Unit 9  ocean test at UTdallas
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Unit 9 ocean test at UTdallas

Course: ISNS 3367, Spring 2012

School: UT Dallas

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Chapter 15 Agnatha The class of jawless fishes: hagfishes and lampreys. ahermatypic Describing coral species lacking symbiotic zooxanthellae and incapable of secreting calcium carbonate at a rate suitable for reef production. animal A multicellular organism unable to synthesize its own food and often capable of movement. Animalia The kingdom to which multicellular heterotrophs belong. Annelida The phylum of...

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15 Agnatha The Chapter class of jawless fishes: hagfishes and lampreys. ahermatypic Describing coral species lacking symbiotic zooxanthellae and incapable of secreting calcium carbonate at a rate suitable for reef production. animal A multicellular organism unable to synthesize its own food and often capable of movement. Animalia The kingdom to which multicellular heterotrophs belong. Annelida The phylum of animals to which segmented worms belong. Arthropoda The phylum of animals that includes shrimp, lobsters, krill, barnacles, and insects. The phylum Arthropoda is the worlds most successful. Asteroidea The class of the phylum Echinodermata to which sea stars belong. Aves The class of birds. baleen The interleaved, hard, fibrous, hornlike filters within the mouth of baleen whales. bilateral symmetry Body structure having left and right sides that are approximate mirror images of each other. Examples are crabs and humans. Compare radial symmetry. Bivalvia The class of the phylum Mollusca that includes clams, oysters, and mussels. Carnivora The order of mammals that includes seals, sea lions, walruses, and sea otters. cartilage A tough, elastic tissue that stiffens or supports. Cephalopoda The class of the phylum Mollusca that includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cetacea The order of mammals that includes porpoises, dolphins, and whales. chitin A complex nitrogen-rich carbohydrate from which parts of arthropod exoskeletons are constructed. chiton A marine mollusk of the class Polyplacophora. Chondrichthyes The class of fishes with cartilaginous skeletons: the sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras. Chordata The phylum of animals to which tunicates, Amphioxus, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals belong. chromatophore A pigmented skin cell that expands or contracts to affect color change. Cnidaria The phylum of animals to which corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones belong. cnidoblast Type of cell found in members of the phylum Cnidaria that contains a stinging capsule. The threads that evert from the capsules assist in capturing prey and repelling aggressors. consumer A ctrophic organism. coral Any of more than 6,000 species of small cnidarians, many of which are capable of generating hard calcareous (aragonite, CaCO3) skeletons. countershading A camouflage pattern featuring a dark upper surface and a lighter bottom surface. Crustacea The class of phylum Arthropoda to which lobsters, shrimp, crabs, barnacles, and copepods belong. cryptic coloration Camouflage; may be active (under control of the animal) or passive (an unalterable color or shape). drag The resistance to movement of an organism induced by the fluid through which it swims. Echinodermata The phylum of exclusively marine animals to which sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers belong. Echinoidea The class of the phylum Echinodermata to which sea urchins and sand dollars belong. echolocation The use of reflected sound to detect environmental objects. Cetaceans use echolocation to detect prey and avoid obstacles. ectotherm An organism incapable of generating and maintaining steady internal temperature from metabolic heat and therefore whose internal body temperature is approximately the same as that of the surrounding environment; a cold-blooded organism. endotherm An organism capable of generating and regulating metabolic heat to maintain a steady internal temperature. Birds and mammals are the only animals capable of true endothermy. A warm-blooded organism. exoskeleton A strong, lightweight, form-fitted external covering and support common to animals of the phylum Arthropoda. The exoskeleton is made partly of chitin and may be strengthened by calcium carbonate. Fissipedia The carnivoran suborder that includes sea otters. gas exchange Simultaneous