and belong to all mankind. In Aion (1951), Jung summarizes the roles of the archetypes of the unconscious; his observations on 206 Jung, Carl Gustav the Christ image as symbolized in the sh had a major inuence on Christian scholarship. Religious themes are developed by Jung in another major work of the period, Answer to Job (1952) as well as in Mysterium Coniunctionis (195556), which concerns alchemy. In the latter, his last masterpiece, he states that he was satised that his psychology was at last given its place in reality and established upon its historical foundations. Jungs personal experiences are recorded in his autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reections (1961). Visionary Experiences During his lifetime Jung concealed the origins of his discoveries. He said everything he wrote was based on empirical evidence, indicating that no matter how esoteric or mystical much of his work appeared, it always rested on experience from the psychiatric and psychological eld. His heirs have not released the corpus containing Jungs original experiences of the unconscious. But after his death and the publication of his autobiographical fragments entitled Memories, Dreams, Reections, progressively more daring revelations began to appear from his disciples and his posthumous letters and notes disclosing that between 1912 and 1917 Jung underwent a period of psychic intensity that involved a tremendous ooding of his consciousness from within by forces that he called archetypal, but which previous ages would have declared to be divine and demonic. He called this cycle of experiences his Nekyia, using the term with which Homer described the descent of Odysseus into the underworld. His handwriting changed to a style used in the 14th century, and he painted with pigments he himself made. According to eye-witnesses, Jung had bound his most beautiful scriptures and paintings in red leather, which became known as the Red Book, and they fell into two distinct categories. Some were bright and angelic, whereas others are dark and demonic in form. One document that has surfaced from this period, entitled Seven Sermons to the Dead, purports to be dictated by the second-century Gnostic Basilides in Alexandria (see ABRAXAS). The inuence of visionary revelations on Jungs work can be compared to EMANUEL SWEDENBORG, JAKOB BOEHME, WILLIAM BLAKE, RUDOLF STEINER, Islamic theosophists such as IBN SINA and AL-SUHRAWARDI, as well as all the mystics from around the world whose works he knew so well. In the context of the Judeo-Christian myth, Jung found the role of angels remarkable in their pointing to a disturbance on the other side, that is, in the unconscious. In his autobiography, he calls the fall of the angels a premature invasion of the human world by unconscious contents. The angels are a strange genus: they are precisely what they are and cannot be anything else. They are in themselves soulless beings who represent nothing but the thoughts and intuitions of their Lord. Angels who fall, then, are exclusively bad angels. These release the well-known effect of ination, which we can also observe nowadays in the megalomania of dictators; the angels beget with men a race of giants which ends by threatening to devour mankind, as is told in the book of ENOCH. The self-realization of God in human form to rectify the situation picks up the ancient idea of the divine marriage and its consequences; the possibility of Christ within us means the unconscious wholeness penetrated into the psychic realm of inner experience, and man was made aware of all that entered into his true conguration. This was a decisive step, not only for man, but also for the Creator, who, in the eyes of those who had been delivered from darkness, cast off His dark qualities and became the summum bonum. Jung saw the task of middle and later age as achievement of insight, wholeness, and spiritual depth, the rounding out of the psyche, which he called the individuation process, and which can only be accomplished through self-knowledge, the road to knowledge of God. Jungs concept of the unconscious was much more elaborate than Freuds. There is a personal unconscious of dimmed memories and repressed materials, a transpersonal or collective unconscious at a deeper level, evidenced by emotions and visions erupting from its depth, and a fathomless part beyond. By collective unconscious Jung meant the inherited possibility of psychical functioning . . . namely . . . the brain structure. This shared human heritage is not the dark chaos of impulse that Freud had assumed. Jungs unconscious has a primordial structure and coherence, like a burial chamber of priceless antiques whose luster is revealed by the light of consciousness probing the darkness of the womb. One cannot directly observe the unconscious mind, but there are persistent hints of its archetypal structure. Jung denes archetypes as primordial psychic processes that have their own independent lives, and are made known to us when transformed into images that consciousness can grasp, but only in symbol and metaphor. Angels and ARCHONS are example of archetypal images. In Psychology and Alchemy (Collected Works volume 12), Jung describes meditation in an alchemical sense as an inner dialogue with someone unseen. It may be God, when He is invoked, or with himself, or with his good angel. . . . [T]he psychologist is familiar with this inner dialogue; it is an essential part of the technique Jung, Carl Gustav for coming to terms with the unconscious. In another alchemical context in Alchemical Studies (Collected Works volume 13) Jung says that the angel, as a winged or spiritual being, represents, like Mercurius, the volatile substance, the pneuma, the disembodied. Spirit in alchemy almost invariably has a relation to water or to the radical moisture, a fact that may be explained simply by the empirical nature of the oldest form of chemistry, namely the art of cooking. The steam arising . . . conveys the rst vivid impression of metasomatosis, the transformation of the corporeal into the incorporeal, into spirit or pneuma. Thus, the angel or spiritual being is an archetype who mediates and activates the spiritual inner power to the conscious being. A striking example of an archetype that Jung calls a symbol of the immortal self is the Koranic gure Khidr, the long-lived one who is analogous to ELIJAH, Osiris, a Second Adam, a counselor, a Paraclete whom MOSES accepts as a higher consciousness and looks up to for 207 instruction. Jung tells of the headman of a safari he met in East Africa, a Somali raised in the Su faith, who regarded the Khidr as a living person whom one could meet at any time in various guises. The man dreams of Khidr and respectfully salutes him, and a few days later his wish for employment was fullled. Jung compares this gure to an angel, a messenger. He says this shows how even in our own day, the archetype lives on in the religion of the people. See INTELLIGENCES. FURTHER READING Hoeller, Stephan A. The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons of the Dead. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books, 1982. Jung, Carl G. Collected Works. Edited by Sir Herbert Read. Translated by R.F C. Hull. Bollingen Series 20 Vols. 120. . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1958 . Jung, Carl G. Memories, Dreams and Reections. Edited by Aniela Jaffe. Translated by Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Pantheon, 1961. K f Kabbalah (Cabala, Kabala, Qabalah) The mysticism of classical Judaism. Kabbalah is derived from the Hebrew word QBL, meaning to receive or that which is received. It refers especially to a secret oral tradition handed down from teacher to pupil. The term Kabbalah was rst applied to secret, mystical teachings in the 11th century by Ibn Gabirol, a Spanish philosopher, and it has since become applied to all Jewish mystical practice. Though the Kabbalah is founded on the Torah, it is not an intellectual discipline; nor does it instruct the mystic to withdraw from humanity to pursue enlightenment. The Kabbalist seeks union with God while maintaining a full social, family, and community life. According to lore, God taught the Kabbalah to angels, who, after the Fall, taught it to ADAM in order to provide man with a way back to God. It was passed to NOAH, then to ABRAHAM and MOSES, who in turn initiated 70 Elders. Kings David and SOLOMON were initiates. refers to the chariot of Ezekiels vision. The goal of the Merkabah mystic was to enter the throne world, which was reached after passing through seven HEAVENS as seven hekalot, or heavenly mansions. Merkabah mysticism was shamanistic in nature and required fasting and repetitious recitation of hymns and prayers to achieve a trance state. The Merkabah-rider then sent his soul upwards (later mystics said downwards) to pierce the veil around the Merkabah throne. The soul was assailed along the way by evil DEMONS and spirits, and, to protect it, the mystic prepared in advance magical TALISMANS and SEALS and recited incantations. The historical origin of the true Kabbalah centers on a short book titled Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Creation). Its exact date is unknown; it was in use in the 10th century, but it may have been authored as early as the 3rd century. It is attributed to Rabbi Akiba, whom the Romans martyred. Sefer Yetzirah presents a discussion on cosmology and cosmogony and sets forth the central structure of the Kabbalah. It also is reputed to contain the formula for creation of a golem, an articial human. A golem can be created only with divine permission; the ritual is performed only by the purest of practitioners. In 917, a form of practical Kabbalism was introduced by Aaron ben Samuel in Italy; it later spread through Germany and became known as German Kabbalism or Early Hasidim. It drew upon the Merkabah practices in that it was ecstatic, had MAGIC rituals, and History The theosophical and mystical lore which grew into the Kabbalah was inuenced by GNOSTICISM and Neoplatonism. The earliest form of mystical literature is found in the tradition of the MERKABAH mystics (ca. 100 B.C.E.1000 C.E.). Merkabah means Gods ThroneChariot and 208 Kabbalah had as primary techniques prayer, contemplation, and meditation. The magical power of words assumed great importance, and it gave rise to the techniques of GEMATRIA, notarikon, and temura. The German Kabbalists held that God was too exalted for man to comprehend. However, mystics could perceive Gods presence in the form of a divine re or light, which is the rst creation, SHEKINAH, the Mother, Gods female aspect. The mystic sought to unite with this glory. The German Kabbalists also conceived of four worlds: Gods glory, angels, the animal soul, and the intellectual soul. Classical Kabbalah was born in the 13th century in Provence, France, and it moved into Spain, where it was developed most extensively by medieval Spanish Jews. The primary work from which classical Kabbalah developed is Sefer Zohar (Book of Splendor), attributed to a second-century sage, Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai, but actually written between 1280 and 1286 by the Spanish Kabbalist, Moses de Leon. According to the story, Rabbi Simeon and his son, Eleazar, persecuted by the Roman emperor Trajan, hid in a cave for 13 years Kabbalist and the Tree of Life (From Portae Lucius by Paulus Ricius [1516]) 209 where the Ben-Gurion Airport now stands in Lod, Israel. After Trajans death, the two emerged, but Rabbi Simeon was so distraught at the lack of spirituality among Jews that he returned to the cave to meditate. After a year, a voice told him to let the ordinary people go their own way, but to teach those who were ready. The Zohar is said to comprise those teachings, which were recorded by disciples. The Spanish Kabbalahthe teachings of the Zoharspread into Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries. After the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492, Kabbalah study became more public. The most important post-expulsion gure to inuence what was to become modern Kabbalah was Isaac Luria Ashkenazi (153472), called the Ari. Luria, a student of the great Kabbalist, Moses Cordovero (152270), conceived of bold new theories which gave the Kabbalah a new terminology and complex new symbolism. He emphasized letter combinations as a medium for meditation and mystical prayer. The Hasidic movement emerged from the Lurianic Kabbalah, and it made Kabbalah accessible to the masses. The Hasidim are the only major branch of modern Judaism to follow mystical practices. The principle gure in this emergence was Israel ben Eleazar (16981760), called the Baal Shem Tov (the Master of the Holy Name), whose teaching centered on devekuth, or cleaving to God, but in a more personal and emotional way than before. Devekuth centers in the here and now; thus, concentrated awareness and prayer were reinterpreted in order to be made part of everyday life. For the Hasidim, constant prayer is the vehicle to mystical awareness. Interest in the Kabbalah among Jews began to decline after the 18th century. The Reconstructionist movement, founded in 1922 by Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan, borrows from Hasidic traditions and espouses a more mystical Judaism. Interest in Kabbalah enjoyed a cross-cultural renewal beginning in the late 20th century as part of a broad interest in esoteric subjects. Practical Kabbalah A form of Kabbalah called practical Kabbalah is the core of the Western magical tradition. Magical applications grew rst out of German Kabbalism and then Lurianic Kabbalism. Christian occultists were attracted to the magical AMULETS, incantations, demonology, seals, and letter permutations, and they used practical Kabbalah as the basis for ritual magical texts. The Tetragrammaton was held in great awe for its power over all things in the universe, including demons. Beginning in the late 15th century, the Kabbalah was harmonized with Christian doctrines to form a Christian Kabbalah, which supposedly proved the 210 Kabbalah divinity of Christ. AGRIPPA included Kabbalah in his monumental work, Occult Philosophy (1531). Also in the 16th century, alchemical symbols were integrated into the Christian Kabbalah. Interest in the Kabbalah received renewed attention in the 19th century from non-Jewish occultists such as FRANCIS BARRETT, Eliphas Levi, and Papus. Kabbalah inuenced the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn; occultist Dion Fortune called it the Yoga of the West. Central Concepts God is Ain Soph (without end or unending), who is unknowable, unnameable, and beyond representation. God created the world out of himself but is not diminished in any way through the act of creation; everything remains within him. The aim of man is to realize union with the Divine. All things are reected in a higher world, and nothing can exist independently of all else. Thus, man, by elevating his soul to unite with God, also elevates all other entities in the cosmos. One of the mysteries of Kabbalah is why God chose to create imperfect, lower worlds, though it is held that he did so because he wished to show the measure of his goodness. He created the world by means of 32 secret paths of wisdom, which are formed of letters and numbers: the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet and 10 sephirot, which are vessels bearing the emanations of God, or are expressions of God. They form a language that substitutes for God. The sephirot are the source from which all numbers emanate and by which all reality is structured. The sephirot form the central image of Kabbalistic meditation, the TREE OF LIFE, a map that depicts the descent of the Divine into the material world, and the path by which man can ascend to the Divine while still in the esh. Kabbalists meditate on arrays of numbers and lettersevery letter has its own numerical value to achieve the different states of consciousness of the 32 paths. Fingers and toes, each of which correspond to a sephirah, also can be used in meditation. Meditational arrays are precise and must be meditated upon in exact order at the right time, and to completion. Some arrays make take hours or even days to complete. The sephirot comprise the sacred, unknowable, and unspeakable personal name of God: YHVH (Yahweh), the Tetragrammaton. So sacred is the Tetragrammaton that other names, such as ELOHIM, ADONAI, and Jehovah, are substituted in its place in scripture. The letters YHVH correspond to the Four Worlds that constitute the cosmos: Atziluth is the world of archetypes and emanation, from which are derived all forms of manifestation. The sephirot themselves exist here. Briah (also Beriyah) is the world of creation, in which archetypal ideas become patterns. The Throne of God is here, and God sits upon it and lowers his essence to the rest of his creation. Yetzirah is the world of formation, in which the patterns are expressed. It is the world of speech. Assiah is the world of the material. Each sephirah has its own title and divine names, and each is divided into four sections in which operate the Four Worlds. Angels in Kabbalistic Teachings Angels belong to the world of Yetzirah, the highest realm that can be visualized. In Yetzirah, one can glimpse only a reection of the higher worlds. The prophet EZEKIEL attained this state of consciousness in his mystical experience, in which he saw the likeness of the Throne (Ezekiel 1:26), which is Briah, the realm of the Throne. Ezekiel also saw a likeness of the appearance of a man, which is the anthropomorphic array of the sephirot. According to the Talmud, every word of God creates an angel. Gods word is his interaction with lower creation, and the spiritual force he creates in this interaction is the angel. The Sefer Yetzirah says that angels are made of breaths, and they carry out the function of direct and reected breaths. Angels exist purely on a spiritual plane and are the ARCHETYPE of the nonphysical being. However, they are inferior to man in that they are assigned a station and can go no higher, and they know nothing outside of their own domain. Descriptions are given in various texts of angels having to consult other angels in order to answer questions, or of not knowing answers to questions. Man has the capability of expanding his knowledge. He is capable of ascent, and, by applying himself spiritually, he can achieve greater closeness to God. There are two types of angels, temporary and permanent. Temporary angels were created for the rst time on the second day. Temporary angels are created every morning for a day. They have no proper names and each has a single mission, which differentiates it from the other angels. No two angels can share the same mission. MINISTERING ANGELS are visualized as ames and re. Permanent angels were created on the fth day. These angels have proper names and can perform multiple tasks. They are associated with the stars (including planetary bodies) and work through these celestial entities. They act like souls for the stars, and the stars act as their bodies, helping to keep their tasks integrated and unied. According to the Zohar, karabu every star has its own name; the midrashim teach that these names correspond to the names of the permanent angels. The Sefer Yetzirah says that the names are formed by permutations of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet; there are approximately 1 sextillion possible permutations. The angels and stars form the lowest level of interaction between God and creation. The stars channel spiritual energy down to the physical world. They govern everything; nothing is too small. The stars and their angels are assigned relationships to the elements, seasons, hours, days, months, body parts, and everything imaginable. According to midrashim, every blade of grass has a constellation over it, telling it how to grow. The NAMES of angels, along with names of God, are used in meditation arrays and magical incantations. Western magical texts called GRIMOIRES describe formulae for rituals and spells. FURTHER READING Bloom, Harold. Kabbalah and Criticism. New York: Continuum, 1984. Epstein, Perle. Kabbalah: The Way of the Jewish Mystic. Boston: Shambhala, 1988. Kaplan, Aryeh. Sefer Yetzirah: The Book of Creation. Rev. ed. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1997. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: New American Library, 1974. Three Books of Occult Philosophy Written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim. Translated by James Freake. Edited and annotated by Donald Tyson. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. Zohar: The Book of Enlightenment. Translated by Daniel Chanan Matt. Ramsey, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1983. Kafziel (Cassiel, Qaphsiel) One of the seven ARCHANGELS and a ruler of the planet Saturn. As Qaphsiel, he governs the moon. Kafziel rules over the death of kings. In the Zohar, he and Hizikiel are the chief aides to Gabriel during times when Gabriel takes his standard into battle. Kakabel (Kabaiel, Kochab, Kochbiel, Kokbiel) Angel who is both good and bad. In the SEFER RAZIEL, Kakabel is a high angel and PRINCE who rules over stars and constellations. In 1 ENOCH he is a FALLEN ANGEL who commands 365,000 spirits. Kakabel also teaches astrology. Kalaziel In the Testament of SOLOMON, the angel who has the power to thwart Rhyx, the Enautha, a disease-causing DEMON who is among the DECANS OF THE ZODIAC. karabu Winged Assyrian deity of protection. The term karabu is Assyrian and means bless, consecrate. The term CHERUBIM is derived from it. The male kari-bu is a blessed/consecrated one and the female kuribi is a protector goddess. The karibu have the bodies of sphinxes or bulls and the heads Kabshiel Angel invoked for grace and favor. Kabshiels name is inscribed on old Jewish AMULETS. One magical formula instructs that the petitioner write the following charm on a piece of deer skin: By Thy universal name of grace and favor YHVH, set Thy grace YHVH upon (name), son of (name), as it rested upon Joseph, the righteous one, as it is said, And the Lord was with Joseph, and showed kindness unto him and gave him favor in the sight of all those who beheld him. In the name of Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Kabshiel, Yah (repeated eight times), Ehyeh, Ahah (repeated four times), Yehu (nine times.) kadishim (kadashim) See QADDASIN. 211 Kari-bu guarding a temple, from a 19th-century Bible (Authors collection) 212 Karael of humans, and they guarded entrances to temples, homes, and buildings. Karael In the Testament of SOLOMON, angel who has the power to thwart Belbel, the DEMON of the eighth DECAN OF THE ZODIAC. Kerubiel is attended by two princes of the chariot; one of them is Sarbiel. Kerubiel is in charge of the cherubim whom he increases in beauty and glory. He sings their praises, shines their crowns, and praises them and thus prepares the throne of glory that rests upon the tops of the heads of the cherubim. Kether See TREE OF LIFE. Kedushah See QEDUSSAH. Kelly, Edward See JOHN DEE. Kemuel (Camael, Shemuel, Seraphiel) ARCHON, chief of the SERAPHIM and one of the 10 sephirot of the Kabbalistic TREE OF LIFE. In rabbinic lore of the ninth century, Kemuel guards the gate to HEAVEN. When MOSES reaches the top of Mount Sinai to receive the law from God, he sees a cloud oating there and steps inside it. He is at once in the presence of a great light similar to that of the burning bush. The cloud bears him up to heaven, and he loses track of time. The cloud stops at the gate of the FIRMAMENT and he gets out. The angel Kemuel, who guards the gate, admonishes him for trying to enter heaven. Moses tells the angel he has come to receive the Torah, and the gate opens instantly. Seeing that it is Gods will, Kemuel allows Moses to come through. The angels, who were not happy to see the creation of humanity, likewise are not happy to see the Torah passed into human hands. As an archon, Kemuel stands at the windows of heaven. He mediates the prayers of Israel with the princes of the seventh heaven. In the Revelation of Moses, Kemuel is the leader of 12,000 ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION. See ARCHONS. Kerubiel YHVH (Cherubiel) PRINCE of the CHERUBIM. 