Geology-Exam 2- Chapter questions
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Geology-Exam 2- Chapter questions

Course Number: GLGY 209, Fall 2010

College/University: University of Calgary

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Chapter 7 1. The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed _. -Weathering 2. The removal of detritus from weathered rock at an outcrop is termed _. -Erosion 3. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of Earth are _. Sedimentary 4. Geologically, medium-sized sediment refers to _. 5. Frost wedging, root wedging, and salt wedging are all examples of _. 6....

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7 1. The Chapter breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed _. -Weathering 2. The removal of detritus from weathered rock at an outcrop is termed _. -Erosion 3. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of Earth are _. Sedimentary 4. Geologically, medium-sized sediment refers to _. 5. Frost wedging, root wedging, and salt wedging are all examples of _. 6. Hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydration are all examples of _. 7. Chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are _. 8. Rapid physical weathering _. 9. Rapid chemical weathering _. 10. A pile of rubble at the base of an outcrop derived from weathered rock upslope is geologically termed _. 11. The chemical reaction that transforms feldspar into clay is an example of _. 12. The rusting of iron and iron-rich minerals is an example of _. 13. Swelling of certain minerals due to incorporation of water into their crystal lattice is termed _. 14. On Earth, loose sediment which covers bedrock and has been chemically altered by reactions with rainwater and the addition of organic matter by the biosphere is termed _. 15. On the Moon, loose sediment covering bedrock is termed _. 16. Topsoil consists of which soil horizon(s)? 17. Which soil horizon is the zone of accumulation, so named because dissolved matter, leached from other parts of the soil, precipitates to form new minerals. 18. Which soil horizon is uppermost? 19. Which soil horizon is chemically most similar to the underlying bedrock or unaltered sediment? 20. Which soil horizon has the greatest proportion of organic matter? 21. Caliche is most commonly found in which type of environments? 22. Laterite soils are most commonly found in which type of environments? 23. Lithified detritus (breakdown products of preexisting rocks) forms which kind of sedimentary rock? 24. Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock? 25. Physical precipitation of gypsum due to evaporation of seawater produces which kind of sedimentary rock? 26. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of _. 27. If water is the transport medium of sediment, the grain size of sedimentary deposits most closely indicates the _. 28. Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during _. 29. Which transport medium carries the largest particles? 30. It is unusual for _ to carry grains larger than sand. 31. The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate _. 32. As compared to arkose, quartz sandstone _. 33. Mud, sand, and lithic clasts comprise sedimentary rock termed _. 34. A clastic rock comprised of sand-sized grains derived from the physical weathering of granite and containing a sizable proportion of feldspar is termed _. 35. A fine-grained clastic rock that splits into thin sheets is _. 36. Because the velocity of sediment settling (deposition) is positively related to grain size for waterborne sediments, fluvial deposits are more likely than glacial deposits to _. Use the information below to answer the following questions. 37. Of the grains above, which possesses the greatest sphericity? 38. Of the grains above, which is most rounded? 39. An arkose with well-rounded, well-sorted sand grains of feldspar and quartz is said to be _. 40. A breccia consisting nearly entirely of quartz and clay minerals is said to be _. 41. Well-sorted fine sandstone composed nearly entirely of quartz is said to be _. 42. Chemical and biochemical rocks are classified primarily on the basis of _. 43. Biochemical limestones are dominated by carbonate mud and fragments of _. 44. Unlike physically precipitated chert, biochemical chert _. 45. Flint, once commonly used to form arrowheads, is a _. 46. Physically precipitated (chemical) limestone that forms in caves is termed _. 47. When limestone becomes chemically altered so that half of the calcium atoms are replaced by magnesium, the resultant rock is termed _. 48. Stratification refers to _. 49. Diagenesis refers to _. 50. Sea level rises locally, and marine sediments are deposited on top of terrestrial sediments during events termed _. 