Chap008
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Chap008

Course: MGMT 2021, Spring 2012

School: Edison State College

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Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance Chapter 08 Managing Employees' Performance True / False Questions 1. Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals. True False 2. Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: strategic, administrative, and developmental. True...

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08 Chapter - Managing Employees' Performance Chapter 08 Managing Employees' Performance True / False Questions 1. Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals. True False 2. Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: strategic, administrative, and developmental. True False 3. In the case of performance appraisal, validity refers to whether the appraisal measures all aspects of performance, both relevant and irrelevant. True False 4. Test-retest reliability refers to consistency of results over time. True False 5. In the forced-distribution method of performance measurement, employees are ranked from highest to lowest. True False 6. In terms of measuring performance, a major advantage of ranking systems is that they often are linked to the organization's goals. True False 7. Attribute-based performance methods are tightly linked to organizational strategy. True False 8-1 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 8. To rate employee behaviors, the organization begins by defining which behaviors are associated with success on the job. True False 9. The critical-incident method is a behavioral approach to performance management. True False 10. An advantage of behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) is improved interrater reliability. True False 11. Compared to a behavioral observation scale (BOS), managers and employees prefer to use the BARS method for ease of use, providing feedback, and maintaining objectivity. True False 12. Organizational behavior modification (OBM) is a plan for managing the behavior of employees through an informal system of feedback and reinforcement. True False 13. Behavioral approaches to performance measurement, such as organizational behavior modification and rating scales, tend to be valid, reliable, and acceptable. True False 14. Management by objectives (MBO) systems seldom link employee performance to the organization's strategic goals. True False 8-2 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 15. Traditional performance measurement differs from total quality management (TQM) in that it assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works. True False 16. Subordinates are the most-used source of performance information. True False 17. Generally, peers are more favorable toward participating in reviews to be used for employee development. True False 18. Self-appraisals are not appropriate as the basis for administrative decisions. True False 19. If a rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees, distributional errors occur. True False 20. Appraisal politics are most likely to occur when senior employees tell newcomers company "folklore" that includes stories about distorted ratings. True False 21. In the tell-and-sell approach, managers tell employees their ratings and then let the employees explain their side of the story. True False 8-3 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 22. The content of a feedback session should emphasize behavior, not personalities. True False 23. The most effective way to improve performance varies according to the manager's ability. True False 24. Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or unjust dismissal. True False 25. The Supreme Court has held that the selection guidelines in the federal government's Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures also apply to performance management systems. True False Multiple Choice Questions 26. The process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals is known as: A. quality analysis. B. HR appraisal. C. project management. D. strategic planning. E. performance management. 27. The relevant aspects of employee performance are based on: A. the outcomes of a job analysis. B. the nature of the company's products and services. C. management's beliefs and values. D. the employee's psychological contract. E. aspects of the employee's personality. 8-4 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 28. Which of the following is a purpose of performance management systems? A. Systematic B. Rational C. Investigative D. Strategic E. Analytical 29. _____ means effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives. A. Systematic purpose B. Investigative purpose C. Developmental purpose D. Administrative purpose E. Strategic purpose 30. The administrative purpose of a performance management system refers to: A. linking employees' behaviors with the organization's goals. B. developing employees' knowledge and skills. C. linking to the organization's goals and communicating the goals and feedback about performance to employees. D. measuring each employee's performance to identify areas where expectations are not being met. E. the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs. 31. Performance management has a(n) _____ purpose, meaning that it serves as a basis for improving employees' knowledge and skills. A. systematic B. tactical C. strategic D. administrative E. developmental 8-5 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 32. Which performance management evaluation criterion is concerned with maximizing the overlap between actual job performance and the measure of job performance? A. Reliability B. Acceptability C. Specificity D. Validity E. Dependability 33. In the case of performance appraisal, _____ refers to whether the appraisal measures all the relevant aspects of performance and omits irrelevant aspects of performance. A. acceptability B. specificity C. reliability D. dependability E. validity 34. If personnel at the Zion Corporation evaluate salespeople across different regional territories based on the number of sales calls they make to customers, they are most likely using a(n) _____ measure. A. unreliable B. deficient C. contaminated D. valid E. variable 35. The consistency among the different individuals who evaluate an employee's performance is known as: A. internal consistency reliability. B. interrater reliability. C. interrater validity. D. test-retest reliability. E. test-retest validity. 8-6 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 36. If a performance measure lacks _____ reliability, determining whether an employee's performance has truly changed over time will be impossible. A. external B. interrater C. strategic D. test-retest E. specific 37. The extent to which a performance measure gives guidance to employees about what is expected of them is called: A. reliability. B. validity. C. specific feedback. D. acceptability. E. strategic fit. 38. Which of the following is a comparative performance appraisal technique? A. Mixed-standards scale B. Simple ranking C. Paired distribution D. Forced comparison E. Complex distribution 39. Which of the following performance measurement methods requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer? A. Graphic rating scale B. Mixed-standard scale C. Paired comparison D. Forced distribution E. Simple ranking 8-7 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 40. The performance measurement method that assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories is called: A. forced distribution. B. alternation ranking. C. paired comparison. D. optional ranking. E. paired choice analysis. 41. Identify the evaluation approach to performance measurement that meets the following criteria: very high strategic congruence, usually high validity, high reliability, high acceptability, and high specificity regarding results but low specificity regarding behaviors necessary to achieve them. A. Comparative B. Attribute C. Behavioral D. Results E. Developmental 42. Identify the approach to performance measurement that meets the following criteria: high strategic congruence, usually high validity, usually high reliability, moderate acceptability, and very high specificity. A. Comparative B. Attribute C. Behavioral D. Results E. Quality 43. Identify the approach to performance measurement that meets the following criteria: usually low strategic congruence, usually low validity, usually low reliability, high acceptability, and very low specificity. A. Comparative B. Attribute C. Behavioral D. Results E. Quality 8-8 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 44. The _____ method of performance measurement compares each employee with each other employee to establish rankings. A. paired-comparison B. graphic rating scale C. forced-distribution D. mixed standard E. BARS 45. Which one of the following is NOT a problem associated with the comparative approaches to performance management? A. A simple ranking system leaves the basis for the ranking open to interpretation. B. Managers can give high ratings to all employees to avoid controversy. C. The rankings are not helpful for employee development. D. The rankings may not be linked to the organization's goals. E. The rankings may hurt morale or result in legal challenges. 46. Which of the following is the most widely used method for rating attributes? A. Behaviorally anchored rating scales B. Mixed-standard scales C. Behavioral observation scales D. Graphic rating scales E. Critical-incident methods 47. If a manager considers one employee at a time and circles a number/word to signify the degree to which that employee demonstrates a particular trait, he/she is using a: A. mixed-standard scale. B. critical-incident approach. C. graphic rating scale. D. behavioral observation scale. E. behaviorally anchored rating scale. 8-9 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 48. In which performance technique are managers given three performance rating scales per dimension and asked to indicate whether the employee's performance is above (+), at (0), or below (-) the statements? A. Behaviorally anchored rating scale B. Mixed-standard scale C. Behavioral observation scale D. Graphic rating scale E. Forced distribution 49. Which of the following is true of the attribute approaches to performance management? A. They result in high strategic congruence. B. They are difficult to develop. C. They can be applied to a wide variety of jobs and organizations. D. They provide specific guidance and feedback to employees. E. They are the least popular way to measure performance in organizations. 50. The performance management approach that requires managers to keep a record of specific examples of effective and ineffective performance is the: A. behaviorally anchored rating scale. B. graphic rating scale. C. critical-incident method. D. organizational behavior modification method. E. mixed-standard scale. 51. Which performance management technique involves the identification of a large number of critical incidents, the classification of these incidents into performance dimensions, and the rank ordering of these incidents into levels of performance? A. Behaviorally anchored rating scales B. Graphic rating scales C. Critical incidents D. Organizational behavior modification E. Management by objectives 8-10 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 52. The performance management method that requires managers to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited a behavior during a rating period is the: A. behaviorally anchored rating scale. B. behavioral observation scale. C. graphic rating scale. D. mixed-standard scale. E. forced choice scale. 53. A major drawback of the behavioral observation scale is: A. its difficulty of use. B. its inability to provide specific guidance to employees regarding expected performance. C. its subjective nature. D. the amount of information required. E. it discards many examples in creating the rating scale. 54. What is the difference between a behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) and a behavioral observation scale (BOS)? A. BARS asks the manager to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited the behavior. B. BOS consists of a statement at the top describing the highest level of a performance dimension. C. BOS uses many examples to define all behaviors necessary for effective performance. D. Managers and employees prefer BARS compared to BOS for ease of use and maintaining objectivity. E. A major drawback of BARS is the amount of information required as compared to BOS. 55. Managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement refers to: A. behaviorally anchored rating scales. B. behavioral observation scales. C. critical incidents. D. organizational behavior modification. E. graphic rating scales. 8-11 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 56. Which of the following is NOT a component of an organizational behavior modification system? A. Define a set of key behaviors that can improve job performance. B. Use a measurement system to assess whether behaviors are exhibited. C. Consult employees on how often they should exhibit certain behaviors. D. Provide feedback to employees. E. Provide reinforcement based on employees' behavior. 57. Which of the following is true of behavioral approaches to performance measurement? A. They link the company's goals to the specific behavior required to achieve those goals. B. They work well for complex jobs. C. They provide little feedback on areas of improvement. D. They have a low degree of validity and reliability. E. They have a low degree of acceptability. 58. In which type of system are goals established and passed down through the organization, so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization's overall goals? A. Productivity measurement and evaluation systems B. Management by objectives C. Assessment centers D. Organizational behavior modification E. BARS 59. Which of the following is true about management by objectives (MBO)? A. Goals are generally nonspecific. B. Goals are typically subjective. C. Goals are easy to measure. D. Feedback is given only during the appraisal period. E. Managers and their employees work together to set the goals. 8-12 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 60. Which of the following is an advantage of result-based measures? A. They are very effective in providing guidance on how to improve. B. They are relatively easy to link to the organization's goals. C. They are generally less objective than other kinds of performance systems. D. They are highly acceptable to employees, but not to managers. E. They tend to be highly valid. 61. Total quality management differs from traditional performance measurement in that it: A. has an external, rather than an internal, focus. B. is a top-down review process. C. assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works. D. focuses on support decisions about work assignments, training, and compensation. E. provides only subjective feedback based on the work process. 