3 ENOCH describes Kerubiel as a being as high and as wide as the seven HEAVENS. His body is full of burning coals; when he opens his mouth it blazes like a ery torch and his tongue is of re. His entire face looks like a blazing re, his eyes are brilliant sparks and his eyelashes are like lightning. The sacred name of Yahweh is engraved upon his crown of lightning. The splendor of the SHEKINAH is on his face and he wears the bow of the Shekinah upon his shoulders. Flames and lightnings shoot from his face and his body. Wherever Kerubiel goes he is accompanied by thunderclaps and earthquakes. When he is angry the earth shakes. Kezef In Jewish lore, the angel of wrath, an ANGEL OF DEATH, and one of ve ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION or ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT, with Af, Hemah, Mashit, and Haron-Peor. Kezef ghts against MOSES and, as the ANGEL OF DEATH, is imprisoned in the Holy Tabernacle by Aaron. Kokabiel (Kabiel, Kakabiel, Kochab, Kochbiel, Kokbiel) Angel who is PRINCE of the stars (kochab); also a FALLEN ANGEL. The name Kokabiel means star of God. In 1 ENOCH Kokabiel is a fallen angel who commands 365,000 demons. In 3 Enoch he is prince of the stars, ranking below Rahatiel, the prince of the constellations. 3 Enoch 17:7 says Kokabiel commands 365,000 myriads of MINISTERING ANGELS who make the stars run from city to city and from state to state in the Raqia level of the HEAVENS. In SEFER RAZIEL, Kokabiel is a high-ranking angel. Kunopegos (Kunopaston) DEMON in the shape of a sea horse. Kunopegos raises himself up a great waves in the open seas, causes seasickness among sailors, and sinks boats in order to claim the bodies of men and their treasures. He consults with the Prince of Demons, Beelzebub. He can come up to shore as waves and shapeshift into the form of a man. He is thwarted by the angel Iameth. In the Testament of Solomon, King SOLOMON connes Kunopegos by casting him into a broad at bowl lled with 10 receptacles of seawater. The top is fortied with marble and the bowls mouth is covered with asphalt, pitch, and hemp rope. The vessel is stored in the Temple of Jerusalem. Kutiel Angel of divining rods. Kutiel is invoked in YiddishDeutsch rituals for the making of divining rods. kyriotates See DOMINIONS; STEINER, RUDOLF. L f Labbiel The original name of the archangel Raphael. According to Jewish lore, Labbiel was renamed Raphael by God when he obeyed Gods command concerning the creation of man. Lassuarim In the LEGEMETON, the ruling angel of the 10th hour of the night, called Malcho. Lassuarim rules 100 chief dukes and 100 lesser dukes who are attended by thousands of servants. Lahabiel Angel who protects against evil spirits and who assists Raphael in the rulership of the rst day. As a protector, Lahabiel is often invoked with Phaniel, Rahabiel, and Ariel. Laylah (Lailah, Lailahel, Leliel) Angel who oversees and protects childbirth. The name Laylah derives from the Hebrew word layil, meaning night. In Jewish lore, Laylah is portrayed as being both good and bad. In the Zohar and Talmud, he guards birth and the newborn, and he proclaims if the individual will be strong or weak, wise or foolish, and rich or poor. Elsewhere he is said to ght for ABRAHAM in his battle against kings. In other Jewish lore, Laylah is similar to Lilith as a DEMON of the night who attacks those who sleep alone and as a prince of conception. See CHILDBIRTH ANGELS. Lahash Angel who, with the help of Zakun, attempts to interfere with divine will by leading 184 myriads of angels to steal the prayer of MOSES before it could reach God. Lahash and Zakun were punished with 60 lashes of re. According to another version of the story the angel Sammael binds Lahash with chains of re, ogs him with 70 stripes of re, and expels him from the divine presence. Lemegeton A handbook of magic, or GRIMOIRE, attributed to SOLOMON. Also known as the Lesser Key of Solomon. Lamechiel (Lamechalal) In the Testament of SOLOMON, angel who thwarts Deception, of the seven demonic HEAVENLY BODIES. In 3 ENOCH, Lamechiel is one of the PLANETARY RULERS. Lerajie (Leraie, Oray) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Lerajie is a marquis who appears as an archer, dressed 213 214 Lesser Yahweh in green, and carrying a bow and quiver. He causes battles and causes arrow wounds to putrefy. He commands 30 legions. Lesser Yahweh See ANGEL OF THE LORD; METATRON. Levi Third son of JACOB and Leah, and progenitor of the priestly line of Israel. Levi received his calling to the priesthood in a dream vision in which an angel took him into the HEAVENS. He was initiated in another dream vision by seven angels. The dream visions are described in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, a pseudepigraphon that comprises the last statements of the 12 sons of Jacob and Leah. Levis vision of the ascent to heaven originally told of three heavens, but later versions of the text expanded it to include seven heavens, though not all heavens are described. Levi is out tending sheep in Abel-Maoul (also AbelMeholah), when a spirit of understanding from the Lord comes to him, and he sees how all human beings are living in sin, deceit, and injustice. Lamenting this, he prays to the Lord for deliverance. He falls asleep and has his visionary experience. Levi beholds that he is on a high mountain. The heavens open and an ANGEL OF THE LORD invites him to enter. He sees the rst heaven, where much water is suspended, and the second heaven, which is measureless and much brighter and more lustrous. The angel tells him that he shall see yet another heaven, even more lustrous and beyond compare, where he shall stand near the Lord. The angel says: You shall be his priest and you shall tell forth his mysteries to me. You shall announce the one who is about to redeem Israel. Through you and Judah [Levis brother] the Lord will be seen by men. . . . Your life shall be from the Lords provision; he shall be to you as eld and vineyard and produce, as silver and gold. (2:1012) The angel goes on to describe the heavens that have been shown to Levi. The rst heaven is dark because it sees all the injustices of humankind, and it contains re, snow, and ice, ready for the day of judgment. The rst heaven also contains all the spirits who are instruments of Gods judgment, who are dispatched for the punishment of mankind. The second heaven contains the armies arrayed for judgment day to work vengeance on the spirits of error and of Beliar. In the third heaven are the angels, or Holy Ones. In the sixth heaven are the messengers who carry responses to the ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE and the and AUTHORITIES who offer eternal praise to God. The seventh heaven contains the Great Glory, or God, in the Holy of Holies superior to all holiness. The ARCHANGELS attend God and offer propitiatory sacrices on behalf of all the sins of ignorance of the righteous ones. The angel who is with Levi tells him that when the Lord looks upon the angels, they all tremble. Even the earth and abysses tremble, but the sons of men remain insensitive and continue their sinful ways. Consequently, Gods judgment will be delivered upon them. Levi, however, is delivered from wrongdoing so that he can bring light into Israel. The angel opens the gates of heaven, and Levi beholds the Holy Most High sitting on his throne. God says, Levi, to you I have given the blessing of the priesthood until I shall come and dwell in the midst of Israel (5:23). The angel takes Levi back to earth and gives him a sword and shield, with instructions to take vengeance on the city of Shechem for the sake of his sister Dinah, who has been deled by the men there. Levi obeys, putting an end to the sons of Hamor. He asks the angel for his NAME so that he can call upon him again for help. The angel replies, I am the angel who makes intercession for the nation Israel, that they might not be beaten (5:67). Levi awakens, and he blesses God for the vision. Levi takes action on his dream vision. He destroys Shechem, and his brother Simeon and others destroy Hamor. Jacob is not happy, but Levi maintains that Gods sentence upon the cities was guilty. Levi goes to Bethel, and, after 70 days, he has another dream vision in which he sees seven men in white clothing who are Gods agents (and are probably angels). They initiate him into the priesthood. The men tell him to put on the vestments of the priest, the crown of righteousness, the oracle of understanding, the robe of truth, the breastplate of faith, the miter for the head, and the apron for prophetic power. The rst man anoints him with holy oil and gives him a staff. The second man washes him with pure water, feeds him by hand with bread and holy wine, and puts on him a glorious vestment. The third man gives him a linen garment. The fourth places on him a purple girdle. The fth gives him a branch of olive wood. The sixth places a wreath on his head. The seventh places the priestly diadem on him and lls his hands with incense. The men tell Levi that from his posterity will come priests, judges, and scribes, and that they will be blessed and have everything desired in Israel. THRONES Lilith When Levi awakens, he understands that this dream vision is like the rst one. He resolves to tell no one about it, and he does not do so until he delivers his last words in his testament. As the dream visions foretell, he does establish the great priestly lineage in Israel. See DREAMS AND VISIONS. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Leviathan One of the demonic angels who is associated with the primordial deep of the seas. The name Leviathan means in Hebrew that which gathers itself together in folds. In rabbinic lore, he is associated with the Rahab, angel of the sea. Leviathan is personied as an enormous whale who is impervious to all weapons. In Job, Leviathan is a sea DEMON. In Jonah, Leviathan is a whale who swallows Jonah and keeps him in its belly for three days, until God orders Jonah to be vomited up. In Isaiah, Leviathan is the eeing serpent and twisting serpent, the dragon that is in sea, whom God will slay at the end of time. (27:1) Both Leviathan and Behemoth were created on the fth day. Lilith Winged female DEMON of the night who ies about searching for newborn children to kidnap or strangle, and sleeping men to seduce in order to produce demon sons. Lilith evolved from Babylonian and perhaps Sumerian demonologies, which included male and female evil spirits that molested children. Lilith gures prominently in Jewish demonology. Lilith has a female face, wings, and long hair. She ies about at night with a horde of demons, using tens of thousands of names to disguise herself. She visits women in childbirth and sleeping men, from whose nocturnal emissions she creates her demon sons. There are different versions of the story of how Lilith came into being. According to one, she encountered Adam after his split with Eve and had sexual relations with him that produced the demon sons who ll the world. According to another version she was the rst woman to have sexual relations with Adam, and thus was his wife. Lilith demanded equality with Adam, and, and failing to get it, she left him in anger. She said the Ineffable Name of God and ew off into the air. Adam complained to God that his wife had 215 deserted him. God then sent three angels, Sanvi, Sansanvi, and Semangelaf (Snwy, Snswy, and Smnglf), to bring Lilith back to Eden. The angels found her in the Red Sea, and threatened her with the loss of 100 of her demon children every day unless she returned to Adam. She refused and was punished accordingly. Lilith took revenge by launching a reign of terror against women in childbirth, newborn infantsparticularly malesand men who slept alone. She was forced, however, to swear to the three angels that whenever she saw their NAMES or images on an AMULET, she would leave infants and mothers alone. This story has Christian versions, in which the name of Lilith varies and the angels are replaced by the saints Sines, Sisinnios, and Synodoros. A Kabbalistic story tells that Lilith became the bride of Samael (Satan). She will exist until the Messianic day, when God will cleanse evil from the face of the earth. Various charms and AMULETS protected the vulnerable against her predations. Women in childbirth were protected by amulets bearing not only the names of the three angels but also their form, wings, hands, and legs, which were afxed to all four walls of the birthing room. The incantation To her that ies in rooms of darknesspass quickly quickly Lil[ith] was said to protect homes. New marriages were protected from Lilith by the tossing of four coins on the marriage bed and saying Adam and Eve and Avaunt thee, Lilith! As late as the 18th century, it was a common practice in many countries to protect new mothers and infants with amulets against Lilith. Male infants were vulnerable for the rst week of life; girls for the rst three weeks. Sometimes a MAGIC circle was drawn around the lying-in bed, with a charm inscribed with the names of the three angels, ADAM AND EVE, and the words barring Lilith or protect this newborn child from all harm. Sometimes amulets with such inscriptions were placed in all corners of and throughout the bedchamber. If a child laughed in its sleep, it was a sign that Lilith was present. Tapping the child on the nose made the demon go away. (See CHILDBIRTH ANGELS.) Men who had nocturnal emissions believed they had been seduced by Lilith during the night, and had to say incantations to prevent the offspring from becoming demons. Lilith was believed to be assisted by succubi in her bloodthirsty nocturnal quests, and these gathered with her near the mountains of darkness to frolic with Samael. The Zohar describes Liliths powers as being at their height when the moon is on the wane. Lilith also could be repelled by the saying of any of her numberless names. The basis for this comes from the story (probably Christian Byzantine in origin) 216 Lincoln Imp about how the prophet ELIJAH confronted her as she was en route to attack a womans newborn son, and to give her the sleep of death, to take her son and drink his blood, to suck the marrow of his bones and to eat his esh. Elijah forced her to reveal some of her names. Then he excommunicated her. Lilith probably is related to the Judeo-Hellenistic demon Obizoth, who is repelled by an amulet bearing one of the mystical names of the archangel Raphael. According to Islamic mythology, her sexual relations with her infernal husband, IBLIS, created the demonic DJINN. Lilith-like demons appear in mythologies around the world. She also is associated with other characters in legend and myth, including the Queen of Sheba and Helen of Troy. In medieval Europe she often was portrayed as the wife, concubine, or grandmother of Satan. In the late 17th century she was described as a screech owl (probably originating from a reference in Isaiah), blind by day, who sucked the breasts or navels of young children or the dugs of goats. Some of Liliths best-known names are: Abeko, Abito, Abro, Abyzu, Ailo, Alu, Amiz, Amizo, Amizu, Ardad Lili, Avitu, Batna, Bituah, Eilo, Gallu, Gelou, Gilou, Ik, Ils, Ita, Izorpo, Kalee, Kali, Kakash, Kea, Kema, Kokos, Lamassu, Odom, Partasah, Partashah, Patrota, Petrota, Podo, Pods, Raphi, Satrina(h), Talto, Thiltho, Zahriel, Zefonith. FURTHER READING Mercatante, Anthony S. An Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend. Frenchs Forest, Australia: Child & Associates Publishing, 1988. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. 1974. Reprint, New York: Dorset Press, 1987. Lincoln Imp Famous carved stone DEMON on a column in the Angel Choir at Lincoln Cathedral in Lincoln, England. According to lore, a rampaging demon was turned to stone there by an angel. The cathedral, once the tallest structure in the world, dates to the 11th century. The Angel Choir was consecrated in 1280. There are different versions of the legend. On version tells in rhyme that one day the devil was in good spirits and let his young demons out to play. One rode on the wind to Lindum (Lincoln) and ordered the wind to take him into the church, intending to wreak havoc there. The wind demurred and dropped him off outside. The imp entered the church and set about tearing and breaking things, especially in the Angel Choir. Spying angels, the imp boasted, Pretty things,/A sackful of feathers Ill pluck from your wings/To make me a couch when Im tired of this joke. At that, the tiniest angel with amethyst eyes and hair of spun gold rose up before the altar and declared, O impious Imp, be ye turned into stone! The imp immediately was turned to stone and frozen on a column high above the choir. The legend goes on to make points about several morals of the story: Dont meddle in the affairs of the church; dont play tricks on the clergy; dont chum with low people, and dont be clever but seek to be good. About angels, the legend says, To angelswhen metbe extremely polite, Attentions too forward theyll keenly requite; Dont rufe their feathers: just let them alone, Else, if youre converted, twill be into stone. Another version says that in the 14th century the devil sent two imps out to make mischief. First they went to Chestereld and twisted the spire of the church there. Then they went to Lincoln Cathedral. They tripped the bishop and smashed tables and chairs. They set about destroying the Angel Choir. An angel immediately appeared and told them to stop. One of the imps deantly ew up to a stone pillar and began to throw heavy objects at the angel. The angel turned him into stone, leaving him there forever. The second imp hid in the wreckage and made his escape by latching onto the broomstick of a passing witch. The witch turned him into a black cat for companionship. This part of the legend explains why all witches are portrayed with black cats on their broomsticks. The grinning imp is carved in a seated position with one leg crossed over the other. He is associated with both good luck and bad luck. The imp has been used in jewelry and even worn by royalty. In 1928 the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII) was given an Imp tie pin. It was noted that the next year two of his horses won major races, the Grand National and the Epsom Derby. FURTHER READING Kesson, H. J. The Legend of the Lincoln Imp. Lincoln: J. W. Ruddock and Sons, 1904. The Real Story of the Lincoln Imp. Available online. URL: http://www.theimp.lincolnfans.co.uk/lincoln.shtml. Downloaded August 5, 2002. Lindbergh, Charles (19021974) The man who was rst to y solo nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean may have done so with the help of angels. On his ight from New York to Paris in 1927, Lindbergh, Charles Charles Lindbergh had profound mystical experiences, which he kept secret for 26 years. Lindbergh then revealed that vaporous beings had appeared to aid him; while he did not call them angels, they can be interpreted as such. Lindbergh did not mention his supernatural experiences in his rst book about the ight, We, Pilot and Plane, published later in 1927. He did in The Spirit of St. Louis, published in 1953, and he discussed it again in Autobiography of Values, published posthumously in 1977. His reluctance reects in part the prevailing lack of social acceptance of such experiences. The historic ight took 33 1/2 hours. As he related it, Lindbergh had to remain alert at all times; there was no such thing as automatic pilot, and to doze off at the controls meant certain death by plummeting into the ocean. At one point over the Atlantic, fatigue and tension altered Lindberghs perception of reality. By the ninth hour, he felt both very detached from and very near to the world below, and it made him think of the nearness of death and the longness of life. Lindbergh slipped into an altered state of consciousness that to him seemed both wakefulness and sleep. He was conscious of being three elements: body, which was fatigued; mind, which made decisions; and spirit, a driving force that told him sleep was not needed, and that his body would be sustained through relaxation. While he was in this twilight state, he became aware that the fuselage behind him was lled with ghostly presences that were humanlike but vaguely outlined, transparent and seemingly weightless. They did not appear suddenly. One moment, they were not present, another moment they were, as if they had always been there. Lindbergh, who felt caught in some unearthly age of time, was not surprised or afraid. In The Spirit of St. Louis he states: 217 me, giving me messages of importance unattainable in ordinary life. The ability of the spirits to appear and disappear; their friendly demeanor and helpful advice; and their imparting of mystical wisdom unattainable in ordinary life are all characteristic of angelophanies, as well as encounters with other types of spirit beings. Lindbergh seemed to associate them, however, with the dead, for he often wondered whether he had crossed the boundary between life and death and was in the land of the dead. As his altered state continued, Lindbergh felt weightless himself, independent of physical laws: Im almost one with these vaporlike forms behind me, less tangible than air, universal as aether. Im still attached to life; they, not at all; but at any moment some thin band may snap and therell be no difference between us. Lindbergh also offers a description of the beings that makes them sound archetypal: The spirits have no rigid bodies, yet they remain human in outline formemanations from the experience of ages, inhabitants of a universe closed to mortal men. Im on the borderline of life and a greater realm beyond, as though caught in the eld of gravitation between two planets, acted on by forces I cant control, forces too weak to be measured by any means at my command, yet representing powers incomparably stronger than Ive ever known. Lindbergh acknowledged that at another time, these visions would have startle him, but he felt so separated from earthly life that they seemed normal: Without turning my head, I see them as clearly as though in my normal eld of vision. Theres no limit to my sight my skull is one great eye, seeing everywhere at once. [T]he emissaries from a spirit world are neither intruders nor strangers. Its more like a gathering of family and friends after years of separation, as though Ive known all of them before in some past incarnation. . . . They belong with the towering thunderheads and moonlit corridors of sky. . . . What strange connection exists between us? If theyre so concerned with my welfare, why didnt they introduce themselves before? These phantoms speak with human voicesfriendly, vaporlike shapes, without substance, able to vanish or appear at will, to pass in and out through the walls of the fuselage as though no walls were there. Now, many are crowded behind me. Now, only a few remain. First one and then another presses forward to my shoulder to speak above the engines noise, and then draws back among the group behind. At times, voices come out of the air itself, clear yet far away, traveling through distances that cant be measured by the scale of human miles; familiar voices, conversing and advising on my ight, discussing problems of my navigation, reassuring Here is another characteristic of an ANGELOPHANY: the appearance of angels only at a moment of great need, and when the percipient is in an altered or receptive state of consciousness. Says Lindbergh: I live in the past, the present, and the future, here and in different places, all at once. Around me are old associations, bygone friendships, voices from ancestrally distant times. If Lindbergh had lived in another era, he might have immediately interpreted the helping beings as angels. Instead, he struggled to place them in a context he could understand. 