passage, through a semipermeable membrane, of oxygen into an animal and carbon dioxide out of it. Gastropoda The class of the phylum Mollusca that includes snails and sea slugs. gill membrane The thin boundary of living cells separating blood from water in a fishs (or other aquatic animals) gills. hermatypic Describing coral species possessing symbiotic zooxanthellae within their tissues and capable of secreting calcium carbonate at a rate suitable for reef production. Holothuroidea The class of the phylum Echinodermata to which sea cucumbers belong. invertebrate Animal lacking a backbone. lateral-line system A system of sensors and nerves in the head and midbody of fishes and some amphibians that functions to detect low-frequency vibrations in water. Mammalia The class of mammals. medusa Free-swimming body form of many members of the phylum Cnidaria. metamerism Segmentation; repeating body parts. metrophagy Tendency for large reptiles to eat entire cities. Mollusca The phylum of animals that includes chitons, snails, clams, and octopuses. molt To shed an external covering. Mysticeti The suborder of baleen whales. Nematoda The phylum of animals to which roundworms belong. notochord Stiffening structure found at some time in the life cycle of all members of the phylum Chordata. Odontoceti The suborder of toothed whales. Ophiuroidea The class of the phylum Echinodermata to which brittle stars belong. osmoregulation The ability to adjust internal salt concentration. Osteichthyes The class of fishes with bony skeletons. oxygen revolution The time span, from about 2 billion to 400 million years ago, during which photosynthetic autotrophs changed the composition of Earths atmosphere to its current oxygenrich mixture. phylum One of the major groups of the animal kingdom whose members share a similar body plan, level of complexity, and evolutionary history (see Appendix VI). (Plural, phyla.) (The major groups of the plant kingdom are called divisions.) Pinnipedia The carnivoran suborder that contains the seals, sea lions, and walruses. Platyhelminthes The phylum of animals to which flatworms belong. Polychaeta The largest and most diverse class of phylum Annelida. Nearly all polychaetes are marine. polyp One of two body forms of Cnidaria. Polyps are cup-shaped and possess rings of tentacles. Coral animals are polyps. Porifera The phylum of animals to which sponges belong. prey An organism consumed by a predator. radial symmetry Body structure in which the body parts radiate from a central axis like spokes from a wheel. An example is a sea star. Compare bilateral symmetry. Reptilia The class of reptiles, including turtles, crocodiles, iguanas, and snakes. salt gland Specialized tissue responsible for concentration and excretion of excess salt from blood and other body fluids. schooling Tendency of small fish of a single species, size, and age to mass in groups. The school moves as a unit, which confuses predators and reduces the eff ort spent searching for mates. secondary consumer Consumer of primary consumers. Sirenia The order of mammals that includes manatees, dugongs, and the extinct sea cows. suspension feeder An animal that feeds by straining or otherwise collecting plankton and tiny food particles from the surrounding water. swim bladder A gas-filled organ that assists in maintaining neutral buoyancy in some bony fishes. Teleostei The osteichthyan order that contains the cod, tuna, halibut, perch, and other species of bony fishes. tunicate A type of suspension-feeding invertebrate chordate. turbulence Chaotic fluid flow. vertebrate A chordate with a segmented backbone. viscosity Resistance to fluid flow. A measure of the internal friction in fluids. water-vascular system System of water-filled tubes and canals found in some representatives of the phylum Echinodermata and used for movement, defense, and feeding. zooxanthellae Unicellular dinoflagellates that are symbiotic with coral and that produce the relatively high pH and some of the enzymes essential for rapid calcium-carbonate deposition in coral reefs. Chapter 16 Biodiversity: The variety of different species within a habitat. Brackish: Describing water intermediate in salinity between seawater and fresh water. Carrying capacity: The size at which a particular population in a particular environment will stabilize when its supply of resources including nutrients, energy, and living spaceremains constant. Climax community: A stable, long-established community of self-perpetuating organisms that tends not to change with