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Title: Package Testbank Course Title: pap13 Chapter Number: 17 Question type: Multiple Choice 1) Olfactory receptors are found a) throughout the nasal cavity. b) only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity. c) only in the inferior portion of the nasal cavity. d) from the vestibule to the pharynx. e) only in the mid-nasal ridges. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 2) The smell receptors that actually bind the odorants and begin signal transduction are located on a) olfactory hairs. b) glial cells. c) basal stem cells. d) Bowmans glands. e) gustatory receptor cells. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 3) These cells provide physical support, nourishment and electrical insulation for olfactory receptors cells. a) Dendritic cells b) Glial cells c) Basal stem cells d) Bowmans glands e) Supporting cells Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 4) Adaptation of the olfactory sense to the continued presentation of an odorant a) occurs rapidly. b) increases sensitivity to that odorant. c) occurs slowly. d) does not occur. e) enhances gustation. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 5) The olfactory tract a) projects directly to the primary olfactory cortex and to the limbic system and hypothalamus. b) conducts impulses directly to the thalamus. c) contains only motor neurons. d) receives information from the taste buds. e) consists of the olfactory and vestibulocochlear nerves. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 6) These receptor cells provide for the sense of taste. a) Olfactory hair cells b) Pacinian corpuscles c) Basal stem cells d) Hair cells e) Gustatory cells Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 7) Taste buds are found on a) the epiglottis. b) the pharynx. c) the soft palate. d) both epiglottis and pharynx. e) All of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 8) Which of the following types of papillae do NOT contain taste buds? a) Vallate b) Fungiform c) Foliate d) Filiform e) Circumvallate Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 9) Which of the following nerves conducts impulses associated with the sense of gustation? a) Vestibulocochlear b) Oculomotor c) Vagus d) Trigeminal e) Spinal accessory Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 10) Which is NOT considered an accessory structure of the eye? a) Eyelids b) Eyelashes c) Lacrimal apparatus d) Eyebrows e) Retina Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 11) Which of the following is the space between the upper and lower eyelids? a) Palpebral fissure b) Levator palpebrae c) Lacrimal caruncle d) Lateral commissure e) Conjunctiva Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 12) This is a thin mucous membrane that protects the inner aspect of the eyelids and the portion of the sclera covering the anterior surface of the eyeball. a) Palpebral fissure b) Conjunctiva c) Lateral commissure d) Cornea e) Choroid Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 13) Infection of a sebaceous ciliary gland can result in a) blood shot eyes. b) inhibition of tear production. c) a sty. d) glaucoma. e) blindness. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision Question type: Essay 14) List the cells, structures, and fluids that light must pass through to reach the photoreceptor cells. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision Solution: Cornea, Aqueous humor, Pupil, Lens, Vitreous humor, Ganglion cells, Bipolar cells, Photoreceptor cells. Question type: Multiple Choice 15) Which is the correct order in the flow of tears? a) Lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity b) Lacrimal gland, lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, nasolacrimal duct, lacrimal sac, nasal cavity c) Lacrimal gland, lacrimal duct, nasolacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasal cavity d) Lacrimal gland, lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity e) Lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal duct, nasal cavity Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 16) How many extrinsic eye muscles are responsible for moving each eye? a) 10 b) 12 c) 6 d) 4 e) 20 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 17) This is the transparent layer on the anterior of the eyeball through which the iris can be observed. a) Retina b) Choroid c) Sclera d) Ciliary body e) Cornea Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 18) The main function of this structure is to regulate the amount of light entering the eyeball through the pupil. a) Retina b) Cornea c) Iris d) Choroid e) Ciliary muscle Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 19) The lens is made of layers of proteins called a) choroids. b) ciliary bodies. c) crystallins. d) cones. e) rods. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 20) This lies between the lens and the retina. a) Vitreous chamber b) Anterior chamber c) Anterior cavity d) Cornea e) Aqueous humor Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 21) This outer layer of dense connective tissue serves to protect the inner parts of the eyeball. a) Sclera b) Pupil c) Iris d) Cornea e) Retina Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 22) This darkly pigmented structure reduces light reflection within the eyeball. a) Sclera b) Conjunctiva c) Iris d) Choroid e) Retina Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 23) Which of the types of receptors listed below is primarily used for detecting light rays under bright light conditions? a) olfactory hair cells b) rods c) cones d) ganglion neurons e) amacrine cells Register to View Answer Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 24) The first step in the visual transduction process that occurs in the retina is a) activation of amacrine cells. b) absorption of scattered light by the pigmented epithelium. c) interruption of the dark current. d) absorption of light by photopigments. e) generation of action potentials in the optic nerve. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 25) Binocular vision a) gives better depth perception. b) provides more accurate color vision. c) is only seen in humans. d) occurs when one eye focuses on two separate objects. e) is all of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.2 Discuss image formation by describing refraction, accommodation, and constriction of the pupil. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 26) When sound waves strike this structure, they cause it to vibrate back and forth. a) cochlea b) pinna c) tympanic membrane d) organ of Corti e) vestibulocochlear nerve Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.2 List the major events in the physiology of hearing. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 27) Which of the structures listed below converts vibrations in the endolymph into action potentials? a) macula b) pinna c) tympanic membrane d) organ of Corti e) cupula Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.2 List the major events in the physiology of hearing. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 28) Which of the following structures carries action potentials generated by sound transduction? a) vagus nerve b) basilar membrane c) tympanic membrane d) organ of Corti e) vestibulocochlear nerve Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.2 List the major events in the physiology of hearing. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 29) Which of the following structures senses change in rotational acceleration of the head in order to help maintain dynamic equilibrium? a) cochlea b) semicircular canals c) maculae of the vestibule d) organ of Corti e) vestibulocochlear nerve Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.4 Describe the auditory and equilibrium pathways. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 30) Which of the labeled papilla houses 100300 taste buds each? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) Both A and D Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 31) Which of the labeled papilla have taste buds that degenerate in early childhood? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) Both B and C Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 32) Which of the labeled papilla are mushroom-shaped elevations that can contain about five taste buds each? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) All of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 33) This is a thin protective mucous membrane composed of stratified squamous epithelium with numerous goblet cells. a) A and B b) B and D c) C and A d) D and C e) B and E Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 34) This secretes a fluid that keeps the eyelids from sticking to each other. a) D b) E c) F d) G e) None of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 35) Where is the lacrimal caruncle? a) A b) B c) C d) F e) None of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 36) Where is the optic nerve? a) C b) D c) E d) F e) None of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 37) Where is the choroid? a) F b) E c) D d) G e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 38) Where is the sclera? a) F b) E c) D d) G e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 39) What contains aqueous humor? a) A b) G c) H d) F e) D Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 40) Where is the ciliary body? a) A b) B c) C d) H e) F Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 41) Which labeled structure is the blind spot of the eye? a) A b) B c) C d) G e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 42) Where is the bipolar cell layer? a) A b) B c) C d) D Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 43) Where is the ganglion cell layer? a) A b) B c) C d) D Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 44) Where is the outer synaptic layer? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) All of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.1 List and describe the accessory structures of the eye and the structural components of the eyeball. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 45) Which figure illustrates farsightedness before it has been corrected? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.2 Discuss image formation by describing refraction, accommodation, and constriction of the pupil. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 46) Which figure illustrates nearsightedness before it has been corrected? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.2 Discuss image formation by describing refraction, accommodation, and constriction of the pupil. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 47) Which labeled step(s) represents regeneration of active photopigment? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) Both 1 and 3 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 48) Which labeled step(s) represents bleaching of the photopigment? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) Both 2 and 4 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 49) Where is the internal auditory canal? a) C b) D c) E d) F e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.1 Describe the anatomy of the structures in the three main regions of the ear. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 50) This structure is a thin semi-transparent partition between the external auditory canal and the middle ear. a) K b) G c) J d) F e) E Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.1 Describe the anatomy of the structures in the three main regions of the ear. Section 1: Reference 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 51) These are the auditory ossicles. a) A, B, C b) A, C, G c) A, B, J d) J, C, G e) C, D, G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.1 Describe the anatomy of the structures in the three main regions of the ear. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 52) This portion of the inner ear is divided into three channels. a) C b) G c) H d) J e) None of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.1 Describe the anatomy of the structures in the three main regions of the ear. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium Question type: Essay 53) Explain the process by which smell sensations are sensed and perceived. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.2 Outline the neural pathway for olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell Solution: Odorant molecules dissolve in mucus secreted by the olfactory epithelium and bind to receptors on olfactory hairs, triggering a generator potential in the olfactory receptor cells. In some cases the binding activates a G protein in the plasma membrane that activates adenylate cyclase that opens sodium ion channels. If the generator potential is above threshold, action potentials are generated in the axons of the olfactory receptor cells (first-order neurons). These axons transmit impulses via cranial nerve I through the olfactory foramina of the cribiform plate and terminate in the olfactory bulbs, where they synapse with second-order neurons. Axons from these neurons form the olfactory tracts, which transmit impulses to the olfactory area in the temporal lobe. Other important brain areas that receive impulses from the olfactory tracts include the limbic system, the hypothalamus, and the orbitofrontal area. 54) Emily was very ill with an upper respiratory infection. Her roommate gave her some chicken soup to make her feel better. Neither Emily nor her roommate realized that the soup was too hot to eat until after Emily put a spoonful in her mouth. Now Emily says she cant taste anything. Why? When will she be able to taste again? Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste Solution: Emily probably already had trouble smelling her food because of her infection. The hot soup probably damaged her taste buds, especially the ones on the front and sides of her tongue. Those taste buds are more sensitive to sweet, sour and salty tastes. The ones at the back of the tongue are sensitive to bitter tastes, and the ones in the throat are sensitive to umami tastes. The taste buds are epithelial tissues and should heal in a few days or so. When they do, Emily will be able to taste again. 55) List and briefly describe the three processes that are used by the eye to form a clear image of object on the retina. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.2 Discuss image formation by describing refraction, accommodation, and constriction of the pupil. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision Solution: 1) Refraction involves bending light rays as they move through different media in the eye to eventually form a focused inverted image on the central fovea, 2) Accommodation of the lens for near/distance vision involves changing the shape of lens using the ciliary muscle to help focus light rays on retina, and 3) Constriction of pupil involves an ANS reflex that helps prevent scattering of light through edges of lens. 56) Deafness can occur for many reasons. Use your knowledge of the structure of the ear and the process of detecting sound, to propose a mechanism for how arthritis could cause deafness. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.2 List the major events in the physiology of hearing. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium Solution: Arthritis results when synovial joints are damaged and can no longer move freely. The joints between the ossicles, found in the middle ear, are synovial joints. If they became stiff from arthritis and their movements were limited, sound waves striking the tympanic membrane would not be efficiently transferred to the oval window of the cochlea. Without that transmission, the fluid in the cochlea cannot move the hair cells on the organ of Corti. If those hair cells do not move, no impulses relaying information about sound can be generated. 57) Differentiate between static and dynamic equilibrium. Describe the inner ear structures involved in receiving and transducing sensations involved in maintaining both types of equilibria. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.3 Identify the receptor organs for equilibrium, and describe how they function. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium Solution: Static equilibrium is the maintenance of body position relative to gravity. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. Hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule bend are used to detect changes that help maintain static equilibrium. Hair cells in the cristae of semicircular ducts are used to detect changes involved in maintaining dynamic equilibrium. Question type: Multiple Choice 58) Which part of the diagram contains the olfactory bulb neurons? a) A b) B c) E d) F e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 59) Which part of the diagram contains the axons from olfactory bulb neurons? a) B b) G c) E d) F e) L Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 60) Where in the diagram is the cribriform plate located? a) B b) K c) C d) D e) E Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 61) Which structure in the diagram produces mucus? a) C b) A c) F d) G e) I Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 62) Which cells are the precursor cells of the olfactory receptors? a) F b) D c) C d) G e) I Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 63) Which of the cells in the diagram is a developing olfactory receptor? a) F b) D c) C d) E e) G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 64) Which of the cells in the diagram are the first order neurons of the olfactory pathway? a) F b) D c) C d) E e) G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 65) Which of the cells in the diagram provide physical support, nourishment and electrical insulation for the olfactory receptors? a) F b) D c) C d) E e) G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 66) Which labeled structure in the diagram represents an odorant molecule? a) H b) G c) C d) J e) D Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 67) Which structure labeled in the diagram contains the receptors that bind the inhaled chemicals? a) H b) G c) I d) E e) L Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 68) Which structure in the diagram is a dendrite? a) H b) D c) G d) E e) L Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 69) Which structure in the diagram is the olfactory epithelium? a) C b) D c) G d) K e) F Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.1 Describe the olfactory receptors and the neural pathway for olfaction. Learning Objective 2: 17.1.1 Describe the structure of the olfactory receptors and other cells involved in olfaction. Section Reference 1: 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 70) Which cells in the diagram are the stem cells that develop into gustatory receptor cells? a) B b) C c) D d) G e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 71) Which cell in the diagram is the supporting cell? a) B b) C c) D d) G e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 72) Which of the following is the correct order for development of a functional gustatory receptor cell? a) A > B > C b) D > G > C c) G > C > D d) C > G > D e) G > D > C Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 73) Which structure in the diagram has a single long microvillus projecting to the external surface through the taste pore? a) E b) C c) D d) G e) H Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 74) Which structure in the diagram is an opening in the taste bud? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 75) The plasma membrane of which structure in the diagram is the initiation site of taste transduction? a) F b) B c) D d) E e) G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 76) Which structure in the diagram are first-order sensory neurons? a) D b) B c) C d) E e) G Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 77) Which structure in the diagram of a taste bud is a stratified squamous epithelial cell? a) H b) C c) D d) G e) F Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.2 Describe the structure of gustatory receptors and the neural pathway for gustation. Section Reference 1: 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 78) Which of the following layers of the developing embryo do the eyes develop from? a) endoderm b) mesoderm c) ectoderm d) more than one layer contributes e) none of these choices Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 79) How many days after fertilization do the eyes begin to develop? a) 5 b) 150 c) 10 d) 22 e) 55 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 80) During embryonic development, the lens of the eye develops directly from an invagination of the lens placodes called the a) optic groove. b) optic vesicle. c) optic stalk. d) prosencephalon. e) lens vesicle. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 81) During embryonic development, the first portion of the ear to develop is the a) middle ear. b) internal ear. c) external ear. d) bony labyrinth. e) membranous labyrinth. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 82) How many days after fertilization do the ears begin to develop? a) 5 b) 150 c) 10 d) 22 e) 55 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 83) During embryonic development, the middle ear develops from a structure called the first a) pharyngeal pouch. b) pharyngeal cleft. c) otic placodes. d) otic vesicle. e) rhombencephalon. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 84) During embryonic development, the external ear develops from a structure called the first a) pharyngeal pouch. b) pharyngeal cleft. c) otic placodes. d) otic vesicle. e) rhombencephalon. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.1 Describe the development of the eyes and the ears. Section Reference 1: 17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 85) Presbycusis refers to age-associated a) progressive loss of hearing in one ear. b) progressive loss of hearing in both ears. c) progressive loss of near-vision. d) otitis media. e) vertigo. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.2 Describe the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Section Reference 1: 17.6 Aging and the Special Senses 86) Cataract leads to blindness due to a) loss of transparency of the lens. b) a high intraocular pressure. c) photophobia. d) scotoma. e) trachoma. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.5 Describe the development of the eyes and ears and the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Learning Objective 2: 17.5.2 Describe the age-related changes that occur in the eyes and ears. Section Reference 1: 17.6 Aging and the Special Senses 87) Which of the following molecules is capable of detecting light rays that strike the photopigments in the retina? a) cGMP b) opsin portion of rhodopsin c) cis-retinal d) melanin e) retinal isomerase Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 88) Which of the following statements accurately describes the changes in the membrane potential of a photoreceptor cell when light rays strike its photopigments? a) The photoreceptor cell undergoes rapid depolarization. b) The photoreceptor cell undergoes hyperpolarization. c) A graded potential proportional to the intensity of the light stimulus occurs in the photoreceptor cell. d) No changes in the membrane potential occur. e) The photoreceptor cell creates action potentials at a frequency proportional to the intensity of the light stimulus. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 89) The axons of the ganglion neurons of the retina terminate in the a) optic disk. b) optic chiasm. c) visual cortex of cerebrum. d) lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. e) primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.3 Describe the structural and functional components of the eye and those of the vision pathway. Learning Objective 2: 17.3.3 Describe the processing of visual signals in the retina and the neural pathway for vision. Section Reference 1: 17.3 Vision 90) Which sensory structure in the inner ear is capable of sensing rapid rotation of your head to the left? a) macula of the saccule b) macule of the utricle c) crista of a semicircular duct d) organ of Corti e) None of these choices can sense angular acceleration. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.3 Identify the receptor organs for equilibrium, and describe how they function. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 91) Which of the following are structures of the membranous labyrinth of the inner that are involved in dynamic and static equilibrium? a) vestibule b) saccule c) cochlear duct d) semicircular ducts e) More than one of the above is correct. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.3 Identify the receptor organs for equilibrium, and describe how they function. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 92) Which of the following structures contains otoliths (ear stones)? a) macula of the saccule b) cupula of the crista c) tectorial membrane of the organ of Corti d) basilar membrane of the cochlear duct e) tympanic membrane Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.3 Identify the receptor organs for equilibrium, and describe how they function. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 93) The vestibular nuclei of the brainstem that control equilibrium receives sensory information from all the following areas EXCEPT the a) utricle and saccule. b) semicircular ducts. c) eyes d) proprioceptors in the neck muscles. e) nociceptors in the distal limbs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.4 Describe the auditory and equilibrium pathways. Section Reference 1: 17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 94) Nerve impulses for the sense of hearing are initiated in the spiral organ (organ of Corti) and then travel through the _________ to the _________. a) cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII; pons b) cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII; medulla oblongata c) vestibular branch of cranial nerve VIII; pons d) vestibular branch of cranial nerve VIII; medulla oblongata e) facial nerve; auditory cortex Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 17.4 Describe the structural and functional components of the ear and those of the hearing and equilibrium pathways. Learning Objective 2: 17.4.4 Describe the auditory and equilibrium pathways. 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