218 Lion-Shaped Demon The experience changed his views about life after death. He said that death no longer seemed nal, but rather the entrance to a new and free existence which includes all space, all time. FURTHER READING Lindbergh, Charles. The Spirit of St. Louis. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1953. Murphy, Michael, and Rhea A. White. The Psychic Side of Sports. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1978. Lion-Shaped Demon FALLEN ANGEL in the shape of a roaring lion, who commands legions of DEMONS and makes it impossible for sick men to recover from their diseases. In the Testament of Solomon, the Lion-Shaped Demon appears before King SOLOMON and says he cannot be bound. But the king, invoking the name of the great God Most High, forces the demon to reveal that he is thwarted by the angel Emmanuel. Solomon sentences the demons legions to carrying wood from a grove of trees, and he sentences the Lion-shaped Demon to use his claws to saw it into kindling and throw it under a perpetually burning kiln. literature and angels Supernatural and divine beings have always played roles in stories about human destiny, nature, dramas, and struggle with evil. The specic roles of angels have changed in accordance with changing beliefs about them. In earlier times they were more neutral to individual problems and concerned with a larger, more cosmic perspective. In popular literature of the late 20th century, angels are more like personal friends. All the gods and demigods of classical literature can be interpreted as angels of varying rank. Greek mythology begins with a war in HEAVEN. The Hindu Ramayana pits the avatar Rama against DEMON Ravana. The most famous section of the Mahabharata is the BhagavadGita, the song of God, actually a conversation between Khrisna, the charioteer, and Arjuna, the peerless Pandava archer, on the battleeld at Kurakshetra. Two intermarried families whose members are guided by certain gods or swayed by demonic beings have assembled to ght it out after many generations of strife and treachery, and Krishna briefs Arjuna on the cosmic situation before the conch shell blows to signify the battles start. Whereas Hindu and Greek myth allowed the gods to have intercourse and offspring with humans, the Judaic story line eliminates these abominations with Noahs ood. (See SEX AND ANGELS; WATCHERS.) Hindu and Buddhist deities are still very much alive in rituals today, including parts of the epic Gita and the Sanskrit sutras, the oldest literature in the world. The members of the Greek pantheon are referred to, invoked, adored in hymns, and are featured prominently in the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the dialogues of Plato, the Homeric hymns, and of course the Illiad and the Odyssey. The intervention of Apollo, Aphrodite, Ares, Athena in the Trojan wars, the arrival of Hermes or Iris with messages, appear similar to the comings and goings of the ANGEL OF THE LORD and Gabriel in the Old and New Testaments. The plots of both the Illiad and the Odyssey are driven by rivalries among the gods; throughout the epics intercessory actions of the gods abound. Where Athene is the special goddess who guides and protects Odysseus, Venus is the mother-guardian angel of Aeneas in Virgils epic, with several appearances of the messenger with wings, Mercury. The Aeneids underworld provided DANTE ALIGHIERI a working model for the Christian inferno he molded in his Divina Commedia in the early 14th century. Both El Cid and the Chanson de Roland invoke the Christian angels during their battles. The German Nibelungenlied (to be taken up in the 19th century operas of Richard Wagner) with its FAIRIES, nymphs, and demons, and the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf both convey folk cosmology before Christianity. Beowulf shows the dawning of a Christian revisioning of the local demonic GENII as the Christlike heros Beowulf and Wiglaf destroy Grendel and his mother. The epic romances of the Italian Renaissance by Vegio, Sannazaro, Vida, and Tasso include interventions by the Christian archangels. Ariostos early 16th-century Orlando Furioso includes an irreverent treatment of Michaels assistance to the Christians against the Moors. Among signicant English writers, Shakespeare has fairies and genii (Ariel and Caliban in The Tempest). Edmund Spenser develops an elaborate allegorical universe in his Faerie Queene (1590). In that work, good and evil forces are cloaked in angelic and demonic symbolism derived from Celtic, Arthurian, AngloSaxon, and French-Norman folklore, Catholic and Protestant politicotheology, and there are literary allusions from the classics, Dante, and the Italian epic romance writers, especially Ariostos Orlando Furioso. Spensers Fowre Hymns (Of Heavenly Love and Of Heavenly Beautie) are spectacular cosmic visions invoking Platonic Ideas and INTELLIGENCES and the nine choirs of angels (Hymn 4). Love, lift me up upon thy golden wings,/ From this base world unto thy heavens height,/ Where I may see those admirable things/ Which there thou workest by thy sovereign might (Hymn 3). The Mutabilitie Cantos of the literature and angels Faerie Queene (Book VII, Cantos 6 and 7) present parallels between physical nature, human nature, and heaven. JOHN MILTON paints a romantic picture of good and fallen angels in his epic treatment of the fall of ADAM AND EVE in Paradise Lost and the redemption in Paradise Regained. Milton was steeped in the works of Spenser, calling him my original, and a better teacher than Scotus or Aquinas. Milton was inspired by Spensers mission as a poet to embody moral lessons in beautiful imaginative forms. There is a striking analogy between Miltons interpretation of the struggle of forces involved in Adams fall and the representation of virtue under trial in the person of Sir Guyon (Faerie Queene, Book II). Both advocate temperance as the supremacy of the rational over the passionate principle in the soul. Several lesser-known English religious epic poets known as Spenserians also inuenced Milton, namely, Giles and Phineas Fletcher. Phineas Fletchers Apollyonists and its Latin counterpart Locustae include a representation of Satan as a majestic and deant being. The theme of Giles Fletchers Christs Victory in Heaven is the same as that of Book III of Paradise Lost, except that Milton casts the heavenly debate over mans fate into the mouths of the Father and the Son. Lyric Poetry Although angels receive recognition along with MARY and the other saints in medieval and Renaissance court and folk lyrics, some 17th and 18th-century English poets literally achieved celestial heights in image and melody (see MUSIC AND ANGELS). Miltons youthful lyric On the Morning of Christs Nativity (1645) and mature At a Solemn Music (1673) both aspire to recreate the music and magic of the angelic presence. Miltons Catholic contemporary Richard Crashaw (161249) wrote two famous lyrics celebrating angels. Musicks Duell parallels a lute players song with the angelic music of the spheres. In the Holy Nativity the shepherds sing of their vision of the angels. Crashaw also wrote two poems about St. Teresa of Avilas visionary experiences. The Flaming Heart attempts to recapture the saints visitation by a seraph: O sweet incendiary! . . . By all thy dower of Lights and Fires;/ By all the eagle in thee, all the dove . . ./ By all thy brim-lld bowls of erce desire/ By thy last Mornings draught of liquid re. George Herberts Easter Wings is actually shaped like wings. John Donnes The Dream brings celestial qualities to the bed of lovers and The Relique refers to the asexuality of the lovers guardian angels. Donnes Anniversary Poems on the death of a young girl survey the upper and lower realms and nd her soul so 219 pure that she has Tutelar Angels assigned to each of her limbs (Second Anniversary, 4345). In Holy Sonnet 5 Donne says I am a little world made cunningly/ Of Elements and an Angelike spright and in Holy Sonnet 7 he cries At the round earths imagind corners, blow/ Your trumpets, Angels. Thomas Trahernes Wonder recounts heaven from the point of view of a soul: How like an Angel came I down! Henry Vaughans The Retreate, Peace, and especially The World convey the elevated consciousness of a mystical partnership with angels. John Drydens Ode in Honour of St. Cecilias Day is a comprehensive gathering of classical and Christian images surrounding music into an orchestra elevating the patron saint of music. He repeats He [the old pagan musical god] raisd a Mortal to the Skies;/ She [St. Cecilia] drew an Angel down. With the Romantic poets of Germany, France, Italy, and England, another wave of mythological symbolism, supernatural, magical, and mystical experiences entered into literature. Angels of every rankand nymphs, demons, vampires, and the likesymbolized not only themselves but also emotions, psychic forces, and even physical forces for the scientically informed Percy Bysshe Shelley. Classical mythology continued to inuence many poets, such as Friedrich Holderlins Hyperion and John Keatss Hyperion and Endymion, Shelleys Prometheus Unbound and legions of others. After all, an education still covered the Greek and Latin classics. Shelley was haunted by the awful shadow of some unseen Power, and he was passionately convinced of the living presence of that Light whose smile kindles the universe. He asserts an intimate relation between this interfused and over-ruling Spirit and the souls of individual human beings. Man does not have to stand alone. I vowed that I would dedicate my powers/ to thee and thine. . . . The phantoms of a thousand hours are called upon to bear witness that never joy illumed my brow/ Unlinked with hope that thou wouldst free/ This world from its dark slavery (Hymn to Intellectual Beauty). Lord Byrons verse drama Cain was one of many Romantic works reapproaching good and evil, in this case via the characters the ANGEL OF THE LORD and Lucifer. Another work of Byrons, Heaven and Earth, is a mystery based on Genesis 6:2 with Samuel Taylor Coleridges line from Kubla Khan as an epigraph: And woman wailing for her demon lover, a theme Coleridge might have treated fully had he developed the fragmentary Christabel and Keats did develop in La Belle Dame Sans Merci. Commenting on this theme in Byron, CARL G. JUNG said: as a power which transcends consciousness the libido is by nature daemonic; it is both God and devil. (See ABRAXAS.) 220 Lix Tetrax Angel offering inspiration (reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) Coleridge intended to write a critical essay on the supernatural as a preface to The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, but he did not leave one. William Wordsworth and Coleridge planned for the Lyrical Ballads (1798) to treat natural and supernatural experiences, with Coleridge covering the latter. In Biographia Literaria, Coleridge treats this project and states his objective was to transfer from our inward nature a human interest and a semblance of truth sufcient to procure for these shadows of imagination that willing suspension of disbelief for the moment, which constitutes poetic faith. The Rime certainly achieved that purpose, with demonic gures of Life in Death, tutelary spirits of the oceans, and much more. When the bodies of the mariners come to life again, it happens not by the souls of the men, not by daemons of earth or middle air, but by a blessed troop of angelic spirits, sent down by the invocation of their guardian saints. Coleridges translation of Burnets Archaeologiae Philosophicae sums up the situation of the Western intellectual with an open imagination: I easily believe that there are more invisible Natures than visible ones in the universe. But who will explain to us the rank, relations, characteristics and powers of each? What do they do? Where do they live? The human mind has always circled around the knowledge of these things, but never achieved it. Visionary Literature Poets, saints, and mystics of various philosophies and faiths have recorded their visionary experiences with supernatural beings. The Koran was dictated to MUHAMMAD by Gabriel. The visionary recitals of the patriarchs, the writers of apocryphal works, IBN SINA, Ibn Arabi, AL-SUHRAWARDI, and others purport to be recited to them by angels. The Native American shaman Black Elks vision at age nine involved two angelic gures who show him the shamans world. The works of Rumi, Kabir, Sri Aurobindo, Rabindranath Tagore, WILLIAM BLAKE, William Butler Yeats, and his friend A. E. (George William Russell) reveal familiarity with multiple worlds and beings. In the West, Gnostic and Hermetic lore is believed by some to have been preserved in the Grail cycle, a series of medieval and Renaissance documents set in a magic time and place, the spiritual Britain. In the introduction to his Grail romance, Robert de Boron claims that it was given to him by the Angel of the Lord. The book then vanished and he searched to nd it again by journeying through the Angelic World, and by following the Questing Beast through a visionary landscape. To a certain extent, all good poets have some visionary intuitive capacity, and all great ones possess an integration of language, inner vision, and energy, which they may or may not attribute to angels or higher beings. Probably Yeats and Blake are the best exemplars of this capacity in the English language and GOETHE and Rainer Maria Rilke in German. Rilkes Duino Elegies, even in translation, are extraordinary poems about the human longing for transcendence, using angels as its unifying symbol. When a friend tried to persuade Rilke to undergo psychotherapy, he wrote back: I am afraid it would exorcise my angels along with my demons. FURTHER READING Chessman, Harriett Scott, ed. Literary Angels. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. Hillman, James. Archetypal Psychology. Dallas, Tex.: Spring Publications, 1983. Greene, Thomas. The Descent from Heaven: A Study of Epic Continuity. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1963. Sugg, Richard P ed. Jungian Literary Criticism. Evanston, ., Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1992. Wilson, Peter Lamborn. Angels. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980. Lix Tetrax A FALLEN ANGEL and DEMON of the wind. In the Testament of Solomon, Lix Tetrax is summoned to the Luther, Martin presence of King SOLOMON by Beelzebub, at the kings orders. The demon appears with his face high in the air and his body crawling like a small snail. He raises up clouds of dust and wind and hurls them at Solomon until he is forced to stop by the king, who seals the demon with his magical ring. Lix Tetrax claims he is the direct offspring of the Great One, perhaps a reference to Beelzebub, the Prince of Demons. He lives at the tip of the horn of the moon when it is in the south. He says he divides men, creates whirlwinds, starts res, sets elds on re, and renders households nonfunctional. He is especially busy during the summertime. He has the power to heal the day-and-a-half fever if invoked to do so. He is thwarted by the angel Azael. Solomon sentences Lix Tetrax to throw stones up to the workmen at the heights of the Temple of Jerusalem, under construction. FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. loa See ORISHAS. Lot See SODOM AND GOMORRAH. Lucifer Angel equated with Satan. The name Lucifer means bearer of light or bearer of re, Son of the Morning or Morning Star. In Hebrew, Lucifer is Helel ben Sahar: Bright Son of the Morning. Rabbinical literature of the fourth and fth centuries C.E. describes him as Samael, the highest of those angels around the throne of God and created above the SERAPHIM. He was distinguished from all his other angelic brethren by possessing 12 wings. There is only one reference to Lucifer in the Bible, in Isaiah 14:1215: How you are fallen from HEAVEN, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low! You said in your 221 heart, I will ascend to heaven; above the stars of God I will set my throne on high; I will sit on the mount of assembly in the far north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High. But you are brought down to SHEOL [the underworld], to the depths of the Pit. St. Jerome, one of the church fathers (ca. 347420) identied the Isaiah passage with Satan, the leader of the fallen angels. From that time on Lucifer became one of the names of the devil. The identication was further reinforced by JOHN MILTON who made Lucifer the protagonist of Paradise Lost. The 18th-century mystic EMANUEL SWEDENBORG denied the existence of any Satan or demon. He attributed all power to the Divine True and Good, or the Lord, and claimed that there was no controlling devil responsible for hell. He said that while a literal reading of Scripture seemed to tell the story of Lucifers fall, in reality devil and Satan simply mean hell, the place of evil and falsehood chose by those who go down the path of self-love and lack of charity. For Swedenborg, Lucifer meant people from Babylon. FURTHER READING Every, George. Christian Mythology. London: The Hamlyn Publish Group Ltd., 1970. Swedenborg, Emanuel. Heaven and Hell. Trans. George F . Dole. New York: Swedenborg Foundation, 1976. Turner, Alice K. The History of Hell. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993. luminaries In Gnostic literature, the celestial lights, especially the sun and the moon. The luminaries are personied and have powers. The Apocalypse of Adam relates that, according to the 12th kingdom, the ILLUMINATOR, or JESUS, came from two luminaries (the sun and the moon), where he was nourished and received his glory and power. Luther, Martin See PROTESTANT REFORMATION. M f Machidiel (Malchedael, Malchidiel, Malahidael, Melkeial, Melkejal) Angel who governs the month of March and the sign of Aries. Machidel means fullness of God. In Kabbalistic lore he is one of the four angels of the sephirah Malkuth in the TREE OF LIFE, along with the angels Sandalphon, Messiah, and Emmanuel. In MAGIC Machidiel is invoked in love spells to require a desired maiden to appear at a certain time and place. spiritual mentor, Sheena Govan, a Quaker whose parents had founded an evangelical movement, the Faith Mission. Macleans job eventually took her to Panama, South America and England. In Panama she met an Englishman, John Wood, also working for the intelligence service. Though he was distant and somewhat secretive about himself, Maclean felt compelled to accept his proposal of marriage. After they were married, she discovered that John followed Su teachings. She became immersed in the study and practice of these herself, as well as other philosophies practiced by other spiritual groups, particularly after the couple moved to England. Through these studies, Maclean learned to develop her spiritual attunement to the still center within, and to practice telepathic communication with people around the world. Govan taught her about unconditional love, and Su teachings taught her about love in action, or seeking to do everything in life with purity of heart for the greater glory of God. The marriage was emotionally unsustaining, and Maclean began to see that her best course of action would be to express an unconditional love for Wood and set him free. She focused a great deal of energy on achieving that state. One day she suddenly had her rst awareness of the God within. It changed her life and set the stage for her subsequent experiences at Findhorn. Maclean, Dorothy (1920 ) A founder of FINDHORN, whose mediumistic abilities enabled her to communicate with angels and DEVAS. Maclean relayed the beings instructions for growing unusual produce in a harsh Scottish climate, and she also spread their teachings about humankinds co-creative relationship with the spirit world. Dorothy Maclean was born on January 8, 1920, in Guelph, a small town in Ontario, Canada. She had no particular psychic gifts as a child; these were to develop in adulthood through years of spiritual study and practice. Maclean studied business at the University of Western Ontario, and after graduation in 1940 became a secretary for the British Intelligence Service. Her work took her from Toronto to New York City, and she was chaperoned by the woman who was to become her 222 Maclean, Dorothy Dorothy Maclean (Reprinted courtesy of Dorothy Maclean) Maclean also was inuenced by Govan, who had a substantial following in the United Kingdom. Govan introduced Maclean to many people, including Peter and Eileen Caddy, with whom Maclean would later establish Findhorn. Peter Caddy, a Royal Air Force ofcer, was steeped in Rosicrucianism and its teachings on the power of positive thought. He had been married to Govan for ve years; Govan had terminated the marriage, but they retained a close relationship. After her divorce from Wood, Maclean worked as a secretary on Fleet Street in London. She began to get inner promptings to write down her inspirations. She showed these to Govan, who recognized her budding mediumistic gifts and encouraged her to develop them by channeling spiritual messages for others. Following Govans guidance, Maclean quit her secretarial work to live according to Gods will. She worked as a kitchen maid and then as a mothers helpera most humbling 223 change, but one that taught her to trust that she would be led to do what God intended her to do. When Govans group disbanded, Maclean joined up with the Caddys in Glasgow. They spent six years working at the Cluny Hill Hotel, a Victorian resort open only during the summer. Maclean served as secretary and receptionist. The hotel ourished, and the Caddys and Maclean spent their spare time working on spiritual attunement and telepathically communicating around the world in the Network of Light, a loose collection of people who shared similar spiritual ideals and who had telepathic abilities. They also communicated with space beings, who said they were alien beings from elsewhere in the universe, and with the Masters of the Seven Rays, who were highly developed humans who had undertaken to aid humanity in its spiritual quest. Maclean and the Caddys moved to another hotel in Scotland but could not repeat their successthey were red in 1962. Their only recourse was to band together four miles away at Findhorn, a small shing village located on an inhospitable strip of the north Scottish coast, where the Caddys lived in a caravan with their three children. The Caddys and Maclean scraped out a living. Peter began to cultivate a garden, with mixed success. In May 1963, Maclean, in her daily meditation, received an unusual message about the forces of Nature. She learned that one of her jobs was to attune and harmonize with those forces, who would be friendly in their greeting to her. Peter interpreted this as meaning that she could receive guidance from Nature on what to do in the garden. This was immediately afrmed in her next meditation, with the following message, told in Macleans autobiography