62. How does total quality management (TQM) obtain objective feedback? A. From the methods that use charts to detail causes of problems, measures of performance, or relationships between work-related variables. B. From the methods that rate behaviors in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance. C. From the methods that use several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait. D. From the method that lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait. E. From managers, peers, and customers about the employee's personal qualities. 63. The type of performance management system where a company assembles performance data on an individual from most or all of his/her contacts within and outside the company is known as: A. the critical incidents technique. B. behavioral observation scales. C. management by objectives. D. a 360-degree performance appraisal. E. upward feedback. 8-13 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 64. Which one of the following is true of peers as a source of performance information? A. Peers are poor sources of information about performance in a job. B. Peer ratings, according to research, are not influenced by friendships. C. Peers evaluations generally lack validity. D. Peers are less willing participants in reviews used for employees. E. Peers are comfortable with rating employees for decisions that may affect themselves. 65. According to the text, when managers are being evaluated, _____ are especially valuable sources of information. A. other managers B. subordinates C. customers D. their bosses E. the managers themselves 66. Subordinates, as a source of performance information, are generally most appropriate when the performance results are to be used for: A. administrative purposes. B. investigative purposes. C. strategic purposes. D. developmental purposes. E. executive purposes. 67. Which of the following steps should be taken to protect employees when they provide evaluations of their manager's performance? A. The process should be anonymous. B. The process should use at least two employees to rate each manager. C. The process should encourage employees to highlight the negative aspects of the manager's performance. D. The evaluations should be used primarily for administrative decisions. E. The process should require that subordinates identify themselves. 8-14 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 68. When should an organization use customer evaluation of employee performance? A. When there is too much internal politics and getting a fair appraisal review is difficult to obtain. B. When the company's profitability depends on internal customers being satisfied. C. When the customer is often the only person who observes the service performance. D. When "excellent customer service" is one of the criteria of the performance review. E. When there is no other means of properly evaluating employee performance. 69. Using customer evaluations of employee performance is appropriate in all of the following situations EXCEPT: A. when the company wants an inexpensive means of evaluation. B. when an employee's job requires direct service to the customer. C. when customer evaluations contribute to the organization's goals by enabling HRM to support the organization's marketing activities. D. when the company is interested in gathering information to determine what products and services the customer wants. E. when an employee's job requires linking the customer to other services within the organization. 70. Which of the following occurs when a rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees? A. Contrast errors B. Distributional errors C. Halo error D. Similar to me error E. Horns error 71. Which rater error makes it difficult to distinguish among employees rated by the same rater? A. Contrast error B. Distributional errors C. Halo error D. Similar to me E. Horns error 8-15 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 72. This distributional error occurs when the reviewer rates everyone near the top of a rating scale. A. Contrast error B. Strictness C. Halo error D. Horns error E. Leniency 73. If a student evaluating his/her professor at the end of term rates the professor low on all performance criteria due to dissatisfaction with the professor's grading scale, the student has likely committed which rater error? A. Similar to me B. Halo error C. Central tendency D. Horns error E. Contrast error 74. Which rater error leads employees to believe that no aspects of their performance need improvement? A. Contrast error B. Halo error C. Horn error D. Similar to me E. Central tendency 75. Appraisal politics are likely to occur when: A. top executives forbid distorted ratings. B. the goals of rating are compatible with one another. C. performance appraisal results are directly linked to developmental programs. D. senior employees tell newcomers stories about distorted ratings. E. performance appraisal is not directly linked to highly desirable rewards. 8-16 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 76. A(n) _____ is a gathering at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating the influence of rating errors. A. LMS B. 360-degree performance appraisal C. reliability meeting D. performance leadership council E. calibration meeting 77. How does an organization promote fairness and reduce political behavior in the appraisal system? A. Use different performance standards to evaluate different employees. B. Train managers to use the appraisal process. C. Have employees develop a performance appraisal system. D. Require that managers give feedback once a year during annual appraisal. E. Encourage managers to recognize accomplishments that only employees have identified. 78. To improve the performance feedback process, managers should: A. provide frequent feedback and not wait for the annual performance review. B. let employees rate their performance after the feedback session. C. conduct the feedback session in his/her office. D. focus on the person, not on behavior or results. E. strictly adhere to the "listen-and-sell" approach. 79. Which approach to performance feedback is generally most effective? A. Problem-solving B. Tell-and-sell C. Tell-and-listen D. Tell-and-train E. Listen-and-sell 8-17 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 80. Most managers rely on which one of the following approaches to performance feedback? A. Problem-solving B. Tell-and-sell C. Tell-and-listen D. Tell-and-train E. Listen-and-sell 81. Managers can improve employee satisfaction with the feedback process by: A. keeping the feedback session short and concentrating on only the positive. B. using the tell-and-sell approach during the feedback session. C. holding the feedback session in the employee's office. D. letting the employee voice his/her opinion and discuss performance goals. E. focusing on the employee's personality. 82. Which of the following is effective feedback? A. "You have become careless; you came in late three times last week." B. "You did not meet the deadline." C. "I don't see any progress from the last review; you are lazy." D. "You're work has been substandard; you are not motivated." E. "You should stay back after office hours because you are very slow with your work." 83. How does a manager motivate an employee who lacks the ability to perform? A. Demonstrate that the employee is being paid fairly and adequately. B. Restructure the job so that the employee can handle it. C. Refer the employee to a counselor for stress management. D. Direct the employee's attention to the problem by withholding rewards. E. Link rewards to performance outcomes. 8-18 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 84. Coaching, frequent performance feedback, goal setting, and restructured job assignments may be effective ways to improve performance for which category of employees? A. Solid performers B. Underutilizers C. Misdirected effort D. Deadwood E. Nonessential 85. To improve the performance of underutilizers, managers should: A. withhold pay increases. B. demote them from their current position. C. offer temporary assignments for skill development. D. link rewards to performance outcomes. E. identify development opportunities. 86. Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or: A. unjust dismissal. B. reverse discrimination. C. affirmative action. D. reasonable accommodation. E. minimum wage. 87. In what legal suit would the plaintiff allege that the performance measurement system varies according to individual raters? A. Harassment suit B. Reverse discrimination suit C. Unjust dismissal suit D. Discrimination suit E. ERISA suit 8-19 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 88. If an employee is dismissed on the grounds of poor performance immediately after he/she complained to higher authorities about the bad work ethics of his/her manager, the employee could file a(n): A. affirmative action lawsuit. B. unjust dismissal lawsuit. C. reasonable accommodation lawsuit. D. discrimination lawsuit. E. tort-based lawsuit. 89. What can an organization do to protect itself against discrimination and unjust dismissal lawsuits? A. The organization should provide for a review of all top performance ratings by upper-level managers. B. Performance measures should evaluate personal traits. C. Requirements for job success should be clearly communicated to all the employees. D. The organization should use a single rater to rate all the employees. E. The organization should dismiss poor performers. 90. Identify a criticism against the electronic monitoring system. A. It can store records of employee performance, work-rule violations, and disciplinary actions. B. The system prevents employees from exaggerating the number of hours they worked. C. Managers use it to gather information on employee performance for coaching and developmental purposes. D. It threatens to make the workplace an electronic sweatshop, robbing employees of their dignity. E. The systems should be a substitute for careful management. Essay Questions 8-20 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 91. Discuss the stages of the performance management process. 92. Name and discuss the three purposes of performance management systems. 93. Define the five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. 94. How do behavioral observation scales (BOS) differ from behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)? 8-21 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 95. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using managers, peers, subordinates, self, and customers as sources of performance information. 96. Define types of rating errors, and explain how to minimize them. 97. Discuss a calibration meeting. 98. Name and discuss at least five ways to improve the performance feedback session. 8-22 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 99. Summarize the different ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. 100. Name at least five actions a company could take to ensure it has a legally defensible performance management system. 8-23 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance Chapter 08 Managing Employees' Performance Answer Key True / False Questions 1. (p. 225) Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals. TRUE Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals. Effective performance management can tell top performers that they are valued, encourage communication between managers and their employees, establish uniform standards for evaluating employees, and help the organization identify its strongest and weakest performers. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-01 Identify the activities involved in performance management. Topic: The Process of Performance Management 2. (p. 226) Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: strategic, administrative, and developmental. TRUE Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: strategic, administrative, and developmental. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-02 Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. Topic: Purposes of Performance Management 8-24 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 3. (p. 227) In the case of performance appraisal, validity refers to whether the appraisal measures all aspects of performance, both relevant and irrelevant. FALSE In the case of a performance appraisal, validity refers to whether the appraisal measures all the relevant aspects of performance and omits irrelevant aspects of performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 4. (p. 229) Test-retest reliability refers to consistency of results over time. TRUE Test-retest reliability refers to consistency of results over time. If a performance measure lacks test-retest reliability, determining whether an employee's performance has truly changed over time will be impossible. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 5. (p. 229) In the forced-distribution method of performance measurement, employees are ranked from highest to lowest. FALSE The forced-distribution method of performance management assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories. The simple ranking method requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 8-25 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 6. (p. 231) In terms of measuring performance, a major advantage of ranking systems is that they often are linked to the organization's goals. FALSE A major drawback of rankings is that they often are not linked to the organization's goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 7. (p. 232) Attribute-based performance methods are tightly linked to organizational strategy. FALSE Measurement of attributes is rarely linked to the organization's strategy. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8. (p. 233) To rate employee behaviors, the organization begins by defining which behaviors are associated with success on the job. TRUE To rate behaviors, the organization begins by defining which behaviors are associated with success on the job. The appraisal form asks the manager to rate an employee in terms of each of the identified behaviors that help the organization to achieve its goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-26 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 9. (p. 234) The critical-incident method is a behavioral approach to performance management. TRUE One way to rate behaviors is with the critical-incident method. This approach requires managers to keep a record of specific examples of the employee acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 10. (p. 234) An advantage of behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) is improved interrater reliability. TRUE Although BARS can improve interrater reliability, this method can bias the manager's memory. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 11. (p. 234) Compared to a behavioral observation scale (BOS), managers and employees prefer to use the BARS method for ease of use, providing feedback, and maintaining objectivity. FALSE Compared to BARS and graphic rating scales, managers and employees have said they prefer BOS for ease of use, providing feedback, maintaining objectivity, and suggesting training needs. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-27 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 12. (p. 235) Organizational behavior modification (OBM) is a plan for managing the behavior of employees through an informal system of feedback and reinforcement. FALSE Applied to behavior in organizations, organizational behavior modification (OBM) is a plan for managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 13. (p. 236) Behavioral approaches to performance measurement, such as organizational behavior modification and rating scales, tend to be valid, reliable, and acceptable. TRUE Behavioral approaches such as organizational behavior modification and rating scales can link the company's goals to the specific behavior required to achieve those goals. Behavioral methods can generate specific feedback, along with guidance in areas requiring improvements. As a result, these methods tend to be valid. The people to be measured often help in developing the measures, so acceptance tends to be high as well. When raters are well trained, reliability also tends to be high. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-28 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 14. (p. 237) Management by objectives (MBO) systems seldom link employee performance to the organization's strategic goals. FALSE Because staff members are involved in setting goals, it is likely that MBO systems effectively link individual employees' performance with the organization's overall goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Measuring Results 15. (p. 238) Traditional performance measurement differs from total quality management (TQM) in that it assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works. FALSE Total quality management (TQM) differs from traditional performance measurement in that it assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Total Quality Management 16. (p. 239) Subordinates are the most-used source of performance information. FALSE The most-used source of performance information is the employee's manager. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Managers 8-29 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 17. (p. 240) Generally, peers are more favorable toward participating in reviews to be used for employee development. TRUE Peers are an excellent source of information about performance in a job where the supervisor does not often observe the employee. Generally, peers are more favorable toward participating in reviews to be used for employee development. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Peers 18. (p. 241) Self-appraisals are not appropriate as the basis for administrative decisions. TRUE Social psychologists have found that, in general, people tend to blame outside circumstances for their failures while taking a large part of the credit for their successes. Supervisors can soften this tendency by providing frequent feedback, but because people tend to perceive situations this way, self-appraisals are not appropriate as the basis for administrative decisions. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Self 19. (p. 243) If a rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees, distributional errors occur. FALSE Raters make distributional errors when they tend to use only one part of a rating scale. Distributional errors make it difficult to compare employees rated by the same person. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 8-30 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 20. (p. 244) Appraisal politics are most likely to occur when senior employees tell newcomers company "folklore" that includes stories about distorted ratings. TRUE Appraisal politics are most likely to occur when raters are accountable to the employee being rated, the goals of rating are not compatible with one another, performance appraisal is directly linked to highly desirable rewards, top executives tolerate or ignore distorted ratings, and senior employees tell newcomers company "folklore" that includes stories about distorted ratings. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Political Behavior in Performance Appraisals 21. (p. 245) In the tell-and-sell approach, managers tell employees their ratings and then let the employees explain their side of the story. FALSE In the "tell-and-sell" approach, managers tell the employees their ratings and then justify those ratings. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Conducting the Feedback Session 22. (p. 246) The content of a feedback session should emphasize behavior, not personalities. TRUE The content of the feedback should emphasize behavior, not personalities. For example, "You did not meet the deadline" can open a conversation about what needs to change, but "You're not motivated" may make the employee feel defensive and angry. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Conducting the Feedback Session 8-31 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 23. (p. 247) The most effective way to improve performance varies according to the manager's ability. FALSE The most effective way to improve performance varies according to the employee's ability and motivation. In general, when employees have high levels of ability and motivation, they perform at or above standards. But when they lack ability, motivation, or both, corrective action is needed. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-08 Summarize ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. Topic: Finding Solutions to Performance Problems 24. (p. 248) Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or unjust dismissal. TRUE Because performance measures play a central role in decisions about pay, promotions, and discipline, employment-related lawsuits often challenge an organization's performance management system. Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or unjust dismissal. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management 8-32 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 25. (p. 249) The Supreme Court has held that the selection guidelines in the federal government's Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures also apply to performance management systems. TRUE The Supreme Court has held that the selection guidelines in the federal government's Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures apply to performance measurement. In general, these guidelines require that organizations avoid using criteria such as race and age as a basis for employment decisions. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management Multiple Choice Questions 26. (p. 225) The process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals is known as: A. quality analysis. B. HR appraisal. C. project management. D. strategic planning. E. performance management. The process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs contribute to the organization's goals is known as performance management. Effective performance management can tell top performers that they are valued, encourage communication between managers and their employees, establish uniform standards for evaluating employees, and help the organization identify its strongest and weakest performers. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-01 Identify the activities involved in performance management. Topic: The Process of Performance Management 8-33 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 27. (p. 225) The relevant aspects of employee performance are based on: A. the outcomes of a job analysis. B. the nature of the company's products and services. C. management's beliefs and values. D. the employee's psychological contract. E. aspects of the employee's personality. The organization specifies which aspects of performance are relevant to the organization. These decisions are based on the job analysis. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-01 Identify the activities involved in performance management. Topic: The Process of Performance Management 28. (p. 226) Which of the following is a purpose of performance management systems? A. Systematic B. Rational C. Investigative D. Strategic E. Analytical Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: strategic, administrative, and developmental. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-02 Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. Topic: Purposes of Performance Management 8-34 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 29. (p. 226) _____ means effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives. A. Systematic purpose B. Investigative purpose C. Developmental purpose D. Administrative purpose E. Strategic purpose Strategic purpose means effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives. It does this by helping to link employees' behavior with the organization's goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-02 Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. Topic: Purposes of Performance Management 30. (p. 226) The administrative purpose of a performance management system refers to: A. linking employees' behaviors with the organization's goals. B. developing employees' knowledge and skills. C. linking to the organization's goals and communicating the goals and feedback about performance to employees. D. measuring each employee's performance to identify areas where expectations are not being met. E. the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs. The administrative purpose of a performance management system refers to the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs. Because performance management supports these administrative decisions, the information in a performance appraisal can have a great impact on the future of individual employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-02 Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. Topic: Purposes of Performance Management 8-35 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 31. (p. 227) Performance management has a(n) _____ purpose, meaning that it serves as a basis for improving employees' knowledge and skills. A. systematic B. tactical C. strategic D. administrative E. developmental Performance management has a developmental purpose, meaning that it serves as a basis for developing employees' knowledge and skills. Effective performance feedback makes employees aware of their strengths and of the areas in which they can improve. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-02 Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. Topic: Purposes of Performance Management 32. (p. 227) Which performance management evaluation criterion is concerned with maximizing the overlap between actual job performance and the measure of job performance? A. Reliability B. Acceptability C. Specificity D. Validity E. Dependability Validity is the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure. In the case of performance appraisal, validity refers to whether the appraisal measures all the relevant aspects of performance and omits irrelevant aspects of performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 8-36 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 33. (p. 227) In the case of performance appraisal, _____ refers to whether the appraisal measures all the relevant aspects of performance and omits irrelevant aspects of performance. A. acceptability B. specificity C. reliability D. dependability E. validity Validity is the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure. In the case of performance appraisal, validity refers to whether the appraisal measures all the relevant aspects of performance and omits irrelevant aspects of performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 34. (p. 228) If personnel at the Zion Corporation evaluate salespeople across different regional territories based on the number of sales calls they make to customers, they are most likely using a(n) _____ measure. A. unreliable B. deficient C. contaminated D. valid E. variable Comparing salespeople based on how many calls they make to customers could be a contaminated measure. Making a lot of calls does not necessarily improve sales or customer satisfaction, unless every salesperson makes only well-planned calls. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 8-37 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 35. (p. 228) The consistency among the different individuals who evaluate an employee's performance is known as: A. internal consistency reliability. B. interrater reliability. C. interrater validity. D. test-retest reliability. E. test-retest validity. Interrater reliability is consistency of results when more than one person measures performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 36. (p. 229) If a performance measure lacks _____ reliability, determining whether an employee's performance has truly changed over time will be impossible. A. external B. interrater C. strategic D. test-retest E. specific Test-retest reliability refers to consistency of results over time. If a performance measure lacks test-retest reliability, determining whether an employee's performance has truly changed over time will be impossible. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 8-38 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 37. (p. 229) The extent to which a performance measure gives guidance to employees about what is expected of them is called: A. reliability. B. validity. C. specific feedback. D. acceptability. E. strategic fit. A performance measure should specifically tell employees what is expected of them and how they can meet those expectations. Being specific helps performance management meet the goals of supporting strategy and developing employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 38. (p. 229) Which of the following is a comparative performance appraisal technique? A. Mixed-standards scale B. Simple ranking C. Paired distribution D. Forced comparison E. Complex distribution Techniques for comparing one individual's performance with that of others include simple ranking, forced distribution, and paired comparison. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 8-39 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 39. (p. 229) Which of the following performance measurement methods requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer? A. Graphic rating scale B. Mixed-standard scale C. Paired comparison D. Forced distribution E. Simple ranking Simple ranking requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 40. (p. 229) The performance measurement method that assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories is called: A. forced distribution. B. alternation ranking. C. paired comparison. D. optional ranking. E. paired choice analysis. The forced-distribution method of performance measurement assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories. A forced distribution approach works best if the members of a group vary significantly in terms of their performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 8-40 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 41. (p. 230) Identify the evaluation approach to performance measurement that meets the following criteria: very high strategic congruence, usually high validity, high reliability, high acceptability, and high specificity regarding results but low specificity regarding behaviors necessary to achieve them. A. Comparative B. Attribute C. Behavioral D. Results E. Developmental Performance measures that focus on results usually have high strategic congruence, high validity, high reliability, high acceptability, and high specificity regarding results but low specificity regarding behaviors necessary to achieve them. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Methods for Measuring Performance 42. (p. 230) Identify the approach to performance measurement that meets the following criteria: high strategic congruence, usually high validity, usually high reliability, moderate acceptability, and very high specificity. A. Comparative B. Attribute C. Behavioral D. Results E. Quality Performance measures that focus on employee behavior have high strategic congruence, usually high validity, usually high reliability, moderate acceptability, and very high specificity. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Methods for Measuring Performance 8-41 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 43. (p. 230) Identify the approach to performance measurement that meets the following criteria: usually low strategic congruence, usually low validity, usually low reliability, high acceptability, and very low specificity. A. Comparative B. Attribute C. Behavioral D. Results E. Quality Performance measures that focus on employee attributes usually have low strategic congruence, low validity, low reliability, high acceptability, and very low specificity. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Methods for Measuring Performance 44. (p. 230) The _____ method of performance measurement compares each employee with each other employee to establish rankings. A. paired-comparison B. graphic rating scale C. forced-distribution D. mixed standard E. BARS The paired-comparison method approach involves comparing each employee with each other employee to establish rankings. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 8-42 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 45. (p. 231) Which one of the following is NOT a problem associated with the comparative approaches to performance management? A. A simple ranking system leaves the basis for the ranking open to interpretation. B. Managers can give high ratings to all employees to avoid controversy. C. The rankings are not helpful for employee development. D. The rankings may not be linked to the organization's goals. E. The rankings may hurt morale or result in legal challenges. Ranking counteracts the tendency to avoid controversy by rating everyone favorably or near the center of the scale. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Objective: Medium Learning 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Making Comparisons 46. (p. 231) Which of the following is the most widely used method for rating attributes? A. Behaviorally anchored rating scales B. Mixed-standard scales C. Behavioral observation scales D. Graphic rating scales E. Critical-incident methods The most widely used method for rating attributes is the graphic rating scale. This method lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-43 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 47. (p. 231) If a manager considers one employee at a time and circles a number/word to signify the degree to which that employee demonstrates a particular trait, he/she is using a: A. mixed-standard scale. B. critical-incident approach. C. graphic rating scale. D. behavioral observation scale. E. behaviorally anchored rating scale. The graphic rating scale method lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait. The employer uses the scale to indicate the extent to which the employee being rated displays the traits. The rating scale may provide points to circle (as on a scale going from 1 for poor to 5 for excellent), or it may provide a line representing a range of scores, with the manager marking a place along the line. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 48. (p. 231-232) In which performance technique are managers given three performance rating scales per dimension and asked to indicate whether the employee's performance is above (+), at (0), or below (-) the statements? A. Behaviorally anchored rating scale B. Mixed-standard scale C. Behavioral observation scale D. Graphic rating scale E. Forced distribution The manager who uses the mixed-standard scale reads each statement and then indicates whether the employee performs above (+), at (0), or below (-) the level described. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-44 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 49. (p. 232) Which of the following is true of the attribute approaches to performance management? A. They result in high strategic congruence. B. They are difficult to develop. C. They can be applied to a wide variety of jobs and organizations. D. They provide specific guidance and feedback to employees. E. They are the least popular way to measure performance in organizations. Rating attributes is the most popular way to measure performance in organizations. In general, attribute-based performance methods are easy to develop and can be applied to a wide variety of jobs and organizations. This method is rarely linked to an organization's strategy and provides little indication on how to improve performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 50. (p. 234) The performance management approach that requires managers to keep a record of specific examples of effective and ineffective performance is the: A. behaviorally anchored rating scale. B. graphic rating scale. C. critical-incident method. D. organizational behavior modification method. E. mixed-standard scale. One way to rate behaviors is with the critical-incident method. This approach requires managers to keep a record of specific examples of the employee acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-45 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 51. (p. 234) Which performance management technique involves the identification of a large number of critical incidents, the classification of these incidents into performance dimensions, and the rank ordering of these incidents into levels of performance? A. Behaviorally anchored rating scales B. Graphic rating scales C. Critical incidents D. Organizational behavior modification E. Management by objectives A behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) builds on the critical-incidents approach. The organization gathers many critical incidents representing effective and ineffective performance, then classifies them from most to least effective. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 52. (p. 234) The performance management method that requires managers to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited a behavior during a rating period is the: A. behaviorally anchored rating scale. B. behavioral observation scale. C. graphic rating scale. D. mixed-standard scale. E. forced choice scale. A behavioral observation scale (BOS) asks the manager to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited the behavior during the rating period. These ratings are averaged to compute an overall performance rating. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-46 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 53. (p. 234) A major drawback of the behavioral observation scale is: A. its difficulty of use. B. its inability to provide specific guidance to employees regarding expected performance. C. its subjective nature. D. the amount of information required. E. it discards many examples in creating the rating scale. A major drawback of this method is the amount of information required. Even so, compared to BARS and graphic rating scales, managers and employees have said they prefer BOS for ease of use, providing feedback, maintaining objectivity, and suggesting training needs. A BARS discards many examples in creating the rating scale, while a BOS uses many of them to define all behaviors necessary for effective performance. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 54. (p. 234) What is the difference between a behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) and a behavioral observation scale (BOS)? A. BARS asks the manager to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited the behavior. B. BOS consists of a statement at the top describing the highest level of a performance dimension. C. BOS uses many examples to define all behaviors necessary for effective performance. D. Managers and employees prefer BARS compared to BOS for ease of use and maintaining objectivity. E. A major drawback of BARS is the amount of information required as compared to BOS. While BARS discards many examples in creating the rating scale, a BOS uses many of them to define all behaviors necessary for effective performance. A BOS asks the manager to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited the behavior during the rating period. A major drawback of BOS is the amount of information required. Compared to BARS and graphic rating scales, managers and employees have said they prefer BOS for ease of use, providing feedback, maintaining objectivity, and suggesting training needs. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-47 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 55. (p. 235) Managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement refers to: A. behaviorally anchored rating scales. B. behavioral observation scales. C. critical incidents. D. organizational behavior modification. E. graphic rating scales. Applied to behavior in organizations, organizational behavior modification (OBM) is a plan for managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 56. (p. 235-236) Which of the following is NOT a component of an organizational behavior modification system? A. Define a set of key behaviors that can improve job performance. B. Use a measurement system to assess whether behaviors are exhibited. C. Consult employees on how often they should exhibit certain behaviors. D. Provide feedback to employees. E. Provide reinforcement based on employees' behavior. Specific OBM techniques vary, but most have four components: define a set of key behaviors necessary for job performance; use a measurement system to assess whether the employee exhibits the key behaviors; inform employees of the key behaviors, perhaps in terms of goals for how often to exhibit the behaviors; provide feedback and reinforcement based on employees' behavior. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-48 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 57. (p. 236) Which of the following is true of behavioral approaches to performance measurement? A. They link the company's goals to the specific behavior required to achieve those goals. B. They work well for complex jobs. C. They provide little feedback on areas of improvement. D. They have a low degree of validity and reliability. E. They have a low degree of acceptability. Behavioral approaches such as organizational behavior modification and rating scales can link the company's goals to the specific behavior required to achieve those goals. Behavioral methods can generate specific feedback, along with guidance in areas requiring improvements. As a result, these methods tend to be valid. The people to be measured often help in developing the measures, so acceptance tends to be high as well. When raters are well trained, reliability also tends to be high. However, behavioral methods do not work as well for complex jobs in which it is difficult to see a link between behavior and results or there is more than one good way to achieve success. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 58. (p. 237) In which type of system are goals established and passed down through the organization, so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization's overall goals? A. Productivity measurement and evaluation systems B. Management by objectives C. Assessment centers D. Organizational behavior modification E. BARS Management by objectives (MBO) is a system in which people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization's overall goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Measuring Results 8-49 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 59. (p. 237) Which of the following is true about management by objectives (MBO)? A. Goals are generally nonspecific. B. Goals are typically subjective. C. Goals are easy to measure. D. Feedback is given only during the appraisal period. E. Managers and their employees work together to set the goals. An MBO system has three components: goals are specific, difficult, and objective; managers and their employees work together to set the goals; the manager gives objective feedback through the rating period to monitor progress toward the goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measu ring performance. Topic: Measuring Results 60. (p. 238) Which of the following is an advantage of result-based measures? A. They are very effective in providing guidance on how to improve. B. They are relatively easy to link to the organization's goals. C. They are generally less objective than other kinds of performance systems. D. They are highly acceptable to employees, but not to managers. E. They tend to be highly valid. In general, evaluation of results can be less subjective than other kinds of performance measurement. This makes measuring results highly acceptable to employees and managers alike. Results-oriented performance measurement is also relatively easy to link to the organization's goals. However, measuring results has problems with validity, because results may be affected by circumstances beyond each employee's performance. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Measuring Results 8-50 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 61. (p. 238) Total quality management differs from traditional performance measurement in that it: A. has an external, rather than an internal, focus. B. is a top-down review process. C. assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works. D. focuses on support decisions about work assignments, training, and compensation. E. provides only subjective feedback based on the work process. Total quality management (TQM) differs from traditional performance measurement in that it assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works. This assessment is a process through which employees and their customers work together to set standards and measure performance, with the overall goal being to improve customer satisfaction. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Total Quality Management 62. (p. 239) How does total quality management (TQM) obtain objective feedback? A. From the methods that use charts to detail causes of problems, measures of performance, or relationships between work-related variables. B. From the methods that rate behaviors in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance. C. From the methods that use several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait. D. From the method that lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait. E. From managers, peers, and customers about the employee's personal qualities. The feedback in TQM is of two kinds: (1) subjective feedback from managers, peers, and customers about the employee's personal qualities such as cooperation and initiative; and (2) objective feedback based on the work process. The second kind of feedback comes from a variety of methods called statistical quality control. These methods use charts to detail causes of problems, measures of performance, or relationships between work-related variables. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Total Quality Management 8-51 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 63. (p. 239) The type of performance management system where a company assembles performance data on an individual from most or all of his/her contacts within and outside the company is known as: A. the critical incidents technique. B. behavioral observation scales. C. management by objectives. D. a 360-degree performance appraisal. E. upward feedback. To get as complete an assessment of performance information as possible, some organizations combine information from most or all of the possible sources, in what is called a 360-degree performance appraisal. This method combines information from the employee's managers, peers, subordinates, self, and customers. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Sources of Performance Information 64. (p. 240) Which one of the following is true of peers as a source of performance information? A. Peers are poor sources of information about performance in a job. B. Peer ratings, according to research, are not influenced by friendships. C. Peers evaluations generally lack validity. D. Peers are less willing participants in reviews used for employees. E. Peers are comfortable with rating employees for decisions that may affect themselves. Peers are an excellent source of information about performance in a job where the supervisor does not often observe the employee. They also bring a different perspective to the evaluation and can provide extremely valid assessments of performance. Friendships have the potential to bias ratings. Research, however, has provided little evidence that this is a problem. Another disadvantage is that when the evaluations are done to support administrative decisions, peers are uncomfortable with rating employees for decisions that may affect themselves. Generally, peers are more favorable toward participating in reviews to be used for employee development. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Peers 8-52 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 65. (p. 240) According to the text, when managers are being evaluated, _____ are especially valuable sources of information. A. other managers B. subordinates C. customers D. their bosses E. the managers themselves For evaluating the performance of managers, subordinates are an especially valuable source of information. Subordinatesthe people reporting to the manageroften have the best chance to see how well a manager treats employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Subordinates 66. (p. 241) Subordinates, as a source of performance information, are generally most appropriate when the performance results are to be used for: A. administrative purposes. B. investigative purposes. C. strategic purposes. D. developmental purposes. E. executive purposes. Subordinate evaluations are most appropriate for developmental purposes. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Subordinates 8-53 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 67. (p. 241) Which of the following steps should be taken to protect employees when they provide evaluations of their manager's performance? A. The process should be anonymous. B. The process should use at least two employees to rate each manager. C. The process should encourage employees to highlight the negative aspects of the manager's performance. D. The evaluations should be used primarily for administrative decisions. E. The process should require that subordinates identify themselves. In the case of subordinate evaluations, the process should be anonymous and use at least three employees to rate each manager. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Subordinates 68. (p. 241) When should an organization use customer evaluation of employee performance? A. When there is too much internal politics and getting a fair appraisal review is difficult to obtain. B. When the company's profitability depends on internal customers being satisfied. C. When the customer is often the only person who observes the service performance. D. When "excellent customer service" is one of the criteria of the performance review. E. When there is no other means of properly evaluating employee performance. Services are often produced and consumed on the spot, so the customer is often the only person who directly observes the service performance and may be the best source of performance information. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Customers 8-54 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 69. (p. 241-242) Using customer evaluations of employee performance is appropriate in all of the following situations EXCEPT: A. when the company wants an inexpensive means of evaluation. B. when an employee's job requires direct service to the customer. C. when customer evaluations contribute to the organization's goals by enabling HRM to support the organization's marketing activities. D. when the company is interested in gathering information to determine what products and services the customer wants. E. when an employee's job requires linking the customer to other services within the organization. Using customer evaluations of employee performance is appropriate when an employee's job requires direct service to the customer or linking the customer to other services within the organization. Customer evaluations are appropriate when the organization is interested in gathering information to determine what products and services the customer wants. That is, customer evaluations contribute to the organization's goals by enabling HRM to support the organization's marketing activities. The weakness of customer surveys for performance measurement is their expense. The expenses of a traditional survey can add up to hundreds of dollars to evaluate one individual. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Customers 70. (p. 243) Which of the following occurs when a rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees? A. Contrast errors B. Distributional errors C. Halo error D. Similar to me error E. Horns error If the rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees, contrast errors occur. A competent performer who works with exceptional people may be rated lower than competent, simply because of the contrast. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 8-55 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 71. (p. 243) Which rater error makes it difficult to distinguish among employees rated by the same rater? A. Contrast error B. Distributional errors C. Halo error D. Similar to me E. Horns error Raters make distributional errors when they tend to use only one part of a rating scale. Distributional errors make it difficult to compare employees rated by the same person. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 72. (p. 243) This distributional error occurs when the reviewer rates everyone near the top of a rating scale. A. Contrast error B. Strictness C. Halo error D. Horns error E. Leniency Raters make distributional errors when they tend to use only one part of a rating scale. The error is called leniency when the reviewer rates everyone near the top, strictness when the rater favors lower rankings, and central tendency when the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 8-56 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 73. (p. 243) If a student evaluating his/her professor at the end of term rates the professor low on all performance criteria due to dissatisfaction with the professor's grading scale, the student has likely committed which rater error? A. Similar to me B. Halo error C. Central tendency D. Horns error E. Contrast error Raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others. When the bias involves negative ratings, it is called the horns error. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 74. (p. 243) Which rater error leads employees to believe that no aspects of their performance need improvement? A. Contrast error B. Halo error C. Horn error D. Similar to me E. Central tendency Raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others. When the bias is in a favorable direction, this is called the halo error. Halo error can mistakenly tell employees they don't need to improve in any area. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 8-57 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 75. (p. 244) Appraisal politics are likely to occur when: A. top executives forbid distorted ratings. B. the goals of rating are compatible with one another. C. performance appraisal results are directly linked to developmental programs. D. senior employees tell newcomers stories about distorted ratings. E. performance appraisal is not directly linked to highly desirable rewards. Appraisal politics are most likely to occur when raters are accountable to the employee being rated, the goals of rating are not compatible with one another, performance appraisal is directly linked to highly desirable rewards, top executives tolerate or ignore distorted ratings, and senior employees tell newcomers company "folklore" that includes stories about distorted ratings. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Political Behavior in Performance Appraisals 76. (p. 244) A(n) _____ is a gathering at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating the influence of rating errors. A. LMS B. 360-degree performance appraisal C. reliability meeting D. performance leadership council E. calibration meeting Organizations can minimize appraisal politics by establishing an appraisal system that is fair. One technique is to hold a calibration meeting, a gathering at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating the influence of rating errors. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Political Behavior in Performance Appraisals 8-58 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 77. (p. 244) How does an organization promote fairness and reduce political behavior in the appraisal system? A. Use different performance standards to evaluate different employees. B. Train managers to use the appraisal process. C. Have employees develop a performance appraisal system. D. Require that managers give feedback once a year during annual appraisal. E. Encourage managers to recognize accomplishments that only employees have identified. Organizations can minimize appraisal politics by establishing an appraisal system that is fair. One technique is to hold a calibration meeting. The organization can also help managers give accurate and fair appraisals by training them to use the appraisal process, encouraging them to recognize accomplishments that the employees themselves have not identified, and fostering a climate of openness in which employees feel they can be honest about their weaknesses. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Political Behavior in Performance Appraisals 78. (p. 244-246) To improve the performance feedback process, managers should: A. provide frequent feedback and not wait for the annual performance review. B. let employees rate their performance after the feedback session. C. conduct the feedback session in his/her office. D. focus on the person, not on behavior or results. E. strictly adhere to the "listen-and-sell" approach. Performance feedback should be a regular, expected management activity. Annual feedback is not enough. The manager should create the right context for the meeting. The location should be neutral. If the manager's office is the site of unpleasant conversations, a conference room may be more appropriate. Managers should also enable the employee to be well prepared. The manager should ask the employee to complete a self-assessment ahead of time. The content of the feedback should emphasize behavior, not personalities. During the feedback session, managers can take any of three approaches: the "tell-and-sell" approach, the "tell-and-listen" approach, and the "problem-solving" approach. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Giving Performance Feedback 8-59 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 79. (p. 245) Which approach to performance feedback is generally most effective? A. Problem-solving B. Tell-and-sell C. Tell-and-listen D. Tell-and-train E. Listen-and-sell In the "problem-solving" approach, managers and employees work together to solve performance problems in an atmosphere of respect and encouragement. Not surprisingly, research demonstrates that the problem-solving approach is superior. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Conducting the Feedback Session 80. (p. 245) Most managers rely on which one of the following approaches to performance feedback? A. Problem-solving B. Tell-and-sell C. Tell-and-listen D. Tell-and-train E. Listen-and-sell Most managers rely on the tell-and-sell approach. In the "tell-and-sell" approach, managers tell the employees their ratings and then justify those ratings. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Conducting the Feedback Session 8-60 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 81. (p. 245) Managers can improve employee satisfaction with the feedback process by: A. keeping the feedback session short and concentrating on only the positive. B. using the tell-and-sell approach during the feedback session. C. holding the feedback session in the employee's office. D. letting the employee voice his/her opinion and discuss performance goals. E. focusing on the employee's personality. Managers can improve employee satisfaction with the feedback process by letting employees voice their opinions and discuss performance goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Conducting the Feedback Session 82. (p. 246) Which of the following is effective feedback? A. "You have become careless; you came in late three times last week." B. "You did not meet the deadline." C. "I don't see any progress from the last review; you are lazy." D. "You're work has been substandard; you are not motivated." E. "You should stay back after office hours because you are very slow with your work." The content of the feedback should emphasize behavior, not personalities. For example, "You did not meet the deadline" can open a conversation about what needs to change, but "You're not motivated" may make the employee feel defensive and angry. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Conducting the Feedback Session 8-61 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 83. (p. 247) How does a manager motivate an employee who lacks the ability to perform? A. Demonstrate that the employee is being paid fairly and adequately. B. Restructure the job so that the employee can handle it. C. Refer the employee to a counselor for stress management. D. Direct the employee's attention to the problem by withholding rewards. E. Link rewards to performance outcomes. When a motivated employee lacks knowledge, skills, or abilities in some area, the manager may offer coaching, training, and more detailed feedback. Sometimes it is appropriate to restructure the job so the employee can handle it. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-08 Summarize ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. Topic: Finding Solutions to Performance Problems 84. (p. 248) Coaching, frequent performance feedback, goal setting, and restructured job assignments may be effective ways to improve performance for which category of employees? A. Solid performers B. Underutilizers C. Misdirected effort D. Deadwood E. Nonessential Employees under the "misdirected effort" category are motivated but lack ability. When a motivated employee lacks knowledge, skills, or abilities in some area, the manager may offer coaching, training, and more detailed feedback. Sometimes it is appropriate to restructure the job so the employee can handle it. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-08 Summarize ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. Topic: Finding Solutions to Performance Problems 8-62 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 85. (p. 248) To improve the performance of underutilizers, managers should: A. withhold pay increases. B. demote them from their current position. C. offer temporary assignments for skill development. D. link rewards to performance outcomes. E. identify development opportunities. Employees categorized as "underutilizers" have high levels of ability but lack motivation. Managers with an unmotivated employee can explore ways to demonstrate that the employee is being treated fairly and rewarded adequately. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-08 Summarize ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. Topic: Finding Solutions to Performance Problems 86. (p. 248) Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or: A. unjust dismissal. B. reverse discrimination. C. affirmative action. D. reasonable accommodation. E. minimum wage. Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or unjust dismissal. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management 8-63 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 87. (p. 248-249) In what legal suit would the plaintiff allege that the performance measurement system varies according to individual raters? A. Harassment suit B. Reverse discrimination suit C. Unjust dismissal suit D. Discrimination suit E. ERISA suit Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of discrimination or unjust dismissal. Discrimination claims often allege that the performance management system discriminated against employees on the basis of their race or sex. Many performance measures are subjective, and measurement errors can easily occur. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management 88. (p. 249) If an employee is dismissed on the grounds of poor performance immediately after he/she complained to higher authorities about the bad work ethics of his/her manager, the employee could file a(n): A. affirmative action lawsuit. B. unjust dismissal lawsuit. C. reasonable accommodation lawsuit. D. discrimination lawsuit. E. tort-based lawsuit. With regard to lawsuits filed on the grounds of unjust dismissal, the usual claim is that the person was dismissed for reasons besides the ones that the employer states. In this type of situation, courts generally focus on the employer's performance management system, looking to see whether the firing could have been based on poor performance. To defend itself, the employer would need a performance management system that provides evidence to support its employment decisions. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management 8-64 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 89. (p. 249) What can an organization do to protect itself against discrimination and unjust dismissal lawsuits? A. The organization should provide for a review of all top performance ratings by upper-level managers. B. Performance measures should evaluate personal traits. C. Requirements for job success should be clearly communicated to all the employees. D. The organization should use a single rater to rate all the employees. E. The organization should dismiss poor performers. To protect against discrimination or unjust dismissal lawsuits, it is important to have a legally defensible performance management system. Such a system would be based on valid job analyses, with the requirements for job success clearly communicated to employees. Performance measurement should evaluate behaviors or results, rather than traits. The organization should use multiple raters and train raters in how to use the system. The organization should provide for a review of all performance ratings by upper-level managers and set up a system for employees to appeal when they believe they were evaluated unfairly. Along with feedback, the system should include a process for coaching or training employees to help them improve, rather than simply dismissing poor performers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management 8-65 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 90. (p. 249-250) Identify a criticism against the electronic monitoring system. A. It can store records of employee performance, work-rule violations, and disciplinary actions. B. The system prevents employees from exaggerating the number of hours they worked. C. Managers use it to gather information on employee performance for coaching and developmental purposes. D. It threatens to make the workplace an electronic sweatshop, robbing employees of their dignity. E. The systems should be a substitute for careful management. Although electronic monitoring can improve productivity, it also generates privacy concerns. Critics point out that an employer should not monitor employees when it has no reason to believe anything is wrong. They complain that monitoring systems threaten to make the workplace an electronic sweatshop in which employees are treated as robots, robbing them of dignity. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Electronic Monitoring and Employee Privacy Essay Questions 8-66 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 91. (p. 225) Discuss the stages of the performance management process. The performance management process includes several activities. The stages of the performance management process are: defining performance, measuring performance, and feeding back performance information. First, the organization specifies which aspects of performance are relevant to the organization. These decisions are based on the job analysis. Next, the organization measures the relevant aspects of performance by conducting performance appraisals. Finally, through performance feedback sessions, managers give employees information about their performance so they can adjust their behavior to meet the organization's goals. When there are performance problems, the feedback session should include efforts to identify and resolve the underlying problems. In addition, performance feedback can come through the organization's rewards. Using this performance management process helps managers and employees focus on the organization's goals. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-01 Identify the activities involved in performance management. Topic: The Process of Performance Management 8-67 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 92. (p. 226-227) Name and discuss the three purposes of performance management systems. Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: strategic, administrative, and developmental. Strategic purpose: First and foremost, a performance management system should link employee activities with the organization's goals. Performance management starts with defining what the organization expects from each employee. It measures each employee's performance to identify where those expectations are and are not being met. This enables the organization to take corrective action, such as training, incentives, and discipline. Administrative purpose: This refers to the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs. Performance management can also support decision making related to employee retention, termination for poor behavior, and hiring or layoffs. Because performance management supports these administrative decisions, the information in a performance appraisal can have a great impact on the future of individual employees. Managers recognize this, which is the reason they may feel uncomfortable conducting performance appraisals when the appraisal information is negative and, therefore, likely to lead to a layoff, disappointing pay increase, or other negative outcome. Developmental purpose: A third purpose of performance management is to develop employees who are effective at their jobs. Ideally, performance management systems identify both effective and ineffective behaviors. Effective performance feedback makes employees aware of their strengths and areas in which they can improve. Discussing areas in which employees fall short can help the employees and their manager uncover the source of problems and identify steps for improvement. Although discussing weaknesses may feel uncomfortable, it is necessary when performance management has a developmental purpose. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-02 Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. Topic: Purposes of Performance Management 8-68 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 93. (p. 227-229) Define the five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Performance measures should fit with the organization's strategy by supporting its goals and culture. Performance measures should be valid, so they measure all the relevant aspects of performance and do not measure irrelevant aspects of performance. These measures should also provide interrater and test-retest reliability, so that appraisals are consistent among raters and over time. Performance measurement systems should be acceptable to the people who use them or receive feedback from them. Finally, a performance measure should specifically tell employees what is expected of them and how they can meet those expectations. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-03 Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. Topic: Criteria for Effective Performance Management 94. (p. 234) How do behavioral observation scales (BOS) differ from behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)? Rather than discarding a large number of the behaviors that exemplify effective or ineffective performance, behavioral observation scales (BOS) uses many of them to specifically define all the behaviors that are necessary for effective performance. Rather than assessing which behavior best reflects an individual's performance, BOS requires managers to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited each behavior during the rating period. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-04 Compare the major methods for measuring performance. Topic: Rating Individuals 8-69 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 95. (p. 239-242) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using managers, peers, subordinates, self, and customers as sources of performance information. (1) Managers: Advantages: Supervisors have extensive knowledge of the job requirements and the opportunity to observe their employees; they have an incentive to provide accurate and helpful feedback since their own success depends so much on their employees' performance; and when managers try to observe employee behavior or discuss performance issues in the feedback session, their feedback can improve performance and employees tend to perceive the appraisal as accurate. Disadvantage: In some jobs, the supervisor may not have enough opportunity to observe the employee performing job duties. (2)Peers: Advantages: Peers are an excellent source of information about performance where the supervisor does not often observe the employee, such as in law enforcement and sales; peers have expert knowledge of job requirements; and they bring a different perspective to the evaluation and can provide an extremely valid assessment of performance. Disadvantages: Friendships have the potential to bias ratings, although research has provided little evidence that this is a problem; and peers are uncomfortable rating themselves and others for administrative decision-making purposes. (3) Subordinates: Advantages: For evaluating the performance of managers, subordinates are an especially valuable source of information, as they often have the best chance to see how well a manager treats employees. Disadvantages: Subordinates may be reluctant to say negative things about the person to whom they report; when required to identify themselves, subordinates tend to give managers higher ratings; and given the power employees have in this type of evaluation, managers tend to emphasize employee satisfaction, even at the expense of productivity. (4) Self: Advantages: No one has a greater chance to observe the employee's behavior than the employee himself/herself, and it is useful to get employees thinking about their performance before the feedback session. Disadvantages: Individuals have a tendency to inflate assessments of their performance, especially when used for administrative decisions; people tend to blame outside circumstances for their failures while taking a large part of the credit for their successes; and self-appraisals are not appropriate for administrative decisionmaking. (5) Customers: Advantages: Customers are an excellent source of information about performance when the supervisors and peers do not have the opportunity to observe the employee, when an employee's job requires direct service to the customer or linking the customer to other services within the organization, and when the organization is interested in gathering information to determine what products and services the customer wants. Disadvantages: Customer surveys are expensive, and as a result, many organizations limit the information gathering to short periods of once a year. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 08-05 Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Topic: Sources of Performance Information 8-70 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 96. (p. 243) Define types of rating errors, and explain how to minimize them. Several kinds of errors and biases commonly influence performance measurements. People observe behavior often without a practical way of knowing all the relevant circumstances and outcomes, so they necessarily interpret what they see. A common tendency is to give higher evaluations to people we consider similar to ourselves. If the rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees, contrast errors occur. Other errors involve using only part of the rating scale, called distributional errors. Giving all employees ratings at the high end of the scale is called leniency error. Rating everyone at the low end of the scale is called strictness error. Rating all employees at or near the middle is called central tendency. Raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others. The halo error refers to rating employees positively in all areas because of strong performance observed in one area. The horns error is rating employees negatively in all areas because of weak performance observed in one area. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Types of Rating Errors 97. (p. 244) Discuss a calibration meeting. Political behavior occurs in every organization. Organizations can minimize appraisal politics by establishing an appraisal system that is fair. One technique is to hold a calibration meeting, a gathering at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating the influence of rating errors. As they discuss ratings and the ways they arrive at ratings, managers may identify undervalued employees, notice whether they are much harsher or more lenient than other managers, and help each other focus on how well ratings are associated with relevant performance outcomes. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-06 Define types of rating errors; and explain how to minimize them. Topic: Political Behavior in Performance Appraisals 8-71 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 98. (p. 244-246) Name and discuss at least five ways to improve the performance feedback session. Possible answers include: (1) Use the problem-solving approachManagers can take any of three approaches during the session: tell-and-sell, tell-and-listen, or problem-solving. Unfortunately, most use the telland-sell approach. The most effective is generally the problem-solving approach. (2) Make feedback a common practiceFeedback should be timely so employees understand what behaviors and performance outcomes it relates to. This means feedback should not be limited to formal appraisals. (3) Let employees voice their opinions and discuss performance goals. (4) Focus on problem solving, not punishing. (5) Talk about behavior and results, not about personalitiesEspecially when feedback is about negative performance, it is essential for the manager's words to distinguish between the person and his/her behavior. Do not use words like, "You're not motivated," instead, talk about results: "You did not meet the deadline that you agreed to." (6) Keep criticism to a minimum. (7)Agree to specific goals and a follow-up meeting. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 08-07 Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. Topic: Giving Performance Feedback 8-72 Chapter 08 - Managing Employees' Performance 99. (p. 246-248) Summarize the different ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. The most effective way to improve performance varies according to the employee's ability and motivation. For an employee who is motivated but lacks ability, the manager should provide coaching and training, give detailed feedback about performance, and consider restructuring the job. For an employee who has the ability but lacks motivation, the manager should investigate whether outside problems are a distraction and if so, refer the employee for counseling. If the problem has to do with the employee's not feeling appreciated or rewarded, the manager should try to deliver more praise and evaluate whether additional pay and other rewards are appropriate. For an employee lacking both ability and motivation, the manager should consider whether the employee is a good fit for the position. Specific feedback or withholding rewards may spur improvement, or the employee may have to be demoted or terminated. Solid employees who are high in ability and motivation may be able to contribute even more if the manager provides appropriate direct feedback, rewards, and opportunities for development. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-08 Summarize ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. Topic: Finding Solutions to Performance Problems 100. (p. 249) Name at least five actions a company could take to ensure it has a legally defensible performance management system. (1) The system should be based on valid job analyses, with the requirements clearly communicated to employees. (2) Performance management should evaluate behaviors or results, not traits. (3) The organization should use multiple raters and train raters in how to use the system. (4) The organization should provide for a review of all performance ratings by upper-level managers and set up a system for employees to appeal when they believe they were evaluated unfairly. (5) Along with feedback, the system should include a process for coaching or training employees to help them improve, rather than simply dismissing poor performers. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 08-09 Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. Topic: Legal Requirements for Performance Management 8-73

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Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 09 - Developing Employees for Future SuccessChapter 09Developing Employees for Future SuccessTrue / False Questions1. Training focuses on improving employees' performance in their current jobs, whiledevelopment is about preparing employees fo
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 10 - Separating and Retaining EmployeesChapter 10Separating and Retaining EmployeesTrue / False Questions1. Generally, organizations try to avoid the need for involuntary turnover, but acceptvoluntary turnover as beyond their control and as a
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay StructureChapter 11Establishing a Pay StructureTrue / False Questions1. Pay level is the average amount, including wages, salaries, and bonuses, the organizationpays for a particular job.True False2. An organization'
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 12 - Recognizing Employee Contributions with PayChapter 12Recognizing Employee Contributions with PayTrue / False Questions1. Incentive pay is influential because the amount paid is linked to certain predefinedbehaviors or outcomes.True Fals
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 13 - Providing Employee BenefitsChapter 13Providing Employee BenefitsTrue / False Questions1. Since benefits packages are more complex than pay structures, they are harder foremployees to understand and appreciate.True False2. The addition
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 14 - Collective Bargaining and Labor RelationsChapter 14Collective Bargaining and Labor RelationsTrue / False Questions1. A craft union's bargaining power depends greatly on the control it can exercise over thesupply of its workers.True Fals
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 15 - Managing Human Resources GloballyChapter 15Managing Human Resources GloballyTrue / False Questions1. The trends and arrangements that encourage international trade also increase and changethe demands on human resource management.True Fa
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 16 - Creating and Maintaining High-Performance OrganizationsChapter 16Creating and Maintaining High-Performance OrganizationsTrue / False Questions1. According to research, organizations that introduce integrated high-performance workpractice
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 01 - Human Resources in a Globally Competitive Business EnvironmentChapter 01Human Resources in a Globally Competitive Business EnvironmentTrue / False Questions1. The focus for the 21st century organization is far more likely to look like a w
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 02 - The Financial Impact of Human Resource Management ActivitiesChapter 02The Financial Impact of Human Resource Management ActivitiesTrue / False Questions1. The firm's strategy and goals must guide the work of each business unit and of that
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 03 - The Legal Context of Employment DecisionsChapter 03The Legal Context of Employment DecisionsTrue / False Questions1. As a society, we espouse equality of opportunity, rather than equality of outcomes.True False2. Civil rights laws preci
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 04 - Diversity at WorkChapter 04Diversity at WorkTrue / False Questions1. The demographics of the United States are changing so dramatically that over the comingdecades it will be impossible for employers to fill their ranks with members of t
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 05 - Planning for PeopleChapter 05Planning for PeopleTrue / False Questions1. A vision statement differs from a mission statement in that it includes both the purpose ofthe company as well as the basis of competition and competitive advantage
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 06 - RecruitingChapter 06RecruitingTrue / False Questions1. Recruitment is a form of business competition, and it is fiercely competitive.True False2. Today managers rely less on application forms, reference checks, and interviews at theini
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 07 - StaffingChapter 07StaffingTrue / False Questions1. The most admired companies live their cultures every day, and they go out of their ways tocommunicate it to both current employees as well as to prospective new hires.True False2. Ther
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 08 - Workplace TrainingChapter 08Workplace TrainingTrue / False Questions1. Traditionally, lower-level employees were "trained," while higher-level employees were"developed."True False2. Organizations sometimes place too much emphasis on th
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 09 - Performance ManagementChapter 09Performance ManagementTrue / False Questions1. Performance management is a kind of compass that indicates a person's actual direction aswell as a person's desired direction.True False2. Most managers und
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 10 - Managing CareersChapter 10Managing CareersTrue / False Questions1. Career planning is important because the consequences of career success or failure arelinked closely to each individual's self-concept, identity, and satisfaction with ca
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 11 - Pay and Incentive SystemsChapter 11Pay and Incentive SystemsTrue / False Questions1. The gap between a CEO's pay and the wages of employees has narrowed in the UnitedStates.True False2. To cover its labor costs and other expenses, a co
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 12 - Indirect Compensation: Employee Benefit PlansChapter 12Indirect Compensation: Employee Benefit PlansTrue / False Questions1. Managers need to think carefully about what they wish to accomplish by means of theirbenefit programs.True Fals
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 13 - Union Representation and Collective BargainingChapter 13Union Representation and Collective BargainingTrue / False Questions1. Workers will vote against unions if they feel unions abuse their power by calling strikes orhaving fat-cat lea
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 14 - Procedural Justice and Ethics in Employee RelationsChapter 14Procedural Justice and Ethics in Employee RelationsTrue / False Questions1. Employee relations include all the practices that implement the philosophy and policy of anorganizat
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 15 - Safety, Health and Employee Assistance ProgramsChapter 15Safety, Health and Employee Assistance ProgramsTrue / False Questions1. In the United States, the number of workers dying on the job each day has been increasingsteadily over the p
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 16 - International Dimensions of Human Resource ManagementChapter 16International Dimensions of Human Resource ManagementTrue / False Questions1. There is a growing fear on the part of many people that globalization benefits bigcompanies inst
Claremont Colleges - WGS - 101
Women StudiesResearch ProjectApril 11, 2011AbortionAbortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetusor embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death .In todays society abortion is a bigissue. Some people
Claremont Colleges - BUS - 101
April 4, 2011Intro to BusinessCase Study # 11. In this case marketing tries to figure out a way to put Walmart Back on top. Themarketing company decided to add low-priced organic foods to their repertoire. Theylaunched a green business initiative, wh
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
October 10, 2012Biology of Cancer Extra CreditNotch:Ligand/Receptor: NotchL, Delta1,2,3, and Jagged1,2Main Proteins: Notch1,2,3,4 End Effect: two proteolytic cuts in Notch -frees cytoplasm fragment-translocates tonucleus-becomes part of transcriptio
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Midterm Exam 1Practice examName:_Note: all answers are worth 2 points each unless otherwise noted. There is only onecorrect answer for each question.1.A carbon atom contains six protons and six neutrons.A.What are its atomic number an
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Midterm Exam 2Practice exam 2Name:_Note: all answers are worth 2 points each unless otherwise noted.1.If a cell were to replicate itself three (3) times, what percentage of the total DNApresent would be comprised of the original DNA?a.