time. Clumped distribution: Distribution of organisms within a community in small, patchy aggregations, or clumps; the most common distribution pattern. Commensalism: A symbiotic interaction between two species in which only one species benefits and neither is harmed. Community: The populations of all species that occupy a particular habitat and interact within that habitat. Deep scattering layer (DSL): A relatively dense aggregation of fishes, squid, and other mesopelagic organisms capable of reflecting a sonar pulse that resembles a false bottom in the ocean. Its position varies with the time of day. Dependency: A feeding relationship in which an organism is limited to feeding on one species or, in extreme cases, on one size phase of one species. Deposition: Accumulation, usually of sediments. Desiccation: Drying. DSL: See deep scattering layer. Ecology: Study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment. Environmental resistance: All the limiting factors that act together to regulate the maximum allowable size, or carrying capacity, of a population. Estuary: A body of water partially surrounded by land where fresh water from a river mixes with ocean water, creating an area of remarkable biological productivity. Euryhaline: Describing an organism able to tolerate a wide range in salinity. Eurythermal: Describing an organism able to tolerate a wide variance in temperature. Extremophile: An organism capable of tolerating extreme environmental conditions, especially temperature or pH level. Habitat: The place where an individual or population of a given species lives; its mailing address. Intertidal zone: The marine zone between the highest high-tide point on a shoreline and the lowest low-tide point. The intertidal zone is sometimes subdivided into four separate habitats by height above tidal datum, typically numbered 1 to 4, land to sea. Motile: Able to move about. Mutualism: A symbiotic interaction between two species that is beneficial to both. Niche: Description of an organisms functional role in a habitat; its job. Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship in which one species spends part or all of its life cycle on or within another, using the host species (or food within the host) as a source of nutrients; the most common form of symbiosis. Population: A group of individuals of the same species occupying the same area. Population density: The number of individuals per unit area. random distribution Distribution of organisms within a community whereby the position of one organism is in no way influenced by the positions of other organisms or by physical variations within that community; a very rare distribution pattern. Sessile: Attached; nonmotile; unable to move about. Species-specific relationship: An exclusive relationship between two species. Parasites are usually species-specific; that is, they can usually parasitize only one species of host. Stenohaline: Describing an organism unable to tolerate a wide range in salinity. Stenothermal: Describing an organism unable to tolerate wide variance in temperature. Succession: The changes in species composition that lead to a climax community. Symbiosis: The co-occurrence of two species in which the life of one is closely interwoven with the life of the other; mutualism, commensalism, or parasitism. Uniform distribution: Distribution of organisms within a community characterized by equal space between individuals (the arrangement of trees in an orchard); the rarest natural distribution pattern. Wave shock: Physical movement, often sudden, violent, and of great force, caused by the crash of a wave against an organism. 1. Chapter 15-08 The physical characteristics and evolutionary advances that have led creatures in the phylum Arthropoda to their great evolutionary success are: ____. Possible Answers A. exoskeleton B. striated muscle C. articulation D. all of the above E. b & c Feedback General Feedback: Molluscs apparently have better developed nervous systems than arthropods, but the above evolutionary adaptations have made the arthropods a more successful phylum, especially when measuring success by the abundance of individuals and by the diversity of species. Score: 5/5 2. Chapter 15-06 Efficient metabolism and breakdown of food by most heterotrophs is dependent on an adequate supply of ____. Possible Answers A. nitrogen B. oxygen C. low pH digestive fluids D. ultraviolet radiation Feedback General Feedback: The more free oxygen there is in the atmosphere, the easier it is for heterotrophic creatures