Chapter 08
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Chapter 08

Course Number: BCOM 3370, Spring 2012

College/University: Southwestern Assemblies

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Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages True/False Questions 1. The best organizational pattern for a persuasive message is to say what you want your readers to do right away and then use the rest of the message to support your point. Answer: False Page: 201 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: In most situations requiring persuasion, an indirect approach is best, because the...

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8 Chapter Indirectness in Persuasive Messages True/False Questions 1. The best organizational pattern for a persuasive message is to say what you want your readers to do right away and then use the rest of the message to support your point. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: In most situations requiring persuasion, an indirect approach is best, because the writers goals will often run contrary to the readers current wishes. 2. Knowledge of your intended readers is especially important when you are trying to persuade. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: To move your readers from an uninterested or antagonistic position to a cooperative one, you need to know what will appeal to them. 3. As a rule, tangible benefits are more persuasive than intangible benefits. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: While it is tempting to think that readers will be swayed mostly by tangible rewards, intangible ones can be as appealing, or more so, in certain circumstances. 4. As a rule, intrinsic benefits are more persuasive than extrinsic benefits. Register to View AnswerPage: 201-202 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Because extrinsic benefits are added on and short-lived, they do not persuade readers of the intrinsic value of a product or idea the way intrinsic benefits do. 5. If you have clearly described the features of a product, you have probably done a good job of selling it. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: It is better to turn product features into reader benefits, showing readers how the features will help them. 80 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 6. Your persuasive message is complete when you have developed persuasive points that are likely to make your readers receptive to your product or idea. Register to View AnswerPage: 202-203 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: You also need to tell your readers exactly what you want them to do and to make that action as easy as possible. 7. Requests that are likely to encounter resistance require a slow, deliberate approach. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: They need persuasion, and persuasion is slow. 8. The opening of a persuasive-request message appropriately avoids telling what the objective is; instead, it sets up the strategy of the persuasion. Register to View AnswerPage: 203, 205 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: This approach is emphasized throughout the chapter. 9. Because of the need for simplicity and speed, persuasive-request messages are best written in the direct order. Register to View AnswerPage: 203-206 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: The indirect order is preferred for these messages. 10. A question form of beginning should be avoided in the persuasive-request message. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: This form can gain attention and get the readers thinking along the right lines. 11. A form of indirectness that might be appropriate in a persuasive message is to open with facts about a goal or problem that both you and the readers care about. Register to View AnswerPage: 204 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: As this page says, opening with the common ground technique (casting the persuasive request as a problem-solution message) can be a successful strategy. 81 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 12. Because you are writing to someone who has not invited your message, a primary goal of the opening of a persuasive-request message is to gain the reader's attention. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: The need for attention exists in this situation. The message has not been invited. 13. Because of the need for objectivity, you-viewpoint adaptation is of little value in persuasive request messages. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: You-viewpoint is an important ingredient of persuasion. It helps people see how they will benefit from doing as you ask. 14. When making the actual request in a persuasive-request message, it is good strategy to use words that bring to the reader's mind reasons for refusing. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: This page expressly warns against addressing objections in the request part of the message. The request should focus on what do to and the benefits of doing so. 15. Persuasive requests that are not complex or highly involved may end appropriately with the request. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: See discussion of this approach on this page.10. Because most sales letters are written by professionals, it is not important for ordinary business people to learn how to write them. 16. Because most sales letters are written by advertising professionals, it is not important for business people to learn how to write them. Register to View AnswerPage: 210-211 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Though it is true that most sales messages are professionally done, business people still need to be able to advise sales professionals, and understanding effective selling techniques can help with many business-related communications. 82 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 17. In a sense, every type of business message can be considered a sales message. Register to View AnswerPage: 211 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: In every message situation, the writer is selling something--an idea, a line of reasoning, the company, himself, herself. 18. Direct-mail sales literature is usually welcomed by readers because they want to learn about new products and special offers. Register to View AnswerPage: 211 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 2 Rationale: Many people regard direct-mail sales literature as junk mail. 19. Sales messages are especially susceptible to the use of unethical tactics. Register to View AnswerPage: 211 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 2 Rationale: Because the writers of sales messages are biased toward a certain goal, they sometimes use such unethical tactics as deception or manipulative appeals to the emotions. 