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chapter Two Friday Night LightsFunctions Definition Purpose social useCollective effervescence shared identity in a group experienceemotion, togetherness, cohesionRituals of SolidarityBoundaries worlds marked by time, space side of stadium- gangter
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Iron (II) in Acid SolutionChem II LabTuesday March 27, 2012Purpose:The purpose of this lab was to determine the activation energy (Ea) required for thereaction of ferroin with a strong acid.Procedure:For this lab my partner and I used a spectrophot
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
NAME_LL, Ll = wild type growth habitll = lazyZZ, Zz = wild type leaf colorzz = zebra; green and white stripes1. In corn, a gene named lazy controls growth habit. Plants homozygous for the mutant allele flop over and growalong the ground. Another gen
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chapter23.Whatevidencepersuadesusthatacancerarisesfromthenativetissuesofanindividualratherthan invadingthebodyfromoutsideandthusbeingofforeignorigin?Alltissuesinthebodyarecomposedofcellsandcellproducts.Thecellswerediscoveredtocomefrom preexistingcells
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
March 14, 2011Womens StudiesDr. CrespoFeminismFeminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on andmotivated by the experiences of the women, while generally providing a critique of socialrelations, many proponents, and i
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Final Exam QuestionsMay 1, 2011Question 2:Women today and women 50 years ago are very different. Fifty years ago woman did nothave the rights that we currently posses now. Today the spread of global womens organizationsand the impact of womens contri
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
NAME _1. In the box below, diagram the chemical structure of the tri-peptide Aspartic Acid - Lysine Serine. Show the complete structure of each R group. Label the amino end and the carboxyl end.Circle the peptide bonds.2. Rate the hydrophobicity of eac
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
WarnsingGeography 100.06Professor OcchipintiNovember 13, 2010Devastation In 2005There are five different categories of hurricanes, but the one that touched our hearts in2005 was a category 3, Hurricane Katrina. A category 3 hurricane can have winds
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Purpose:The purpose of this lab was to determine the molecular weight of urea.Procedure:Before starting the procedures an ice bath was made and the temperature was dropped to 0C. 10mL was added to a test tube and then a thermometer was placed inside.
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
February 1, 2012Lab Report #1Table 1. Length-weight of fish collected at Kahle Lake by PA Fish and Boat CommissionIn this Scatter plot there were two outliers from the data that was collected. This couldhave happened due to the lack of food and also t
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Sampling a Hill of BeansLab Report #5Discussion:In this lab we observed a small sample of beans, 5, and a large sample of beans, 25.Information such as the weight of beans were recorded and placed in data tables. From there thesample means, standard
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chemical EcologyMarch 7, 2012Introduction:Prey use many defenses against their predators and predators can also use the samedefenses when trying to get to their prey. Morphology is a trait that many prey use against theirpredator. This term can be se
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Forest SuccessionMarch 28, 2012Introduction:In the state of Pennsylvania, one of the most obvious sights is all the existing forests. Alot of the forests in this state can be defined as second or third growth forests meaning that thereis an old growt
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Table I. Life table of males born pre-1880 Clarion County Cemetery Mortality record wherex=age recorded, N(x)=number of individuals at age x, d(x)= number of deaths in age x, q(x)=probability of individuals that die in age x[dx/Nx] per five years, and l
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Forest SuccessionApril 4thTable 1. Parameters assessing the structure of Old Growth Forests and Second GrowthForestsTotal Density (#/ha)Stand Basal Area (mTotal CWD (m3Mean log volume (mTable 2. Species composition of forest of Relative Density an
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Species Area Relationships4/11/2012Figure 1: Relationship of accumulated number of species per each m2 plot in thegrass and forest.Figure 2: Comparing number of species in grass and forest with trendline andequation.Results:Species accumulation is
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Assessing the Effects of Acid Mine Drainageon Aquatic Communities4/18/2012Introduction:Many miles of streams in Pennsylvania are fishless due to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD).AMD begins when water percolates through the broken up bedrock in the ground tha
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Teen InfluenceMass Media and SocietyDr. WashingtonDecember 15, 2010For this paper I decided to write about how shows about pregnant teenagers, which themedia airs on television, can have a positive and a negative influence on young teens. A perfectT
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Professor SmithMGMT 120.01April 25, 2011After reading the book the Millionaire Next Door, I found it to be very helpful. I realizedthat I am like most Americans and will not become a millionaire unless I change my ways. I maymake a decent amount of m
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chemistry Lab IIChemical Equilibrium: Le Chateliers Principle"Write an equation for the equilibrium between aqueous Fe3+, SCN-, (as reactants), and[FeSCN]2+ (as the product)." Just write the net ionic equation (don't include the spectatorions).Fe3+ (
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
W5 Pre-Lab Assignment: Determining MW using FP Depression1. Molality (m)2. Calculate the freezing point of a 2.6m aqueous sucrose solution:Tf = mKfTf =2.6m 1.86C/mTf = 4.84CFreezing point = 0.00C 4.84C= -4.84C
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Problem set 6Spring 20121. (True/False). The membranes that partition the cell into functionally distinctcompartments are impermeable. Explain your answer.- This statement is false. The membranes that partition the cell into functionally
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Spring 2012Problem set 11. If an uncatalyzed reaction occurs at the rate 1 event per century and if an enzymespeeds up the rate by a factor of 1014, how long in seconds does it take the enzyme tocatalyze one event?The enzyme catalyzes ev
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Biol 203 Cell Biology Problem Set 21. . DNA isolated from the bacterial virus M13 contains 25% A, 33% T, 22% C, and20% G. Do these result strike you as peculiar? Why or why not? How might youexplain these results?In all samples of double-stranded DNA,
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell BiologyProblem set 31. What, if anything, is wrong with the following statement: Both germ-cell DNAstability and somatic-cell DNA stability are essential for the survival of the species.Explain your answer.-True both germ-cell DNA stability and
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Biol203 Cell Biology Problem Set 41. Which of the following mutational changes would you predict to be the mostdeleterious to gene function? Explain your answer.1. Insertion of a single nucleotide near the end of the coding sequence.2. Removal of a si
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Biol 203 Cell Biology Problem Set 51. (True/False).The differences in the patterns of proteins produced in differentspecialized cell types are accurately reflected in the patterns of expressed mRNAs andmRNAs only. Explain your answer.- The statement a
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Mass Media and SocietyDecember 6, 20101. Conspicuous consumption is when people buy items to impress others and also to flauntthat they have money. An example of something a rich person may buy would beelectronics. A person may buy a bigger flat scree
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Quiz 1Chemical bonds are composed up of two different types or categorieshydrogen and covalent bondsVan Der Waals and non-covalent bondscovalent and non-covalentnon-covalent and hydrogennone of the aboveThe atomic weight of any atom or the molecula
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Quiz 2DNA is composed of a base, a _, and a phosphate group.6 carbon sugar6 carbon sugar reduced by one hydroxyl group5 carbon sugar5 carbon sugar reduced by one hydroxyl groupNone of the aboveThe complementary base pairing can only be accomplished
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
1. The protein(s) that initially open the replication bubble in eukaryotes to allowreplication to initiate are called.a. helicaseb. topoisomerase Ic. topoisomerase IId. ARSe. ORC2. SSBs role in replication isa. prevent hairpin formation ssDNA (sin
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
1.The TATA box is to the TBP as is thea. trans acting element is to a cis acting elementb. sigma factor is to the -10 to -35 sequencec. snRNA is to the spliceasomed. the spliceasome is to snRNAe. -10 to -35 sequence is to the sigma factor2.The wob