to metabolize their food. The "oxygen revolution" occurred about 2 billion years ago. It created a big spike in free atmospheric oxygen due to a logarithmic increase in oxygen-creating autotrophic phytoplankton. Score: 5/5 3. Chapter 16-09 The symbiotic interaction between zooxanthellae and coral polyps is a form of ____. Possible Answers A. commensalism, in which the symbiont benefits and the host is unaffected B. mutualism, in which both creatures benefit from the relationship C. parasitism, in which the symbiont gains at the host's expense D. none of the above Feedback General Feedback: The three types of symbiosis are mutualism (host benefits-symbiont benefits), commensalisms (host unaffected-symbiont benefits), and parasitism (host sufferssymbiont benefits). Notice that the symbiont, which is defined as the smaller creature, always benefits from the relationship. Score: 5/5 4. Chapter 15-24 Moray eels belong to the class ____. Possible Answers A. Agnatha B. Chondrichtyes C. Osteicthyes D. Gnathostomata Score: Feedback 5/5 5. Chapter 16-33 Primary production in hydrothermal vent communities is accomplished by photosynthesis. False Score: 5/5 6. Chapter 16-03 An organism that has a narrow tolerance for changes in environmental water salinity is said to be ____, while an organism that can adapt to a wide range of temperatures is said to be ____. Possible Answers A. euryhaline, eurythermal B. euryhaline, stenothermal C. stenohaline, eurythermal D. stenohaline, stenothermal Feedback General Feedback: The prefix "steno-" is from Greek "stenos" = narrow, small, and "eury-" is from "eurus" = wide. A stenobaric creature, like many rockfish, prefers a narrow range of pressure differences, while a eurytopic creature can handle a wide variety of changes in its environment. Score: 5/5 7. Chapter 15-11 The polyp and medusa forms are typical of which invertebrate phylum? Possible Answers A. Porifera B. Mollusca C. Arthropoda D. Cnidaria Feedback General Feedback: The jellyfish typify medusa the body type, while sea anemones and coral typify the polyp shape. Score: 5/5 8. Chapter 16-05 In analyzing the impact of competition on the success of a species, the text describes 2 species, the acorn barnacle ____, which lives in the high intertidal zone, while the other, a limpet called ____ lives in the low intertidal zone more often covered by water. Possible Answers A. Pollicipes, Tetraclita B. Chthamalus, Collisela C. Tetraclita, Pollicipes D. Balanus, Chthamalus Feedback General Feedback: While the genus names are not important here, the story told of the competition between them is. The fact that the planktonic larval stages of both types can live in conditions more varied and beyond the mature creature's boundaries is an adaptive mechanism. This ability allows greater opportunity for mutants of either type to work their way in to the other's territory, thus potentially enlarging their own range. There is a clear human corollary here at the borders of neighboring nations, such as in the Alsace-Lorraine region between Germany and France where, even though the two countries have been competing for territory for centuries, the people of the Alsace speak both languages fluently and have embraced both cultures. Score: 0/5 9. Chapter 16-20 Most of the deep-ocean floor is an area of endless sameness. It is usually dark, cold, hypersaline, and highly pressurized. The metabolic rate of organisms in cold water tends to be ____, so most deep-ocean animals require relatively little food, move ____, and live very ____ lives. Possible Answers A. low, quickly, short B. high, slowly, short C. high, quickly, long D. low, slowly, long Score: Feedback 5/5 10. Chapter 15-14 ____ is the phylum with greatest diversity of species. Possible Answers A. Mollusca B. Arthropoda C. Echinodermata D. Chordata Feedback General Feedback: The phylum Arthropoda not only has the greatest diversity of species, the arthropod lobster has what many species consider the tastiest invertebrate (unfortunately for the lobster population), and what many people consider the smartest. However, most behavioral observationists give the prize for smartest invertebrate to the octopus, a member of the mollusc family. Score: 5/5 11. Chapter 16-22 Not all vent-type communities are located on oceanic ridges, nor are they all in areas spouting hot water. Cold-seep communities tend to be ____ dramatic, but are theorized to be ____ widespread. Possible Answers A. less, more B. less, less C. more, less D. more, more Feedback Score: 5/5 12. Chapter 