Chapter_4
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Chapter_4

Course Number: BA 404, Spring 2012

College/University: RMIT Vietnam

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Chapter 4 Negotiation Strategy and Planning Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Without effective planning and target setting, results occur more by ____________ than by negotiator effort. Answer: chance Page: 107 2. Effective goals must be ____________, ____________, and ____________. Answer: concrete, specific, measurable Page: 109 3. Tactics are subordinate to strategy; they are structured, directed and driven by...

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4 Negotiation Chapter Strategy and Planning Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Without effective planning and target setting, results occur more by ____________ than by negotiator effort. Answer: chance Page: 107 2. Effective goals must be ____________, ____________, and ____________. Answer: concrete, specific, measurable Page: 109 3. Tactics are subordinate to strategy; they are structured, directed and driven by ____________ considerations. Answer: strategic Page: 111 4. A negotiator's unilateral choice of strategy is reflected in the answers to two simple questions: how much concern does the actor have for achieving the ____________ outcomes at stake in this negotiation, and how much concern does the negotiator have for the current and future quality of the ____________ with the other party? Answer: substantive, relationship Page: 112 5. A strong interest in achieving only substantive outcomes tends to support a ____________ strategy. Answer: competitive (or distributive) Page: 112 6. The decision to negotiate is closely related to the desirability of ____________ ____________. Answer: available alternatives Page: 113 7. ____________ strategies tend to create "we-they" or "superiority-inferiority" patterns, which often lead to distortions in judgment regarding the other side's contributions and efforts, and to distortions in perceptions of the other side's values, needs and positions. Answer: Distributive Page: 114 8. ____________ strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight. Answer: Accommodative Page: 114 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 39 9. Negotiation, like communication in problem-solving groups, proceeds through distinct ____________ or ____________. Answer: phases, stages Page: 116 10. An initiation (or beginning) phase, problem-solving (or middle) phase and an ending (or resolution) phase are descriptive of ____________ negotiations. Answer: successful Page: 116 11. According to Greenhalgh's stage model of negotiation, ____________ is extremely critical to satisfactorily moving the other stages forward. Answer: relationship building Page: 116 12. ____________ is the process by which each party states their opening offer. Answer: Bidding Page: 118 13. The dominant force for success in negotiation is in the ____________ that takes place prior to the dialogue. Answer: planning Page: 118 14. Multiple-issue negotiations lend themselves more to ____________ negotiations. Answer: integrative Page: 121 15. ____________ issues are often difficult to discuss and rank-order. Answer: Intangible Page: 123 16. ____________ are the points where you decide that you should stop the negotiation rather than continue, because any settlement beyond this point is not minimally acceptable. Answer: Limits (resistance point, reservations prices, walkaway points are also acceptable) Page: 125 17. ____________ are other agreements negotiators could achieve and still meet their needs. Answer: Alternatives Page: 125 18. A ____________ ____________ is the place where you decide that you should absolutely stop the negotiation rather than continue because any settlement beyond this point is not minimally acceptable. Answer: resistance point Page: 125 19. ____________ ____________ often requires considering how to package several issues and objectives. Answer: Target setting Page: 126 40 Test Bank, Chapter 4 20. A "field analysis" is one way to assess all the key parties in a ____________. Answer: negotiation Page: 127 21. In a ____________ negotiation, the other party may be less likely to disclose information, and/or may misrepresent their limits and alternatives. Answer: distributive Page: 132 22. ____________ are potential hurdles that can move one in the wrong direction. Answer: Assumptions Page: 133 23. When the other side raises an unexpected issue the negotiator is completely unprepared to discuss, the experienced negotiator may ask for a ____________ to get information and prepare themselves on the new issue. Answer: recess Page: 135 24. ____________ is the most critically important activity in negotiation. Answer: Planning Page: 137 25. Having a sense of direction and the ____________ derived from it is a very important factor in affecting negotiating outcomes. Answer: confidence Page: 137 True/False Questions T F 26. Negotiators usually set clear objectives that can serve as standards for evaluating offers and packages. Register to View AnswerPage: 107 T F 27. If what we want exceeds what the other party is capable of or willing to give, we must either change our goals or end the negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 109 T F 28. The pursuit of only a singular, substantive goal often tends to support the choice of a competitive strategy. Register to View AnswerPage: 112 T F 29. If both substance and relationship outcomes are important, the negotiator should pursue a competitive strategy. Register to View AnswerPage: 112 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 41 T T F 31. Distributive strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight. Register to View AnswerPage: 114 T F 32. The objective of "closing the deal" is to build commitment to the agreement. Register to View AnswerPage: 118 T F 33. The dominant force for success in negotiation is in the dialogue that takes place prior to the planning. Register to View AnswerPage: 118 T F 34. A single planning process can be followed for both a distributive and an integrative process. Register to View AnswerPage: 119 T F 35. All negotiations consist of multiple issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 119 T F 36. Single-issue negotiations can often be made integrative by working to decrease the number of issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 121 T F 37. Single-issue negotiations and the absence of a long-term relationship with the other party are the strongest drivers of claiming value strategies. Register to View AnswerPage: 121 T F 38. Large