20. Because sales writers have so many persuasive techniques at their disposal, it is not necessary for them to gather extensive information about their readers. Register to View AnswerPage: 201, 212 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Reader information is especially important for sales messageswhich is why companies spend so much money on learning about their target customers. 21. A logical first step in sales writing is to study the product or service you are selling and your prospects. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Effective selling depends upon knowing both your product or service and your readers as well as possible. 83 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 22. Because you want do not want to distract readers from your central message, you should avoid including additional supporting pieces with your print or email sales message. Register to View AnswerPage: 213-214, 221-222 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Sales messages, especially those prepared by professionals, often include creative supporting pieces to strengthen the persuasion of the main message. 23. If a brochure is included with a sales letter, the writer should shift the major part of the selling effort to the brochure. Register to View AnswerPage: 221-222 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 4 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: The letter should still carry the major sales message. 24. The writing in sales messages often differs from that of ordinary business writing. Register to View AnswerPage: 218 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Sales writing is often more conversational, fast moving, and aggressive than typical business writing, and it often employs unusual stylistic and formatting devices. 25. Because they relate to the real world, appeals to taste, hearing, smelling, and seeing are properly classified as logical appeals. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: These are emotional appeals. 26. A persuasive sales effort based on saving money uses a logical appeal. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Such a sales approach appeals to reason, not the emotion. 27. Products such as perfume, travel, and style merchandise are best sold to consumers through emotional appeal. Register to View AnswerPage: 212 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: These products appeal primarily to the emotionals. 84 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 28. A product sold to the ultimate user through emotional appeal might well be sold to retailers through rational appeal. Register to View AnswerPage: 213 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Consumers and retailers often have different interests in the product. While certain products will appeal to consumers largely on an emotional basis, retailers are typically more interested in products primarily as profit items. 29. The same product may be sold through logical appeals to one buyer and through emotional appeals to another. Register to View AnswerPage: 213 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: The use to which the buyer will put the product often determines the appeal for a product, and it can range from one extreme to the other. 30. In any given case, there is one best sales appeal to use for a product, regardless of the audience. Register to View AnswerPage: 213 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: There are many in every case. Which ones you choose depend on what you are selling and to whom. 31. An acceptable technique in sales messages is to eliminate the inside address. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: This technique, exemplified on this page, is quite commonly used. 32. A successful sales message for industrial equipment would be likely to stress emotional appeals. Register to View AnswerPage: 212-213 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Users of such products are typically concerned with rational matters-economy, performance, reliability, etc. 85 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 33. A sales strategy that seeks to appeal to the reader's rational thought processes is likely to be based on factual material. Register to View AnswerPage: 216 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Rational appeals are based on factual material. 34. An effective attention-gaining technique for a sales message opening is to use a question or statement introducing a need that the product will satisfy. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: This plan gains attention and sets up the sales strategy. 35. As gaining attention is a requisite for a successful sales message, any device that gains attention in the opening is desirable. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Only if the attention aids in the sales strategy is it of value. 36. Sales writers over the years have developed one basic plan (or formula) that one must follow in writing sales messages. Register to View AnswerPage: 223-224 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: No such plan exists. There is a classic pattern, but it is far from a formula. Creativity and imagination may lead a writer to choose a different plan. 37. Although not all sales messages follow it, a conventional order for their organization exists. Register to View AnswerPage: 223-224 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: While it is not a formula, there is indeed a general patternAIDAthat sales messages tend to follow. 38. Because they tend to be harsh, action sentences in sales messages should avoid urging immediate action. Register to View AnswerPage: 222-223 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Such statements add strength to the appeal for action. 86 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 39. A postscript (P.S.) is acceptable in a sales message. Register to View AnswerPage: 223 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: As sales messages often are written in informal style, they may use postscripts. 40. Because the closing words of a sales message should stress action, no reference to the central appeal of the message is appropriate at this point. Register to View AnswerPage: 223 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Ending with a reminder of the appeal can be an effective technique. 41. An urge for immediate action is out of place in today's sales message. Register to View AnswerPage: 223 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Such techniques are widely and successfully used. Multiple Choice Questions 42. Scenario painting is a persuasive technique that A) helps readers consider the pros and cons of a product or idea B) helps readers see how theyll benefit from a product or idea C) describes all the features technical of a product. D) should only be used for external messages. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: With this technique, the reader is placed in a hypothetical scenario in which he or she is enjoying the products benefits (not learning about all its technical details or any of its drawbacks). This technique can be valuable in both internal and external persuasive messages. 87 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 43. The three kinds of persuasive appeals identified by Aristotle are all of the following except A) appeals based on logic B) appeals based on emotion C) appeals based upon the readers culture D) appeals based upon the speakers or writers character Register to View AnswerPage: 202 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: While the readers culture can definitely influence the choice of persuasive strategy, this is not the basis for one of Aristotles three classic appeals. 44. To develop the best plan for a persuasive request, A) consider your own goals for the message. B) consider your intended readers needs and interests. C) just use what has worked in other situations. D) A and B. Register to View AnswerPage: 203-204 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: While successful messages from other situations may help, every persuasive message should take into account the writers particular goals for the current situation and the specific readers likely needs and interests. 45. Mark the best sentence beginning of the actual request in a persuasive-request message. A) Please [achieve a worthy goal] by [performing a certain action]. . . . B) I know it is presumptuous of me to ask, but will you please . . . . C) I should appreciate it if you would . . . . D) It would be genuinely appreciated if you would . . . . E) It is with extreme humility that I ask you to . . . . Register to View AnswerPage: 206 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Only this one begins a clear request without negative implication. 88 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 46. Which of these beginnings is best for a persuasive request for cooperation in answering a questionnaire? The message is directed to college professors, and the questionnaire concerns academic freedom. A) Will you please give me a few minutes of your time? B) What is the status of academic freedom in colleges today? C) Attached is a questionnaire on academic freedom. D) Please fill out the attached questionnaire on academic freedom. E) The attached questionnaire on academic freedom will take only a few minutes of your time. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Only this one gains interest and sets up the persuasion strategy. The others are direct and dull. 47. Mark the best of these five opening sentences for a message persuasively requesting medical doctors to answer a questionnaire on the future of their profession. A) Will you please give me your opinion on some questions of vital interest to the medical profession? B) There are a number of questions I should like for you to Register to View AnswerWhat in your opinion as a medical doctor is the future of the private practice of medicine? D) The enclosed questionnaire will take only a few moments of your time to Register to View AnswerWon't you please give us a few moments of your time and jot down the answers to the enclosed questions? Register to View AnswerPage: 205 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Only this opening sets up a persuasive approach. The others are direct. 48. You would be using character-based appeal in a fund-raising letter for a non-profit organization if you A) emphasized the successful track record of the organization B) emphasized the competence and dedication of the organizations leaders C) recruited an appropriate celebrity to endorse the work of the organization D) All of the above. E) C only. Register to View AnswerPages: 202, 212-213 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: All three are ways to use character appeal. The first two present an attractive character for the organization (competent and dedicated). The third strategy uses the appealing character of a recruited celebrity to persuade. 89 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 49. Mark the best of these five sentences making the request in a persuasive-request message. A) I know that you are very busy and that it will require much time, but will you do the young people of your town a favor and speak to them on April 12? B) Will you please make your contribution to the young people by addressing them on April 12? C) It would be greatly appreciated if you would address the young people on April 12. D) Perhaps it is presumptuous to ask, but will you please address the young folks on April 12? E) You wouldn't want to address the young people on April 12, would you? Register to View AnswerPage: 206 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 2 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Only this one is a direct question and is in words that do not detract from the request. 50. A form of email sales message that is gaining in respectability and acceptance is called A) spam B) permission email C) broadcast spam D) selective spam E) super spam Register to View AnswerPage: 211 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 3 AACSB Standard: 2 Rationale: Permission marketing or opt-in email marketing is the name of this form of email selling. 51. Selling to a dealer A) typically uses a logical approach. B) typically uses an emotional approach. C) does not use you-viewpoint as much as selling to a final user. D) means emphasizing final-user benefits. E) depends on offering a free gift or discount price. Register to View AnswerPage: 213 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Dealers are concerned with buying to make profits--a rational appeal. 90 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 52. The product most likely to be sold to consumers through rational appeals would be A) diamond rings. B) teen fashions. C) candy. D) automobile tires. E) exotic cuisine. Register to View AnswerPage: 212-213 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Only tires are products not clearly related to the logical mind. 53. The product whose sales messages would probably need to rely most heavily on emotional appeal would be A) oil paintings sold at cut-rate prices. B) wrenches. C) flowers. D) industrial machinery. E) vitamin pills. Register to View AnswerPage: 212-213 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: While all these products could be described in ways that generate an appeal to the emotions, C is most likely to require an emotional appeal for effective selling. 