15-10 The most numerous and diverse class of the subkingdom Vertebrata (vertebrates) is ____. Possible Answers A. Mammalia B. Osteichthyes Feedback Possible Answers C. Reptilia D. Aves Feedback General Feedback: Of all the numerous diverse and successful classes of vertebrates, the bony fishes of the class Osteichthyes still top the charts for diversity and number. Score: 5/5 13. Chapter 15-13 ____ is the phylum name of the roundworms while ____ is the phylum name of the flatworms Possible Answers A. Nematoda, Platyhelminthes B. Platyhelminthes, Nematoda C. Annelida, Nematoda D. Nematoda, Annelida Feedback General Feedback: Platyhelminthes are the simplest of the invertebrate marine worms, while Nematodes can reach a concentration of 4,000,000 per cubic meter. Score: 5/5 14. Chapter 15-34 Members of the suborder Odontoceti are active predators and possess teeth to subdue their prey. Members of the suborder Mysticeti have no teeth and are thought to have separated from the line leading to toothed whales early in the development of whale evolution. True Score: 5/5 15. Chapter 16-02 All of the following could be a member of a rocky intertidal marine community except for the ____. Possible Answers Feedback Possible Answers B. tide pool sculpin C. nudibranch D. yellow-fin tuna Feedback General Feedback: The yellow-fin is a pelagic fish that tends to stay off the continental shelf chasing smaller pelagic bait fish such as anchovies. Like bluefin tuna they engage in long annual migrations circling with the ocean gyres as they follow their food source. Score: 0/5 16. Chapter 16-24 The most common symbiotic relationship is ____. Possible Answers A. commensalism, in which the symbiont benefits and the host is unaffected B. mutualism, in which both creatures benefit from the relationship C. parasitism, in which the symbiont gains at the host's expense D. none of the above Score: Feedback 5/5 17. Chapter 15-20 The classes Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echnoidea, and Holothuroidea belong to the phylum Echinodermata. Which of the following groups belong to the class Echinoidea? Possible Answers A. Sea stars B. Sea cucumbers C. Sea urchins D. Brittle stars Score: Feedback 5/5 18. Chapter 15-09 The invertebrate animals are classed as a sub-kingdom of Animalia called Invertebrata. This group though does include a few members of the phylum Chordata, which may have a fully or partially developed spinal cord. These invertebrate species with a spinal cord or notocord do not, however, have ____ that help protect this delicate column of central nerve tissue. Possible Answers A. Exoskeletons B. ectomorphic control systems C. vertebrae D. endoplasm Feedback General Feedback: Even though some invertebrates have a form of primitive notocord ("spinal cord"), these cords are not protected by a hard, bony spinal column composed of articulating and/or fused vertebrae. Score: 5/5 19. Chapter 16-11 ____ are examples of species in the marine environment that most nearly approximate a uniform distribution of organisms within a community. This uniform distribution may be a temporary one within certain geographical limits, depending on food availability and season (mating season or not). Possible Answers A. Hermit crabs and/or Dahl's porpoises B. Purple sea urchins and/or Mytilus mytilii (razor clams) C. Garden eels and/or King penguins D. Calanoid copepods and/or Portuguese Man-o-War General Feedback: Feedback Because nature has many ways of displaying great symmetry and patterning, it may be counter-intuitive to think that uniform distributions are the rarest type of population distribution. But life as we know it also seems to be a relatively rare phenomenon in the universe. In comparison to Nature, uniform distributions of human beings living in tract homes in city suburbs can appear quite unnatural, especially when viewed from an outside perspective, such as, from the window seat of an airplane, or from the perspective of the photo-realist painter Richard Estes; his ultra-realistic suburban landscape paintings look bleak and unnatural. Indeed, when questioned about the aesthetic quality of his work he replied, "I don't enjoy looking at the things I paint, so why should you?" Score: 5/5 20. Chapter 15-31 The method of osmosis is used by gills for gas exchange. False 1. Chapter 16-04 High biodiversity within a community implies ____. Possible Answers A. a wide variety of species within a given area B. complex interactions among organisms C. single species dominance within the community D. all