bargaining mixes allow many possible components and arrangements for settlement. Register to View AnswerPage: 123 T F 39. It is important to set priorities and possibly assign points for both tangible and intangible issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 123 T 42 F 30. A competitive strategy would be appropriate when the relationship outcome is relatively more important to the strategizer than the substantive outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 113 F 40. Interests may be process-based and relationship-based. Test Bank, Chapter 4 Register to View Answer Page 124 T F 41. Interests are what a negotiator wants. Register to View AnswerPage: 124 T F 42. Alternatives are very important in both distributive and integrative processes because they define whether the current outcome is better than any other possibility. Register to View AnswerPage: 125 T F 43. It is not possible to evaluate packages the same way as evaluating individual issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 126 T F 44. If intangibles are a key point of the bargaining mix, negotiators must know the point at which they are willing to abandon the pursuit of an intangible in favor of substantial gains on tangibles. Register to View AnswerPage: 127 T F 45. Context issues (e.g., history of the relationship) can affect negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 129 T F 46. Gathering information about the other party is a critical step in preparing for negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 130 T F 47. It is sufficient to learn about the other party's interests and resources. Register to View AnswerPage: 130 T F 48. In a distributive negotiation, the other party may be less likely to disclose information about their limits and alternatives. Register to View AnswerPage: 132 T F 49. Drawing up a firm list of issues before the initial negotiation meeting is a valuable process because it forces negotiators to think through their positions and decide on objectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 135 T F 50. In new bargaining relationships, discussions about procedural issues should occur after the major substantive issues are raised. Register to View AnswerPage: 136 Multiple Choice Questions Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 43 51.What are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives? Register to View AnswerEffective strategizing, planning and preparation 52. Which of the following is not a reason that negotiations fail? Register to View AnswerUnderstanding the strengths and weaknesses of their and the other party's positions 53. A negotiator's goals: Register to View Answermust be reasonably attainable 54. The less concrete and measurable goals are: Register to View Answerthe harder it is to communicate to the other party what we want 55. Which is not a difference between strategy and tactics? Register to View AnswerGoals 56. A strong interest in achieving only substantive outcomes tends to support which of the following strategies? Register to View Answercompetitive 57. A strong interest in achieving only the relationship outcomes suggests one, if any, of the following strategies. Which one? Register to View Answeraccommodation 58. Avoidance could best be used when: Register to View Answerthe available alternatives are very strong 59. Which one of the following is as much a win-lose strategy as competition, although it has a decidedly different image? Register to View Answeraccommodation 60.Characteristics of collaborative strategies include: Register to View Answerall of the above 61.In an accommodative negotiation, the relationships have: Register to View Answermay be either short term or long term 62. Accommodative strategies emphasize: Register to View AnswerSubordinating one's own in goals favor of those of others. 63. Getting to know the other party and understanding similarities and differences represents what key step in the negotiation process: Register to View Answerrelationship building 64. The general structure of a phase model of negotiations involves: Register to View AnswerThree phases: initiation; problem-solving; resolution 65. Which is not a key step to an ideal negotiation process? Register to View AnswerAll of the above are key steps 66.What is the dominant force for success in negotiation? Register to View Answerthe planning that takes place prior to the dialogue 67. Effective planning requires hard work on the following points: Register to View AnswerAll of the above 68.Interests can be: Register to View Answerall of the above 69.Which is not true of limits? Register to View AnswerThey should be ignored in a bidding war 70. Does any of the following represent the point at which we realistically expect to achieve a settlement? Register to View Answerspecific target point 71. Which represents the best deal we can possibly hope to achieve? Register to View Answerasking price 72. Reactive strategies: Register to View Answercan make negotiators feel threatened and defensive 44 Test Bank, Chapter 4 73. If the other party has a strong and viable alternative, he/she will Register to View Answerset and push for high objectives 74. A negotiator should ask which of the following questions when presenting issues to the other party to assemble information. Register to View AnswerAll of the above questions should be asked. 75.Under which of the following questions of protocol would you find a bargaining relationship discussion about procedural issues that should occur before the major substantive ones have been raised? Register to View AnswerHow will we keep track of what is agreed to? 76. What are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives? Answer: Effective strategy and planning Page: 107 77. What are the three types of goals? Answer: Tangibles, intangibles and procedural Page: 109 78. Define goal. Register to View Answergoal is a specific, focused realistic target that one can specifically plan to achieve. Page: 109 79. Why is important for goals to be concrete, specific and measurable? Answer: The less concrete and measurable they are, the harder it is to communicate to the other party what we want, to understand what he/she wants, and to determine whether any particular outcome satisfies our goals. Page: 109 80. How does the single episodic assumption affect our choice of strategy? Answer: Developing and framing goals in the view of a single negotiation episode allows us to ignore the relationship (and future dealings) with the other party in favor of a simplistic concern for achieving only the substantive outcome. Page: 110 81. Define strategy and tactics. Answer: Tactics are