51. As compared with metamorphism, diagenesis _. 52. Most sorting of detrital grains takes place during _. 53. Detrital sediment is most likely to be deposited (rather than transported) by a fluid when it _. 54. The smallest detrital grains are _. 55. Which type of sediment settles at greater fluid velocities than sand? 56. Where tropical rainforests have been cleared by logging and burning, a soil that is rich in organic content and capable of supporting long-term abundant agriculture has been discovered. 57. Loose, weathered sediment at the surface that has not been organically altered is termed _. 58. Which of the following minerals is most susceptible to chemical weathering? 59. Which of the following minerals is least susceptible to chemical weathering? 60. A sedimentary rock that is physically mature _. Chapter 8 1. A body of gneiss is subjected to heat and forms a melt. Later the melt cools and crystallizes to form a(n) _. -Migmatite 2. Metamorphism brings changes in mineral arrangement and the texture of rocks, but it never leads to new mineral assemblages. 3. A buried body of aragonitic limestone is recrystallized at low temperatures and pressures, producing calcite; this is an example of _. -Zeolite -Burial metamorphism -Neocrystallization 4. A buried body of shale is subjected to differential stress, causing clay minerals to realign and producing slate. This is an example of _. -Foliation 5. At the surface, potassium feldspar reacts with water to form clay; this is an example of _. -metamorphism -Metasomation 6. Clay minerals within a buried body of slate are recrystallized at high temperatures and pressures to form mica, producing a rock called phyllite; this is an example of _. -Granulite 7. Metamorphism may be induced by _. -Temp/Pressure change 8. Differential stress will cause crystals to align in a preferred orientation unless the crystals are _. -Equant 9. Squashing a fly with a fly swatter is an application of _. -Normal Stress- Compression 10. Spreading peanut butter on bread is an application of _. -Shear stress 11. What is a difference between schist and gneiss? -Schist- large mica crystals -Gneiss-tiny mica crystals 12. A primary difference between phyllite and schist is _. -Mica crystals within schist are larger than those within phyllite 13. The development of a preferred orientation of large, flaky mica crystals within metamorphic rock is termed _. -Schistosity 14. Slaty cleavage, schistosity, and compositional banding are all examples of _. -Foliation 15. A compositionally banded rock with a mineral assemblage similar to granite is _. - Granitic gneiss 16. Two common metamorphic rocks that typically lack foliation are _. -Hornfels, Quartzite & Marble 17. Compared to low-grade metamorphic rocks, high-grade rocks _. -Produce at greater temperatures and pressures 18. A mineral within a metamorphic rock that can be used to provide a narrow constraint on the temperature and pressure of formation of the rock is termed a(n) _. -Metamorphic facies 19. The process of low-grade metamorphic rocks being altered to form high-grade metamorphic rocks is termed _ metamorphism. - 20. The process of high-grade metamorphic rocks being altered to form low-grade metamorphic rocks is termed _ metamorphism. -Retrograde metamorphism 21. Alteration due uniquely to the shear encountered at a fault zone is termed _ metamorphism. Dynamic Metamorphism 22. The region of thermally metamorphosed rock surrounding a cooled pluton is called a(n) -Contact/Metamorphic aureole 23. Rocks resulting from thermal metamorphism will not possess _. -Foliation (no pressure to move it around) 24. Regional metamorphism _. -is also called dynamothermal metamorphism -range of temps and pressures 25. Which type of metamorphism affects the greatest volumes of rock? -Regional/ Dynamothermal 26. The protolith subjected to metamorphism _. -may belong to any three rock types 27. The blueschist facies is a metamorphic realm of _. -High pressures and low temperatures 28. Within a single mountain range, _. -it is possible to have low-grade through to high-grade 29. Precambrian metamorphic rocks are exposed at the surface _. -Shields 30. Net chemical change in metamorphic rock induced by reaction with hot groundwater is termed _. Hydrothermal Metamorphism 31. The mineral assemblage within metamorphic rock is _. -Is dependent upon both the mineral content of the protolith and the temperature and pressure of formation 32. The blue mineral for which the blueschist facies is named is _. - Glaucophane 33. As compared to the amphibolite metamorphic facies, the greenschist facies _. -have a lower temperature and pressure to form 34. Thermal (contact) metamorphism occurs _. - occurs in areas surrounding igivous intrusions 35. Dynamothermal metamorphism occurs when _. -rock becomes buried deeply during continental collision and mountain building 36. Metamorphism, in broadest terms, involves _. - Changes in mineralogy and texture in response to heat and pressure 37. Gneiss typically forms under higher pressures than hornfels. -True 38. Which list properly orders metamorphic rocks from lowest to highest grade? -Shale-Slate-Schist-Gneiss-Migmatite 39. Foliated metamorphic rocks possess _. -planar fabric -significant component of platy minerals -subjected to differential stress 40. The preexisting rock which is subsequently altered to form a metamorphic rock is termed a _. -Protolith 41. _ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of marble. -Limestone or dolostone 42. _ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of phyllite. -Slate 43. _ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of quartzite. -Quartz sandstone 44. _ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of slate. -Shale or mudstone 45. Rapid, deep burial of sediments in an accretionary prism leads to the formation of a metamorphic rock termed _. -blueschist 46. Meteorite impacts have been known to induce metamorphism of sediments and rocks. True Shock metamorphism 47. Because of the great temperatures and pressures involved in metamorphism, metamorphic rocks are always formed at least a few hundred meters below the surface. False 48. Increasing metamorphism always produces an increase in grain size. False 49. Metamorphic grades are subdivided into more precise regimes of temperature and pressure termed metamorphic facies. True Chapter 9 1. In 79 C.E., the citizens of Pompeii in the Roman Empire were buried by pyroclastic debris derived from an eruption of _. 2. The smoky cloud that rises from the vent of an actively erupting volcano is composed of _. 3. Most terrestrial volcanic glass _. 4. Basaltic lavas _. 5. Pahoehoe _. 6. Basaltic lavas which solidify at the surface before flow ceases fracture irregularly, producing a sharp-surfaced lava rock named _. 7. Pillow lavas are associated with _. 8. Rhyolitic lavas _. 9. Ash, cinders, and blocks are all types of _. 10. The difference between tephra and tuff is that _. 11. The lithification of material from a pyroclastic flow forms a rock called _. 12. Volcanic bombs are _. 13. Peles hair _. 14. In 1902, a famous, deadly pyroclastic flow killed thousands of people on the Caribbean island of _. 15. A fast moving flow consisting of a mixture of water and pyroclastic debris is termed a _. 16. Gases that are abundantly emitted by volcanoes include _. 17. The characteristic rotten egg smell of many active volcanoes is derived _. 18. Explosive from or voluminous eruptions may cause the volcano to collapse on the floor of the (now empty) magma chamber, producing a broad depression termed a _. 19. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, _ are the largest in area. 20. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, _ have the most gently sloping sides, due to the low viscosity of the basaltic lavas which form them. 21. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, _ consist of a simple, conical pile of tephra. 22. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, _ consist of alternating layers of tephra and solidified lava. 23. Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, _ are sometimes referred to as composite volcanoes. 24. Mt. Fuji in Japan is an example of a _. 25. Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano in the Universe, is an example of a _. 26. Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano in the Universe, is found on _. 27. All volcanic eruptions pass through the crater at the volcanic summit. 28. Nonviolent eruptions characterized by extensive flows of basaltic lava are termed _. 29. Whether an eruption will primarily produce lava flows or pyroclastic debris is influenced by _. 30. As compared to subaerial basaltic lavas, submarine basaltic lavas differ in that they _. 31. Phreatomagmatic eruptions take place when _. 32. Phreatomagmatic eruptions are _. 33. Hot-spot volcanoes _. 34. The hot-spot track associated with the Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamounts _. 35. At continental rifts, vast bodies of basaltic lava flow forth from fissures, forming _. 36. Iceland rises above the Atlantic Ocean as a result of _. 37. Eruptions emitted through elongate cracks at the surface, as opposed to through the vents of volcanic cones, are termed _. 38. The new island of Surtsey near Iceland was initially a _ but is now a _. 39. Of the three major types of volcanoes, _ erode away fastest after the cessation of eruptions. 40. Volcanoes produce no other hazards besides lava flows and pyroclastic debris. 