of the above E. a & b F. a & c Feedback General Feedback: Biodiversity is an expression of the range or variety of species within a defined community of creatures. The community can vary depending on how it is defined, as well as how it evolves over time. High biodiversity implies complexity of species relationships, often without a dominant species in the community. High biodiversity often indicates a balance of forces that brings stability to the group. Score: 5/5 4. Chapter 15-21 Many echinoderms possess a unique ____, a complex of water-filled canals, valves, and projections used for locomotion and feeding. Possible Answers A. water-vacuumed system B. water-diffusion system C. water-osmosis system D. water-vascular system Feedback Score: 5/5 5. Chapter 16-14 What is the name for the marine location found between the highest high tide and lowest low tide? Possible Answers A. Offshore zone B. Surf zone C. Intertidal zone D. Benthic zone Feedback Score: 5/5 6. Chapter 16-10 Unlimited, unchecked, and unbridled exponential growth of a population of organisms, prior to their feeling the effects of limiting factors, is associated with what "letter-shaped" graphical curve? Possible Answers A. S-shaped curve B. U-shaped curve C. J-shaped curve D. delta-shaped curve Feedback General Feedback: In an exponentially-growing community of organisms, the birth and growth rate may start off slowly, but its growth rate will continue to accelerate until limiting factors put a lid on it. When that happens the J-shaped curve flattens out to an S-shaped one. Score: 5/5 8. Chapter 16-18 Much of the high primary productivity of a salt marsh comes form sea grasses, mangroves, and other vascular plants that can prosper in a saline or brackish marine environment. Salt mashes often form in a(n) ____, which is usually a protected fresh water river outlet where salt water and fresh water mix. Possible Answers A. inlet B. estuary C. gulf D. bay Feedback Score: 5/5 9. Chapter 15-30 Sharks and rays belong to the kingdom Animalia, the phylum Chordata, the subphylum Verebrata, and the class Agnatha. False 10. Chapter 15-15 The following animals are classified as invertebrates except for ____. Possible Answers A. coral B. round worms C. crabs D. fishes Score: Feedback 0/5 11. Chapter 15-03 Amphioxus, or one of its close relatives, is the likely evolutionary ancestor and phylogenetic link to the modern ____. Possible Answers A. Echinoderms B. Vertebrates C. Crustaceans D. Squid Feedback General Feedback: The Amphioxus (an invertebrate) has a welldeveloped dorsal nerve cord, making it a good prototype for vertebrates. Score: 0/5 12. Chapter 16-21 At seabed communities in the aphotic zone, the primary producers must be capable of ____ in order to produce carbohydrates. Possible Answers A. photosynthesis B. active transport C. osmosis D. chemosynthesis Feedback Score: 5/5 13. Chapter 16-02 All of the following could be a member of a rocky intertidal marine community except for the ____. Possible Answers A. purple sea urchin B. tide pool sculpin C. nudibranch D. yellow-fin tuna Feedback General The yellow-fin is a pelagic fish that tends to stay off the continental shelf chasing Feedback: smaller pelagic bait fish such as anchovies. Like bluefin tuna they engage in long annual migrations circling with the ocean gyres as they follow their food source. Score: 5/5 14. Chapter 15-28 Radially symmetrical organisms are round and have no right or left sides, molluscs, for example. The body of bilaterally symmetrical creatures have a left side and a right side that are mirror images of each other, jelly fishes, for example. False 15. Chapter 15-25 A fluid's internal resistance to flow is called its ____. Possible Answers A. osmosis B. diffusion C. viscosity D. salinity Feedback Score: 5/5 16. Chapter 16-08 The deep sea pogonophoran tube worms now belong to a recently-named genus created for them. The genus name is ____. Possible Answers A. Fissuria B. Riftia C. Thermaria D. Chemuria General Feedback: Feedback The genus Riftia is named after the high temperature (up to 350 degrees Celsius...hotter than a pizza oven at 660 Fahrenheit) rift zones where strange looking creatures make their niche in a community that lives off of chemosynthetic autotrophs. The generic formula for the chemosynthetic carbohydratemaking process is: CO2 + H2O + H2S +O2 = C6H12O6 + H2SO4. Notice that these autotrophs reduce the pH of their habitat by making sulfuric acid during chemosynthesis. Score: 5/5 17. Chapter 16-15 The powerful force of