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100A Physics Homework 4 Chapter 5
Newtons First Law
A)If a car is moving to the left with constant velocity then the net force applied to the car is zero.
B) An object cannot remain at rest unless the net force acting on it is zero.
C) An object has constant acceleration if the net force acting on it is constant.
Understanding Newtons Laws
A)An object cannot remain at rest unless the net force acting on it is zero.
B)If a block is moving to the left with constant velocity the net force applied to the block is zero.
C) A block of mass 2 kg is acted upon by two forces: 3N (directed to the left) and 4N (directed to the right). What
can you say about the block's motion?
The net force is point to the right, so the object could
- be moving to the right and accelerating to the right (speeding up)
- be moving to the left and accelerating to the right (slowing down)
- be at rest and on the verge of moving to the right
D) A block pulled with a constant force will have a constant acceleration in the same direction as the
force.
E) Two forces, of magnitude 4N and10N, are applied to an object. The relative direction of the forces is unknown.
The two limits for adding the forces give that the magnitude of the net force must be
6 N Fnet 14 N
So 5N is excluded
Free-Body Diagrams
Chadwick is pushing a piano across a level floor (see the figure). (Intro 1 figure) The piano can slide across the
floor without friction. If Chadwick applies a horizontal force to the piano, what is the piano's acceleration?
A), B) and C)The three forces acting on the piano are: Chadwick pushing to the right; gravity down;
normal force from the floor up.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
51
James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition
Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion
D), E) and F) When going up the inclined plane, the three forces acting on the piano are: Chadwick
pushing parallel to the plane; gravity down; normal force up and perpendicular to the incline.
Motion of a Block with Three Forces
Three forces of magnitudes F1=4.0 N , F2=6.0 N, and F3=8.0 N are applied to a block of mass m=2.0 kg, initially
at rest, at angles shown on the diagram. In this problem, you will determine the resultant (net) force by combining
the three individual force vectors. All angles should be measured counterclockwise.
r
rr
r
A)Find the magnitude of the resultant Fr = F1 + F2 + F3
Add the x and y components independently
Frx = F1 x + F2 x + F3 x = F1 cos(25) + F2 cos(325) + F3 cos(180)
Frx = 4.0 cos(25) + 6.0 cos(325) + 8.0 cos(180) = 0.54 N
Fry = F1 y + F2 y + F3 y = F1 sin(25) + F2 sin(325) + F3 sin(180)
Fry = 4.0 sin(25) + 6.0 sin(325) + 8.0 sin(180) = 1.75N
y
A) and B) Find magnitude and direction
2
2
Fr = Frx + Fry = (0.54) 2 + (1.75) 2 N = 1.8 N
0.54 N
= tan 1 (1.75 / 0.54) = 73o
x
-1.75 N
From the x-axis 360-73=287
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
52
James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition
Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion
C) and D) Magnitude and direction of the acceleration
a = Fr / m = 1.8 / 2 = 0.9 m/s2
It points in the same direction as the force.
E) How far (in meters) will the block move in 5.0s? Recall that it starts from rest.
1
1
d = d 0 + v0 t + at 2 = 0 + 0 + (0.9)(5) 2 = 11.3 m
2
2
The Normal Force
A) A man is pulling up on the suitcase, while it rests on the floor.
N
N + Fpull W = 0
Fpull
N = W Fpull
W
The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase minus the magnitude of
the force of the pull.
B) The man sits on the suitcase.
Man: Nm/s-Wm=0
Nm/s=Wm
Suitcase: N-Nm/s-W=0
Man free body diagram
Nm/s
N
N=Nm/s+W =
Nm/s
Wm
N=W+Wm
W
5.4 You are pulling your little sister on her sled across an icy (frictionless) surface. When you exert a constant
horizontal force of 120 N, the sled has an acceleration of 2.5 m/s2.
If the sled has a mass of 7.4 kg, what is the mass of your little sister?
4.
Picture the Problem: You exert a horizontal force that accelerates both your little sister and the sled.
Strategy: Apply Newtons Second Law to the sled + sister combination, and solve for the mass of your sister.
F
120 N
=
= 48 kg
a 2.5 m/s 2
Solution: 1. Use Newtons Second Law to find the
total mass of the sled + sister combination:
mtotal =
2. Find the mass of your sister by subtracting:
msister = mtotal msled = 48 kg 7.4 kg = 41 kg
Insight: A more massive sister would decrease the acceleration of the sled if the pulling force remained the same.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
53
James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition
Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion
Newtons Third Law Discussed
A) Every force has one and only one 3rd law pair force. T
B) The two forces in each pair act in opposite directions. T
C) The two forces in each pair do not act on the same object. F
D)The two forces in each pair have the same origin. F
E) The two forces of the pair always act on different objects. F
F) The accelerations of the two objects have the same magnitude and direction. F
G) The force on the moon due to the earth is equal in magnitude to, and in the opposite direction from, the
force on the earth due to the moon.
Blocks in an Elevator Ranking
Three blocks are stacked on top of each other inside an elevator as shown in the figure.
F2/3
W3
F3/2
F1/2
W2
F2/1
N
A) Elevator at rest
Whole system:
N W1 W2 W3 = 0
Block 1: N W1 F1 / 2 = 0
Block 2: F2 / 1 W2 F3 / 2 = 0
W1
N = W1 + W2 + W3 = (1 + 2 + 3)(9.8) = 58.8 N
W1 + W2 + W3 W1 F1 / 2 = 0
W2 + W3 W2 F3 / 2 = 0
F1 / 2 = W2 + W3 = ( 2 + 3) * 9.8 = 49 N
F3 / 2 = W3 = (3) * 9.8 = 29.4 N
The action and reaction pairs are equal in magnitude.
The ranking is then Ffloor on 1 > F1/2 > F2/3 There is no contact force between block 3 and 1 so F1/3 =0
B)Elevator moving upward with increasing speed (accelerating upward)
There will be a term proportional to the acceleration on the RHS of the equations. This will make all the
values higher but the order will remain.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
54
James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition
Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion
5.18 On vacation, your 1400-kg car pulls a 560-kg trailer away from a stoplight with an acceleration of 1.85 m/s2.
18. Picture the Problem: The free body diagrams for the car and the trailer is
shown at right. The diagram assumes there is no friction.
r
F1
r
F1
r
F2
Strategy: In order to determine the forces acting on an object, you must
consider only the forces acting on that object and the motion of that object
r
alone. For the trailer there is only one force F1 exerted on it by the car, and
it has the same acceleration (1.85 m/s2) as the car. For the car there are two
r
r
forces acting on it, the engine F2 and the trailer F1 . Apply Newtons
Second Third and Laws as appropriate to find the requested forces.
rr
r
Solution: 1. (a) Write Newtons Second Law for the trailer:
F = F1 = m a = ( 560 kg ) (1.85 m/s 2 ) x = (1.0 kN ) x
2. (b) Newtons Third Law states that the force the trailer
exerts on the car is equal and opposite to the force the car
exerts on the trailer:
r
F1 = ( 1.0 kN ) x
3. (c) Write Newtons Second Law for the car:
F = M a = (1400 kg ) (1.85 m/s ) x = ( 2.6 kN ) x
r
r
2
r
Insight: The engine force F2 must be ( 3.6 kN ) x because it must both balance the 1.0-kN force from the trailer but also
accelerate the car in the forward direction, requiring an additional 2.6 kN of force.
Insight: Another way to view the answer to (b) is to say the inertia of the heavier box shields the lighter box from
experiencing some of the pushing force. In case (a) the lighter box provides less shielding and the contact force is
greater.
5.28 Two crewmen pull a raft through a lock, as shown in the figure. One crewman pulls with a force of 130 N at
an angle of 34 relative to the forward direction of the raft. The second crewman, on the opposite side of the lock,
pulls at an angle of 45.
With what force should the second crewman pull so that the net force of the two crewmen is in the forward
direction?
28. Picture the Problem: The two men pull on the barge in the directions
indicated by the figure at right.
Strategy: Place the x-axis along the forward direction of the boat. Use the
vector sum of the forces to find the force F such that the net force in the
y-direction is zero.
Solution: Set the sum of
the forces in the y direction
equal to zero:
F
= (130 N ) sin 34 + F sin 45 = 0
sin 34
F = (130 N )
= 100 N = 0.10 kN
sin 45
y
Insight: The second crewman doesnt have to pull as hard as the first because a larger component of his force is pulling
in the y direction. However, his force in the forward direction (73 N) is not as large as the first crewman (110 N).
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
55
James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition
Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion
5.29 A hockey puck is acted on by one or more forces, as shown in the figure .
29. Picture the Problem: The displayed free body diagrams depict the forces exerted
on identical hockey pucks.
Strategy: Add the forces as vectors to find the net force. The largest net force will