To Hear the Angels Sing: Yes, you can cooperate in the garden. Begin by thinking about the nature spirits, the higher overlighting nature spirits, and tune into them. That will be so unusual as to draw their interest here. They will be overjoyed to nd some members of the human race eager for their help. By the higher nature spirits I mean the spirits of differing physical forms such as clouds, rain, vegetables. The smaller individual nature spirits are under their jurisdiction. In the new world to come these realms will be open to humansor should I say, humans will be open to them. Just be open and seek into the glorious realms of Nature with sympathy and understanding, knowing that these beings are of the Light, willing to help but suspicious of humans and on the lookout for the false. Keep with me and they will not nd it, and you will all build towards the new. 224 Maclean, Dorothy Maclean did as instructed, and so began a long and fruitful relationship with the angelic and devic kingdoms. The rst nature spirit to come into her awareness was what she called the Pea Deva, which she described as holding the archetypal pattern in place for all the peas in the world. Her primary contact was the Landscape Angel, who acted as control and had a broad, holistic outlook. The Landscape Angel often facilitated communication with other beings. All communications were on the inner planes. Initially Maclean did not know what to call the beings with whom she came in contact. She thought them to be angels, but to her the term angel conjured up hackneyed religious and pop-culture images. These beings seemed too glorious. She settled on the term deva, though in talking about them she used the terms angel, deva, and nature spirit interchangeably. Later in life she felt that angel better expressed the beings she experienced. With the advice of the devas (Macleans favored term during her Findhorn years), Peters garden grew lush and robust. They produced bumper crops of produce, some of fantastical size, which they sold in the local community. Agricultural experts, who examined the produce and the soil, could not explain their success. When they began to publicly acknowledge their spiritual help others were attracted to Findhorn, and they established a spiritual colony. After a couple of years Peter no longer needed angelic messages, but had learned enough from them to work the garden. Maclean worked in the ofce and continued to receive varied messages from the devas, expanding her own consciousness. She was able to contact the devas of animals, stones, and inanimate objects (machine devas). Maclean left Findhorn in 1973 and commenced work as a writer and lecturer. She settled for a time in the High Sierras of California to work on her autobiography. She joined about 15 other Findhorn veterans, including mystic David Spangler, to form the Lorian Association in the San Francisco Bay area. The group offered public performances of talks, songs, and dance drawn from their Findhorn experiences. In 1976, Maclean returned to Canada and lived in Toronto for eight years. She then moved to Issaquah, Washington, near Seattle, where Spangler and other members of the Lorian Association had moved. She occasionally revisits Findhorn to deliver workshops and lectures. After returning to North America, Maclean began to attune to angels of cities and countries (see PSEUDODIONYSIUS). These experiences gave her insights into the characters and group destinities of collections of humans. Her autobiography, To Hear the Angels Sing, was published in 1980. In it, Maclean acknowledges the uncertainties and doubts that accompanied her experiences with the angelic realm. At Findhorn she often feared that she would pose the wrong questions on behalf of Peter, or not get the information straight. Sometimes she was skeptical of her own abilities and results, and she worried that others would think her strange. Nonetheless, Macleans own spiritual understanding deepened tremendously due to her Findhorn experiences, and she passed this wisdom on to others. She provided a unique look into the workings of the angelic and devic kingdoms. Though she was by no means the rst to have extensive contact with these realms, she was able to gain a large public platform thanks to the success and popularity of Findhorn. Maclean realized that to attune to angels and devas is to attune to ones own higher self, the God-essence that dwells within each soul. Finding the God within is the important achievement, she said; angels are a subsidiary part of that attunement. She acknowledged that all perceptions received are colored by the recipient, in terms of beliefs, biases, vocabulary, the subconscious and other factors. Maclean described devas as the builders of our world. Embodiments of creative intelligence, they wield or transmute what we might call energy (vibrating waves or particles in patterns) into increasingly more physical structures (including emotional and mental structures) and nally into what we call matter (which is pattern in space). They build vehicles for the expression of life on all levels: mineral, vegetable, animal, human and suprahuman. The beings she encountered were not small in relative stature, as one might think of FAIRIES and elves; some, she said, were awesome beings whose scope stretched into the innite universe. Her primary contacts were the overlighting angels/devas of a species, rather than the spirits that tend to individual life-forms. The devas told Maclean to think of plant life in terms of light and of vital patterns of energy. She learned that everything can be viewed in the same wayincluding humans. The devas hold these patterns in place so that form can manifest. According to Maclean, the devas do their work with joy and love, despite the counterproductive acts of humankind that destroy their work. They are wary of humans, but most seem willing to help if a sincere plea is put to them. Humans, they said, must be the ones to initiate contact with their realms, and then they will respond. They said that frequently humans enter the devic realms without knowing it, for eeting moments. Such occasions are walks in nature, for example, where one is suddenly uplifted with euphoric feelings. magic The devas also told Maclean that human beings ultimately have greater powers than they, but also more limitations, the latter being imposed by our destructive thoughts and ways. Humans cannot access their true powers of creativity because they have cut themselves off from the divine source of power, God. The devas emphasized the need to approach everything from the standpoint of love, which opens one to knowledge of the unity of all things. Maclean said that through her contact with the angelic/devic realms she was able to unify her higher and lower selves into a wholeness. She connected with the God-source within, and she learned that humans can truly create their own reality in a joyous partnership not only with each other but with the higher realms as well. FURTHER READING Hawken, Paul. The Magic of Findhorn. New York: Bantam Books, 1976. Maclean, Dorothy. To Hear the Angels Sing. Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990. First published by Lorian Press, 1980. 2d ed. by Morningtown Press, 1988. magic The harnessing of supernatural powers and beings deities, angels, DEMONS, and the forces of natureto effect change in the physical world. The petitioning of both good and FALLEN ANGELS plays a prominent role in the Western tradition of magic. Important are the secret NAMES of angels and God, written and spoke at precise times in precise ways, such as with symbols and ritual tools. General Background The term magic comes either from the Greek megus, which means great (as in great science), or from the Greek term magein, referring to ZOROASTRIANISM. Many systems of magic exist, each with its own procedures, rules, and proscriptions. Magic is neither white nor black but reects the intent of the magician. Anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski dened magic as having three functions and three elements. The three functions are to produce, protect, and destroy. The three elements are spells or incantations; rites or procedures; and the altered state of the magician. Altered states are accomplished through fasting, meditating, chanting, visualizing symbols, sleep deprivation, breath control, dancing, staring into ames, inhaling fumes, and so forth. The primary intents of folk magic are to ensure good luck; protect against misfortune, illness, and death; and ask for blessings. Folk magic also is used to harm others. 225 In religious and mystical practices, magic is used to communicate with and invoke the presence and help of higher and supernatural powers. A thin line separates magic and religion. The Bible inveighs against magic and sorcery, but the miracles in the Biblethe intervention and action of God in the worldhave the same characteristics as the magic of other cultures and religions. A prime example of this is the confrontation between MOSES and his son Aaron and the Egyptian priests in Exodus. Instructed by God, Moses and Aaron produce magic (though it is not named magic) that outperforms the magic of the Egyptians, thus securing the liberation of the Jews. In the New Testament, JESUS performs feats that are considered sacred and miraculous acts, but in different cultural clothing would be what Western theologians condemn as magic. The very reverence for the Bible itself can be considered a type of magical practice. Copies of the Bible have amuletic and healing properties, as do specic verses and prayers. (See AMULETS; MEZUZOT.) The Lords Prayer taught by Jesus protects the believer against harm, and it was especially believed in the Middle Ages to protect against attack by demons and witches. Pagans Roots of Western Magic Ancient man saw himself as at the mercy of cosmic and natural forces; magic and religion grew out of efforts to bend and defend against these forces and communicate Magical seal of Agrippa with sacred names (Authors collection) 226 magic with the gods or INTELLIGENCES controlling them. Western magic emerged from Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Greek cosmologies rich with deities and spirits. The Romans, however, disapproved of magic and vigorously prosecuted laws against it. They tolerated magic done for benet, but condemned magic that was used for manipulation or harm. Pliny the Elder, writing in the rst century C.E., was a major authority against magic. Magic in Jewish Lore Magical practices among the early Jews developed from the superstitions of the Canaanites and the traditions of the Babylonians, Egyptians, and later the HellenisticGnostic lore. There was no initial organized system of magic, but a collection of beliefs and practices related to protecting against evil forces (demons) and procuring benecent blessings. (See INCANTATION BOWLS). Magical lore attributed to the wisdom of King SOLOMON was in circulation as early as the rst century C.E. The Tanakhthe Old Testamentcondemns sorcery, the use of spirits; some references seem designed to protect the Jews against the magic of their enemies while others offer instructions for obtaining Gods help and blessings. Notable antimagic references are Exodus 7:1012, against all forms of enchantments and shapeshifting; Numbers 22:7 and 22:23, against divination; Leviticus 19:31, 20:6, and 27, against mediums and wizards; and Deuteronomy 18:10, against necromancy. Apocryphal literature also casts magic in a negative light. The book of ENOCH, for example, tells how the magical arts were taught to humans by FALLEN ANGELS. Talmudic law interpreted biblical sorcery into different categories. Magic that manipulated and enchanted and required the help of demons was forbidden and deserved the biblical penalty of death. Magic that did not require demons was still forbidden, but it did not deserve such severe punishment. The distinction between these two magics often was not clear. Magic involving the Laws of Creation was tacitly permitted; later, the use of mystical names of God and angels fell into this category as more acceptable to religious practices. Verses of scripture were recited along with the addition of mystical names. Organized magic emerged in the Geonic period, which succeeded the Talmudic period around 500 C.E. At that time, Jewish mysticism, inuenced by GNOSTICISM, was taking more shape. MERKABAH practices of mystical ascent to the throne of God centered on the proper use and recitation of sacred names, combined with other spiritual practices such as postures and breath control. The letters of the Hebrew alphabet were recognized as having unique properties by which all things were created. See GEMATRIA. By the Middle Ages, Jewish magic depended almost entirely on the use of names and interventions of spirits. The KABBALAH does not expressly forbid magic, but various kabbalistic writings warn of the dangers of it, and they state that only the most virtuous persons should perform magic and do so only in times of public emergency and need, never for private gain. How strictly these admonitions were followed is questionable, as extensive literature exists on what is called the practical Kabbalah, an important source to Western magic in general. Some Kabbalists argued that the invocation of demons was acceptable, for there is little difference between an angel and a demon. Thus, many rituals found in the Western magic tradition involve the aid of dukes of HELL and other fallen angels. The practical Kabbalah evolved from about the 14th century on, reaching a peak in the Renaissance. A master of practical Kabbalah is called a baal shem (master of the name) who is adept at making amulets, invoking angels or demons and exorcizing evil spirits. Practical Kabbalah is complex; its relationship to angels includes the use of many ANGEL ALPHABETS, secret codes of communication whose mythical origin is in texts such as the SEFER RAZIEL, a magical book written in the Middle Ages but said to be handed down from heaven at the time of ADAM AND EVE. Numerous magical texts, or GRIMOIRES, ourished in the Middle Ages and later, all of which owe their basis to elements found in Jewish magic. So-called black magic is called apocryphal science in the Kabbalah. It is strictly forbidden and only theoretical knowledge is permitted. According to the Zohar, those who choose to practice it become sorcerers who journey to the mountains of darkness where live the fallen angels Aza and Azael, to study under a sorcererwitch. In the Bible, the archetypal sorcerer is Balaam. By the Middle Ages, Jews were renowned among Christians for being adepts at magic, including the ability to heal by magic. There were no Jewish professional magicians or sorcerers or witches, though Christians believed in such. Rather, those adept in this lore were rabbis, doctors, philosophers, teachers, and students of oral transmission of mystical and esoteric knowledge. These Jewish magicians were sought out; if their magic worked, they were feared, and if it failed, they were punished. Magic in Christian Lore Christianity also condemned magic, but, like Judaism, developed paradoxical attitudes. Manipulative low magic was absolutely forbidden, but helpful magic, such as for healing, was practiced within certain limits. Especially noxious to the church fathers was divina- Maimonides, Rabbi Moses tion, which took ones destiny out of the hands of Christ-oriented faith. Christian magic placed more emphasis on nature, such as herbal lore, and did not emphasize mystical names. The body of Christ, as represented by the Eucharist, held the biggest magic, as did the name of JESUS and relics (body parts and possessions) of saints. Medieval Europe was rife with magic of all sorts: folk practitioners, wizards, cunning men and women, alchemists, and others. The practical Kabbalah, along with Gnostic and Neoplatonic lore, served as important foundations of ceremonial magic. (See AGRIPPA.) In this, names of angels and demons, SEALS, TALISMANS, symbols, incantations, and so forth retained importance. Magical texts written in Arabic inuenced the development of Kabbalah and alchemy. But popular reliance on magicspellcasting, divination, charms, and so forthwas attended by great fear and distrust. Any and every misfortune, problem, and setback was blamed on malec magic or witchcraft. During the Inquisition, this fear became a useful tool: the charge of witchcraft was made a heresy, and it was virtually impossible to refute. Witches were portrayed as the servants of Satan with armies of demons at their command to wreak havoc. Magic was further discredited by the scientic revolution of the 18th century, but interest in ceremonial magic was revived in the 19th century by occultists such as FRANCIS BARRETT and Eliphas Levi, whose respective works, The Magus (1801) and Dogma and Ritual of High Magic (1856) were inuential. In the late 19th century, magical fraternities and lodges rose in prominence, the best known of which was the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England. In contemporary times, many schools of magic are studied and practiced. Most draw upon the JudeoChristian traditions, but many new systems are developed, such as within the different streams of Paganism. Angels and FAIRIES constitute part of many of these schools. See JOHN DEE. FURTHER READING Flint, Valerie I. J. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. Rev. ed. New York: Facts On File, 1999. James, Geoffrey. Angel Magic: The Ancient Art of Summoning and Communicating with Angelic Beings. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1999. McLean, Adam, ed. A Treatise on Angel Magic. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Phanes Press, 1990. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. 227 Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1971. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Maimonides, Rabbi Moses (11351204) Great Jewish scholar, philosopher, and rabbi of the Middle Ages, who wrote extensively on angels. Life Moses ben Maimon (also called Rambam) was born on April 6, 1135, in Cordova, Spain, during a time of Arab rule. He learned Hebrew and Jewish scholarship from his father, a well-to-do gem merchant, and also Arab teachers. In 1148 Cordova fell to a fanatical sect of Islam, and the climate of learning ceased to ourish in the face of increasing persecutions. By 1160 the family had endured enough, and they moved to Fez. In Fez Maimonides launched his literary career, but his views against Jewish assimilation were not popular. In 1165 he moved to Cairo, where he enjoyed great success in court and as a rabbi. However, the family fortune was destroyed when a consignment of gems was lost in a shipwreck. Maimonides went to work as a physician. His success in this endeavor also was great, and he was able to decline an offer to become court physician to Richard I in England. In 1185 he married; the couple had a son, Abraham, in 1186. In his later years, Maimonides became a prolic writer, but he sought to avoid controversy. He is said to have been interested in KABBALAH. He died on December 13, 1204. Works Maimonides authored numerous books and treatises writing in Arabic with Hebrew characters. His most important works are Mishneh Torah (Code of Law)the rst systematic organization of Jewish oral lawand Guide for the Perplexed (also given as Guide of the Perplexed). He sought to align Judaism and philosophy, demonstrating how Islamic Aristotlean philosophy, widely accepted at the time, was reected in the Bible and the rabbinic tradition. Guide of the Perplexed, published in 1190, was quickly translated into Hebrew. It had a profound inuence on Jewish, Arabic, and Christian philosophers for centuries. In the 13th century, it impressed Albertus Magnus and his famous pupil, St. THOMAS AQUINAS. Aquinas refers often to Maimonides (the rabbi) in his own monumental works. Like Aquinas, Maimonides viewed the Bible as the authority on all metaphysical questions and on divine 228 Makatiel revelation; philosophy is the key to revealing and understanding these truths. And, like Aquinas, he was aware of the limits of human understanding. He identies knowledge and love of God as one and the same, thus establishing sound philosophical knowledge as a commandment of God and as an act of piety for any religious Jew. He accepts the existence of angels because the Torah says they exist. Maimonides organizes the universe into three parts: the sublunar world, the supernal realm, and the realm of the INTELLIGENCES, who oversee the movement of the spheres. Maimonides identies angels with the intelligences; they are the intermediaries between God and creation, and they exist in pure form only. They are organized in their own hierarchy of 10 orders, the names of which refer both to the orders and to the angels governing them. The orders are, from highest to lowest: HAYYOTH (hayyot OPHANIM ERELIM HASMALIM ELOHIM BENE ELOHIM CHERUBIM ISSIM (ishim) ha-Qodesh) Because angels exist in pure form only, they cannot have tangible bodies; thus, the descriptions of their appearances in the Bible and rabbinical writings are only metaphors. The lowest level of angels, the issim, speak to humans in prophecy and are part of prophetic visions. Visions, says Maimonides, are a function of the imagination and not the senses. He is emphatic that angels cannot be seen or heard except in visions or dreams. In cases where angels are described without direct reference to a vision or dream, one must assume that a vision or dream is responsible. (See DREAMS AND VISIONS.) In describing the process of prophecy, Maimonides calls the imagination an angel, the intellect a cherub, and the soul common sense. Soul receives impressions through the senses, which are passed to the imagination, and then are transformed by the intellect into intellectual concepts. The prophetic message is real, but the angelic appearance is just an impression which helps the recipient understand the message. A critic of Maimonides, Isaac Abrabanel, held that prophecy is not a natural event, but a miracle divinely brought about by God, and that dreams and prophecy are different things. Maimonidess predecessor, IBN SINA, refers to angels as existing in both their own right and relative to us, but he makes the same distinction between actuality and prophecy as does Maimonides. Maimonides denies the reality of many miracles. He accepts miracles as the means by which God demonstrates his intervention in the world, but he questions many of miracles in the Bible, viewing them as natural events or folklore metaphors. He rejects the type of miracle in which God and angels talk to men as equals, and in which angels appear in bodily form. These are not natural or supernatural events, but prophetic visions, and thus are imaginary. See CELESTIAL HIERARCHIES. FURTHER READING Arbel, Ilil. Maimonides: A Spiritual Legacy. New York: Crossroad/Herder and Herder, 2001. Leaman, Oliver. Moses Maimonides. London: Routledge, 1990. Maimonides. Guide of the Perplexed. Vols. I and II. Translated by Shlomo Pines. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974. Makatiel One of the ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT. Makatiel means the plague of God. malachim (malakim) In Jewish lore, an order of angels, through whom God Eloha makes metals. Malachim means kings (gods) and possibly derives from malak, the Hebrew term for messenger or angel. The book of Malachi, written circa 500450 B.C.E. by an anonymous Jewish priest, is a proper name converted from the Hebrew term for my messenger. Malachim are given different ranks: sixth highest (MAIMONIDES); rst (the Zohar); eighth (the Maseket Azilut); and fourth (the Berith Menucha). The malachim are one of the angelic orders ruling Tiphareth (Beauty), the sixth sephirah of the TREE OF LIFE in the KABBALAH. Malachim are sometimes equated with VIRTUES. Their ruling princes are Peliel, Raphael, Uriel, and Uzziel. Malachim is a name of an ANGEL ALPHABET used in magical texts. Malephar See VALEFOR. Malkira In the Martyrdom and Ascension of ISAIAH, Malkira is another name for Samael. It means king of evil. Malkuth See TREE OF LIFE. mansions of the moon Malpas (Malphas) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Malpas is a powerful president in HELL who appears rst as a crow and then, when commanded, as a human who speaks in a hoarse voice. He skillfully builds houses and high towers, and he brings down the temples and towers of enemies. He will bring articers together quickly. Malpas gives good FAMILIARS. He will receive a sacrice kindly, but then deceive the one who offers it. Malpas commands 40 legions. Mammon who rules in HELL as an archdemon and prince of tempters. The name Mammon means in Aramaic riches. Mammon is equated with Lucifer, Satan, and Beelzebub and rules over avarice. He serves as hells ambassador to England. FALLEN ANGEL manna See ANGEL BREAD. mansions of the moon In MAGIC, the 28 mansions, or spheres of inuence of the moon, based upon its 28-day cycle of phases. Each mansion is governed by an angel, has positive or negative inuences over certain activities, and is ascribed talismans for working specic kinds of magical spells. In magical ritual, the magician calls upon the appropriate ruling angel of the mansion involved to help effect the spell. The mansions of the moon are xed in the eighth sphere of heaven. As the moon wanders the sky, it obtains the powers and virtues of the signs of the zodiac and the stars contained in them. Each mansion measures 12 degrees, 51 minutes and nearly 26 seconds, according to the Kabbalists. The mansions, their names, their ruling angels, their zodiac signs, and their inuences are as follows: First Mansion Name: Alnath (horns of Aries) Angel: Geniel Zodiac sign: Aries Inuences: Causes prosperous journeys; creates discords; helps in the giving of medicines, especially laxatives Second Mansion Name: Allothaim or Albochan (belly of Aries) Angel: Enediel Zodiac sign: Aries Inuences: Helps in the nding of treasures and the holding of captives; aids voyages, sowing, and planting; hinders purging and vomiting 229 Third Mansion Name: Alchaomazon or Athoray (showering or Pleiades) Angel: Anixiel Zodiac sign: Aries Inuences: Protable to sailors, hunters, and alchemists Fourth Mansion Name: Aldebaram or Aldelamen (eye or head of Taurus) Angel: Azariel Zodiac sign: Taurus Inuences: Causes the destruction and hindrances of buildings, fountains, wells, gold mines, and the ight of creeping things (insects), and begets discord Fifth Mansion Name: Alchatay or Albachay Angel: Gabriel Zodiac sign: Taurus Inuences: Helps the return from a journey and the instruction of scholars; conrms edices; gives health and goodwill to persons of quality Sixth Mansion Name: Athanna or Alchaya (little star of great light) Angel: Dirachiel Zodiac sign: Gemini Inuences: Helps hunting, the besieging of towns and the revenge of princes; destroys harvests and fruits, hinders the operations of physicians Seventh Mansion Name: Aldimiach or Alazarch (arm of Gemini) Angel: Schliel Zodiac sign: Gemini Inuences: Conrms gain and friendship, is protable to lovers, destroys magistracies Eighth Mansion Name: Alnaza or Anatrachya (misty or cloudy) Angel: Amnediel Zodiac sign: Cancer Inuences: Causes love, friendship, and the society of fellow travelers; drives away mice, aficts captives, and conrms their imprisonment Ninth Mansion Name: Archaam or Arcaph (eye of the Lion) Angel: Barbiel Zodiac sign: Cancer-Leo Inuences: Hinders harvest and travelers, puts discord between humans Tenth Mansion Name: Algelioche or Albegh (neck or forehead of the Lion) Angel: Ardiel 230 mansions of the moon Zodiac sign: Leo Inuences: Strengthens buildings, promotes love and benevolence, helps against enemies Eleventh Mansion Name: Azobra or Ardaf (hair of the Lions head) Angel: Neciel Zodiac sign: Leo Inuences: Good for voyages, gain by merchandise, and redemption of captives Twelfth Mansion Name: Alzarpha or Azarpha (tail of the Lion) Angel: Abdizuel Zodiac sign: Leo Inuences: Gives prosperity to harvests and plantations, is good for the bettering of servants, captives, and companions; hinders seamen Thirteenth Mansion Name: Alhaire (Dog stars, or wings of Virgo) Angel: Jazeriel Zodiac sign: Virgo Inuences: Aids benevolence, gain, voyages, harvests, and freedom of captives Fourteenth Mansion Name: Alchureth or Arimet, Azimeth, Althumech or Alcheymech (spike of Virgo) Angel: Ergediel Zodiac sign: Virgo Inuences: Causes the love of married folk; cures the sick; is protable to sailors; hinders journeys by land Fifteenth Mansion Name: Agrapha or Algrapha (covered or covered ying) Angel: Atliel Zodiac sign: Libra Inuences: Helps in the extracting of treasures and the digging of pits; assists in divorce, discord, and the destruction of houses and enemies; hinders travelers Sixteenth Mansion Name: Azubene or Ahubene (horns of Scorpio) Angel: Azeruel Zodiac sign: Scorpio Inuences: Hinders journeys, wedlock, harvest, and merchandise; prevails for redemption of captives Seventeenth Mansion Name: Alchil (crown of Scorpio) Angel: Adriel Zodiac sign: Scorpio Inuences: Betters a bad fortune; makes love durable; strengthens buildings; helps seamen Eighteenth Mansion Name: Alchas or Altob (heart of Scorpio) Angel: Egibiel Zodiac sign: Scorpio Inuences: Causes discord, sedition, conspiracy against princes and mighty ones, and revenge from enemies; frees captives; helps edices Nineteenth Mansion Name: Allatha or Achala (tail of Scorpio) Angel: Amutiel Zodiac sign: Scorpio Inuences: Helps in the besieging of cities, the taking of towns, the driving of humans from their places, the destruction of seamen, and the perdition of captives Twentieth Mansion Name: Abnahaya (a beam) Angel: Kyriel Zodiac sign: Sagittarius Inuences: Helps in the taming of wild beasts and the strengthening of prisons; destroys the wealth of societies; compels a person to come to a certain place Twenty-rst Mansion Name: Abeda or Albedach (a desert) Angel: Bethnael Zodiac sign: Capricorn Inuences: Good for harvest, gain, buildings, and travelers; causes divorce Twenty-second Mansion Name: Sadahacha, Zodeboluch or Zandeldena (a pastor) Angel: Geliel Zodiac sign: Capricorn Inuences: Promotes the ight of servants and captives in their escape; helps the curing of diseases Twenty-third Mansion Name: Zabadola or Zobrach (swallowing) Angel: Requiel Zodiac sign: Capricorn Inuences: Helps divorce, the liberty of captives; promotes health to the sick Twenty-fourth Mansion Name: Sadabath or Chadezoad (star of fortune) Angel: Abrinael Zodiac sign: Aquarius Inuences: Aids the benevolence of married people and the victory of soldiers; hurts the execution of government and prevents its being exercised Twenty-fth Mansion Name: Sadalabra or Sadalachia (buttery or spreading forth) Angel: Aziel Zodiac sign: Aquarius Inuences: Favors besieging and revenge; destroys enemies; causes divorce; conrms prisons and buildings; Marian apparitions hastens messengers; conduces to spells against copulation; binds a human being so that he or she cannot perform a duty Twenty-sixth Mansion Name: Alpharg or Phragal Mocaden (rst drawing) Angel: Tagriel Zodiac sign: Aquarius-Pisces Inuences: Causes union and the health of captives; destroys buildings and prisons Twenty-seventh Mansion Name: Alchara or Alyhalgalmoad (second drawing) Angel: Atheniel Zodiac sign: Pisces Inuences: Increases harvest, revenues, and gain; heals inrmities; hinders buildings; prolongs prison sentences; causes danger to seamen; helps to cause mischief to anyone Twenty-eighth Mansion Name: Albotham or Alchalcy (Pisces) Angel: Amnixiel Zodiac sign: Pisces Inuences: Increases harvest and merchandise; secures travelers through dangerous places; makes for the joy of married people; strengthens prisons; causes the loss of treasures. 231 Marian apparitions Visions or supernatural manifestations of the Blessed Virgin MARY. The experiences are accompanied by other paranormal phenomena, such as visions of angels, heavenly music and singing, miraculous healing, luminosities, and on the part of the percipients, extrasensory perception, prophesying, and mediumship. The apparitions tend to be apocalyptic in nature, with Mary exhorting people to prayer and righteous living, and to the building of churches in her honor. She warns of dire consequences if people continue in their sinful ways. She bestows secret prophecies on a select few who perceive her (frequently children). In this respect Mary has taken over the primary functions of the prophets of old, who were transported to HEAVEN to receive the same admonitions and prophecies from God. But Mary, out of her love for humanity and her loyalty to those devoted to her, is able to intercede with an angry God on humanitys behalf. FURTHER READING Barrett, Francis. The Magus. Secaucus, N.J.: The Citadel Press, 1967. First published 1801. McLean, Adam, ed. A Treatise on Angel Magic. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Phanes Press, 1990. Marbas (Barbas) One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Marbas is a president who rules 36 legions. He appears as a lion but will change into a man. He knows about hidden and secret things and both causes and cures diseases. He imparts wisdom and knowledge of the mechanical arts. He can change men into different shapes. Marchosias One of the FALLEN ANGELS and 72 spirits of SOLOMON. Marchosias is a marquis ruling 30 legions. He appears as a cruel she-wolf with grifn wings and a serpents tail, with re spewing from his mouth. He will take a human form if commanded to do so. He faithfully serves the magician and gives true answers to all questions. Once a member of the order of DOMINIONS, Marchosias holds the futile hope that he will return to the Seventh Throne after 1,200 years. Our Lady of Guadalupe (Reprinted courtesy of U.S. Library of Congress) 232 Marian apparitions Marian apparitions have been reported worldwide over the centuries, but only eight have been deemed authentic by the Catholic Church. In the latter 20th century, reports of Marian apparitions escalated dramatically. Two major reasons behind this increase are the Catholic Churchs acceptance of Marys assumption into heaven as an article of faith in 1950, thereby raising her spiritual stature; and the general trend toward apocalyptic thinking with the approach of a new millennium. The latter involves a need to turn to a spiritual savior gure. The Catholic Church holds that religious apparitions are mystical phenomena permitted by God. Both corporeal and incorporeal apparitions are recognized, and they are mentioned in both Old and New Testaments of the Bible. Marian apparitions are not accepted as articles of faith, but those that are deemed authentic are celebrated. The church is painstaking in its investigation of Marian apparitions. Authentic sightings approved by the church are: Guadalupe, Mexico, 1531; Paris, 1830; La Salette, Marian apparition at Reus, Spain France, 1846; Lourdes, France, 1858; Knock, Ireland, 1879; Fatima, Portugal, 1917; Beauraing, Belgium, 193233; and Banneaux, Belgium, 1933. Appearances of angels are especially associated with four of those (Paris, Guadalupe, Knock, and Fatima), and with numerous unauthenticated sightings as well. At Guadalupe, Marys appearances were accompanied by heavenly singing, and one of her miraculous signs involved an angel. She appeared ve times to Juan Diego, a middle-aged Aztec convert to Catholicism. The rst episode occurred in the predawn one morning, as Juan was on his way to attend Mass. He suddenly heard a heavenly choir, and then a ladys voice calling out to him by name. Diego then saw a woman standing in a luminous cloud of mist iridescent with rainbow hues. She identied herself immediately as Mary. On another occasion Mary appeared and told Diego to pick owers, despite the fact that it was too cold a time of the year. Miraculously, he found a garden of roses at a site where no owers had grown before. He followed her instructions to wrap the owers in his cape and take them to the bishop. Unwrapped, the cape was imprinted with a beautiful image of the Immaculate Conception: a woman with the sun and stars, standing on a new moon, with an angel at her feet. The cape remains preserved at the shrine built at Guadalupe. In Paris, the percipient was Catherine Labour, a nun with the Sisters of Charity in the rue du Bac. She entered the convent in 1830, shortly before the sighting. Within a few days of her arrival she had a vision of the heart of St. Vincent, glowing above a case containing some of his relics. She prayed to St. Vincent and to her GUARDIAN ANGEL to be granted a vision of Mary, her greatest ambition. On July 18, Labour was awakened at 11:30 P.M. by the sound of her name being called. She saw a child of about four or five years of age with golden hair, whom she took to be her guardian angel. The angel told her to go to the convent chapel; upon arrival, she found it brilliantly lit. Mary appeared at midnight and delivered her customary messages of exhortation to prayer, the appointment of Labour to a mission that would require her suffering, and various prophecies. Mary appeared to Labour again on November 27 in a glorious vision while Labour was praying in the chapel at about 5:30 P.M. She told Labour to have a medal struck of her vision, and that all who wore it would receive graces. Labour was not able to do this until six months before her death in 1876. The medal, called the Miraculous Medal, is now worn by millions worldwide. Marian apparitions At Fatima in 1917the most dramatic of the authenticated sightingsthree children were paid three visits by an angel who identied itself as the Angel of Portugal, who acted as an annunciating gure. Mary then appeared to the children: Lucia dos Santos, 10, and her two cousins, Jacinta and Francisco Marto, seven and nine, respectively. The two girls saw a young lady and heard her speak; the boy saw her but did not hear her speak. The children said the lady was dressed in white and stood above a small tree. She asked them to return to the same place at the same hour of the same day for six consecutive months. Tens of thousands of spectators showed up at the appointed time and place to witness the six apparitions. At the nal sighting on October 13, a crowd of 50,000 or more gathered in the rain. Mary appeared to the children and told them to build a chapel in her honor. She said she was the Lady of the Rosary, and that people must say the rosary daily. Then the rain stopped, and a phenomenon now known as the miracle of the sun occurred. The sun appeared suddenly through a rift in the clouds and seemed to spin, throwing off multicolored light. It appeared to plunge to the earth, giving off heat, and then returned to normal in the sky. A devotional cult to the Angel of Portugal, the guardian angel of the state, was sanctioned by the Catholic Church (see DEVOTIONAL CULTS). Lucia wrote four memoirs between 1935 and 1941. In her Second Memoir she made the new claim that she and her cousins had been visited by an angel in 1916. This Angel of Peace, as he identied himself, taught the children a special prayer and said that the hearts of Jesus and Mary were attentive to them. Lucia described him as looking to be about 14 or 15 years of age, whiter than snow, transparent as crystal, and quite beautiful when the sun shone through him. She warned the other two that the visit must be kept secret (secret visits, messages, and prophecies are an integral part of Marian apparitions, and conform with apocalyptic experiences). On a second visit the angel urged them to pray constantly to God and said that the hearts of Jesus and Mary had designs of mercy on them. He instructed them to turn everything they could into a sacrice offered to God, which would be reparation for the sins that offend God and supplication for the conversion of sinners. The angel said that if they did this, their country would have peace. He then identied himself as the Angel of Portugal. He ended his visit by telling them to bear the suffering that God would send them. On a third visit, the angel gave them communion. Lucia received the consecrated host, and Jacinta and Francisco were allowed to share the chalice. 233 At Knock, Ireland, Mary, other gures, and perhaps angels were seen on August 21, 1879, by 15 people by the village chapel at dusk. Besides Mary there were gures of St. Joseph, and a bishop or St. John the Evangelist (accounts differ). There also was an altar, above which was a lamb with a halo of gold stars; behind the lamb was a cross. Mary had her hands raised in prayer. Although it was raining, no rain fell where the apparition appeared. One witness, Patrick Hill, was 11 years old. Interviewed again in 1897, he embellished his account with visions of winged angels who uttered in the air for some 90 minutes. In 1961, apparitions appeared at San Sebastian de Garabandal in northern Spain; they are unauthenticated. The sightings involve the archangel Michael, who, like the Angel of Portugal at Fatima, gave the witnesses communion. The case began on June 18 when four girls reported that they had seen an angel. Over the next two weeks, the angel made nine appearances. In the two years following, there were more than 2,000 reports of Marian apparitions by the girls. One of the chief documents is the Diary of one of the witnesses, Conchita Gonzalez, who was 12 at the time. She began to write the account in September of 1962 and nished it in 1963. According to Gonzalez, she and the other seers were stealing apples on June 18and arguing over whether it was right to do sowhen a beautiful gure appeared, brilliant in light. The girls told others about this angel, and they were ridiculed by some. The girls returned to the spot the next day to pray, but the angel did not reappear. Gonzalez was consoled by a voice that night that assured her that she would see the angel again. The angel did appear on the following day, causing some disbelievers to recant. Others joined them in prayer at the site, and over the next eleven days the girls had various ecstasies and eight more sightings of the angel, in front of numerous witnesses who could not see the phenomena themselves. On six of the eight appearances, the angel only smiled at the girls. On June 24, he appeared with a sign beneath him; they could only remember that the rst line began with Hay and the second line contained roman numerals. On July 1 the angel appeared with the sign again and spoke for the rst time, telling the girls that he had come to announce the arrival of Mary on the following day. Mary appeared on July 2, accompanied by two angels who looked like twins. One was Michaelthe angel who had been appearing to them; the other was not recognized (Gonzalez never said how she was able to identify the angel as Michael). On Marys right side was a large eye of God. 234 Marian apparitions During these and other visions the girls were subjected to crude experiments by researchers, to test their ecstatic states by measuring their sensitivity to pain. During the June 25 appearance of the angel, Gonzalez was dropped on her knees, pricked and scratched with needles and subjected to strong electric light, none of which broke her trance or made her feel any pain. On May 18, 1962, the girls began to announce that they had been receiving communion from Michael. Mari Loli was the rst to make the claim. She said Michael had told her he would give her communion while the local priest was absent. The four girls said that from then on they received frequent communions from the angel. Gonzalez said that Michael used unconsecrated hosts in order to teach them how the host should be received. One day the angel told them to fast, and to bring another child along as a witness. He then gave them consecrated hosts. These reports generated much controversy. Priests said that angels did not have the ability to consecrate a host. Gonzalez took this objection to Michael, who then told her he had taken consecrated hosts from tabernacles on earth. Nonetheless, some people doubted the story. Prior to their public admission of communion from Michael, the girls were witnessed going through gestures of putting their hands together, sticking out their tongues and swallowing, all of which now made sense. After the admission, numerous photos were taken of them receiving invisible communion. On June 22, 1962, the angel told Gonzalezwho had been asking for a miracle as a sign of proofthat during the next communion God would perform a miracle through the angels intercession by making a host visible on her tongue. (Until then, Gonzalez had never realized that no one else could see the hosts given them by the angel.) She told the angel that this would be a tiny miracle, and he laughed. On July 18, a host appeared on her tongue and was seen by witnesses. Though the girls later retracted some of their statements about their experiences, believers were not dissuaded. Even the retractions seemed to be part of the overall experience, with Gonzalezs diary claiming that Mary had predicted that retractions would be made. Supporters of the apparitions at Garabandal have worked to try to convince the Catholic Church to authenticate the sightings. Other famous apparition sites not authenticated are Zeitoun, Egypt, and Medjugorje, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Zeitoun sightings in 196869 included more than 70 Marian apparitions and other unusual phenomena in the vicinity of the St. Marys Coptic Church in Zeitoun, a suburb of Cairo. The first eyewitnesses were three Muslim mechanics, who reported seeing a woman dressed in dazzling white, standing on top of the central dome of the church in the late night hours. The light was so brilliant that they could not make out facial features. Other witnesses recognized the apparition as Mary. The crowd shouted and the figure acknowledged by bowing. After a few minutes, it ascended rapidly into the night sky and disappeared. The first sighting was followed by hundreds of alleged spontaneous cures of all manner of diseases and illnesses. Other notable phenomena were reddish clouds of sweet incense which appeared and disappeared with great rapidity; unusual lights shooting across the sky; and luminous doves or dovelike objects of silver and other brilliant colors, some of which appeared in the shape of a Christian cross. The total number of eyewitnesses was estimated at 250,000 to 500,000. The General Information and Complaints Department of the Egyptian government investigated and declared it an undeniable fact that Mary had appeared to both Christians and Muslims. The Medjugorje apparitions began in 1981, when Mary first appeared on a hill to six adolescents on June 24. Four were girls and two were boys; they ranged in age from 10 to 17. For the next 18 months, there were daily apparitions to one or more of the adolescents, who came to be called the seers or visionaries. Thousands of apparitions have been witnessed by pilgrims. Many have occurred in the chapel of apparitions, the rectory behind the St. James Roman Catholic Church in Medjugorje. Other phenomena include miraculous healings; the appearance of the Croatian word for peace, Mir, in the sky at night; a spinning sun; and a spontaneous ignition of a bush, the fire of which left no charring. As in other apparitional cases, the messages from Mary at Medjugorje are apocalyptic: repent, pray, and return to the ways of God (peace and love) before it is too late and the people of the world will suffer the consequences of their evil. See ANGELOPHANIES. FURTHER READING Arintero, Juan. Mystical Evolution in the Development and Vitality of the Church. Vol. I. St. Louis: B. Herder, 1949. Attwater, Donald. A Dictionary of Mary. New York: P .J. Kennedy, 1960. McClure, Kevin. The Evidence for Visions of the Virgin Mary. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press, 1983. Zimdars-Swartz, Sandra L. Encountering Mary. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991. Mary 235 Marmaroth (Marmarath, Marmaraoth) In the Testament of SOLOMON, the angel who has the power to thwart Fate, one of the seven demonic HEAVENLY BODIES, who incites warfare, and also the diseasecausing DEMON Rhyx Anoster, one of the DECANS OF THE ZODIAC. Marmaroth is one of the PLANETARY RULERS. Mary The mother of JESUS. Mary has numerous titles, among them Queen of Angels, Our Lady of the Angels, and Queen of Martyrs. She also is called Blessed Virgin, Virgin Mary, or simply Our Lady. Early church councils, including those at Ephesus in 431 and at Chalcedon in 451, gave her the title Theotokos (God-bearer); the title Mother of God is widely used, especially among Catholics. Devotion to Mary is a vital part of the Catholic liturgical life, especially in the Eastern Orthodox churches. According to Catholic doctrine, Marys Immaculate Conception makes her the one exception to the state of Original Sin (the state in which all humankind is born, due to the fall of ADAM AND EVE). Because Mary was destined to be the mother of Christ, God infused her soul with grace at the moment of her conception in the womb of her mother, St. Anne, which freed her from lust, slavery to the devil, depraved nature, darkness of intellect, and other consequences of Original Sin. Her Immaculate Conception is announced by the archangel Gabriel (Luke 1:2638). Gabriel tells her that the Holy Spirit will come upon her in order that she may conceive her Son. The Immaculate Conception was rejected by St. THOMAS AQUINAS in the 13th century. Many modern theologians, challenging doctrines, consider the Immaculate Conception to be symbolic and not literal. Similarly, the church sanitized her sexuality. Besides conceiving Jesus without human intercourse, she became the Virgin who never deled her body with sexual intercoursedespite the fact that the Bible refers to Jesus brothers and sisters. Furthermore, Mary did not die as a mere mortal but was raised from the dead by Jesus and assumed into heaven as a live woman (the Assumption became an article of faith in 1950). In other lore, her death is announced by the archangel Michael. Mary and her proper place in Christian theology have been a subject of much controversy over the centuries. She absorbed the characteristics of previous pagan goddesses, thus fullling that universal need for worship of a Mother-gure, which otherwise is curiously absent from Christianity. Early church fathers attempted to discourage worship of her by saying that Mary and Jesus (Albrecht Drer) God would never be born of a woman. For the rst ve centuries after Christ, Mary was depicted as lower in status even than the Magi, who were graced by haloes in sacred art. The Marianite sect, which considered her divine, was persecuted for heresy. In the early fourth century, Constantine I ordered all goddess temples destroyed and forbade the worship of Mary, so that she would not overshadow her Son. The people, however, refused to accept Christianity without the worship of Mary. She was prayed to as a mother who intercedes for her children. By the sixth century she had been given a halo in art, and by the ninth century she had been designated the Queen of Heaven. By the 11th century she had eclipsed Jesus in popularity as the savior of mankind, and the great Gothic cathedrals were built to her greater glory. 236 Mashit In Catholic tradition Mary reigns in the splendor of heaven, where angels behold her glory and are ravished at the sight of her. She is second only to Jesus in suffering, and so commands the obedience of the angelic host. It may be Michael who leads the good angels in the celestial war against evil (see REVELATION), but he is under the command of Mary. The Queen of Paradise may even be considered to be the Mother of Angels, since she loves them and treats them as her own children. The Precious Blood shed by Jesus is the song of angels, the light of Mary, and the jubilee of her woes. Countless visions of Mary have been reported worldwide; the numbers rose dramatically in the latter part of the 20th century. The Catholic Church has authenticated only a handful of them (see MARIAN APPARITIONS). Numerous saints have seen visions of Mary, often accompanied by angels. Frequently she exhorts people to pray, to counter the evil loosed in the world. In Catholic tradition an unnamed Bernadine sister had a vision in which she saw the desolation wrought by evil. She heard Mary tell her that the time had come to pray to her as the Queen of the Angels, to ask her for the assistance of the angels in ghting the foes of God and men. The sister asked why Mary, who is so kind, could not send the angels without being asked. Mary responded that she could not because prayer is one of the conditions God requires for the obtaining of favors. Mary then communicated the following prayer, which is part of the many devotions to Mary: August Queen of Heaven! Sovereign Mistress of the angels! Thou who from the beginning hast received from God the power and mission to crush the head of Satan, we humbly beseech thee to send thy holy Legions, that, under thy command and by thy power, they may pursue the evil spirits, encounter them on every side, resist their bold attacks and drive them hence into the abyss of eternal woe. Amen. Several feast days are observed in Marys honor: the Immaculate Conception, her Nativity, Purication, Annunciation, and Assumption. The most popular devotion to Mary is the rosary, which is the saying of 50 Hail Marys, ve Our Fathers, and ve doxologies (Glory be to the Father . . .) while meditating on specic traditional mysteries. This association with the rosary stems from apparitions of Mary seen at Fatima, Portugal, in 1917, in which she identied herself as the Lady of the Rosary and asked that believers say the rosary every day. Ex-canonical works such as the Book of John the Evangelist refer to Mary as being an angel herself. The Apochryphal New Testament says that she is the angel sent by God to receive the Lord, who enters her through the ear. FURTHER READING Arintero, Juan. Mystical Evolution in the Development and Vitality of the Church, Vol. I. St. Louis: B. Herder, 1949. Attwater, Donald. A Dictionary of Mary. New York: P J. . Kennedy, 1960. St. Michael and the Angels. Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, 1983. First published 1977. Warner, Marina. Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary. New York: Vintage, 1983. Mashit ANGEL OF DESTRUCTION and one of the ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT. Mashit means destroyer. Mashit governs the death of children. According to the Zohar, he is one of three angels in Gehenna (HELL)along with Af and Hemahwho punish those who sin by idolatry, incest, and murder. maskim In Akkadian lore, seven great princes of HELL or princes of the abyss. Azza, Azael, and Mephistopheles are among the maskim. Mastema (Mastemah, Mansemat) Angel of evil, hostility, adversity, and destruction; the accuser; a PRINCE of DEMONS and injustice. The proper name of Mastema comes from the same Hebrew noun, which means hostility, its use in two references in the Old Testament (Hosea 9:78). According to lore, Mastema once was the ANGEL OF THE LORD who delivered the punishments of the Lord and became demonized. In ten references in the QUMRAN TEXTS, Mastema is equated with Belial, whose purpose is to destroy. He also is described as existing between the Prince of Light and the Angel of Darkness and ruling the children of falsehood. He leads the children of righteousness astray. In JUBILEES, Mastema is the only angel who is named; he is equated with the ANGEL OF HOSTILITY. His origins are not explained, though he is equated with Satan and is the prince of evil beings who menace and harass humankind. As a satan, Mastema urges God to test ABRAHAM with the sacrice of his son ISAAC. Mastema also aids the Egyptians in opposition to MOSES, and he tries to kill him. He helps the pharaohs magicians compete with Moses and Aaron. His demons lead the sons of NOAH astray to commit sin, idolatry, and pollution. Melchizedek One legend holds that Mastema asked God to give him some demons so that he might have power over humankind; God gave him one-tenth of the fallen ones to be under his command. FURTHER READING van der Toon, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. Matanbukus (Mekembukus) In the Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah, Matanbukus is given as another name for Beliar. It possibly means gift of desolation. See ISAIAH. Mefathiel Angel whose name means opener of doors in Hebrew. Mefathiel was a favorite of thieves, who invoked him to aid their entries. Melchizedek (Melkisedek, Melchisedec, Melch-Zadok) A king and priest in the Old Testament, who in angel lore is associated with angels. Melchizedek means the god Zedek is my king, and he is described in the New Testament as the king of righteousness and the king of peace. There are only two references to Melchizedek in the Old Testament. In Genesis 14:1820, Melchizedek is identied as the king of Salem (Jerusalem)the priest of EL ELYONwho blesses Abram (see ABRAHAM) after a battle. Abram then tithes to the king. Psalm 110:4 declares, You are a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek. These words are echoed in the New Testament book of Hebrews (5:610), in which Jesus is declared the high priest successor, Thou art a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek for offering the sacrice of his life. Hebrews 7:1 says that Melchizedek has not father or mother or genealogy, and has neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God he continues a priest forever. According to 2 ENOCH, Melchizedek is the supernatural son of the priest Nir, brother of NOAH. When Methuselah, the grandfather of Nir and Noah, is near death he appoints Nir as the leader of his people. For 202 years there is peace and order, and then the people turn away from the ways of the Lord. Nir is distressed for this turbulence has been prophesied. Nirs elderly wife Sopanim becomes pregnant, despite being sterile and having had no sexual relations with Nir for many years. Ashamed, she hides herself away, even from Nir. Toward the end of her pregnancy, 237 Nir summons her to him, and when he sees that she is pregnant he is ashamed and angry. Sopanim tries to explain that she does not understand how she became pregnant, but he does not believe her. He sends her away. Sopanim dies. Nir and Noah decide to bury her secretly to hide the scandal of her pregnancy. They wrap her body in black garments and go out to dig a grave in secret. When they return they nd that a child has issued from her corpse. He has been born fully formed and about the size of a three-year-old child. He is sitting on the bed beside his dead mother. He speaks and blesses the Lord. Nir and Noah are terried. Then they see that he wears a glorious badge of priesthood on his chest. They believe that God is renewing the priesthood from their bloodline. They name him Melchizedek. They wash the boy, dress him in the garments of a priest, and give him holy bread to eat. Nir and Noah take the black clothing off the body of Sopanim, wash her, reclothe her in a bright garment, and build a shrine for her. They bury her publicly. Noah tells Nir to look after Melchizedek in secret because the people who have turned away from God will put him to death. Nir prays to the Lord to ask what is the destiny of his son. God appears to him in a DREAM and tells him that he will send the angel Michael to take the boy away to Eden where he will be safe from the destruction and punishment planned for the sinners. Melchizedek will be the priest to all holy priests and he will be the head of the priests of the future. Melchizedek will be the head of the 13 priests who existed before. In the last generation there will be another Melchizedek, the rst of 12 priests. The last will be the head of all, a great archpriest, the Word and Power of God, who will perform great and glorious miracles. After 40 days, Michael appears to Nir in a dream and announces he will take Melchizedek. When Nir arises in the morning he nds the boy gone. He grieves for Melchizedek is his only son. Nir passes away and after him there is no priest among the people. A great confusion exists on the earth, to be followed by the Flood. Midrashim identify Melchizedek as a son of Noah, and the feeder of the beasts aboard the Ark. Phoenician mythology identies him as the father of the seven ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE. Early Greek writers called him a VIRTUE and PRINCE OF PEACE. In a QUMRAN TEXT, 11QMelch, Melchizedek is not a mortal but an angel. He is an exalted being over all other angels who presides over the heavenly court and meets out punishment from Belial and his DEMONS on 238 memunim the Day of Judgment. In this respect, Melchizedek is like Metatron, who also had an earthly life prior to his translation into HEAVEN as the highest of all angels. Melchizedek was regarded as an angel by some groups in early Christianity, although St. Jerome rejected this idea. ORIGEN considered Melchizedek an angel. Melchizedek also is associated with the ANGEL OF THE LORD. FURTHER READING Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israels Second God. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. memunim In Jewish lore, deputy angels or MINISTERING ANGELS who are the agents through whom the universe operates. Memunim in Hebrew means appointed ones. Every single thing in creation is assigned its all-powerful memuneh (singular). Most important of all is the memuneh of the star assigned to a person, which governs his existence; this memuneh is the equivalent of a GUARDIAN ANGEL. Besides inuencing all affairs and activities, the memunim represent and defend their charges in the heavenly court of law (see ENOCH). If an animal or human has been wronged, for example, their memunim take up their case with God to see that justice is done. Memunim who watch over places are held responsible if a man injures himself there. Prayers cannot be answered unless the memunim offer them directly before the Throne of Glory. Memunim help to bring about good fortune by inuencing people to take favorable actions; in this function they are similar to the DAIMONES. The memunim like familiarity and habit, for one must be careful when renovating a building or home, so that familiar doors and windows are not disturbed and the memunim become upset. And, when a person dies, his memuneh of his guiding star will ask for a reprieve so as not to be held accountable for his death. The rst appearances of memunim in rabbinic sources date to the 10th century in southern Italy. The concept of memunim was developed and expanded by German Jews in the 13th century as part of an elaborate structure of angel MAGIC. In magic, a practitioner commanded the elements by commanding memunim and DEMONS. In casting a spell on a person, the magician commanded his memuneh to deliver it to the memuneh of the victim. Memunim could also be employed to dispatch dreams to others, reveal the will of God in dreams, and serve in other magical intermediary duties (see DREAMS AND VISIONS). If a magician desires information, he commands his memuneh to bring it to him. The memuneh does not appear but impresses the information mentally by mingling his thoughts with those of the magician. FURTHER READING Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Mendrion In the LEMEGETON, the ruling angel of the seventh hour of the night, called Venaydor. Mendrion rules 101,550 dukes and other servants who are divided into 12 orders. Mephistopheles One of the seven great princes of HELL, and a representative of Satan in legend and literature. Mephistopheles means in Hebrew he who loves not the light. Mephistopheles is best known for the part he plays in the legend of Dr. Johann Faust, which has been turned into plays, poems, operas, and symphonies. The story concerns the way in which vanity can lead to easy seduction by the devil. Perhaps the best-known of these artistic creations is GOETHEs Faust. According to the story, Faust lives in 15th-century Weimar, Germany, where he is an astrologer, alchemist, and magician. In his youth he exhausted all the knowledge of his time, and so he turned to sorcery. Now in old age, he is bitter and disillusioned. Using his skill in sorcery, he conjures up Mephistopheles in the name of beelzebub. The DEMON is friendly and consoling. Faust conjures him a second time, and Mephistopheles promises him all the worldly pleasures and sensations he desiresin exchange for his soul at the end of 24 years time. Faust agrees. For the next 24 years, Faust lives a splendid life. He has youth, wealth, magical powers, and the satiation of all his physical desires. He can magically transport himself anywhere in the world, conjure up any woman, have anything. Then the demon comes to collect his due. Goethe allows redemption for Faust. He has the doctor seduce a young woman named Margaret. She bears a child, but is so overcome with shame that she kills it. She is arrested and imprisoned, and in prison she becomes insane. Faust, meanwhile, continues to live the high life. He conjures up Helen of Troy. Mephistopheles takes Merkabah Faust on an adventure and shows him the creation of the universe, and the secrets of the homunculus (an articial man created by magic). Faust tries to save Margaret, but to no avail. She goes to her death and her sacrice redeems them both. FURTHER READING Hyatt, Victoria, and Joseph W. Charles. The Book of Demons. New York: Fireside, 1974. Merkabah (Merkavah) A form of Jewish mysticism. Merkabah focuses on the ascent to Gods throne of glory through knowledge of the secret NAMES of angels and God, breath control and the rhythmic repetition of hymns, prayers, and invocations. The term Merkabah refers to the chariot that bears the throne of God. Merkabah originated in Palestine and was active prior to time of the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. Inuenced by GNOSTICISM, it spread into the Jewish communities in Babylonia and ourished through the eighth century or the ninth century C.E. It was a signicant inuence upon the development of the KABBALAH in medieval Spain. Merkabah terminology is found in Dead Sea Scrolls. (See QUMRAN TEXTS.) In Merkabah cosmology, Gods throne of glory resides in the center of seven concentric halls or palaces (hekalot) in the seventh or highest HEAVEN. (Some references imply the existence of higher heavens.) Descriptions of the throne are more impressionistic than specic, and are intended to convey the majesty of the throne. A curtain, the pargod, separates the throne from the rest of heaven. Its purpose is to shield the angels around God from the intensity of his glory. It also symbolizes mysteries known only to God. His palaces contain many treasures, among them the phenomena of the natural world, the archives of the heavenly court of law, (see ENOCH) and spiritual gifts such as wisdom. A RIVER OF FIRE ows out from beneath the throne; it is a symbol of the wrath of God in matters of divine judgment. Angels bath in the river when they perform the QEDUSSAH (Sanctus), a devotion that is their most important duty. Below God is a complex organization of hierarchies of angels. Although angels are central to Merkabah mysticism, the various texts have no uniform ANGELOLOGY. There is general agreement that angels are made of a ery substance and the higher ones can appear in a human-like form. The numbers of angels are innite, and different angels are identied as lling certain ofces. The function of angels is to worship and serve God; they attempt to obstruct the direct access of humans to the throne. Only the highest 239 angels have access to God near or inside the curtain. In 3 Enoch, Metatron holds the privilege of access inside the curtain. In the Maseket Hekalot, the seven angels who were created rst sit in front of the curtain. In order to reach the throne the mystic must alter consciousness by going into trance. This is accomplished by preparatory fasting, assuming certain postures such as placing his head between his knees, breath control, and reciting certain prayers or hymns. He passes through the gates of each heaven, which are guarded by powerful, hostile angels. To get past the angels, the mystic must know the right SEALS and secret magical names, hymns, and prayers to recite; some are the songs of the HAYYOTH, and almost all conclude with the QEDUSSAH. There is great emphasis on angels names, many of which are composed from number and letter magic. (See GEMATRIA.) Failure to pass through a gate poses a danger to the mystic. With its emphasis on direct access to God, Merkabah mysticism was not entirely embraced by orthodoxy. According to tradition, Merkabah techniques could be undertaken only by those who were steeped in spiritual learning and who had properly puried themselves by days of fasting, eating special food, and bathing. With its strict procedures and shamanistic trances, Merkabah likely was conned to a small number of practitioners. Merkabah literature emphasizes the mysteries of heaven and the ascent to Gods throne. It is less concerned with eschatological and apocalyptic themes such as the last judgment, the resurrection of the dead, the messianic kingdom, and the world to come, though those themes are dealt with in some texts. Among the most signicant Merkabah texts are the Hekalot Zutrati (Lesser Hekalot), the Hekalot Rabbati (the Greater Hekalot), the Merkavah Rabbah, the SEFER RAZIEL, and 3 Enoch, the latter of which is also known as the Sefer Hekalot (the Book of the Palaces) and the Chapters of Rabbi Ishmael. Merkabah mysticism also is found in apocryphal texts. Merkabahs parallels to Gnosticism can be found in the heavenly ascent and the layers of heaven. In Gnosticism the ascent to heaven is not made during life, however, but after death. The soul passes through the realms of seven ARCHONS to reach the eighth sphere of the Ogdoad, a nameless being known as the rst power. Other parallels can be found between Merkabah, mysticism and the Hermetica, Roman Mithraism and Neoplatonism. Merkabah mysticism also made signicant contributions to synagogue liturgy and to the theology of medieval Jewish mystics in Germany known as the Haside Askenaz. 