Chap011
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Chap011

Course Number: MGMT 2021, Spring 2012

College/University: Edison State College

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Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure Chapter 11 Establishing a Pay Structure True / False Questions 1. Pay level is the average amount, including wages, salaries, and bonuses, the organization pays for a particular job. True False 2. An organization's pay structure and pay levels are policies of the organization, rather than the amount a particular employee earns. True False 3. Equal-pay-for-equal-work...

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11 Chapter - Establishing a Pay Structure Chapter 11 Establishing a Pay Structure True / False Questions 1. Pay level is the average amount, including wages, salaries, and bonuses, the organization pays for a particular job. True False 2. An organization's pay structure and pay levels are policies of the organization, rather than the amount a particular employee earns. True False 3. Equal-pay-for-equal-work rules have resulted in pay equity for men and women, whites and minorities, and other groups within the United States. True False 4. States may enact their own minimum wage rates, in which case employers must pay whichever rate is higherthe federal or state. True False 5. Paying a salary does not necessarily mean a job is exempt. True False 6. Under the FLSA, children aged 14 and 15 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce. True False 7. The FLSA requires federal contractors to pay local or area prevailing wage rates. True False 11-1 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 8. An important influence on price is the cost to produce the goods and services for sale. True False 9. Product markets place an upper limit on the pay organizations can offer employees. True False 10. When labor costs are a large part of an organization's total costs and when its customers place great importance on price, the organization is most likely to select an above-market pay level. True False 11. In terms of compensation, benchmarking involves the use of market surveys. True False 12. Employees usually evaluate their pay relative to the pay of employees with similar job descriptions in rival firms. True False 13. Under a two-tier wage plan, employees doing the same job are paid two different rates, depending on their background and training. True False 14. In the past, when gathering wage and salary data was inexpensive, employers had more leeway in negotiating with individual employees. True False 11-2 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 15. Compensable factors are job characteristics that an organization values and chooses to pay for. True False 16. Key jobs have relatively stable content and are common to many organizations. True False 17. When job structure and market data conflict, the best approach to resolve the two would be for organizations to base pay entirely on market forces. True False 18. Pay grades allow rates of pay for individual jobs to be more precisely matched to market rates and the organization's job structure. True False 19. A survey of businesses in the United States found that almost 50 percent have a policy of providing pay differentials based on demographics. True False 20. Broad bands increase the opportunities for promoting employees. True False 21. Skill-based pay systems support efforts to empower employees and enrich jobs. True False 22. A compa-ratio of 1 suggests that actual pay is not consistent with the pay policy. True False 11-3 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 23. An organization's policies regarding pay structure greatly influence the general public's opinions about the organization. True False 24. Military pay often exceeds what service members would earn in their civilian jobs. True False 25. When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades. True False Multiple Choice Questions 26. An organization's job structure consists of: A. the relative pay for different jobs within the organization. B. the average amount an organization pays for a particular job. C. the characteristics of jobs that the organization values and chooses to pay for. D. regular pay, overtime pay, and bonuses. E. the standard amount that employers must pay under federal and state law. 27. An organization's job structure and pay levels: A. reflect the organizations knowledge about inflationary pressures. B. reflect the decisions about how much to pay and the absolute value of each. C. provide the total amount an organization pays for a particular job. D. are annual earnings of key employees in the organization. E. are policies of the organization. 11-4 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 28. Which of the following would act as a market force during the development of a pay structure? A. Restrictions on child labor B. Meeting principles of fairness C. Providing equal pay for equal work D. Paying atleast the minimum wage established by law E. Obtaining human resources in labor markets 29. Identify the legal requirements during the development of a pay structure by an organization. A. Product markets B. High-quality workforce C. Equity and fairness D. Overtime pay E. Pay differentials 30. Which of the following statements is true about Equal Employment Opportunity laws? A. These laws guarantee equal pay for whites and minorities. B. The goal of these laws is for employers to provide equal pay for equal work. C. Job descriptions and job structures cannot help organizations demonstrate that they are upholding these laws. D. These laws guarantee equal pay for men and women. E. Under these laws, employers cannot tie base differences in pay to business-related considerations. 31. From an economic standpoint, identify the drawback of a comparable-worth policy. A. A free-market economy assumes people will not take differences in pay into account when they choose a career. B. Employees may conclude that pay rates are unfair. C. The pay policy line reflects the pay structure in the market, which does not always match rates in the organization. D. Grouping jobs will result in rates of pay for individual jobs that do not precisely match the levels specified by the market and the organization's job structure. E. Raising pay for some jobs places the employer at a disadvantage relative to employers that pay the market rate. 11-5 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 32. Comparable-worth is a public policy that: A. advocates remedies for any undervaluation of jobs based on market-pay data. B. is designed to reduce the wage gap between women and people of color. C. has been consistently upheld in court rulings. D. advocates the use of job evaluation to replace the market in pay-setting. E. applies only to those employers in certain industries. 33. This Act permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days. Identify this act. A. FLSA B. ADA C. FMLA D. ERISA E. ADEA 34. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) includes provisions for: A. personal finance. B. minimum wage. C. wage discrimination. D. environmental hazards. E. retirement. 35. A _____ wage is essentially a minimum wage based on the cost of living in a particular region. A. maximum B. family C. basic needs D. fair E. living 11-6 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 36. An employee who earns $10 an hour and receives a weekly attendance award of $20 works 50 hours this week (Overtime pay is required, whether or not the employer specifically asked or expected the employee to work more than 40 hours). His/her total compensation for the week will be: A. $550.00. B. $557.50. C. $570.00. D. $577.50. E. $505.00. 37. Which of the following statements is true about the FLSA requirements of employee overtime payment? A. The overtime rate is one and a half times the employee's hourly rate, excluding any bonuses or piece-rate payments. B. Time worked includes only hours spent on production or sales, but not on activities such as attending required classes, cleaning up the work site, etc. C. Overtime must be paid whether or not the employer specifically asked or expected the employee to work the extra hours. D. Employers must pay higher wages for work that goes beyond 48 hours per week. E. Most workers paid on an hourly basis are exempt and therefore subject to the laws governing overtime pay. 38. Which of the following is true about the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)? A. The overtime rate under the FLSA is two and a half times the employee's hourly rate. B. It requires federal contractors to pay "prevailing wage rates." C. It permits a subminimum training wage equal to 95 percent of the minimum wage. D. Nonexempt employees are covered by FLSA and include most hourly workers. E. Under the FLSA, executive, professional, and administrative employees are considered nonexempt employees. 11-7 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 39. Under the FLSA, executive, professional, administrative, and highly compensated _____ employees are considered exempt employees. A. green-collar B. blue-collar C. white-collar D. grey-collar E. black-collar 40. Exempt status under the FLSA depends on the employee's: A. job responsibilities and salary. B. basis of pay (hourly, piecework, or salaried). C. job title. D. date of hire. E. job qualifications. 41. _____ means that the employee is paid a given amount regardless of the number of hours worked or quality of the work. A. Salary level B. Nonexempt employee C. Pay policy line D. Piecework rate E. Salary basis 42. In terms of the FLSA, which of the following statements is true about child labor? A. Children aged 18 and 19 may not be employed in hazardous occupations defined by the Department of Labor. B. Children aged 14 and 15 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce. C. The FLSA's restrictions on the use of child labor apply to children younger than 18. D. A child under age 14 may work only outside school hours, in jobs defined as nonhazardous, and for limited time periods. E. All the states have laws requiring working papers or work permits for minors. 11-8 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 43. This U.S. legislation, along with the 1931 Davis-Bacon Act, legislated that federal contractors pay employees no less than the prevailing wage within the work area. Identify this act. A. The FLSA B. The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act C. The Equal Pay Act D. The Employment Standards Act E. The Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act 44. Under the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 and the Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act of 1936, federal contractors must pay their employees at rates at least equal to the prevailing wages in the area. The calculation of prevailing rates must be based on _____ percent of the local labor force. A. 2 B. 5 C. 10 D. 20 E. 30 45. The Davis-Bacon Act of 1931: A. permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days. B. requires that employers pay higher wages for overtime, defined as hours worked beyond 40 hours per week. C. requires general contractors performing services on prime contracts in excess of $2,500 to pay service employees in various classes no less than the wage rates found prevailing in the locality. D. covers all government contractors receiving $10,000 or more in federal funds. E. covers construction contractors that receive more than $2,000 in federal money. 11-9 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 46. The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936: A. permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days. B. requires that employers pay higher wages for overtime, defined as hours worked beyond 40 hours per week. C. covers construction contractors that receive more than $2,000 in federal money. D. requires general contractors performing services on prime contracts in excess of $2,500 to pay service employees in various classes no less than the wage rates found prevailing in the locality. E. covers all government contractors receiving $10,000 or more in federal funds. 47. Decisions about how to respond to the economic forces of product markets and labor markets limit an organization's choices about: A. pay rates. B. pay structure. C. pay differentials. D. pay grades. E. pay ranges. 48. Which of the following is true about product-market competition? A. Organizations compete on multiple dimensions, e.g., quality, service, and price. B. Product-market considerations are of particular concern to a company when its customers place great importance on product rather than price. C. Product-market competition is the degree to which an organization must pay to compete against other companies that hire similar employees. D. Product markets place a lower limit on the pay an organization will offer its employees. E. The organizations in a product market are competing to serve different types of customers. 11-10 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 49. Which of the following is true about labor markets? A. An organization's labor market typically includes only competing companies with like products. B. Competition for labor establishes the minimum an organization must pay to hire an employee for a particular job. C. Labor-market competition serves to determine the relative worth of jobs within an organization. D. Cost-of-living considerations have little impact on labor-market rates. E. An organization's competitors in labor markets typically include only companies in other industries that hire similar employees. 50. Organizations under pressure to cut labor costs may respond by: A. retaining staff levels. B. hiking pay levels. C. postponing hiring decisions. D. providing employees more benefits. E. increasing staff levels. 51. The federal government tracks trends in the nation's cost of living with a measure known as the: A. Consumer Price Index. B. Living-Wage Index. C. Gross National Product. D. Inflation Index. E. Employment Cost Index. 