produce the largest acceleration according to Newtons Second Law.
Solution: The net force for case A is ( 7 5 N ) = 2 N. For case B its magnitude is
32 + 32 N 2 = 4.24 N. For case C we must add the components:
Cx = 3 N + ( 3 N ) cos 45 = 5.12 N
C y = ( 3 N ) sin 45 = 2.12 N
C = 5.122 + 2.122 N 2 = 5.54 N
Finally, the net force in case D is 3 N. Therefore, the ranking of the accelerations, from smallest to greatest, is:
A < D < B < C.
Insight: The question could be answered without any calculation. First we note that the net force in case A is 2 N,
which is less than the 3-N net force in case D. Second, both cases B and C have net forces larger than 3 N. Third, we
note that the two 3-N forces in case C are more nearly in the same direction, as compared with the two 3-N forces in
case B. It follows that the puck in case C has the larger acceleration.
5.30 To give a 17-kg child a ride, two teenagers pull on a 3.6-kg sled with ropes, as indicated in the figure . Both
teenagers pull with a force of 55 N at an angle of 35 relative to the forward direction, which is the direction of
motion. In addition, the snow exerts a retarding force on the sled that points opposite to the direction of motion,
and has a magnitude of 57 N.
30. Picture the Problem: The two teenagers pull on the sled in the
directions indicated by the figure at right.
Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the x direction (parallel to
r
a ) in order to find the acceleration of the sled.
Solution: Write
Newtons Second Law
in the x direction:
F
= 2 F cos 35 57 N = ( msled + mchild ) ax
2 F cos 35 57 N
ax =
msled + mchild
2 ( 55 N ) cos 35 57 N
= 1.5 m/s 2
ax =
19 + 3.7 kg
x
Insight: Some of the force exerted by the teenagers is exerted in the y direction and cancels out; only the x components
of the forces move the sled.
5.41 When you weigh yourself on good old terra firma (solid ground), your weight is 140 lb. In an elevator your
apparent weight is 120 lb.
41. Picture the Problem: The elevator accelerates up and down, changing your
apparent weight Wa. A free body diagram of the situation is depicted at right.
rr
Strategy: There are two forces acting on you: the applied force F = Wa of the scale
r
acting upward and the force of gravity W acting downward. The force Wa
represents your apparent weight because it is both the force the scale exerts on you
and the force you exert on the scale. Use Newtons Second Law together with the
known force Wa acceleration to determine the acceleration a.
Solution: 1. The direction of acceleration is downward. A downward acceleration
results in an apparent weight less than the actual weight.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
56
James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition
Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion
2. Use Newtons Second Law together
with the known forces to determine the
magnitude of the acceleration a.
F
y
= Wa W = ma
a=
Wa W
W W
121 142 lb
=a
=
( 9.81 m/s2 ) = 1.5 m/s2
142 lb
m
Wg
Insight: You feel the effects of apparent weight twice for each ride in an elevator, once as it accelerates from rest and
again when it slows down and comes to rest.
Note: You do not need to calculate the absolute value of the acceleration, if you keep the convention of signs.
Wa W = ma (acceleration pointing down)
a= (Wa W ) / m
5.44 A 28 kg suitcase is being pulled with constant speed by a handle that is at an angle of 30 above the
horizontal. If the normal force exerted on the suitcase is 180 N, what is the force F applied to the handle?
Forces in y.
W = mg = ( 28)(9.8) = 274.4 N
N + F sin W = 0
(W N ) ( 274.4 180)
=
= 189 N
F=
sin
sin(30)
5.30 A gardener mows a lawn with an old-fashioned push mower. The handle of the mower makes an angle of
35 with the surface of the lawn.
If a 219-N force is applied along the handle of the 19-kg mower, what is the normal force exerted by the lawn on
the mower?
r
50. Picture the Problem: The free body diagram of the lawn mower is shown at
N
right.
Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction to determine the
normal force.
Solution: 1. (a) Use
Newtons Second
Law to find N:
Fy = N F sin mg = ma y = 0
N = F sin + mg
= ( 219 N ) sin 35 + (19 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 )
r
W
r
F
N = 310 N = 0.31 kN
2. (b) If the angle between the handle and the horizontal is increased, the normal force exerted by the lawn will increase
because it must still balance the weight plus a larger downward force than before.
Insight: The vertical acceleration of the lawn mower will always remain zero because the ground prevents any vertical
motion.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
57