54. A sales writer might make use of character-based appeal by A) Using cool or cutting-edge technological effects in the message. B) Asserting that the company is committed to environment-friendly products. C) Including attractive photos of one or more company executives. D) All of the above. E) C only. Register to View AnswerPage: 202, 216, 218 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Depending on the situation, any of the three practices could help generate an attractive image for a certain company or organization. 91 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 55. Mark the best of five ways to describe the advertising behind a hair-care product in a sales message from the products wholesaler to a salon owner who is considering carrying the product. A) Interpret the advertising in terms of the likely sales generated. B) Send clippings of the ad. C) Give a detailed, itemized statement of the advertising strategy. D) Refer to the advertising strategy in a subordinate structure. E) Emphasize the advertising strategy by placing it at the beginning of the message. Register to View AnswerPage: 212-213 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Such information would be likely to be most effective if it addressed the reader's likely main question: how the planned advertising for the product will generate sales. 56. Which of the following relate the most to emotional appeal? A) what the product will do. B) exactly what is included in the service. C) saving energy costs. D) being more attractive to the opposite sex. E) all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 212-213 Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 1, 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Only this one appeals to the emotions. 57. The most important of these goals for the opening of a sales message is A) to set up the sales strategy. B) to emphasize the central appeal. C) to condition the reader. D) to gain favorable attention. E) to ask for the sale. Register to View AnswerPage: 214-215 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: Although other goals may be important, gaining attention is the fundamental requirements of the opening. Unless the opening gains attention, the message is not likely to be read. 92 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 58. All of the following are recommended strategies for getting readers to read your email sales message except A) Using free in your subject line. B) Making clear who is sending the message. C) Addressing the reader by name. D) Focusing the subject line on a benefit tailored to your readers. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: People will delete email that looks like spam, and some spam blockers will even filter out messages containing the word free and other gimmicks. 59. The sentence that best meets requirements for good sales writing is A) We make Kapers in three weights--light, medium, heavy. B) Kapers come in three weights--light, medium, heavy. C) Light, medium, and heavy are the weights of Kapers. D) You may choose Kapers in three weights--light, medium, heavy. E) We make Kapers in your choice of weight--light, medium, heavy. Register to View AnswerPage: 218 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: All are predominately written from the product or writer viewpoint except one, which emphasizes the you-viewpoint. It is true that E has some you-viewpoint, but its main emphasis is on we. 60. Mark the sentence with the best language for a sales message to a retailer. A) Your customers will read about AJ's time-saving features in the coming issues of Life. B) Next month and for the following three months, A.J.'s will be advertised in Life. C) Look in next week's Life and see for yourself what we are doing to promote A.J. D) Our full-page ad in Life will tell you more about A.J. products. E) You will be interested to know that A.J. is being promoted through a full-page Life advertisement. Register to View AnswerPage: 212-213, 218 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 3 Rationale: Only one sentence has adapted the sales effort to what the retailer is most likely to care about: the effect on his/her customers. 93 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 61. Mark the best way to call the reader's attention to a brochure in a sales message. A) Use an "Enc." at the bottom of the page. B) Direct the reader's attention to its contents by previewing its key points. C) Let the brochure's presence speak for itself. D) Clip it to the message. E) Mention it in the main clause in the close. Register to View AnswerPage: 221-222 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: By inviting the reader to look at the brochure and by telling what can be found there, the writer coordinates the message and the brochure. 62. The best of these action sentences from a sales message is A) It would be greatly appreciated if you will place your order today. B) Fill out and mail the enclosed card today--and discover the joys of desert living. C) A self-addressed order card is enclosed for your ordering convenience. D) We urge you to fill out the enclosed order card. E) The enclosed card will bring you the joys of desert living. Register to View AnswerPage: 222-223 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: All except one are suggestions rather than requests for action. 63. The best of five action sentences for a message selling a magazine to professionals is A) Just check and mail the enclosed cared today--and you'll see how right Fortune is for you. B) The attached card should be mailed right away if you want Fortune. C) Do it today--right now; before you forget! D) If I have described the magazine you need, you have only to fill out the enclosed card. E) It would be most sincerely appreciated if you would sign and post the enclosed card. Register to View AnswerPage: 222-223 Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: The words in choice A take the reader through the motions, they are forceful, and they relate a benefit to the action. None of the others do all of this. 94 Chapter 8 Indirectness in Persuasive Messages 64. The close in a sales message A) needs to be off-subject. B) needs to urge action. C) thanks the reader for taking the time to read the message. D) asks the reader to read the enclosure(s). E) all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 222-223 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: The logical close of sales messages is action. 65. The drive for action in the close of a sales message A) should take the reader through the steps of what he or she must do. B) should only hint at the desired action. C) should never be followed by a postscript. D) must not use hard-sell tactics by urging immediacy. E) is unnecessary if the rest of the message is well written. Register to View AnswerPage: 222-223 Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 5 AACSB Standard: 1 Rationale: The action words should take the reader through the desired steps. 95
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