41. In all recorded eruptions, the greatest cause of human mortality was either lava or ash. 42. Generally, eruptions that produce mostly ash are more threatening to human life than are those that produce mostly lava. 43. Pillows of lava form through _. 44. The Hawaiian island chain is an example of a(n) _. 45. Volcanoes are entirely detrimental to the planet and human civilization, offering no benefits to humankind. Chapter 10 1. Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called _. 2. All earthquakes are produced when previously cohesive bodies of rock are split along a sliding surface. 3. A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by sliding during an earthquake is called a _. 4. At any point along the surface of an oblique (nonvertical) fault, the _. 5. If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed _ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal). 6. If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed _ if the fault is shallow (much closer to horizontal than vertical). 7. If, during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed _. 8. If a fault is nearly vertical in orientation and the two walls of rock on opposite sides slide past one another horizontally, the fault is termed _. 9. The quantity of offset that occurs along a fault is termed _. 10. All discovered faults are likely to experience earthquakes in the next few hundred years. 11. The intersection between a fault plane and the ground surface is called the _. 12. Which type of fault does not, by definition, have a fault trace? 13. Which type of stress is exerted by a pair of scissors cutting into a piece of paper? 14. Which type of stress confronts someone who dives deep into the ocean? 15. Which type of stress is exhibited when an object is pulled apart in multiple directions? 16. The relationship between stress and strain is that _. 17. A primary force opposing motion on all faults is _. 18. Periods of intermittent sliding on a fault as a result of the release of stress during episodes of displacement, followed by stress buildup to the point that the fault is reactivated is termed _. 19. Aftershocks following a major earthquake _. 20. Faulting and earthquakes are examples of _. 21. Earthquake waves which pass through the interior of Earth are termed _. 22. Generally which type of earthquake waves travel fastest? 23. Surface waves _. 24. Body waves include _. 25. Which type of earthquake wave travels fastest? 26. Earthquake waves propagate most rapidly through _. 27. Vertical motion seismographs record earthquakes through the production of a squiggly diagram called a _. 28. The worldwide seismic network has played an important role in human political history because seismographs detect not only the waves emitted by earthquakes but also _. 29. The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the _. 30. The point on Earths surface directly above the point where an earthquake occurs is termed the _. 31. How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake? 32. Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effects of an earthquake on human-made structures? 33. Which earthquake intensity scale takes vibration caused only by the S-waves into account when estimating the size of an earthquake? 34. Which earthquake intensity scale takes into account the type of rock that has been fractured? 35. Which earthquake intensity scale measures the amplitude of deflection of a seismograph pen, standardized to a idealized distance of 100 km between epicenter and seismograph? 36. Which earthquake intensity scale varies from locality to locality for a single earthquake? 37. Earthquakes are likely to occur along _. 38. Medium- and deep-focus earthquakes occur along _. 39. Earthquakes that occur in a band called the _ can be used to track the motion of subducted oceanic lithosphere. 40. Virtually all of the deaths attributed to major earthquakes have resulted from the collapse of buildings. 41. Short-term predictions of earthquake behavior _. 42. Long-term prediction of earthquake behavior _. 43. A tsunami is _. 44. Runup is _. 45. A seiche is _. Chapter 12 Use the diagram below to answer the following questions. 1. The surfaces named contacts #2 and #3 are examples of _. 2. Contact #1 is an example of a(n) _. 3. The oldest geologic unit in the cross section is the _. 4. The youngest geologic unit visible in the cross section is the _. 5. The marble rind surrounding the granite pluton must be younger than the limestone according to the principle of _. 6. Concerning relative ages of the shale and sandstone, _. 7. Concerning relative ages of the granite and sandstone, _. 8. Basaltic clasts within the basal layers of the conglomerate imply which of the following statements (choose the most correct answer)? 