crashing waves is called ____. Possible Answers A. wave break B. wave shock C. surging breaker D. wave reflection Feedback Score: 5/5 18. Chapter 16-26 Stenothermal fishes function better in a uniformly heated aquarium, but eurythemal fishes would not need this type of temperature control. True 19. Chapter 16-12 ____ refers to the study of relationships among organisms interacting with their environment, especially within and between communities of creatures. Possible Answers A. Zoology B. Biology C. Ecology D. Algology Feedback General Feedback: The word ecology is derived from Greek "oikos" = house + "logos" = study. Bionomics is the French equivalent term for the English ecology. Score: 5/5 Chapter 16-07 Of the following marine habitats which is most devoid of life? Possible Answers A. open ocean B. deep scattering layer C. bathypelagic zone D. deep sea floor Feedback General Feedback: The bathypelagic zone is largely devoid of life because the creatures above in the aphotic deep scattering layer eat most of the detritus raining down from above, plus there is no substrate (benthos) directly below them upon which to feed. In addition, basic nutrients are in short supply and sunlight is non-existent. Score: 0/5 Chapter 15-17 Along with echinoderms members of the phylum Cnidaria exhibit ____. Possible Answers A. bilaterally symmetry B. radial symmetry C. bilaterally regularity D. radial regularity Feedback Score: 5/5 Chapter 16-17 The shelter and high productivity of a kelp forest can help provide a near-ideal environment for animals. For example, urchins in a kelp bed can absorb ____ that leak from algae, they also gnaw on the stipes and hold fasts with their "teeth". Too many urchins can destroy a kelp forest by breaking the kelp from their holdfasts. Possible Answers Feedback Possible Answers B. carbon monoxide C. carbohydrate D. carbon disulfide Feedback Score: 0/5 Chapter 15-23 What is the name for class of Chordata to which hagfishes and lampreys belong? Possible Answers A. Agnatha B. Chondrichtyes C. Osteicthyes D. Gnathostomata Feedback Score: 5/5 Chapter 16-27 Population density and distribution depend on community conditions. Clumped community distribution is the rarest. Score: 5/5 FALSE Chapter 15-03 Amphioxus, or one of its close relatives, is the likely evolutionary ancestor and phylogenetic link to the modern ____. Possible Answers A. Echinoderms B. Vertebrates C. Crustaceans Feedback Possible Answers D. Squid Feedback General The Amphioxus (an invertebrate) has a well-developed dorsal nerve cord, making it Feedback: a good prototype for vertebrates. Score: 5/5 Chapter 15-07 Of the three main classes of fish: Osteichthyes, Chondrichthyes, and Agnatha in the phylum Chordata, the Great White Shark belongs to the Class ____. Possible Answers A. Chondrichthyes B. Osteichthyes C. Agnatha D. none of the above Feedback General The cartilagenous-skeletoned sharks and rays belong to the class Chondrichthyes, Feedback: order Lamniformes, genus Carcharodon. Score: 5/5 Chapter 15-27 Suspension feeders strain plankton and tiny organic food particles from their surroundings. Score: TRUE 5/5

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BIOL3350Fall2012Test1Review1.DefineAnatomy:anatomyisthestudyofthestructureofthehumanbody2.DefinePhysiology:themechanismbywhichthebodyworks(studyofthefunctionofthehuman body)3.DefineMetabolismanditstwocategories:metabolismisallthereactionofchemicalnat
UT Dallas - BIOLOGY - 3350
1. BIOL3350unit3Fall20122.Where are the location openings of the coronary arteries? They are in the Aorta, just above theaortic valve3. Describe the event that happens during ventricle systole. The semilunar valves begin to open4. What is meant by Pr
UT Dallas - BIOLOGY - 3350
BIOL 3350 Exam 2 Review Fall 20121.Define hypospadias: Hypospadia, a congenital defect in males, causes a malpositioning in theurethral opening (it is located on the ventral surface of the penis2. What is the function of the seminal vesicles? The semi
UT Dallas - BIOLOGY - 3350
BIOL 3350 Unit 3 Review Fall 20121. Where are the location openings of the coronary arteries?2. Describe the event that happens during ventricle systole.3. What is meant by Preload work of the heart?4. Describe Pulse Pressure, and what if any type of
UT Dallas - BIOLOGY - 3350
BIOL 3350 Unit 4 Review Fall 20121. What are the two parts of the respiratory system? Conducting airway (supplies the air), and therespiratory tissue (gas exchange occurs) - gas exchange occurs in the respiratory bronchiolesand alveolar structures.2.