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Columbia - STAT - W4315

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Homework 8 SolutionGonzalo Mena1.3.5.2(a) For x = 0, 1, 2 we have3f (x, y ) =11(4x + 6) =(2x + 3)3015f (x, y ) =f1 (x) =11(3 + 3y ) =(1 + y )3010y =0Similarly, for y = 0, 1, 2, 3 we have2f2 ( y ) =x=0(b) X and Y are not independe

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Homework 9 SolutionsGonzalo Mena1.4.5.10Let x1 < < xn denote the locations of the n houses and let d denote the location of the store.nnWe must choose d to minimize i=1 |xi d| or equivalently to minimize i=1 |xi d|/n. This sum canbe interpreted as

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Columbia - STAT - W4315

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STAT 4315Practice MidtermThe exam will be open-book, open-note, calculators-ok (but no other electronics) exam.The types of problems and concepts on this practice exam are representative of those onthe real exam, but the difficulty level of the proble

Columbia - STAT - W4315

STAT 4315Practice MidtermThe exam will be open-book, open-note, calculators-ok (but no other electronics) exam.The types of problems and concepts on this practice exam are representative of those onthe real exam, but the difficulty level of the proble

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 21.5) No. The relationship should be either E(Yi)=0+ 1Xi or Yi=0+ 1Xi+i1.7) a) No since we dont know the probability distribution of the error.b) P(195<Y<205)=P(195-200/5<Y-200/5<205-200/5)= (-1<z<1)=0.68271.18)No. The sum of

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 32.1) The conclusion is warranted as the C.I. doesnt include 0. Sig level=0.05.2.2) No. As the slope may be negative.2.3) p-value is much bigger than 0.05. The estimated slope is not significantly differentfrom zero. So we can

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 4

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 5alternative SAS codealternative SAS codealternative SAS code

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 7So the first sentence is incorrect but the second is correct.4.3b)The graph shows that the regression is a good fit.

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 8

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 9

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 10

Columbia - STAT - W4109

Solution for Problem set 116.14

DePaul - MGT - 301

Matsushita is in the business of Home Appliances and HouseholdEquipment, or HAHE for short. Some of Matsushitas products include DVDs,Microwaves, Fax Machines and Telephones. Matsushita makes world classbrand names, cutting edge techniques, perception

LSU - ANTH - 2014

2014CaseStudy15:38SomeofthefactshavebeenchangedtomaintainanonymityScene:AbodywasfoundinaruralareaofLouisianabehindasmallabandoned buildingonaresidentialstreet.Theareabehindtheproperywaslightlywooded.MightapplytoentomologyandtimesincedeathTimesincede

LSU - ANTH - 2014

HumanSkeleton16:37Societieshaveexpertstounderstandhowandwhydeathoccurredandcustomsfor bodydisposal.Inoursociety,theinvestigationofcauseandmannerofdeathisthe responsibilityofthemedicolegalinvestigatorsChiefMedicalExaminer:typicallyboardcertifiedforens

LSU - ANTH - 2014

Sexual Dimorphism: difference in body form size and shape between males and females of the samespecies.In most mammals, the males are larger than females. Humans exhibit 15% difference in size betweensexes.Sexual selection males evolved large bod y si

LSU - ANTH - 2014

04:06TRAUMAAntemortemBeforedeathBrokenbonesHelpsyougethospitalrecords.Antemortemrecordscanmatchupwithalmostany injuryinwhereanxraywastakenHelptoidentifypersonIfthepersonalwayshadheadachesandhadxrayandyoucanseethesinuspatternsSINUSPATTERNSAREUNIQU