short-term, adaptive moves designed to enact or pursue broader (or higher level) strategies, which in turn provide stability, continuity, and direction for tactical behaviors. Page: 110, 111 82. What are the four types of initial strategies for negotiators? Answer: Competition, collaboration, accommodation and avoidance Page: 112 83. What strategic negotiation purposes can be served by avoidance? Answer: First, if you are able to meet your needs without negotiating at all, it may make sense to use an avoidance strategy. Second, it simply may not be worth the time and effort to negotiate. Third, the decision to negotiate is closely related to the desirability of available alternatives what outcomes the negotiator can hope to achieve if negotiations fall through or don't work out. Finally, avoidance may be appropriate when the negotiator is responsible for developing others into becoming better negotiators. Page: 113 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 45 84. What is the primary goal in the use of the strategy of accommodation? Answer: To build or strengthen the relationship (or the other party) and the negotiator is willing to sacrifice the outcome. Page: 114 85. What is a drawback of accommodation strategies? Answer: Accommodation strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight. Page: 114 86. Why is it important to understand the typical steps or flow in a negotiation? Answer: To understand how negotiations are likely to evolve and why planning is so important. Page: 116 87. What are the types of questions typically addressed by phase research? Answer: How does the interaction between parties change over time? How do the interaction structures relate to inputs and outcomes over time? How do the tactics affect the development of the negotiation? Page: 116 88. Define Relationship building, a key step in an ideal negotiation. Answer: Relationship building is getting to know the other party, understanding how you and the other are similar and different, and building commitment toward achieving a mutually beneficial set of outcomes. Page: 116 89. Research by Greenhalgh suggests there are seven key steps to an ideal negotiation process. What are those seven steps? Answer: (1) Preparation, (2) relationship building, (3) information gathering, (4) information using, (5) bidding, (6) closing the deal, and (7) implementing the agreement. Page: 117 90. Which of the Greenhalgh seven steps of negotiation do Asian negotiators spend a great deal of time on? Answer: Relationship building Page: 118 91. What specific steps are entailed in effective planning? Answer: Defining the issues; assembling issues and defining the bargaining mix; defining interests; defining limits and alternatives; defining one's own objectives (targets) and opening bids (where to start); assessing constituents and the social context in which the negotiation will occur; analyzing the other party; planning the issue presentation and defense; defining protocol where and when the negotiation will occur, who will be there, agenda, etc. Page: 118 92. Define bargaining mix. Answer: The combined lists of issues from each side in the negotiation. Page: 123 46 Test Bank, Chapter 4 93. What are the advantages and disadvantages of large bargaining mixes? Answer: Large bargaining mixes give us more possible components and arrangements for settlement, thus increasing the likelihood that a particular package will meet both parties' needs and, therefore, increasing the likelihood of a successful settlement. At the same time, larger bargaining mixes can lengthen negotiations because there are more possible combinations of issues to consider and combining and evaluating all these mixes makes things very complex. Page: 123 94. Why may bargainers want to consider "giving away something for nothing?" Answer: Even if an issue is unimportant or inconsequential to you, it may be valuable or attractive to another. Awareness of the actual or likely value of such concessions to the parties can considerably enrich the value that you offer to the other at little or no cost to yourself. Page: 127 95. What information do we need about the other party to prepare effectively? Answer: The other party's current resources, interests, and bargaining mix. The other party's interests and needs. The other party's resistance point and alternative(s). The other party's targets and objectives. The other party's reputation and negotiation style. The other party's constituents, social structure and authority to make an agreement. The other party's likely strategy and tactics. Page: 130 96. What are the advantages and disadvantages of limiting a negotiator's authority? Answer: Advantages: Negotiators kept on a "short leash" cannot be won over by a persuasive presentation to commit their constituency to something that is not wanted. They cannot give out sensitive information carelessly. Disadvantages: When a negotiator always has to "check things out" with those he represents, the other party may refuse to continue until someone who has the power to answer questions and make decisions is brought to the table. The limited authority may frustrate the other and create an unproductive tension in the negotiating relationship. Page: 132 97. What is the danger about making assumptions to predict the other party's negotiating behavior? Answer: We can use the information to prepare, to alert ourselves to what might happen; but we should also act with caution and actively look for new information that confirms or denies the validity of our assumption. There is often a tendency to seek and recognize information confirming our desires and assumptions, while failing to seek or recognize "disconfirming" information that counters them. Page: 133 98. What elements of the negotiation protocol might it be useful to prenegotiate? Answer: What agenda to follow, the location of the negotiation, the time period of the negotiation, what might be done if the negotiation fails, how to keep track of what is agreed to, how to recognize a good agreement. Page: 135, 136 99. Why is note taking critical? Answer: The person with the best notes becomes the memory of the session, can take some license in the drafting of the agreement and will have something that can be reviewed by experts and specialists. Page: 136 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 47 100. What is likely to happen to a negotiator who resolves procedural issues before the major substantive ones are raised? Answer: The negotiator should find it easier to reach agreement later on the substantive issues. Page: 136 48 Test Bank, Chapter 4
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