9. Basaltic clasts within the conglomerate have been radiometrically dated to 50 million years ago (Eocene epoch of the Tertiary period). Is this a reliable age for the conglomerate? 10. Concerning the relative ages of the basalt and the fault, _. 11. The basalt body is best described as a _. 12. Contact #3 is both a _ at various points. 13. Which pair of contacts once formed a continuous surface? 14. James Hutton, the father of geology, put forth the principle of _. 15. Period names on the geologic time scale, such as Devonian and Permian, provide examples of _. 16. In a undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks, younger layers overlay older layers, according to the principle of _. 17. If the lithology and fossil content of two bodies of rock on opposite sides of a canyon are identical, then these remaining outcrops were likely physically connected at one time and formed part of an extensive, sheet-like layer of rock. This idea summarizes the principle of _. 18. Which of the following geologic principles is a direct result of gravity? 19. Which of the following geologic principles is not a result of gravity? 20. Relative ages expressed on the geologic time scale primarily resulted from the study of _. 21. Numerical ages for boundaries between time units on the geologic time scale primarily resulted from the study of _, in conjunction with relative age data. 22. Within the worlds sedimentary rocks, fossils _. 23. The surface below sedimentary rocks that overlie igneous or metamorphic rocks is termed a(n) _. 24. Buried erosional surfaces between parallel sedimentary strata are termed _. 25. Which method of correlation is more reliable for determining age equivalence among bodies of rock that are physically isolated by vast distances? 26. Which eon of geologic time is represented by rocks containing abundant shelly fossils? 27. Two atoms of a single element that differ in number of neutrons are said to represent two distinct _ of that element. 28. Which proportion of a radioactive isotope is expected to remain in an unaltered (unreacted) state after the passage of three half-lives? 29. Precisely speaking, a measured radiometric age for a mineral crystal within an igneous rock denotes the amount of time that has passed since the _. 30. Radiometric dates applied to sedimentary rocks produce ages that are _. 31. The correct answer to question 30 illustrates the principle of _. 32. Key beds are _. 33. Dendrochonology involves dating of historic and geologic events through the study of _. 34. Magnetostratigraphy takes advantage of the fact that _. 35. The age of Earth cannot be reliably estimated from sediment thicknesses because _. 36. Attempts to measure the age of Earth by extrapolating modern riverine influx rates into the past to produce modern marine salinity from an initially freshwater ocean failed to take into account that _. 37. Why is radiocarbon dating only rarely applied in geological work? 38. The principle of uniformitarianism implies that _. 39. Uniformitarianism is succinctly summarized by which phrase? 40. Which statement best summarizes the development of the geologic time scale? 41. The geoscientist who first proposed the correct interpretation of fossil formation (remains of ancient life, buried in loose sand which later lithified) was _. 42. If the numerical ages of two formations are known, then the relative age of each with respect to one another can be inferred. 43. If the relative age of two formations (with respect to one another) is known, then the numerical ages for each formation can be inferred. 44. In the area immediately surrounding an igneous intrusion, a host limestone is locally metamorphosed to produce marble. Which of the following statements is correct? 45. If horizontal sedimentary strata overlie tilted strata (and no fault is present), the surface between the horizontal and tilted strata must be a(n) _. 46. In an unweathered sample of igneous rock, the ratio of an unstable isotope to its stable daughter isotope is 1/15. If no daughters were present at the time the rock cooled below blocking temperature, and the half-life of the reaction is 50 million years, how old is the rock? 47. In an unweathered sample of detrital sedimentary rock, the ratio of an unstable isotope to its stable daughter isotope is 1/15. If no daughters were present at the time the rock cooled below blocking temperature, and the half-life of the reaction is 50 million years, how old is the rock? 48. There was a tremendous diversification of multi-cellular life, termed an explosion, that occurred during the _ period. 49. Which of the following is always the same for multiple isotopes of a single element? 50. Which of the following always varies among multiple isotopes of a single element?
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