240 Merkabah Angels FURTHER READING Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. Merkabah Angels In 3 ENOCH, six classes of angels who guard the throne of Glory, among them the CHERUBIM, GALGALIM, HAYYOTH, OPHANIM, and SERAPHIM. Metatron In Jewish lore, one of the four great ARCHANGELS and the greatest of angels, second only to God and a Lesser Yahweh in stature and power. In various accounts about Metatron, scarcely an angelic duty or function is not related to him. Primarily, he sustains the physical world and carries Jewish prayers through 900 HEAVENS to God. He is an important angelic figure in the MERKABAH and KABBALAH literature and the Talmud. Metatron apparently absorbed characteristics originally ascribed to the angel Jahoel. He is huge in size, a pillar of re with 36 pairs of wings and myriad eyes. His face is more dazzling than the sun. As PRINCE OF THE DIVINE PRESENCE, he is the only angel who has the high privilege of serving in Gods immediate presence inside the curtain (pargod) that surrounds God on his throne of Glory. Metatron stands at the top of the TREE OF LIFE as the ANGEL OF YAHWEH. He also is identied with the tree of knowledge of good and bad, which means he embodies both human and angelic perfection. This enables him to be an excellent interface between the two realms, but his success depends on the righteousness of humans. The good deeds of people generate a spiritual energy that literally vitalizes Metatron, and, without it, he grows weak and less effective. Metatron is the representative of God who led the tribes of Israel through the wilderness, and he is one of the angels identied as the dark angel who wrestles with JACOB. He is sometimes identied as the angel who stays the hand of ABRAHAM as he is about to sacrice his son, ISAAC, and he is credited with ordering the angelic announcement of the coming of the Flood. (See URIEL.) Metatron also is said to have given the wisdom of the Kabbalah to humanity. Metatron is sometimes called THE PRINCE OF THE COUNTENANCE, meaning he is the chief angel of those angels who are privileged to look upon the face of God. He serves as Gods ANGEL OF DEATH, instructing Gabriel and Samael which human souls to take at any Metatron (Copypright 1995 by Robert Michael Place, from The Angels Tarot by Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Robert Michael Place, 1995. Used with permission.) given moment. The ames that issue from him create legions of angels. He is minister to the Throne of Glory, on which God sits; High Priest of the heavenly Temple (a role also ascribed to the archangel Michael); minister of wisdom, who holds the secrets to all divine affairs; and minister of the GUARDIAN ANGELS of the 70 peoples of the world. In addition, he teaches prematurely dead children who arrive in Paradise. The etymology of the name Metatron is unclear. The name appears in two forms, Mttrwn and Myttrwn. Possibly, the name itself was intended to be a secret, and may have been produced through a glossolalia type of altered state of consciousness. Glossolalia is Metatron speaking in tongues, and it is perhaps best known for its part in charismatic religions. According to the Zohar, the name of Metatron is the equivalent of Shaddai, one of the NAMES of God. This association is derived from the mystical numerology called GEMATRIA, which assigns a numerical value to each letter in the Hebrew alphabet. Names and words that have the same numerical value have a mystical connection. Both Shaddai and Metatron equal 314. As another aspect of God, Metatron is sometimes called the shining light of the SHEKINAH and he whose name is like that of his Master. Eleazar of Worms speculated that Metatron comes from the Latin term metator, which means a guide, measurer, or one who prepares the way, an apt description of this important angel. Other possible etymologies are the Greek term metaturannos, which means the one next to the ruler, and the Greek term (ho) meta thronon, which means (the throne) next to the (divine) throne or the second throne. The earliest references to Metatron in literature use the term as a simple noun and not as a proper name. Metatron is a guide or function. In the Sifre Deuteronomy, an early-third-century work from Palestine, Gods nger is a metatron to MOSES and showed him the whole land of Israel (32:49). The Genesis Rabbah says the voice of God was made a metatron over the waters (5:4). According to the book of Enoch, Metatron originally was the human prophet ENOCH, who is so righteous that God transforms him directly into an angel. Enoch had been a scribe, and as Metatron he continues as a heavenly scribe, residing in the seventh heaven where he logs all celestial and earthly events. The Zohar says that Enoch was able to be transformed into Metatron because the divine spark lost by Adam in the Fall entered Enoch. Since mortals cannot contain the divine spark of perfection, it was then necessary for God to take Enoch into heaven and turn him into an angel. 3 Enoch gives a detailed description of the transformation of Enoch into Metatron. God sends the angel Anapiel to bring Enoch to heaven on the wings of the Shekinah. But as soon as he reaches the heavenly heights the holy angels who attend the throne of Godthe OPHANIM, SERAPHIM, CHERUBIM, THRONES, and the ministers of consuming resmell his human odor 365,000 myriads of PARASANGS away. They ask God why a human being has been brought up to heaven. God says that due to the corruption of mankind he has removed his Shekinah from their midst but Enoch is righteous and worth all the rest of the people. In heaven Enoch is transformed into re. Metatron describes the transformation: 241 at once my esh turned to ame, my sinews to blazing re, my bones to juniper coals, my eyelashes to lightning ashes, my eyeballs to ery torches, the hairs of my head to hot ames, all my limbs to wings of burning re, and the substance of my body to blazing re. On my right those who cleave ames of reon my leftburning brandsround about me swept wind, tempest, and storm; and the roar of earthquake upon earthquake was before and behind me. (15:12) God places his hand on Enoch and gives him 1,365,000 blessings. Enoch becomes enlarged and increases in size until he reaches the world in length and breadth. He grows 72 wings, 36 on each side, and each single wing covers the entire world. Metatron is given 365,000 eyes, and each eye is like the Great Light. He is given a brilliant robe and a crown of 49 stones each like the orb of the sun and that shine into the four quarters of heaven. There is no splendor, brilliance, brightness or beauty that God does not bestow upon Metatron: wisdom, power, all the virtues, and 300,000 gates each of understanding, prudence, life, grace and favor, love, Torah, humility, sustenance, mercy, and reverence. He is given to know all the mysteries, including the thoughts of people before they have them. God names Metatron the Lesser Yahweh before the entire heavenly court and proclaims, My name is in him. Metatron is set above all angels to serve the throne of glory; he has the privilege of accessing God behind the curtain of mystery that surrounds him. But when scholars on earth object to his status as a second power in heaven, God reduces his stature by having him lashed with a whip of re by the angel Anapiel. In 3 Enoch Metatron serves as the heavenly guide to Rabbi Ishmael. In the Visions of Ezekiel, a composite work probably dating from the fourth century C.E., Metatron is identied with Michael and also with the DYNAMEIS, an order of angels. Metatron has numerous alternative names; from 70 to more than 100 are mentioned in various texts. The following are 93 names given in 3 Enoch: Yahoel Yah Margayel Tatnadiel Ozahyah Zebuliel Paspasiel Mitatron Astas Yoppiel Geyorel Tatriel Zahzahyah Sapsapiel Senigron Sigron Saqpas Apapel Tanduel Tabtabiel Ebed Sopriel Sarpupirin Adrigon Saqpus 242 mezuzot Mikon Atatyah Paspasyah Absannis Mekarkar Tasbas Besihi Sapsapyah Habhabyah Hashasyah Sahsahyah Zazruyah Razrazyah Sabsebibyah Miton Asasyah Mesamyah Mebargas Maspad Metarpits Itmon Zerah Zerahyah Pepatpalyah Taptapyah Araryah Aramyah Tahsanyah Qeliqalyah Ruah Pisqonit Zazzazyah Masmasyah Bardas Tasgas Paspisahu Pisqon Ababyah Rakrakyah Tamtamyah Alalyah Sebar Suhasyah Sasrasyah Hahhahyah Warwahyah Sewiryah Galrazyah Perisyah Sabsabyah Perisperisyah Sar Saryah Ziwa Rabba Rabrakiel Zakzakyah Zehapnuryah Melakmelapyah Amqaqyah Geit Zeityah Sepat Sepatyah Gebir Geburyah Naar Neeman Neamiel Titrisyah Zazayah Attaryah Salsalyah Geityay Hasamyah Gurtaryah Lesser Yhvh Seganzagel, Prince of Wisdom ery of the commandments from the one and only God, and his instructions to obey themto remind Jews of the principle of monotheism. By the Middle Ages the people clearly preferred it as an amulet. So powerful was the mezuzah in its ability to keep demons away that gentiles and Jews alike used it. It was believed also to prevent premature death. Many homes had mezuzot in every room. People also carried small mezuzot as personal protective charms. Strict procedures were set forth for the making of a mezuzah. It was to be written on deer parchment according to an amulet table in the SEFER RAZIEL and under certain astrological and angelic influences. One set of 10th century instructions were: It is to be written only on Monday, in the fifth hour, over which the sun and the angel Raphael preside, or on Thursday, in the fourth hour, presided over by Venus and the angel Anael. Mezuzot were encapsulated in cases. While it was forbidden to alter the face of the mezuzah, it was permissible to write on the back of the parchment. One popular medieval addition was the name Shaddai, held to be especially powerful in repelling demons. Small windows were cut in the backs of the mezuzot cases so that the name Shaddai would show. Other additions were names of God, other Bible verses, NAMES of angels, and magical symbols. Frequently named angels were Michael, Gabriel, Azriel, Zadkiel, Sarel, Raphael, Anael, Uriel, Yoel, and Hasdiel. Mezuzot are still in use as both a religious object and an amulet. FURTHER READING Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israels Second God. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Margolies, Morris B. A Gathering of Angels. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. First published 1974. mezuzot Biblical inscriptions attached to doorposts, which in the Middle Ages acquired great power as a Jewish AMULET protecting against DEMONS. According to historian Joshua Trachtenberg, the mezuzah (singular) descended from a primitive charm, which rabbinic leaders imparted with religious signicance, based on Deuteronomy 6:9: And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. The mezuzah was inscribed with the verses Deuteronomy 6:419 and 11:1320the deliv- FURTHER READING Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Berhmans Jewish Book House, 1939. Michael The most prominent and greatest angel in Christian, Jewish, and Islamic lore. Michael means in Hebrew who is like God or who is as God. Michael is Chaldean in origin. In ANGELOLOGIES, his chief roles are many: he is warrior, priest, protector, healer, guardian. He holds numerous offices in heaven: he is chief of the VIRTUES and ARCHANGELS, one of the ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE, a PRINCE OF LIGHT, ANGEL OF TRUTH, and angel of repentance, righteousness, mercy, and salvation. Some of his roles overlap with those of other great archangels, Uriel, Gabriel, and Raphael; of the four, he is the primary aspect of the ANGEL OF THE LORD. Michael also shares similarities with Metatron and Melchizedek. He also has duties as the ANGEL OF DEATH. Michael Biblical References to Michael Michael is mentioned by name in the Old Testament books of DANIEL and the New Testament books of Jude and REVELATION. In Daniel, he is the GUARDIAN ANGEL or PRINCE of the people of God [Israel]. In Daniel 10:13, Michael is named and described as one of the chief princes, and in 10:21, one having the appearance of a man tells Daniel there is none who contends by my side except Michael, your prince. In Daniel 12:1, the prophecy of the time of the end states that: 243 This refers to the Israelites departure from Egypt, led by MOSES and guided by a pillar of cloud during the day and a pillar of re at night, as told in the book of Exodus. In Exodus 23:20, God promises to send his angel before them. Though Michael is not named here, it is widely interpreted that he is that angel. Jude 1:8 makes a reference to the archangel Michael contending with Satan over the body of MOSES. According to Jewish lore, Michael became angry at Satans contention that Moses was a murderer and therefore was not worthy of burial. Michael says to Satan, The Lord rebuke you. In REVELATION 12:712, Michael and his legions battle Satan and his forces, and defeat them; they are thrown down. Numerous other biblical references to the Angel of Yahweh and the Angel of the Lord are interpreted as meaning Michael. In ZECHARIAH 3:12, an Angel of the Lord who is interpreted as Michael confronts Satan before God and the high priest Joshua, and he serves as guide to Zechariah in his vision. Michael subduing Satan Michael in Other Texts and Lore Numerous references in apocryphal writings to the Angel of the Lord and to unnamed but important angels are widely interpreted to be Michael. In the Slavonic Life of ADAM AND EVE, he prays for the couple after their fall. In 2 ENOCH he is a chief and captain of angels; in 3 Enoch, he is called the Great Prince who is in charge of the seventh HEAVEN. In 1 Enoch he joins Gabriel and Surufel (Suriel/Uriel) in petitioning God to take action against the WATCHERS. The QUMRAN TEXT 4Q529 is a visionary recital by Michael on his journey to the highest heaven; Gabriel serves as mystic guide and interpreter of the vision. Michael then descends to lower angels to report what he has seen. He tells them that in the highest heaven he beheld troops of re and nine mountains. Gabriel appeared and told him that a city (interpreted to be the heavenly Jerusalem) will be built for the Name of the Great One (the Lord), in whose presence no evil shall be committed. In the Midrash Konen, Michael offers sacrices on an altar in the heavenly Temple of Jerusalem in Zebhul, the fourth heaven. In Jewish legend the two primeval monsters, Leviathan and Behemoth, will murder each other, but variations of the story predict that God will send Michael and Gabriel against both creatures, and that when they fail to dispatch either, God will shoulder the task Himself. Some midrashim state that God commands the archangel Michael to bring me dust from my sanctuary to make Adam. Others say God disdains to fetch Adams dust himself and sends an angel instead, either Michael to Mount Moriah or Gabriel to the worlds At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time; but at that time your people shall be delivered, every one whose name shall be found written in the book. 244 Michael Michael, from Eastern Orthodox Church, Romania (Authors collection) four corners. Nevertheless earth opposed the angels, knowing she will be cursed on Adams account, and God stretches forth his own hand to gather it. When Cain kills Abel, some midrashim say that when he tries to bury the corpse earth spews it up again and cries, I will receive no other body until the clay that was fashioned into Adam has been restored to me! At this Cain ees, and Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael place the corpse upon a rock, where it remains many years without corrupting. When Adam dies, these same archangels bury both bodies at Hebron side by side, in the very eld from which God had taken Adams dust. The midrashim say that the FALLEN ANGELS Azael and Semyaza (see WATCHERS) cause such wickedness on earth among the Canaanites that the four archangels tell God, and God sends Raphael to bind Azael hand and foot, heaping jagged rocks over him in the dark Cave of Dudael, where he now abides until the Last Days. Gabriel destroys the Fallen Ones by inciting them to civil war. Michael chains Semyaza and his fellows in other dark caves for 70 generations. Uriel becomes the messenger of salvation who visit NOAH. One midrash said that when JACOB and Esau are in Rebekahs womb and ght, that Michael intervenes on Jacobs behalf and saves him from death. Samael intervenes on behalf of Esau. Rabbinic lore says that Gabriel and Michael were witnesses to the contract in which Esau sold Jacob his birthright. The Testament of ABRAHAM relates that when Michael comes to fetch Abrahams soul, the patriarch boldly insists on seeing the whole world. God commands Michael to let Abraham ride across the heavens in a chariot drawn by CHERUBIM, and so his wish is fullled, yet Abraham is still reluctant to die. God then sends the Angel of Death disguised as a fair youth, and when his true aspect is revealed Abraham faints in horror. Death draws out Abrahams soul through his ngers. Michael wraps it in a divinely woven kerchief and conveys it to heaven. The Yalqut Genesis and the Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer say that it is Michael who ghts with Jacob at Peniel. When God asks Michael, What have you done to my rstborn son? Michael answers, I shrank a sinew in your honor. God says, It is good. Henceforth, until the end of time, you shall have charge of Israel and his posterity! For the prince of angels should guard the prince of men; re should guard re, and head should guard head! Hebrew midrashim and folklore sources tell that when Jacobs daughter Dinah is raped by the Canaanite Sechem, she gives birth to a daughter. Her brothers wishes to kill the child but Jacob restrains them and puts a silver disk about her neck, laying her underneath a thornbush (hence her name Asenath for the bush). Michael, in the shape of an eagle, takes off with Asenath to Egypt and leaves her beside Gods altar, where a priest nds her and brings her up. Many years later when Joseph saves Egypt from famine, he makes a trip throughout Egypt and the women throw him tokens of gratitude. Asenath throws him her silver disk and he recognizes it. Knowing she must be his own niece, he marries her. Michael in Christian Lore Christianity recognizes Michael as the Guardian Angel of the Hebrew nation, and the angel who wages ceaseless war against the forces of Satan. He is the special defender of Christians (and particularly Catholics) and the Catholic Church. Satan trembles at the mere mention of his name, and all the angels of heaven bow down before him in obedience. Michael inspires Michael delity to God. St. Francis de Sales wrote that veneration of Michael is the greatest remedy against despising the rights of God, insubordination, skepticism, and indelity. In Catholic devotion, there is no greater angel than Michael, who is canonized as a saint. The Catholic Church refers to him as Prince of the heavenly hosts. Churches were built and dedicated to him from the fth century on. So intense was adoration of Michael that many devotional cults sprang up all over Europe, peaking in popularity in the late Middle Ages. Devotion to Michael (as well as to Gabriel and Raphael) is still carried out by Catholic DEVOTIONAL CULTS and in prayer and Mass. At Mass, Michael presides over the worship of adoration to the Most High, and he sends to God the prayers of the faithful, symbolized by the smoke from incense. The prayer to St. Michael asking him to defend Christians in battle is a condensed form of the general exorcism against Satan and evil spirits composed by Pope Leo XIII. One of Michaels important duties is guiding the souls of the newly departed to the afterlife. In this capacity, he resembles the Greek/Roman god Hermes/ Mercury and the Egyptian god Thoth. (See PSYCHOPOMPOI.) Michael weighs the souls for righteousness. He is associated with benevolent aspects of the Angel of Death and has the ability to shapeshift when he comes to take a soul away (as in the case of Abraham). In lore, Michael is the angel designated to appear to MARY to announce her death. Michael also guards the gates of purgatory and has pity on the souls therein. Legends tells of prayers made to Michael for souls in purgatory; he appears and takes them into heaven. Michael shares with Raphael special healing duties, a function naturally associated with him as protector of the general welfare. (See descriptions of some of his apparitions below.) Michael was considered the great heavenly physician at Constantinople, and he is credited with banishing a pestilence in Rome during the days of St. Gregory the Great. Michael has two feast days: May 8, which commemorates the dedication of a basilica in honor of him on the Salarian Way about six miles outside of Rome; and September 29, known as Michaelmas. He is the patron saint of grocers, mariners, paratroopers, police, and sickness. In Christian art, Michael is usually portrayed in warrior garb, holding a sword and scales and trampling Satan. Apparitions of Michael Numerous apparitions of Michael have been reported over the centuries, especially in the rst millennium of 245 Christianity as he supplanted pagan gods of protection, battle, and healing. These apparitions usually occurred on or near mountaintops or rocky outcrops, which became the sites of healing springs and miracles. Shrines, churches, and even great abbeys were built at these places and were dedicated to Michael. They have attracted countless pilgrims. Some of the most famous Michael sites and their legends are: MICHAELION, CONSTANTINOPLE The Michaelion church near Constantinople was built in the fth century C.E. by the Emperor Constantine because of an apparition of Michael. At the command of Mary, Queen of the Angels, Michael came to the aid of Constantine in his battle against the pagan emperor Maxentius. Constantine built the church for Michael in Michael slaying the dragon (Authors collection) 246 Michael gratitude. After its completion, Michael appeared there to the emperor and said, I am Michael, the chief of the angelic legions of the Lord of hosts, the protector of the Christian religion, who while you were battling against godless tyrants, placed the weapons in your hands. Miracles attributed to Michael have been reported at the Michaelion over the centuries. EUSEBIOS, CONSTANTINOPLE The church of Michael at Eusebios, Constantinople, acquired its importance from an apparition of Michael that occurred during the reign of Emperor Michael III (842867) under the regency of his mother, Theodora. Since the use of icons had recently been restored in Byzantine worship (see IMAGES OF ANGELS), the story may have served to help reestablish the importance of sacred images. The story concerns a candlemaker named Marcianus, who was a pious servant of the shrine of Michael. Marcianus was never ill. If he felt the slightest discomfort he would go into the church and immediately recover. On one occasion when he felt poorly he went into the church but took with him a medicinal poultice because doctors had convinced him it was necessary to do so. As he slept that night in the shrinea customary practice at healing centershe had a terrible dream vision (see DREAMS AND VISIONS). The doors of the church suddenly ew open and in rushed a fearful man as out of the heaven, descending on a white and terrible steed. The man dismounted and entered the church, escorted by men dressed in the garb of court ofcials. The church became lled with a strange unworldly odor. The mysterious man walked to where Marcianus lay on his cot. He examined him and asked Marcianus about the poultice. He demanded to know who had dared to bring such medicine into his house thus identifying himself as the namesake of the shrine, Michael. Marcianus told him about the doctor who had insisted on the poultice and Michael ordered his assistants to nd him. Michael then led Marcianus to an icon of himself, which had a lit candle and small dish of oil beside it. Michael dipped his nger in the oil and made the sign of the cross on Marcianuss forehead. He then got back on his horse and rode off into the sky, the church doors closing by themselves behind him. The next morning, Marcianus had a cross on his forehead, which proved to the deacon the truth of his vision. The deacon learned that the offending doctor had become mysteriously and seriously ill during the night. Marcianus visited the doctor and then brought him on his bed into the church and told him to beg Michael for forgiveness