52. According to the text, identify the occupational categories that are the nation's top earners, in terms of median annual earnings. A. Health care support workers B. Architects and engineers C. Production occupations D. Sales and related occupations E. Installation, maintenance, and repair operations 11-11 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 53. According to the text, identify the occupational categories that are the nation's lowestplaced earners, in terms of median annual earnings. A. Architects and engineers B. Installation, maintenance, and repair operations C. Health care support workers D. Production occupations E. Computer and mathematical operations 54. Following and studying changes in the _____ can help employers prepare for changes in the demands of the labor market. A. Living-Wage Index B. Consumer Price Index C. Gross National Product D. Inflation Index E. Employment Cost Index 55. Economic theory holds that the most profitable pay level, all things being equal, would be: A. below the market rate. B. at the market rate. C. above the market rate. D. anywhere within the market-rate range. E. the pay level that is lower than that of the lowest paying organization. 56. A company that views employees as resources is most likely to use a(n) _____ pay rate. A. at-market B. below-market C. above-market D. variable-market E. flexible-market 11-12 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 57. "Shrinkage" is also referred to as: A. negligence. B. vicarious liability. C. inventory control. D. delayering. E. employee theft. 58. The procedure through which an organization compares its own practices to those of successful competitors is known as: A. redlining. B. gentrifying. C. benchmarking. D. profiling. E. delayering. 59. The National Compensation Survey is an ongoing activity of the: A. Bureau of Labor Statistics. B. Society for Human Resource Management. C. American Management Association. D. AFL-CIO. E. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 60. According to ____, people measure outcomes such as pay in terms of their inputs. A. pay policy line B. equity theory C. distributive justice theory D. progressive justice theory E. economic theory 11-13 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 61. Research on the effects of two-tier wage plans found that: A. lower-paid employees were less satisfied on average than higher-paid employees due to the equity theory. B. lower-paid employees were more satisfied on average than higher-paid employees since they made comparisons with lower-paying alternatives. C. lower-paid employees expected over a period of time to be promoted into the second tier. D. the equity theory did not come into play for either group, with neither group experiencing more or less job satisfaction than the other. E. both existing employees and new employees have a similar pay rate. 62. If employees conclude that they are underrewarded, they are likely to make up the difference in all of the following ways EXCEPT: A. reducing their inputs. B. refusing to cooperate. C. finding a way to reduce their outcomes. D. withdrawing by leaving the organization. E. putting forth less effort. 63. _____ play the most significant role in communication because they interact with their employees each day. A. Executives B. Peers C. Subordinates D. HR professionals E. Managers 64. The administrative procedure for measuring the relative worth of an organization's jobs is: A. job analysis. B. job determination. C. job evaluation. D. job identification. E. job description. 11-14 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 65. Compensable factors: A. are generally statistically derived. B. are the characteristics of jobs that a firm values and chooses to pay for. C. usually vary significantly across job evaluation systems. D. describe all aspects of the jobs being evaluated. E. are common elements of similar jobs on the basis of which remuneration of the employees is computed. 66. An example of a typical compensable factor is: A. social status. B. education. C. longevity. D. gender. E. religion. 67. _____ provide the basis for decisions about relative internal worth. A. Point manuals B. Pay structures C. Job evaluations D. Pay rates E. Implementation and training 68. Identify the correct statement about key jobs. A. They are administrative procedures for measuring the relative worth of the organization's jobs. B. These are jobs that have highly unstable content. C. These are jobs that are unique among organizations and are rare to obtain. D. Defining key jobs has no impact on the process of creating a pay structure. E. A job with a higher evaluation score than a particular key job would receive higher pay than that key job. 11-15 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 69. A rate of pay for each unit produced is known as: A. gross pay. B. salary. C. hourly wage. D. piecework rate. E. net pay. 70. A graphed line showing the mathematical relationship between job evaluation points and pay rate is termed as a(n): A. Fanno line. B. pay policy line. C. Rayleigh line. D. aggregate line. E. comprehensive line. 71. A pay-policy line: A. is developed after pay grades have been established. B. can be generated using a statistical procedure called regression analysis. C. requires market-pay-rate data on all jobs in the organization. D. reflects the pay structure in the company as well as the market. E. reflects the pay structure in the market, which always matches rates in the organization. 72. A drawback of pay rates is that they: A. increase the administrative burden of managing the compensation system. B. result in decreased promotional opportunities for employees. C. result in some jobs being underpaid and others being overpaid. D. increase costs of surveying the market. E. grouping jobs will result in rates of pay for individual jobs that precisely match the levels specified by the market. 11-16 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 73. _____ are sets of jobs having similar worth or content, grouped together to establish rates of pay. A. Pay scales B. Pay ranges C. Pay differentials D. Pay levels E. Pay grades 74. Since organizations want some flexibility in setting the pay for individuals in accordance with the employees' qualifications and performance, they generally add _____ to their pay structures. A. pay grades B. pay ranges C. pay differentials D. cost-of-living increases E. compensation differentials 75. _____ are most common for white-collar jobs and for jobs that are not covered by union contracts. A. Pay ranges B. Pay grades C. Pay differentials D. Pay rates E. Pay ranks 76. Which of the following is true about pay ranges? A. Pay ranges are most common for blue-collar jobs and those covered by union contracts. B. Pay ranges are often widest for employees who are at higher levels in terms of job design points. C. Pay ranges generally are designed so that they do not overlap. D. The market rate or the pay-policy line generally serves as the midpoint for a range. E. The less overlap, the more flexibility in transferring employees among jobs. 11-17 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 77. Overlapping _____ give the organization more flexibility in transferring employees among jobs, because transfers need not always involve a change in pay. A. pay rates B. pay ranges C. pay policies D. pay differentials E. pay ranks 78. Assuming an organization wants to motivate employees through promotions, and assuming enough opportunities for promotions are available, the organization would want to: A. use pay differentials. B. use a skill-based pay system. C. implement a broad-band pay structure. D. limit the overlap from one pay range to the next. E. use pay compensating wage differentials. 79. When organizations adjust pay to reflect working conditions or local labor markets, such adjustments are called: A. bonuses. B. pay differentials. C. green-circle rates. D. rank-and-file adjustments. E. red-circle rates. 80. Which of the following is a recognized limitation of job-based pay structures? A. The ambiguous definition of a job's responsibilities can contribute to an attitude that some activities "are not in my job description," at the expense of inflexibility. B. Their focus on higher pay for higher status can work in favor of efforts of empowerment. C. They usually reward desired behaviors, particularly in a rapidly changing environment. D. Organizations may avoid change because it requires repeating the time-consuming process of creating job descriptions and related paperwork. E. They are difficult to explain to employees. 11-18 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 81. When an organization reduces the number of levels in its job structure, it is engaging in: A. outsourcing. B. delayering. C. rightsizing. D. benchmarking. E. whistle-blowing. 82. Organizations give managers more flexibility in making assignments and awarding pay increases by combining more assignments into a single layer, which is often termed as: A. outsourcing. B. broad banding. C. rightsizing. D. benchmarking. E. downsizing. 83. Skill-based pay systems support all of the following EXCEPT: A. employee empowerment and enriched jobs. B. a climate of learning and adaptability. C. organizational flexibility. D. higher pay for higher status, which can work against an effort at empowerment. E. organizational innovativeness. 84. Which of the following is a potential disadvantage of skill-based pay systems? A. Lesser paperwork B. Difficulty in obtaining market data C. Lack of implementation of new skills D. Employees "topping off" E. Discouraged job enrichment 11-19 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 85. _____ does not necessarily provide an alternative to the bureaucracy and paperwork of traditional pay structures, because it requires records related to skills, training, and knowledge acquired. A. Benchmarking B. Compa-ratio C. Delayering D. Skill-based pay E. Broad banding 86. The compa-ratio: A. measures the degree to which actual pay is consistent with the pay policy. B. is defined as average pay for the grade divided by the minimum pay for the grade. C. can range from 0 to 100 percent. D. uses data from market-pay surveys. E. measures the degree to which new skills learnt are consistent with the increases in pay. 87. Assuming that the pay structure is well planned to support the organization's goals, the compa-ratios should be close to: A. 0.5. B. 1.5. C. 2. D. 1. E. 0. 88. The _____ requires employers to make jobs available to their workers when they return after fulfilling military duties for up to five years. A. USERRA B. FLSA C. EEOA D. NLRB E. FMLA 11-20 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 89. Top executive pay in the United States: A. is directly related to company performance. B. is justified because of the high pay of many athletes and entertainers. C. is among the highest in the world. D. is roughly twice that of CEOs in Japan. E. is irrelevant to pay structure in terms of equity theory. 90. When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades, surpassing _____ at large U.S. corporations in 2007. A. 100:1 B. 200:1 C. 500:1 D. 700:1 E. 400:1 Essay Questions 91. Define job structure, pay level, and pay structure. 92. Discuss the three major provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). 11-21 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 93. Write a short note on benchmarking. 94. Describe how employees judge the fairness of a pay structure. 95. Define hourly wage, piecework rate, and salary. 96. Define pay grades and pay ranges. 11-22 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 97. What are some potential limitations of using a job-based pay structure? 98. What is skill-based pay? Summarize its advantages and disadvantages. 99. Discuss how to ensure that pay is actually in line with the pay structure via a compa-ratio. 100. Why has there been widespread criticism of executive pay in recent years? 11-23 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure Chapter 11 Establishing a Pay Structure Answer Key True / False Questions 1. (p. 327) Pay level is the average amount, including wages, salaries, and bonuses, the organization pays for a particular job. TRUE Pay level is the average amount (including wages, salaries, and bonuses) the organization pays for a particular job. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Topic: Decisions about Pay 2. (p. 327) An organization's pay structure and pay levels are policies of the organization, rather than the amount a particular employee earns. TRUE The organization's job structure and pay levels are policies of the organization, rather than the amount a particular employee earns. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Topic: Decisions about Pay 11-24 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 3. (p. 329) Equal-pay-for-equal-work rules have resulted in pay equity for men and women, whites and minorities, and other groups within the United States. FALSE The laws governing Equal Employment Opportunity do not guarantee equal pay for men and women, whites and minorities, or any other groups, because so many legitimate factors, from education to choice of occupation, affect a person's earnings. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Equal Employment Opportunity 4. (p. 330) States may enact their own minimum wage rates, in which case employers must pay whichever rate is higherthe federal or state. TRUE At the federal level, the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act establishes a minimum wage that is $7.25 per hour as of July 2009, The FLSA also permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days, This subminimum wage is approximately 85 percent of the minimum wage, Some states have laws specifying minimum wages; in these states, employers must pay whichever rate is higher. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Minimum Wage 5. (p. 331) Paying a salary does not necessarily mean a job is exempt. TRUE Most workers paid on an hourly basis are nonexempt and therefore subject to the laws governing overtime pay, However, paying a salary does not necessarily mean a job is exempt. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 11-25 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 6. (p. 332) Under the FLSA, children aged 14 and 15 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce. FALSE Under the FLSA, children aged 14 and 15 may work only outside school hours, in jobs defined as nonhazardous, and for limited time periods, A child under age 14 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce, except work performed in a nonhazardous job for a business entirely owned by the child's parent or guardian. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Child Labor 7. (p. 332) The FLSA requires federal contractors to pay local or area prevailing wage rates. FALSE Under the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 and the Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act of 1936, federal contractors must pay their employees at rates at least equal to the prevailing wages in the area. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Prevailing Wages 8. (p. 332) An important influence on price is the cost to produce the goods and services for sale. TRUE To succeed in their product markets, organizations must be able to sell their goods and services at a quantity and price that will bring them a sufficient profit, They may try to win customers by being superior in a number of areas, including quality, customer service, and price, An important influence on price is the cost to produce the goods and services for sale. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Product Markets 11-26 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 9. (p. 333) Product markets place an upper limit on the pay organizations can offer employees. TRUE Product markets place an upper limit on the pay an organization will offer, This upper limit is most important when labor costs are a large part of an organization's total costs and when the organization's customers place great importance on price. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Product Markets 10. (p. 333) When labor costs are a large part of an organization's total costs and when its customers place great importance on price, the organization is most likely to select an abovemarket pay level. FALSE Product markets place an upper limit on the pay an organization will offer, This upper limit is most important when labor costs are a large part of an organization's total costs and when the organization's customers place great importance on price, Organizations that want to lure topquality employees by offering generous salaries therefore have to find ways to automate routine activities (so that labor is a smaller part of total costs) or to persuade customers that high quality is worth a premium price. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Product Markets 11-27 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 11. (p. 335) In terms of compensation, benchmarking involves the use of market surveys. FALSE In terms of compensation, benchmarking involves the use of pay surveys, These provide information about the going rates of pay at competitors in the organization's product and labor markets. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Gathering Information about Market Pay 12. (p. 336) Employees usually evaluate their pay relative to the pay of employees with similar job descriptions in rival firms. FALSE Employees evaluate their pay relative to the pay of other employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Judging Fairness 13. (p. 337) Under a two-tier wage plan, employees doing the same job are paid two different rates, depending on their background and training. FALSE In a two-tier wage system, existing employees continue on at their current (upper-tier) pay rate while new employees sign on for less pay (the lower tier). AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Judging Fairness 11-28 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 14. (p. 338) In the past, when gathering wage and salary data was inexpensive, employers had more leeway in negotiating with individual employees. FALSE In the past, when gathering wage and salary data was expensive and difficult, employers had more leeway in negotiating with individual employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Communicating Fairness 15. (p. 339) Compensable factors are job characteristics that an organization values and chooses to pay for. TRUE To conduct a job evaluation, the committee identifies each job's compensable factors, meaning the characteristics of a job that the organization values and chooses to pay for. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 16. (p. 340) Key jobs have relatively stable content and are common to many organizations. TRUE Key jobs are jobs that have relatively stable content and are common among many organizations, so it is possible to obtain survey data about what people earn in these jobs. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 11-29 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 17. (p. 341) When job structure and market data conflict, the best approach to resolve the two would be for organizations to base pay entirely on market forces. FALSE When job structure and market data conflict, organizations have to decide on a way to resolve the two, One approach is to stick to the job evaluations and pay according to the employees' worth to the organization, At the other extreme, the organization could base pay entirely on market forces, However, this approach has some practical drawbacks. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Rates 18. (p. 342) Pay grades allow rates of pay for individual jobs to be more precisely matched to market rates and the organization's job structure. FALSE A drawback of pay grades is that grouping jobs will result in rates of pay for individual jobs that do not precisely match the levels specified by the market and the organization's job structure. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Grades 19. (p. 343) A survey of businesses in the United States found that almost 50 percent have a policy of providing pay differentials based on demographics. FALSE A survey of businesses in the United States found that almost three-quarters have a policy of providing pay differentials based on geographic location. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Differentials 11-30 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 20. (p. 344) Broad bands increase the opportunities for promoting employees. FALSE Broad bands reduce the opportunities for promoting employees, so organizations that eliminate layers in their job descriptions must find other ways to reward employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 21. (p. 344) Skill-based pay systems support efforts to empower employees and enrich jobs. TRUE Skill-based pay also supports efforts to empower employees and enrich jobs because it encourages employees to add to their knowledge so they can make decisions in many areas. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 22. (p. 345) A compa-ratio of 1 suggests that actual pay is not consistent with the pay policy. FALSE Assuming the organization has pay grades, the organization would find a compa-ratio for each pay grade: the average paid to all employees in the pay grade divided by the midpoint for the pay grade, If the average equals the midpoint, the compa-ratio is 1, More often, the comparatio is somewhat above 1 (meaning the average pay is above the midpoint for the pay grade) or below 1 (meaning the average pay is below the midpoint). AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-07 Summarize how to ensure that pay is actually in line with the pay structure. Topic: Pay Structure: Putting It All Together 11-31 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 23. (p. 346) An organization's policies regarding pay structure greatly influence the general public's opinions about the organization. TRUE An organization's policies regarding pay structure greatly influence employees' and even the general public's opinions about the organization, Issues affecting pay structure therefore can hurt or help the organization's reputation and ability to recruit, motivate, and keep employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Current Issues Involving Pay Structure 24. (p. 346) Military pay often exceeds what service members would earn in their civilian jobs. FALSE The armed services pay service members during their time of duty, but military pay often falls short of what they would earn in their civilian jobs. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Pay during Military Duty 25. (p. 347) When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades. TRUE When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades, surpassing 500:1 at large U.S. corporations in 2007, That ratio is greater in the United States than in other developed nations and was higher in 2007 than in any period measured before then. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Pay for Executives 11-32 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure Multiple Choice Questions 26. (p. 327) An organization's job structure consists of: A. the relative pay for different jobs within the organization. B. the average amount an organization pays for a particular job. C. the characteristics of jobs that the organization values and chooses to pay for. D. regular pay, overtime pay, and bonuses. E. the standard amount that employers must pay under federal and state law. Job structure consists of the relative pay for different jobs within the organization, It establishes relative pay among different functions and different levels of responsibility. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Topic: Decisions about Pay 27. (p. 327) An organization's job structure and pay levels: A. reflect the organizations knowledge about inflationary pressures. B. reflect the decisions about how much to pay and the absolute value of each. C. provide the total amount an organization pays for a particular job. D. are annual earnings of key employees in the organization. E. are policies of the organization. The organization's job structure and pay levels are policies of the organization, rather than the amount a particular employee earns. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Topic: Decisions about Pay 11-33 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 28. (p. 327, 333) Which of the following would act as a market force during the development of a pay structure? A. Restrictions on child labor B. Meeting principles of fairness C. Providing equal pay for equal work D. Paying atleast the minimum wage established by law E. Obtaining human resources in labor markets Product markets and labor markets would act as market forces that impact the development of a pay structure. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Decisions about Pay, Labor Markets 29. (p. 328) Identify the legal requirements during the development of a pay structure by an organization. A. Product markets B. High-quality workforce C. Equity and fairness D. Overtime pay E. Pay differentials Overtime payment to employees is a legal requirement in the pay structure of an organization. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Topic: Decisions about Pay 11-34 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 30. (p. 329) Which of the following statements is true about Equal Employment Opportunity laws? A. These laws guarantee equal pay for whites and minorities. B. The goal of these laws is for employers to provide equal pay for equal work. C. Job descriptions and job structures cannot help organizations demonstrate that they are upholding these laws. D. These laws guarantee equal pay for men and women. E. Under these laws, employers cannot tie base differences in pay to business-related considerations. Under the laws governing Equal Employment Opportunity, employers may not base differences in pay on an employee's age, sex, race, or other protected status, Any differences in pay must instead be tied to such business-related considerations as job responsibilities or performance, The goal is for employers to provide equal pay for equal work. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Equal Employment Opportunity 31. (p. 329) From an economic standpoint, identify the drawback of a comparable-worth policy. A. A free-market economy assumes people will not take differences in pay into account when they choose a career. B. Employees may conclude that pay rates are unfair. C. The pay policy line reflects the pay structure in the market, which does not always match rates in the organization. D. Grouping jobs will result in rates of pay for individual jobs that do not precisely match the levels specified by the market and the organization's job structure. E. Raising pay for some jobs places the employer at a disadvantage relative to employers that pay the market rate. Comparable-worth policies are controversial, From an economic standpoint, the obvious drawback of such a policy is that raising pay for some jobs places the employer at an economic disadvantage relative to employers that pay the market rate, A free-market economy assumes people will take differences in pay into account when they choose a career. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Equal Employment Opportunity 11-35 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 32. (p. 329) Comparable-worth is a public policy that: A. advocates remedies for any undervaluation of jobs based on market-pay data. B. is designed to reduce the wage gap between women and people of color. C. has been consistently upheld in court rulings. D. advocates the use of job evaluation to replace the market in pay-setting. E. applies only to those employers in certain industries. The comparable worth policy uses job evaluation to establish the worth of an organization's jobs in terms of such criteria as their difficulty and their importance to the organization. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Equal Employment Opportunity 33. (p. 330) This Act permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days. Identify this act. A. FLSA B. ADA C. FMLA D. ERISA E. ADEA At the federal level, the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days, This subminimum wage is approximately 85 percent of the minimum wage. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Minimum Wage 11-36 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 34. (p. 330) The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) includes provisions for: A. personal finance. B. minimum wage. C. wage discrimination. D. environmental hazards. E. retirement. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) includes provisions for overtime pay, child labor, and prevailing wages. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Minimum Wage 35. (p. 330) A _____ wage is essentially a minimum wage based on the cost of living in a particular region. A. maximum B. family C. basic needs D. fair E. living From the standpoint of social policy, an issue related to the minimum wage is that it tends to be lower than the earnings required for a full-time worker to rise above the poverty level, A number of cities have therefore passed laws requiring a so-called living wage, essentially a minimum wage based on the cost of living in a particular region. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Minimum Wage 11-37 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 36. (p. 330) An employee who earns $10 an hour and receives a weekly attendance award of $20 works 50 hours this week (Overtime pay is required, whether or not the employer specifically asked or expected the employee to work more than 40 hours). His/her total compensation for the week will be: A. $550.00. B. $557.50. C. $570.00. D. $577.50. E. $505.00. The FLSA requires that employers pay higher wages for overtime, defined as hours worked beyond 40 hours per week, The overtime rate is one and a half times the employee's usual hourly rate, including any bonuses and piece-rate payments (amounts paid per item produced), The overtime rate applies to the hours worked beyond 40 in one week, Time worked includes not only hours spent on production or sales but also time on such activities as attending required classes, cleaning up the work site, or traveling between work sites, When employees are paid per unit produced or when they receive a monthly or quarterly bonus, those payments must be converted into wages per hour, so that the employer can include these amounts when figuring the correct overtime rate. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Analyze Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 11-38 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 37. (p. 330-331) Which of the following statements is true about the FLSA requirements of employee overtime payment? A. The overtime rate is one and a half times the employee's hourly rate, excluding any bonuses or piece-rate payments. B. Time worked includes only hours spent on production or sales, but not on activities such as attending required classes, cleaning up the work site, etc. C. Overtime must be paid whether or not the employer specifically asked or expected the employee to work the extra hours. D. Employers must pay higher wages for work that goes beyond 48 hours per week. E. Most workers paid on an hourly basis are exempt and therefore subject to the laws governing overtime pay. A requirement of the FLSA is that employers must pay higher wages for overtime, defined as hours worked beyond 40 hours per week, The overtime rate under the FLSA is one and a half times the employee's usual hourly rate, including any bonuses and piece-rate payments, The overtime rate applies to the hours worked beyond 40 in one week, Time worked includes not only hours spent on production or sales but also time on such activities as attending required classes, cleaning up the work site, or traveling between work sites, Most workers paid on an hourly basis are nonexempt and therefore subject to the laws governing overtime pay. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 11-39 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 38. (p. 331) Which of the following is true about the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)? A. The overtime rate under the FLSA two is and a half times the employee's hourly rate. B. It requires federal contractors to pay "prevailing wage rates." C. It permits a subminimum training wage equal to 95 percent of the minimum wage. D. Nonexempt employees are covered by FLSA and include most hourly workers. E. Under the FLSA, executive, professional, and administrative employees are considered nonexempt employees. The overtime rate under the FLSA is one and a half times the employee's usual hourly rate, including any bonuses and piece-rate payments, Most workers paid on an hourly basis are nonexempt and therefore subject to the laws governing overtime pay, Under the FLSA, executive, professional, administrative, and highly compensated white-collar employees are considered exempt employees, Under the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 and the Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act of 1936, federal contractors must pay their employees at rates at least equal to the prevailing wages in the area. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 39. (p. 331) Under the FLSA, executive, professional, administrative, and highly compensated _____ employees are considered exempt employees. A. green-collar B. blue-collar C. white-collar D. grey-collar E. black-collar Under the FLSA, executive, professional, administrative, and highly compensated whitecollar employees are considered exempt employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 11-40 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 40. (p. 331) Exempt status under the FLSA depends on the employee's: A. job responsibilities and salary. B. basis of pay (hourly, piecework, or salaried). C. job title. D. date of hire. E. job qualifications. Exempt status depends on the employee's job responsibilities, salary level, and "salary basis." AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 41. (p. 331) _____ means that the employee is paid a given amount regardless of the number of hours worked or quality of the work. A. Salary level B. Nonexempt employee C. Pay policy line D. Piecework rate E. Salary basis Paying an employee on a salary basis means the organization expects that this person can manage his or her own time to get the work done, so the employer may deduct from the employee's pay only in certain limited circumstances, such as disciplinary action or for unpaid leave for personal reasons. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Overtime Pay 11-41 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 42. (p. 331-332) In terms of the FLSA, which of the following statements is true about child labor? A. Children aged 18 and 19 may not be employed in hazardous occupations defined by the Department of Labor. B. Children aged 14 and 15 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce. C. The FLSA's restrictions on the use of child labor apply to children younger than 18. D. A child under age 14 may work only outside school hours, in jobs defined as nonhazardous, and for limited time periods. E. All the states have laws requiring working papers or work permits for minors. Under the FLSA, children aged 16 and 17 may not be employed in hazardous occupations defined by the Department of Labor, Children aged 14 and 15 may work only outside school hours, in jobs defined as nonhazardous, and for limited time periods, A child under age 14 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce, except work performed in a nonhazardous job for a business entirely owned by the child's parent or guardian, Many states have laws requiring working papers or work permits for minors. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Child Labor 43. (p. 332) This U.S. legislation, along with the 1931 Davis-Bacon Act, legislated that federal contractors pay employees no less than the prevailing wage within the work area. Identify this act. A. The FLSA B. The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act C. The Equal Pay Act D. The Employment Standards Act E. The Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act Two federal laws, the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 and the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936, govern pay policies of federal contractors, Under these laws, federal contractors must pay their employees at rates at least equal to the prevailing wages in the area. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Prevailing Wages 11-42 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 44. (p. 332) Under the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 and the Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act of 1936, federal contractors must pay their employees at rates at least equal to the prevailing wages in the area. The calculation of prevailing rates must be based on _____ percent of the local labor force. A. 2 B. 5 C. 10 D. 20 E. 30 Two federal laws, the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 and the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936, govern pay policies of federal contractors, Under these laws, federal contractors must pay their employees at rates at least equal to the prevailing wages in the area, The calculation of prevailing rates must be based on 30 percent of the local labor force. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Prevailing Wages 45. (p. 332) The Davis-Bacon Act of 1931: A. permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days. B. requires that employers pay higher wages for overtime, defined as hours worked beyond 40 hours per week. C. requires general contractors performing services on prime contracts in excess of $2,500 to pay service employees in various classes no less than the wage rates found prevailing in the locality. D. covers all government contractors receiving $10,000 or more in federal funds. E. covers construction contractors that receive more than $2,000 in federal money. Davis-Bacon covers construction contractors that receive more than $2,000 in federal money. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Prevailing Wages 11-43 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 46. (p. 332) The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936: A. permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days. B. requires that employers pay higher wages for overtime, defined as hours worked beyond 40 hours per week. C. covers construction contractors that receive more than $2,000 in federal money. D. requires general contractors performing services on prime contracts in excess of $2,500 to pay service employees in various classes no less than the wage rates found prevailing in the locality. E. covers all government contractors receiving $10,000 or more in federal funds. Walsh-Healey covers all government contractors receiving $10,000 or more in federal funds. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Prevailing Wages 47. (p. 332) Decisions about how to respond to the economic forces of product markets and labor markets limit an organization's choices about: A. pay rates. B. pay structure. C. pay differentials. D. pay grades. E. pay ranges. Decisions about how to respond to the economic forces of product markets and labor markets limit an organization's choices about pay structure. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Economic Influences on Pay 11-44 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 48. (p. 332) Which of the following is true about product-market competition? A. Organizations compete on multiple dimensions, e.g., quality, service, and price. B. Product-market considerations are of particular concern to a company when its customers place great importance on product rather than price. C. Product-market competition is the degree to which an organization must pay to compete against other companies that hire similar employees. D. Product markets place a lower limit on the pay an organization will offer its employees. E. The organizations in a product market are competing to serve different types of customers. The organization's product market includes organizations that offer competing goods and services, Product markets place an upper limit on the pay an organization will offer, This upper limit is most important when labor costs are a large part of an organization's total costs and when the organization's customers place great importance on price. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Product Markets 49. (p. 333) Which of the following is true about labor markets? A. An organization's labor market typically includes only competing companies with like products. B. Competition for labor establishes the minimum an organization must pay to hire an employee for a particular job. C. Labor-market competition serves to determine the relative worth of jobs within an organization. D. Cost-of-living considerations have little impact on labor-market rates. E. An organization's competitors in labor markets typically include only companies in other industries that hire similar employees. An organization's competitors in labor markets typically include companies with similar products and companies in other industries that hire similar employees, In some parts of the country, the cost of living is higher than in others, so the local labor markets there will likely demand higher pay, Also, over time, the cost of living tends to rise, When the cost of living is rising rapidly, labor markets demand pay increases. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Labor Markets 11-45 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 50. (p. 333) Organizations under pressure to cut labor costs may respond by: A. retaining staff levels. B. hiking pay levels. C. postponing hiring decisions. D. providing employees more benefits. E. increasing staff levels. Organizations under pressure to cut labor costs may respond by reducing staff levels, freezing pay levels, postponing hiring decisions, or requiring employees to bear more of the cost of benefits such as insurance premiums. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Product Markets 51. (p. 333-334) The federal government tracks trends in the nation's cost of living with a measure known as the: A. Consumer Price Index. B. Living-Wage Index. C. Gross National Product. D. Inflation Index. E. Employment Cost Index. The federal government tracks trends in the nation's cost of living with a measure called the Consumer Price Index (CPI). AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Labor Markets 11-46 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 52. (p. 334) According to the text, identify the occupational categories that are the nation's top earners, in terms of median annual earnings. A. Health care support workers B. Architects and engineers C. Production occupations D. Sales and related occupations E. Installation, maintenance, and repair operations Looking at broad occupational categories, people in technology-related jobsarchitects and engineers, in particularare some of the nation's top earners. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Labor Markets 53. (p. 334) According to the text, identify the occupational categories that are the nation's lowest-placed earners, in terms of median annual earnings. A. Architects and engineers B. Installation, maintenance, and repair operations C. Health care support workers D. Production occupations E. Computer and mathematical operations According to the text, health care support workers are the nation's lowest-placed earners, in terms of median annual earnings. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Labor Markets 11-47 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 54. (p. 334) Following and studying changes in the _____ can help employers prepare for changes in the demands of the labor market. A. Living-Wage Index B. Consumer Price Index C. Gross National Product D. Inflation Index E. Employment Cost Index The federal government tracks trends in the nation's cost of living with a measure called the Consumer Price Index (CPI), Following and studying changes in the CPI can help employers prepare for changes in the demands of the labor market. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Labor Markets 55. (p. 334-335) Economic theory holds that the most profitable pay level, all things being equal, would be: A. below the market rate. B. at the market rate. C. above the market rate. D. anywhere within the market-rate range. E. the pay level that is lower than that of the lowest paying organization. Economic theory holds that the most profitable level, all things being equal, would be at the market rate. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Pay Level: Deciding What to Pay 11-48 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 56. (p. 335) A company that views employees as resources is most likely to use a(n) _____ pay rate. A. at-market B. below-market C. above-market D. variable-market E. flexible-market An organization may gain an advantage by paying above the market rate if it uses the higher pay as one means to attract top talent and then uses these excellent employees' knowledge to be more innovative, produce higher quality, or work more efficiently, This approach is based on the view of employees as resources, Higher pay may be an investment in superior human resources. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Pay Level: Deciding What to Pay 57. (p. 335) "Shrinkage" is also referred to as: A. negligence. B. vicarious liability. C. inventory control. D. delayering. E. employee theft. "Shrinkage" is also known as employee theft, AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Pay Level: Deciding What to Pay 11-49 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 58. (p. 335) The procedure through which an organization compares its own practices to those of successful competitors is known as: A. redlining. B. gentrifying. C. benchmarking. D. profiling. E. delayering. To compete for talent, organizations use benchmarking, a procedure in which an organization compares its own practices against those of successful competitors. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Gathering Information about Market Pay 59. (p. 335) The National Compensation Survey is an ongoing activity of the: A. Bureau of Labor Statistics. B. Society for Human Resource Management. C. American Management Association. D. AFL-CIO. E. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Pay surveys are available for many kinds of industries and jobs, The primary collector of this kind of data in the United States is the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which conducts an ongoing National Compensation Survey measuring wages, salaries, and benefits paid to the nation's employees. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Gathering Information about Market Pay 11-50 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 60. (p. 336) According to ____, people measure outcomes such as pay in terms of their inputs. A. pay policy line B. equity theory C. distributive justice theory D. progressive justice theory E. economic theory According to equity theory, people measure outcomes such as pay in terms of their inputs. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Judging Fairness 61. (p. 337) Research on the effects of two-tier wage plans found that: A. lower-paid employees were less satisfied on average than higher-paid employees due to the equity theory. B. lower-paid employees were more satisfied on average than higher-paid employees since they made comparisons with lower-paying alternatives. C. lower-paid employees expected over a period of time to be promoted into the second tier. D. the equity theory did not come into play for either group, with neither group experiencing more or less job satisfaction than the other. E. both existing employees and new employees have a similar pay rate. In a two-tier wage system, existing employees continue on at their current (upper-tier) pay rate while new employees sign on for less pay (the lower tier), One might expect reaction among employees in the lower tier that the pay structure is unfair, but a study found that these employees were more satisfied than the top-tier employees, They were not comparing their pay with that of the upper-tier employees but with the other alternatives they saw for themselves: lower-paying jobs or unemployment. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Judging Fairness 11-51 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 62. (p. 337) If employees conclude that they are underrewarded, they are likely to make up the difference in all of the following ways EXCEPT: A. reducing their inputs. B. refusing to cooperate. C. finding a way to reduce their outcomes. D. withdrawing by leaving the organization. E. putting forth less effort. If employees conclude that they are underrewarded, they are likely to make up the difference in one of three ways, They might put forth less effort (reducing their inputs), find a way to increase their outcomes (for example, stealing), or withdraw by leaving the organization or refusing to cooperate. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Analyze Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Judging Fairness 63. (p. 339) _____ play the most significant role in communication because they interact with their employees each day. A. Executives B. Peers C. Subordinates D. HR professionals E. Managers Managers play the most significant role in communication because they interact with their employees each day, The HR department should prepare them to explain why the organization's pay structure is designed as it is and to judge whether employee concerns about the structure indicate a need for change. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Communicating Fairness 11-52 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 64. (p. 339) The administrative procedure for measuring the relative worth of an organization's jobs is: A. job analysis. B. job determination. C. job evaluation. D. job identification. E. job description. Job evaluation is an administrative procedure for measuring the relative internal worth of the organization's jobs. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 65. (p. 339) Compensable factors: A. are generally statistically derived. B. are the characteristics of jobs that a firm values and chooses to pay for. C. usually vary significantly across job evaluation systems. D. describe all aspects of the jobs being evaluated. E. are common elements of similar jobs on the basis of which remuneration of the employees is computed. To conduct a job evaluation, the committee identifies each job's compensable factors, meaning the characteristics of a job that the organization values and chooses to pay for. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 11-53 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 66. (p. 339) An example of a typical compensable factor is: A. social status. B. education. C. longevity. D. gender. E. religion. To conduct a job evaluation, the committee identifies each job's compensable factors, meaning the characteristics of a job that the organization values and chooses to pay for, An organization might value the experience and education of people performing computer-related jobs, as well as the complexity of those jobs, Other compensable factors might include working conditions and responsibility. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 67. (p. 339) _____ provide the basis for decisions about relative internal worth. A. Point manuals B. Pay structures C. Job evaluations D. Pay rates E. Implementation and training Job Evaluation is an administrative procedure for measuring the relative internal worth of the organization's jobs. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 11-54 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 68. (p. 340) Identify the correct statement about key jobs. A. They are administrative procedures for measuring the relative worth of the organization's jobs. B. These are jobs that have highly unstable content. C. These are jobs that are unique among organizations and are rare to obtain. D. Defining key jobs has no impact on the process of creating a pay structure. E. A job with a higher evaluation score than a particular key job would receive higher pay than that key job. Pay for the key jobs can be based on survey data, and pay for the organization's other jobs can be based on the organization's job structure, A job with a higher evaluation score than a particular key job would receive higher pay than that key job. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs 69. (p. 340) A rate of pay for each unit produced is known as: A. gross pay. B. salary. C. hourly wage. D. piecework rate. E. net pay. Piecework rate is the rate of pay for each unit produced. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Structure: Putting It All Together 11-55 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 70. (p. 340) A graphed line showing the mathematical relationship between job evaluation points and pay rate is termed as a(n): A. Fanno line. B. pay policy line. C. Rayleigh line. D. aggregate line. E. comprehensive line. Pay policy line is a graphed line showing the mathematical relationship between job evaluation points and pay rate. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Rates 71. (p. 340-341) A pay-policy line: A. is developed after pay grades have been established. B. can be generated using a statistical procedure called regression analysis. C. requires market-pay-rate data on all jobs in the organization. D. reflects the pay structure in the company as well as the market. E. reflects the pay structure in the market, which always matches rates in the organization. Pay policy line is a graphed line showing the mathematical relationship between job evaluation points and pay rate. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Rates 11-56 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 72. (p. 341) A drawback of pay rates is that they: A. increase the administrative burden of managing the compensation system. B. result in decreased promotional opportunities for employees. C. result in some jobs being underpaid and others being overpaid. D. increase costs of surveying the market. E. grouping jobs will result in rates of pay for individual jobs that precisely match the levels specified by the market. Survey data may show that people in certain jobs are actually earning significantly more or less than the amount shown on the pay policy line. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Rates 73. (p. 342) _____ are sets of jobs having similar worth or content, grouped together to establish rates of pay. A. Pay scales B. Pay ranges C. Pay differentials D. Pay levels E. Pay grades A large organization could have hundreds or even thousands of different jobs, Setting a pay rate for each job would be extremely complex, Therefore, many organizations group jobs into pay gradessets of jobs having similar worth or content, grouped together to establish rates of pay. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Grades 11-57 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 74. (p. 342) Since organizations want some flexibility in setting the pay for individuals in accordance with the employees' qualifications and performance, they generally add _____ to their pay structures. A. pay grades B. pay ranges C. pay differentials D. cost-of-living increases E. compensation differentials Pay Range is a set of possible pay rates defined by a minimum, maximum, and midpoint of pay for employees holding a particular job or a job within a particular pay grade. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Ranges 75. (p. 342) _____ are most common for white-collar jobs and for jobs that are not covered by union contracts. A. Pay ranges B. Pay grades C. Pay differentials D. Pay rates E. Pay ranks Pay ranges are most common for white-collar jobs and for jobs that are not covered by union contracts. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Analyze Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Ranges 11-58 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 76. (p. 342) Which of the following is true about pay ranges? A. Pay ranges are most common for blue-collar jobs and those covered by union contracts. B. Pay ranges are often widest for employees who are at higher levels in terms of job design points. C. Pay ranges generally are designed so that they do not overlap. D. The market rate or the pay-policy line generally serves as the midpoint for a range. E. The less overlap, the more flexibility in transferring employees among jobs. Pay ranges are most common for white-collar jobs and for jobs that are not covered by union contracts, The range is widest for employees who are at higher levels in terms of their job evaluation points, That is because the performance of these higher-level employees will likely have more effect on the organization's performance, so the organization needs more latitude to reward them, A typical approach is to use the market rate or the pay policy line as the midpoint of a range for the job or pay grade, The less overlap, the more important it is to earn promotions in order to keep getting raises. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Ranges 77. (p. 342) Overlapping _____ give the organization more flexibility in transferring employees among jobs, because transfers need not always involve a change in pay. A. pay rates B. pay ranges C. pay policies D. pay differentials E. pay ranks Overlapping ranges gives the organization more flexibility in transferring employees among jobs, because transfers need not always involve a change in pay. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Ranges 11-59 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 78. (p. 343) Assuming an organization wants to motivate employees through promotions, and assuming enough opportunities for promotions are available, the organization would want to: A. use pay differentials. B. use a skill-based pay system. C. implement a broad-band pay structure. D. limit the overlap from one pay range to the next. E. use pay compensating wage differentials. Assuming the organization wants to motivate employees through promotions (and assuming enough opportunities for promotion are available), the organization will want to limit the overlap from one level to the next. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Create and Evaluate Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Ranges 79. (p. 343) When organizations adjust pay to reflect working conditions or local labor markets, such adjustments are called: A. bonuses. B. pay differentials. C. green-circle rates. D. rank-and-file adjustments. E. red-circle rates. Pay differential is an adjustment to a pay rate to reflect differences in working conditions or labor markets. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Differentials 11-60 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 80. (p. 344) Which of the following is a recognized limitation of job-based pay structures? A. The ambiguous definition of a job's responsibilities can contribute to an attitude that some activities "are not in my job description," at the expense of inflexibility. B. Their focus on higher pay for higher status can work in favor of efforts of empowerment. C. They usually reward desired behaviors, particularly in a rapidly changing environment. D. Organizations may avoid change because it requires repeating the time-consuming process of creating job descriptions and related paperwork. E. They are difficult to explain to employees. The precise definition of a job's responsibilities can contribute to an attitude that some activities "are not in my job description," at the expense of flexibility, innovation, quality, and customer service, Also, the job structure's focus on higher pay for higher status can work against an effort at empowerment. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 81. (p. 344) When an organization reduces the number of levels in its job structure, it is engaging in: A. outsourcing. B. delayering. C. rightsizing. D. benchmarking. E. whistle-blowing. Some organizations have found greater flexibility through delayering, or reducing the number of levels in the organization's job structure. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 11-61 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 82. (p. 344) Organizations give managers more flexibility in making assignments and awarding pay increases by combining more assignments into a single layer, which is often termed as: A. outsourcing. B. broad banding. C. rightsizing. D. benchmarking. E. downsizing. By combining more assignments into a single layer, organizations give managers more flexibility in making assignments and awarding pay increases, These broader groupings often are called broad bands. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 83. (p. 344) Skill-based pay systems support all of the following EXCEPT: A. employee empowerment and enriched jobs. B. a climate of learning and adaptability. C. organizational flexibility. D. higher pay for higher status, which can work against an effort at empowerment. E. organizational innovativeness. Skill-based pay supports efforts to empower employees and enrich jobs because it encourages employees to add to their knowledge so they can make decisions in many areas, In this way, skill-based pay helps organizations become more flexible and innovative, More generally, skill-based pay can encourage a climate of learning and adaptability and give employees a broader view of how the organization functions. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 11-62 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 84. (p. 345) Which of the following is a potential disadvantage of skill-based pay systems? A. Lesser paperwork B. Difficulty in obtaining market data C. Lack of implementation of new skills D. Employees "topping off" E. Discouraged job enrichment Skill-based pay has its own disadvantages. It rewards employees for acquiring skills but does not provide a way to ensure that employees can use their new skills. The result may be that the organization is paying employees more for learning skills that the employer is not benefiting from. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 85. (p. 345) _____ does not necessarily provide an alternative to the bureaucracy and paperwork of traditional pay structures, because it requires records related to skills, training, and knowledge acquired. A. Benchmarking B. Compa-ratio C. Delayering D. Skill-based pay E. Broad banding Skill-based pay does not necessarily provide an alternative to the bureaucracy and paperwork of traditional pay structures, because it requires records related to skills, training, and knowledge acquired. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 11-63 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 86. (p. 345) The compa-ratio: A. measures the degree to which actual pay is consistent with the pay policy. B. is defined as average pay for the grade divided by the minimum pay for the grade. C. can range from 0 to 100 percent. D. uses data from market-pay surveys. E. measures the degree to which new skills learnt are consistent with the increases in pay. As part of its management responsibility, the HR department should compare actual pay to the pay structure, making sure that policies and practices match, A common way to do this is to measure a compa-ratio, the ratio of average pay to the midpoint of the pay range. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-07 Summarize how to ensure that pay is actually in line with the pay structure. Topic: Pay Structure and Actual Pay 87. (p. 346) Assuming that the pay structure is well planned to support the organization's goals, the compa-ratios should be close to: A. 0.5. B. 1.5. C. 2. D. 1. E. 0. Assuming that the pay structure is well planned to support the organization's goals, the compa-ratios should be close to 1. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-07 Summarize how to ensure that pay is actually in line with the pay structure. Topic: Pay Structure and Actual Pay 11-64 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 88. (p. 346) The _____ requires employers to make jobs available to their workers when they return after fulfilling military duties for up to five years. A. USERRA B. FLSA C. EEOA D. NLRB E. FMLA The Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) requires employers to make jobs available to their workers when they return after fulfilling military duties for up to five years. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Pay during Military Duty 89. (p. 347) Top executive pay in the United States: A. is directly related to company performance. B. is justified because of the high pay of many athletes and entertainers. C. is among the highest in the world. D. is roughly twice that of CEOs in Japan. E. is irrelevant to pay structure in terms of equity theory. When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades, surpassing 500:1 at large U.S. corporations in 2007, That ratio is greater in the United States than in other developed nations and was higher in 2007 than in any period measured before then. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Pay for Executives 11-65 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 90. (p. 347) When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades, surpassing _____ at large U.S. corporations in 2007. A. 100:1 B. 200:1 C. 500:1 D. 700:1 E. 400:1 When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades, surpassing 500:1 at large U.S. corporations in 2007. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Pay for Executives Essay Questions 91. (p. 327) Define job structure, pay level, and pay structure. Job structure consists of the relative pay for different jobs within the organization. It establishes relative pay among different functions and different levels of responsibility. Pay level is the average amount (including wages, salaries, and bonuses) the organization pays for a particular job. Together, job structure and pay levels establish a pay structure that helps the organization achieve goals related to employee motivation, cost control, and the ability to attract and retain talented human resources. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-01 Identify the kinds of decisions involved in establishing a pay structure. Topic: Decisions about Pay 11-66 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 92. (p. 330-332) Discuss the three major provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The FLSA establishes a minimum wage and requirements for overtime pay and child labor: 1) Minimum Wage: At the federal level, the 1938 FLSA establishes a minimum wage that is $7.25 per hour as of July 2009. The FLSA also permits a lower "training wage," which employers may pay to workers under the age of 20 for a period of up to 90 days and which represents about 85 percent of the minimum wage. Some states have laws specifying minimum wages, and in these states, employers must pay whichever rate is higher. 2) Overtime Pay: The overtime rate under the FLSA is one and a half times the employee's hourly rate, including any bonuses and piece-rate payments. The overtime rate applies to the hours worked beyond 40 in one week. Time worked includes not only hours spent on production or sales, but also time on such activities as attending required classes, cleaning up the work site, and traveling between work sites. In addition, overtime must be paid whether or not the employer specifically asked or expected the employee to work the extra hours. Four groups of employeesexecutives, professionals, administrative personnel, and highly compensated white-collar employeesare exempt from the overtime pay requirements. 3) Child Labor: The FLSA restricts the use of child labor, with the aim of protecting children's health, safety, and educational opportunities. The restrictions apply to children younger than 18. Under the FLSA, children aged 16 and 17 may not be employed in hazardous occupations, while children aged 14 to 15 may work only outside school hours, in jobs defined as nonhazardous, and for limited periods of time. A child under age 14 may not be employed in any work associated with interstate commerce, except work performed in a nonhazardous job for a business entirely owned by the child's parent or guardian. A few additional exemptions from this ban include acting, baby-sitting, and delivering newspapers to consumers. AACSB: Ethics Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 11-02 Summarize legal requirements for pay policies. Topic: Legal Requirements for Pay 11-67 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 93. (p. 335) Write a short note on benchmarking. To compete for talent, organizations use benchmarking, a procedure in which an organization compares its own practices against those of successful competitors. In terms of compensation, benchmarking involves the use of pay surveys. These provide information about the going rates of pay at competitors in the organization's product and labor markets. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-03 Discuss how economic forces influence decisions about pay. Topic: Gathering Information about Market Pay 94. (p. 336-337) Describe how employees judge the fairness of a pay structure. Employees evaluate their pay relative to the pay of other employees. According to equity theory, people measure outcomes such as pay in terms of their inputs. In general, employees compare their pay and contributions against several yardsticks: Employees' conclusions about equity depend on what they choose as a standard of comparison. The ways employees respond to their impressions about equity can have a great impact on the organization. Typically, if employees see their pay as equitable, their attitudes and behavior continue unchanged. If employees see themselves as receiving an advantage, they usually rethink the situation to see it as merely equitable. But if employees conclude that they are underrewarded, they are likely to make up the difference in one of three ways. They might put forth less effort (reducing their inputs), find a way to increase their outcomes, or withdraw by leaving the organization or refusing to cooperate. Employees' beliefs about fairness also influence their willingness to accept transfers or promotions. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-04 Describe how employees evaluate the fairness of a pay structure. Topic: Judging Fairness 11-68 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 95. (p. 340) Define hourly wage, piecework rate, and salary. The organization's pay structure should reflect what the organization knows about market forces, as well as its own unique goals and the relative contribution of each job to achieving the goals. Within this structure, they may state the pay in terms of a rate per hour, commonly called an hourly wage; a rate of pay for each unit produced, known as a piecework rate; or a rate of pay per month or year, called a salary. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Structure: Putting It All Together 96. (p. 342) Define pay grades and pay ranges. Pay grades are sets of jobs having similar worth or content, grouped together to establish rates of pay. Pay range is a set of possible pay rates defined by a minimum, maximum, and midpoint of pay for employees holding a particular job or a job within a particular pay grade. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Remember Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 11-05 Explain how organizations design pay structures related to jobs. Topic: Pay Grades, Pay Ranges 11-69 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 97. (p. 343-344) What are some potential limitations of using a job-based pay structure? The following are some limitations of job-based pay: 1) The precise definition of a job's responsibilities can contribute to an attitude that some activities "are not in my job description," at the expense of flexibility, innovation, quality, and customer service. 2) The job structure's focus on higher pay for higher status can work against an effort at empowerment. 3) Changes to job descriptions involve significant investments of time and money, therefore becoming a barrier to change. 4) The structure may not reward desired behaviors, particularly in a rapidly changing environment where a new set of knowledge, skills, and abilities is required. 5) The structure discourages lateral employee movement and encourages promotion-seeking behavior. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 98. (p. 344) What is skill-based pay? Summarize its advantages and disadvantages. Skill-based pay (SBP) systems are pay structures that set pay according to the employees' level of skill or knowledge and what they are capable of doing. SBP is desirable in situations where employees need to learn more skills and become more flexible in the jobs they perform, particularly in environments where the technology is changing. SBP has the following potential advantages: Increased worker flexibility and innovativeness, a climate of learning and adaptability, and better utilization of employee know-how and ideas. SBP has the following potential disadvantages: It rewards employees for acquiring skills, but does not provide a way to ensure that employees use their new skills, resulting in the organization paying employees for learning skills that the employer is not benefiting from; employees may "top out" quickly, and SBP does not necessarily provide an alternative to the bureaucracy and paperwork of traditional pay structures. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-06 Describe alternatives to job-based pay. Topic: Alternatives to Job-Based Pay 11-70 Chapter 11 - Establishing a Pay Structure 99. (p. 345-346) Discuss how to ensure that pay is actually in line with the pay structure via a compa-ratio. As part of its management responsibility, the HR department should compare actual pay to the pay structure, making sure that policies and practices match. A common way to do this is to measure a compa-ratio, the ratio of average pay to the midpoint of the pay range. Assuming the organization has pay grades, the organization would find a compa-ratio for each pay grade: the average paid to all employees in the pay grade divided by the midpoint for the pay grade. If the average equals the midpoint, the compa-ratio is 1. More often, the compa-ratio is somewhat above 1 or below 1. Assuming that the pay structure is well planned to support the organization's goals, the compa-ratios should be close to 1. A compa-ratio greater than 1 suggests that the organization is paying more than planned for human resources and may have difficulty keeping costs under control. A compa-ratio less than 1 suggests that the organization is underpaying for human resources relative to its target and may have difficulty attracting and keeping qualified employees. When compa-ratios are more or less than 1, the numbers signal a need for the HR department to work with managers to identify whether to adjust the pay structure or the organization's pay practices. The compa-ratios may indicate that the pay structure no longer reflects market rates of pay, or maybe performance appraisals need to be more accurate. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-07 Summarize how to ensure that pay is actually in line with the pay structure. Topic: Pay Structure and Actual Pay 100. (p. 347-348) Why has there been widespread criticism of executive pay in recent years? Looking beyond average pay levels, some executives are very highly paid. The very highly paid receive a great deal of attention in the media. In addition, U.S. executives are among the highest paid in the world. When CEO pay is compared with the pay of the organization's lowest-level employees, the resulting ratio has been on the rise for more than two decades, surpassing 500:1 at large U.S. corporations in 2007. That ratio is greater in the United States than in other developed nations and was higher in 2007 than in any period measured before then. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Bloom's: Understand Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 11-08 Discuss issues related to paying employees serving in the military and aying executives. Topic: Pay for Executives 11-71

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Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 12 - Recognizing Employee Contributions with PayChapter 12Recognizing Employee Contributions with PayTrue / False Questions1. Incentive pay is influential because the amount paid is linked to certain predefinedbehaviors or outcomes.True Fals
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 13 - Providing Employee BenefitsChapter 13Providing Employee BenefitsTrue / False Questions1. Since benefits packages are more complex than pay structures, they are harder foremployees to understand and appreciate.True False2. The addition
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Chapter 14 - Collective Bargaining and Labor RelationsChapter 14Collective Bargaining and Labor RelationsTrue / False Questions1. A craft union's bargaining power depends greatly on the control it can exercise over thesupply of its workers.True Fals
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 15 - Managing Human Resources GloballyChapter 15Managing Human Resources GloballyTrue / False Questions1. The trends and arrangements that encourage international trade also increase and changethe demands on human resource management.True Fa
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Chapter 16 - Creating and Maintaining High-Performance OrganizationsChapter 16Creating and Maintaining High-Performance OrganizationsTrue / False Questions1. According to research, organizations that introduce integrated high-performance workpractice
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 01 - Human Resources in a Globally Competitive Business EnvironmentChapter 01Human Resources in a Globally Competitive Business EnvironmentTrue / False Questions1. The focus for the 21st century organization is far more likely to look like a w
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 02 - The Financial Impact of Human Resource Management ActivitiesChapter 02The Financial Impact of Human Resource Management ActivitiesTrue / False Questions1. The firm's strategy and goals must guide the work of each business unit and of that
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 03 - The Legal Context of Employment DecisionsChapter 03The Legal Context of Employment DecisionsTrue / False Questions1. As a society, we espouse equality of opportunity, rather than equality of outcomes.True False2. Civil rights laws preci
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 04 - Diversity at WorkChapter 04Diversity at WorkTrue / False Questions1. The demographics of the United States are changing so dramatically that over the comingdecades it will be impossible for employers to fill their ranks with members of t
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 05 - Planning for PeopleChapter 05Planning for PeopleTrue / False Questions1. A vision statement differs from a mission statement in that it includes both the purpose ofthe company as well as the basis of competition and competitive advantage
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 06 - RecruitingChapter 06RecruitingTrue / False Questions1. Recruitment is a form of business competition, and it is fiercely competitive.True False2. Today managers rely less on application forms, reference checks, and interviews at theini
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 07 - StaffingChapter 07StaffingTrue / False Questions1. The most admired companies live their cultures every day, and they go out of their ways tocommunicate it to both current employees as well as to prospective new hires.True False2. Ther
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 08 - Workplace TrainingChapter 08Workplace TrainingTrue / False Questions1. Traditionally, lower-level employees were "trained," while higher-level employees were"developed."True False2. Organizations sometimes place too much emphasis on th
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 09 - Performance ManagementChapter 09Performance ManagementTrue / False Questions1. Performance management is a kind of compass that indicates a person's actual direction aswell as a person's desired direction.True False2. Most managers und
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Chapter 10 - Managing CareersChapter 10Managing CareersTrue / False Questions1. Career planning is important because the consequences of career success or failure arelinked closely to each individual's self-concept, identity, and satisfaction with ca
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 11 - Pay and Incentive SystemsChapter 11Pay and Incentive SystemsTrue / False Questions1. The gap between a CEO's pay and the wages of employees has narrowed in the UnitedStates.True False2. To cover its labor costs and other expenses, a co
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 12 - Indirect Compensation: Employee Benefit PlansChapter 12Indirect Compensation: Employee Benefit PlansTrue / False Questions1. Managers need to think carefully about what they wish to accomplish by means of theirbenefit programs.True Fals
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 13 - Union Representation and Collective BargainingChapter 13Union Representation and Collective BargainingTrue / False Questions1. Workers will vote against unions if they feel unions abuse their power by calling strikes orhaving fat-cat lea
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 14 - Procedural Justice and Ethics in Employee RelationsChapter 14Procedural Justice and Ethics in Employee RelationsTrue / False Questions1. Employee relations include all the practices that implement the philosophy and policy of anorganizat
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 15 - Safety, Health and Employee Assistance ProgramsChapter 15Safety, Health and Employee Assistance ProgramsTrue / False Questions1. In the United States, the number of workers dying on the job each day has been increasingsteadily over the p
Edison State College - MGMT - 2021
Chapter 16 - International Dimensions of Human Resource ManagementChapter 16International Dimensions of Human Resource ManagementTrue / False Questions1. There is a growing fear on the part of many people that globalization benefits bigcompanies inst
Claremont Colleges - WGS - 101
Women StudiesResearch ProjectApril 11, 2011AbortionAbortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetusor embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death .In todays society abortion is a bigissue. Some people
Claremont Colleges - BUS - 101
April 4, 2011Intro to BusinessCase Study # 11. In this case marketing tries to figure out a way to put Walmart Back on top. Themarketing company decided to add low-priced organic foods to their repertoire. Theylaunched a green business initiative, wh
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
October 10, 2012Biology of Cancer Extra CreditNotch:Ligand/Receptor: NotchL, Delta1,2,3, and Jagged1,2Main Proteins: Notch1,2,3,4 End Effect: two proteolytic cuts in Notch -frees cytoplasm fragment-translocates tonucleus-becomes part of transcriptio
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Midterm Exam 1Practice examName:_Note: all answers are worth 2 points each unless otherwise noted. There is only onecorrect answer for each question.1.A carbon atom contains six protons and six neutrons.A.What are its atomic number an
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Midterm Exam 2Practice exam 2Name:_Note: all answers are worth 2 points each unless otherwise noted.1.If a cell were to replicate itself three (3) times, what percentage of the total DNApresent would be comprised of the original DNA?a.