and mercy. He then imitated his own heal- ing by dipping his nger in the icon oil and drawing a cross on the forehead of the doctor. The doctor was miraculously healed, thus establishing the model for successful healing. CHONAE, PHRYGIA, ASIA MINOR The most important center of Michael devotion in the Byzantine world developed in Phrygia in a syncretic mix of pagan, Jewish, and Christian angel cults popular in the early centuries after Christ. The apostles Philip and John came to the town of Colossae (Chairetopa) and prophesied the appearance of Michael there. Michael caused a medicinal spring to appear; anyone who bathed there and invoked the Blessed Trinity and Michael was said to be cured. The miracles, conversions, and baptisms at the spring aroused the jealousy of the pagan Hellenes. They gathered a mob and dammed two rivers to combine them. The waters were directed onto Colossae and the church at the spring. But Archippus, a God-fearing hermit who had settled at the spring when just a boy, heard the roaring waters and called upon Michael (the Archistrategos) for help. Michael appeared immediately in a clap of thunder, in the appearance of a pillar of re reaching from earth to heaven. He told Archippus to leave before he is covered by water. But the sight of the awesome angel caused the hermit to fall on the ground as though lifeless. Michael then told him to stand rm and witness the power of God. He commanded the waters to stop, and they formed a wall as high as 10 persons. He struck the rock with his staff, which sounded like thunder and shook the entire land. The rock opened. Michael commanded the water, Funnel yourself into the funnel, and the water funneled into the chasm. Thereafter, the town was called Chonae (funnels). Michael promised to guard the place, and the waters were sanctied forever. MONTE GARGANO, ITALY Apparitions of Michael appeared to the bishop of Siponto near Monte Gargano in Apulia, near Naples, Italy, during the reign of Pope Gelasius (492496), leading to the establishment of a healing shrine. Versions of the events, which resemble the Chonae story, date to the eighth and ninth centuries. One day a bull belonging to a wealthy man named Garganus became lost on a mountainside. After a long search, Garganus found it inside a cave. Irritated at the bull, he shot an arrow at it, but it turned in mid-air as if breathed upon by the wind and hit him instead. He went back to the town of Siponto and told the story. The bishop undertook a fast of three days and three nights to learn the cause of this mysterious event. Michael Michael came to the bishop in a dream and said, Let it be known to you that it occurred because I willed it. For I am the Archangel Michael, he who always stands in the presence of God. The bishop fasted a second time to be worthy of Michaels aid and presence. He had a second vision. On the third night, Michael appeared in a dream and identied himself. He said he had intervened because he wished to dwell in this place on earth and guard all. The next day, the bishop and some townsfolk visited the mountain and found two doors cut into its face. In another dream, Michael told the bishop that the Sipontini and their allies, the Beneventi, would win in a war against their heathen enemies, the Neapolitans. The next day, the mountain was full of thunder, lightning, and darkness, which so frightened the Neapolitans that they ed. The locals went up to the doors in the side of the mountain and entered a cave where they found traces of the presence of Michael: a small trace, as if the footstep of a man struck there in the marble. A shrine was begun there and was called the place of the footprints. The shrine was completed after a visit by Michael to the bishop. The bishop was uncertain how to consecrate the chapel and was told by Michael in another vision not to consecrate it at all. Michael told him, I myself have put it in order and consecrated it. You need only come and approach with your entreaties since I am attending as master in that place. Michael told him to return the next day and he would show the townspeople how the place would guide them. The bishop did as instructed and found a chapel ready made and carved out of the living rock as if by the hands of the archangel. He knew the angel had made it because it was too irregular, rough, and full of corners and angles to have been made by human hands. A red cloak covered the altar. A spring erupted nearby and became known for its healing properties. The site attracted hordes of pilgrims. In the seventh century, the shrine was at a peak of popularity, due in part to a Lombard victory over the Saracens in 663 that was attributed to the help of Michael. According to lore, the Lombards, who went to the shrine to pay thanks for their victory, found the imprint of Michaels foot near the south door of the temple. ST. MICHAELS MOUNT, ENGLAND In 495 in Cornwall, England, shermen saw Michael standing on a ledge of rock atop a small mount off the coast near Penzance. St. Michaels Mount, as it became known, was already an important trading market and 247 port. It took on new signicance with its association with Michael and became a hallowed place. In the sixth century it was visited by St. Cadoc, one of the principal saints of Wales. According to legend, the saint needed water for his traveling party, and he struck his staff into the rock, whereupon water sprang forth. A Benedictine priory was built atop St. Michaels Mount in 1135 by Bernard Le Bec. The community was enriched by the earls of Cornwall. But on September 11, 1275, an earthquake destroyed the church. It was rebuilt in the 14th century. Between 1349 and 1362, the religious community was nearly wiped out by the Black Plague. In 1649, the property passed into private hands, the St. Aubyn family. From the Middle Ages, St. Michaels Mount was a favorite pilgrimage. Pilgrims came to seek answers to prayer, discharge vows, do penance, and seek healing. Many were spurred by the incentive that all those who came to St. Michaels Mount with alms and oblations would receive an indulgence of one-third of their penance. The indulgence was credited to Pope Gregory VII, though probably it was a tradition started by the monks. A goal of many pilgrims was to prove their faith by sitting on St. Michaels chair, a craggy spot with a precipitous drop to the sea. Monks built a stone lantern chair atop the church tower, not only to serve as a lighthouse but also perhaps as a more suitable substitute for the unsafe outcropping. According to lore, the rst of a married couple to sit on the chair will gain mastery in married life. Pilgrims also were attracted to the jawbone relic of Apollonia, a martyr and patron against toothaches. Many miracles of healing were reported at St. Michaels Mount and credited to the intercession of Michael. The former priory is now a private residence, but much of the priory is open to public tours. The church is active and is free from episcopal jurisdiction. A stone pillar marks the spot where Michael appeared. When the tide is low, St. Michaels Mount can be accessed on foot across a sand bar. MONT ST. MICHEL, FRANCE In France, a similar but grander Benedictine abbey was built on Mont St. Michel, a huge quasi-island rock 1 kilometer wide and 80 feet high, off the Normandy coast. Its isolation made it a natural locale for pagan cults and hermits. The story of Michaels apparitions bears similarities to the Monte Gargano lore, and, in fact, it serves as a continuation of that story line. In 708, Michael appeared three times in dream visions to St. Aubert, bishop of Avranches (a nearby 248 Michael The abbey of Mont St. Michel, Normandy, France (Authors collection) town), and instructed him to build a chapel there. The bishop did not believe Michael and asked him to prove his identity. The angel pushed his finger through the bishops skull. The bishop asked for more proof. Michael told him a stolen bull would be found at the top of the rock. It was, but still Aubert was skeptical. Michael told him to send two messengers to Monte Gargano, where they would be given the red cloak that Michael wore when he appeared there and had left upon the altar, as well as a fragment of the altar on which he had set his foot. The messengers were sent and they returned with the promised items. Convinced at last, Aubert founded an oratory. In 966 an abbey was founded there by Richard I, duke of Normandy. Construction of the church began in 1020 and was nished in 1136. By the 12th century, Mont St. Michel was called the City of Books and was a great center of learning. Many of the manuscripts kept by the monks were lost during the French Revolution when the monks were expelled. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the abbey was used as a prison. Between 1155 and 1424, Mont St. Michel had jurisdiction over St. Michaels Mount in Cornwall. Access to the abbey was treacherous until the late 19th century. A slim land bridge connected the rock to the mainland. But travelers could be taken unawares by swift and terrible tides, and by constantly shifting quicksands. A causeway was built in 1879. Mont St. Michel is now one of Frances greatest tourist attractions. The spiraling road up to the abbey once walked by pilgrims is now lined on both sides by shops and restaurants. Inside the entrance to the abbey is a large marble frieze depicting Michael pushing his finger through the skull of the dreaming Aubert. SPAIN In Spain, where the cult of Michael peaked in popularity in about the 13th century, one of the best-known apparitions is the 1455 appearance to a shepherd about halfway between Navagamella and Fresnedillas, in the foothills of the Sierra de Guadarrama. The sighting was investigated in 1520, when some of the witnesses were still alive, and also in 1617. Milton, John According to testimony, Michael appeared late one afternoon in 1455 on a holm-oak tree and a rockrose plant to shepherd Miguel Sanchez. Michael told the shepherd not to be frightened, but to tell others that a shrine should be erected on the site and a brotherhood founded, both in honor of the angelic messengers. Sanchez protested that no one would believe him, but Michael insisted that he tell his employer. I will make them believe you so they build a shrine here to the holy angels, he said. He then made an imprint of his hand on the tree. However, Sanchez did not tell the story. A few days passed, and one morning he awakened crippled. His legs were folded in a bizarre manner so that the backs of his calves touched his thighs and his heels touched his buttocks. His employer, Pedro Garcia de Ayuso, tried unsuccessfully to cure him with herbs and oils. At last Sanchez told of his vision. Garcia de Ayuso consulted with authorities, and they carried the shepherd to the site of the apparition. There they found the handprint on the tree trunk. It was considered proof, and plans were made immediately for construction of a chapel. A mass was said there for the shepherds health; when it was completed, he was cured and he stood up. Sanchez was named keeper of the shrine. Mihr (Miher, Mihir, Mithra) In ZOROASTRIANISM, angel of divine mercy, friendship, love, and governor of September. According to Persian lore, Mihr and the angel Sorush will screen souls on Judgment Day. The angels will stand on a bridge called al Sirat, which is no wider than a hair and is sharper than the edge of a sword. They will examine every soul seeking to cross the bridge. Mihr will weigh the souls actions. If deemed worthy he will allow the soul to pass to paradise. Unworthy souls will be thrown into HELL by Sorush, the angel of divine justice. Milton, John (16081674) English poet. John Milton is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost, the story of Lucifers rebellion and the Fall. It is considered the greatest epic poem in the Michael in Muslim Lore The Muslims relate that the angels Gabriel, Michael, Isral, and Azrael bring dust from the four corners of the world, and with it Allah creates the body of Adam; to form his head and heart, however, Allah chooses dust from a site at Mecca, where the Holy Kaaba later rises. Mecca is the navel of the earth for Muslims, as Mount Moriah is for the Hebrews, and Delphi for the Greeks. Michaels wings are emerald green and covered with saffron hairs. Each hair contains a million faces who speak a million dialects, all imploring the pardon of Allah. When Michael cries over the sins of the faithful, his tears create CHERUBIM. See RUDOLF STEINER. FURTHER READING Christian, William C. Jr. Apparitions in Late Medieval and Renaissance Spain. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981. Eisenman, Robert, and Michael Wise. The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. London: Element Books, 1992. Graves, Robert, and Raphael Patai. Hebrew Myths. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1964. Peers, Glenn. Subtle Bodies: Representing Angels in Byzantium. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2001. Schroff, Lois. The Archangel Michael. Herndon, Va.: Newlight Books, 1990. 249 Lucifer reigning over the souls of sinners (John Baptist Medina for Paradise Lost, 1688) 250 Milton, John English language. He also wrote various political and religious treatises, served in Cromwells Commonwealth, and fought with both the established Church of England and its reformers. Life Milton was born in London in 1608 to a family of comfortable circumstances. His father was a scrivenera law writerand a composer of music. Milton attended Christs College in Cambridge, studying Latin, Greek, and the other classics with the intent of becoming a Puritan minister. He composed poems in Latin, Italian, and English. By the time he nished college, Milton had abandoned the idea of the ministry, and instead he spent six years at home writing poetry and continuing his studies. In 1635 the family moved to Horton, Buckinghamshire. Milton traveled to Europe, and he met the famous astronomer Galileo Galilei in Florence. Galileo inspired his later work, Areopagitica (1644), which speaks against censorship. Upon his return to London in 1639, Milton established a small school. When the Civil War broke out in 1642, he ceased writing poetry and defended the Puritan cause, writing pamphlets against episcopacy and divorce and in favor of freedom of the press and regicide. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Milton earned a Latin secretaryship in Oliver Cromwells government. But in 1651 he went blind and had to depend on secretaries in order to work. In 1660 Milton was arrested as a defender of the Commonwealth, but he was released after a short stay in prison. His fortunes declined. By this time, he was married to his third wife, Elizabeth Minshull; all of his marriages were unhappy. Despite his blindness, Milton continued to compose poetry. He died on November 8, 1674, of gout struck in, and he was buried in Chalfont, St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, next to his father. Works Milton believed in the reality of angels, who gured as prominently in the literature of his time as the mythical gods. One of his earliest poems composed at college, Ode on the Morning of Christs Nativity, describes the angels announcing Christs birth as harbingers of light bringing an end to the darkness of sin and evilan ironic twist considering that Lucifers name means bearer of light. The angels also ll the world with song and harmony, providing the medieval philosophers music of the spheres. Paradise Lost contains his fullest descriptions of angels and their circumstances. Milton wrote his epic poem after the Restoration of King Charles II to the English throne, a period in which Miltons total blindness and his political ties to the Commonwealth left him with little to do but write the verse he had long planned. His ambition was to compose an epic poem rivaling the works of great classical writers such as Homer and Virgil. The first edition of Paradise Lost in 1667 filled 10 volumes; a second edition in 1674 was 12 volumes long. Difficult to read because of its style and syntax, the poem nonetheless left its mark on literary history, and it influenced such Romantic poets as WILLIAM BLAKE and Percy Bysshe Shelley. The poem presents a sympathetic picture of Lucifer. It recounts his rebellion and the rapture of ADAM AND EVE in the Garden of Eden and their eventual shame and expulsion. Cast out of heaven, Lucifer awakens on a burning lake in HELL, his followers in shock around him. Milton explains in great detailsome of it based on Judeo-Christian literature and some from his own imaginationthe characteristics and details of the angels, the accounts of the great battles between Lucifers armies and the followers of God, the total beauty of Eden and mans fall from grace. Most of the discourse on the angels occurs as a conversation between Adam and the archangel Raphael who had been sent by God to warn Adam and Eve of the devils temptations. Eve prepares a feast for Adam and Raphael, and they talk of the Fall, Gods grace, and what angels are like. Raphael tells Adam that angels are the link between humans and God: pure, Intelligential substances rather than rational beings. They are intuitive, with great knowledge that encompasses reason. In many ways, particularly physically, angels resemble man, but their bodies are made of ether, which Milton identifies as the fifth element: nonsolid with a liquid texture. As such they are pure spirit compared to man, but natural to God, since God created them. Angels have all ve of mans senses, but they experience taste, smell, sight, hearing, and touch with their whole beings and not through particular organs. They eat, enjoy music, and delight in tastes, smells, and sounds, and they even have sexual intercoursean angelic talent original to Milton. When Adam asks Raphael whether the angels can enjoy the sexual raptures he has experienced with Eve, Raphael answers blushingly: To whom the Angel, with a smile that glowed Celestial rosy red, loves proper hue, Answered: Let it sufce thee that thou knowst Us happy, and without love no happiness. ministering angels Whatever pure thou in the body enjoyst (And pure thou wert created) we enjoy In eminence, and obstacle nd none Of membrane, joint or limb, exclusive bars; Easier than air with air, or spirits embrace, Total they mix, union of pure with pure Desiring; nor restrained conveyance need As esh to mix with esh, or soul with soul. (Book VIII: 618629) Angels cannot be in more than one place at the same time, but they travel at unimaginable speeds. They also are able to assume any size or shape and either gender. Angels live on planets and have been called stars. They exist as agents of divine providence, ministering to man on Gods behalf or as agents of perversion if they have followed Lucifer. But most of all, angels are winged, shining, and beautiful. In Book V, verses 277284, Milton describes Raphael as he descends into the Garden: A Seraph winged: six wings he wore, to shade His lineaments divine; the pair that clad Each shoulder broad, came mantling oer his breast With regal ornament; the middle pair Girt like a starry zone his waist, and round Skirted his loins and thighs with downy gold And colors dipped in Heaven; the third his feet Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail Sky-tinctured grain. Another characteristic of angels is their invulnerability. Each side inicts great pain upon the other during the battles of the rebellion, but they do not suffer longer than a moment. In Book VI, verses 326334, Lucifer marvels at his brief agony: Then Satan rst knew pain, And writhed him to and fro convolved; so sore The griding sword with discontinuous wound Passed through him; but the ethereal substance closed Not long divisible, and from the gash A stream of nectarous humor issuing owed Sanguine, such as celestial spirits may bleed, And all his armor stained, erewhile so bright. Christian writings organized the angels in hierarchies as follows: Seraphim Cherubim Thrones Dominions Virtues Powers Principalities Archangels Angels 251 Milton rejects these rankings, organizing the angels into three degrees or choirs. Lucifer often refers to the above-mentioned hierarchies when speaking of his minions; the titles are more expressions of Lucifers power and his exercise of authority than actual rankings. Milton also describes four leading angels as archangels who rule the four corners of the world: Michael: the rst in command of Gods army Gabriel: second in command; bearer of annunciation to Mary Uriel: viceroy of the sun Raphael: Gods chief minister. Other loyal angels in Gods service are: Abdiel: a seraph whose name means servant of God. Abdiel alone stands up to Lucifer when he boasts of his victory Ithuriel: a cherub, discovery of God Uzziel: like Uriel, the eye of the Lord and strength of God Zephon: searcher of secrets Zophiel: spy of God See LITERATURE AND ANGELS. FURTHER READING Arthos, John. Dante, Michaelangelo and Milton. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963. Bush, Douglas, ed. The Portable Milton. New York: The Viking Press, 1949. Elledge, Scott, ed. John Milton: Paradise Lost, An Authoritative Text. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975. Miniel In magical lore, angel invoked to induce love in a reluctant girl and to make and command magic carpets. ministering angels An order of angels whose duties and rank vary. Ministering angels usually are placed among the lowest ranks of angels, looking after the routine affairs of daily life on earth. But they also are held to be of the highest rank and are the hosts of the Lord. Ministering angels also are compared to GUARDIAN ANGELS. Ministering angels are made of re, as suggested by Psalm 104:4: who makest the winds thy messengers, ame and re thy ministers, and Hebrews 1:7, And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a ame of re. In the Talmud Hagiga, they are born anew every day from the Dinur River, and they sing a hymn of 252 ministering angels 3 Enoch names Azza (Semyaza), Azael, and Uzza as ministering angels, a status that may have preceded their fall. According to the Sefer Yetzirah, the primary text of the KABBALAH, ministering angels may be seen physically, whereas all other angels can only be seen prophetically. In the New Testament, Hebrews 1:114 distinguishes the exalted position of Christ compared to angels and underscores the service of ministering angels to the righteous in verse 14: Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to serve, for the sake of those who are to obtain salvation? In Occult Philosophy, AGRIPPA ranks ministers (ministering angels) as the lowest of three celestial tiers. They are committed to the affairs of earth, and they are associated with the four elements. ORIGEN sees ministering angels as serving the lowly needs of earth while accessing the highest realms of heaven. The idea that ministering spirits might include other supernatural being besides angels is implied in his work Against Celsus: For we acknowledge that angels are ministering spirits, and we say that they are sent forth to minister for them Angels ascending and descending the ladder in Jacobs dream. (Gustave Dor) praise and then perish back into the river. In the Talmud Sanhedrin, ministering angels roast meat and cool wine for Adam in Paradise. The Book of ADAM AND EVE names three ministering angels serving Adam: Aebel, Anush, and Shetel. In the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, God sends 70 ministering angels down from his highest HEAVEN to teach languages to the 70 children of NOAH. In the MERKABAH, ministering angels are innite in numbers. In 3 ENOCH, they descend from heaven in c