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chapter Two Friday Night LightsFunctions Definition Purpose social useCollective effervescence shared identity in a group experienceemotion, togetherness, cohesionRituals of SolidarityBoundaries worlds marked by time, space side of stadium- gangter
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Iron (II) in Acid SolutionChem II LabTuesday March 27, 2012Purpose:The purpose of this lab was to determine the activation energy (Ea) required for thereaction of ferroin with a strong acid.Procedure:For this lab my partner and I used a spectrophot
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
NAME_LL, Ll = wild type growth habitll = lazyZZ, Zz = wild type leaf colorzz = zebra; green and white stripes1. In corn, a gene named lazy controls growth habit. Plants homozygous for the mutant allele flop over and growalong the ground. Another gen
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chapter23.Whatevidencepersuadesusthatacancerarisesfromthenativetissuesofanindividualratherthan invadingthebodyfromoutsideandthusbeingofforeignorigin?Alltissuesinthebodyarecomposedofcellsandcellproducts.Thecellswerediscoveredtocomefrom preexistingcells
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
March 14, 2011Womens StudiesDr. CrespoFeminismFeminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on andmotivated by the experiences of the women, while generally providing a critique of socialrelations, many proponents, and i
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Final Exam QuestionsMay 1, 2011Question 2:Women today and women 50 years ago are very different. Fifty years ago woman did nothave the rights that we currently posses now. Today the spread of global womens organizationsand the impact of womens contri
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
NAME _1. In the box below, diagram the chemical structure of the tri-peptide Aspartic Acid - Lysine Serine. Show the complete structure of each R group. Label the amino end and the carboxyl end.Circle the peptide bonds.2. Rate the hydrophobicity of eac
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
WarnsingGeography 100.06Professor OcchipintiNovember 13, 2010Devastation In 2005There are five different categories of hurricanes, but the one that touched our hearts in2005 was a category 3, Hurricane Katrina. A category 3 hurricane can have winds
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Purpose:The purpose of this lab was to determine the molecular weight of urea.Procedure:Before starting the procedures an ice bath was made and the temperature was dropped to 0C. 10mL was added to a test tube and then a thermometer was placed inside.
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
February 1, 2012Lab Report #1Table 1. Length-weight of fish collected at Kahle Lake by PA Fish and Boat CommissionIn this Scatter plot there were two outliers from the data that was collected. This couldhave happened due to the lack of food and also t
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Sampling a Hill of BeansLab Report #5Discussion:In this lab we observed a small sample of beans, 5, and a large sample of beans, 25.Information such as the weight of beans were recorded and placed in data tables. From there thesample means, standard
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chemical EcologyMarch 7, 2012Introduction:Prey use many defenses against their predators and predators can also use the samedefenses when trying to get to their prey. Morphology is a trait that many prey use against theirpredator. This term can be se
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Forest SuccessionMarch 28, 2012Introduction:In the state of Pennsylvania, one of the most obvious sights is all the existing forests. Alot of the forests in this state can be defined as second or third growth forests meaning that thereis an old growt
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Table I. Life table of males born pre-1880 Clarion County Cemetery Mortality record wherex=age recorded, N(x)=number of individuals at age x, d(x)= number of deaths in age x, q(x)=probability of individuals that die in age x[dx/Nx] per five years, and l
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Forest SuccessionApril 4thTable 1. Parameters assessing the structure of Old Growth Forests and Second GrowthForestsTotal Density (#/ha)Stand Basal Area (mTotal CWD (m3Mean log volume (mTable 2. Species composition of forest of Relative Density an
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Species Area Relationships4/11/2012Figure 1: Relationship of accumulated number of species per each m2 plot in thegrass and forest.Figure 2: Comparing number of species in grass and forest with trendline andequation.Results:Species accumulation is
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Assessing the Effects of Acid Mine Drainageon Aquatic Communities4/18/2012Introduction:Many miles of streams in Pennsylvania are fishless due to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD).AMD begins when water percolates through the broken up bedrock in the ground tha
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Teen InfluenceMass Media and SocietyDr. WashingtonDecember 15, 2010For this paper I decided to write about how shows about pregnant teenagers, which themedia airs on television, can have a positive and a negative influence on young teens. A perfectT
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Professor SmithMGMT 120.01April 25, 2011After reading the book the Millionaire Next Door, I found it to be very helpful. I realizedthat I am like most Americans and will not become a millionaire unless I change my ways. I maymake a decent amount of m
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Chemistry Lab IIChemical Equilibrium: Le Chateliers Principle"Write an equation for the equilibrium between aqueous Fe3+, SCN-, (as reactants), and[FeSCN]2+ (as the product)." Just write the net ionic equation (don't include the spectatorions).Fe3+ (
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
W5 Pre-Lab Assignment: Determining MW using FP Depression1. Molality (m)2. Calculate the freezing point of a 2.6m aqueous sucrose solution:Tf = mKfTf =2.6m 1.86C/mTf = 4.84CFreezing point = 0.00C 4.84C= -4.84C
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Problem set 6Spring 20121. (True/False). The membranes that partition the cell into functionally distinctcompartments are impermeable. Explain your answer.- This statement is false. The membranes that partition the cell into functionally
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell Biology Spring 2012Problem set 11. If an uncatalyzed reaction occurs at the rate 1 event per century and if an enzymespeeds up the rate by a factor of 1014, how long in seconds does it take the enzyme tocatalyze one event?The enzyme catalyzes ev
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Biol 203 Cell Biology Problem Set 21. . DNA isolated from the bacterial virus M13 contains 25% A, 33% T, 22% C, and20% G. Do these result strike you as peculiar? Why or why not? How might youexplain these results?In all samples of double-stranded DNA,
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Cell BiologyProblem set 31. What, if anything, is wrong with the following statement: Both germ-cell DNAstability and somatic-cell DNA stability are essential for the survival of the species.Explain your answer.-True both germ-cell DNA stability and
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Biol203 Cell Biology Problem Set 41. Which of the following mutational changes would you predict to be the mostdeleterious to gene function? Explain your answer.1. Insertion of a single nucleotide near the end of the coding sequence.2. Removal of a si
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Biol 203 Cell Biology Problem Set 51. (True/False).The differences in the patterns of proteins produced in differentspecialized cell types are accurately reflected in the patterns of expressed mRNAs andmRNAs only. Explain your answer.- The statement a
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Mass Media and SocietyDecember 6, 20101. Conspicuous consumption is when people buy items to impress others and also to flauntthat they have money. An example of something a rich person may buy would beelectronics. A person may buy a bigger flat scree
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Quiz 1Chemical bonds are composed up of two different types or categorieshydrogen and covalent bondsVan Der Waals and non-covalent bondscovalent and non-covalentnon-covalent and hydrogennone of the aboveThe atomic weight of any atom or the molecula
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
Quiz 2DNA is composed of a base, a _, and a phosphate group.6 carbon sugar6 carbon sugar reduced by one hydroxyl group5 carbon sugar5 carbon sugar reduced by one hydroxyl groupNone of the aboveThe complementary base pairing can only be accomplished
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
1. The protein(s) that initially open the replication bubble in eukaryotes to allowreplication to initiate are called.a. helicaseb. topoisomerase Ic. topoisomerase IId. ARSe. ORC2. SSBs role in replication isa. prevent hairpin formation ssDNA (sin
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
1.The TATA box is to the TBP as is thea. trans acting element is to a cis acting elementb. sigma factor is to the -10 to -35 sequencec. snRNA is to the spliceasomed. the spliceasome is to snRNAe. -10 to -35 sequence is to the sigma factor2.The wob
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
1. DNA binding proteins interact with what region of the DNA to alter its shape?A. Phosphate backboneB. R groupC. Minor groveD. Major groveE. None of the above2. The significance of the zinc molecule in the zinc binding finger is?A. To interact wit
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
QUESTION 1A person who analyzes a firm's income and expenses over a specified period and selects appropriate ways to invest extrafunds is involved infinancial management.Question 2Effective implementation of a decision requires planning.Question 2 o
Claremont Colleges - BIO - 101
W14 PLA Ksp Determination of CaSO4In procedure 12, you are to titrate H+ with 0.010 M NaOH. Suppose that 12.50mL of0.010 M NaOH was used to reach the endpoint. Each question is worth 1 pt.1. How many moles of OH- was used to reach the endpoint?(0.10 M