UT Dallas - BIOLOGY - 3350
Review Test 5 Fall 20121.What is the overall function of the kidneys? Regulates the inner environment of the body bycontrolling the water-electrolyte balance and removing nitrogenous wastes.2.What are the functional units of the kidney? Nephron.3. W
UT Dallas - BIOLOGY - 3361
Contact email:knh093020@utdallas.eduFilled with superfun fill-in-the1blanksalong with wordand number banks!Kirks Amazing Notes for Problem Set 2Problem 1nonapeptide: leu val leu trp glu lys leu his argpKas: N-termini - 9.5, C-termini - 4.5, glu -
McGill - ENVR - 200
Global Hydrological Cycle Closed system made up of reservoirs that are open Most of the water is in our oceans; almost 98%! There is constant movement from one reservoir (whether it be land, precipitation,evaporation, oceans etc.) from the other An
McGill - ENVR - 200
Human Appropriation of Fresh WaterRain shadow A dry area on the lee backside of a mountainous area Ex: Calgary not getting any water because moisture passing over it andVancouver on the other side is wetWhat do these rivers have in common? Indus, G
McGill - ENVR - 200
Global Freshwater Appropriation Unequal availability is further reduced by natural reduction in accessibility, whichis further reduced by human appropriation Water can be recycled through the system via blue or green water (more or lessevapotranspira
McGill - ENVR - 200
Some measures of biodiversityTaxonomic richness:Number of taxa (species, genera, families, etc.)Evenness:How equal members of the community are (e.g. how evenly abundancevaries among taxa)Disparity:Morphological and physiological differentiation a
McGill - ENVR - 200
Blue green algal blooms in Quebec lakesNegatives:Causes decline in cottage valuesCauses fish killsHave toxins called microcystins that are toxic to humansWhats causing the algal blooms in southern Quebec lakes?The limiting nutrient is phosphorus no
McGill - ENVR - 200
Temperature & HeatWhen we observe the temperature of an object, what were really doing ismeasuring the radiation being given off by looking at the vibration rateThe amplitude of vibration increases with the temperatureThe temperature of a body varies
McGill - ENVR - 200
Solar Flux and the Inverse Square LawAs electromagnetic radiation leaves it source it spreads out in straight lines andthe area which it covers increase proportionately to the square of the distance theradiation has traveledThe inverse square law sta
McGill - ENVR - 200
Most of what was covered today was a continuation of the September 14th lecturesPictures of temperature ranges can be found in the Atmospheric CirculationsPDFIncoming and outgoing radiation can be explained by the following chart:Clouds and the Energ
McGill - ENVR - 200
Hadley circulation Warm moist equatorial air rises and moves towards the poles (Hadley cell)which leads to cloud formationRising air is always associated with clouds and precipitationWhen air is sinking its compressing and the temperature increases
McGill - ENVR - 200
Todays lecture isnt in the textbook!Forced: vs., Natural VariabilityOne of the big challenges of climate prediction is accounting for changes thatare both naturally occurring as well as ones that are forced by human behaviorUnforced or natural modes o
McGill - ENVR - 200
El Nino and Southern OscillationIntroductionEl Nino is a warming of the waters in the equatorial east PacificThis warming can have significant impacts on the weather across large parts ofthe globeEl Nino also results in perhaps the most well known a
North Texas - HIST - 2610
XIV. The Civil War, 1861-1865A. The Conditions of War, 1861-1865Completion of Secession, 1861: After Sumter Lincoln then was able to call on all thestates to send volunteers to put down the rebellion. That put pressure on the remaining slavestates: wo
North Texas - HIST - 2610
XIII. The Union Dividing, 1854-1861Review session at 11 on Friday wooten 322Final on Monday from 1030-1230A. Proxy War in Kansas & Sectional Extremism, 1854-18601. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854a. Stephen A. Douglas wanted to deal with organizing territor
North Texas - HIST - 2610
XII. The Crisis and Compromise of 1850Friday 11:00 wooten hall 322 review sessionA. Territorial Expansion and the Slavery Question1. Wilmot Proviso, 1846 a piece of legislation saying the US will not have slavery in anyterritory it acquired from the w
North Texas - HIST - 2610
XI. Economic Sectionalism and Peculiar Institution1. Economic Sectionalism, 1840-1860a. The importance of Economic Sectionalismb. The Northb.i. The northeast most prosperousb.i.1.Business, Industry, Immigration, and Urbanization supported protectiv
North Texas - HIST - 2610
A. The Search for Heaven on Eartha. What led to the reformation movement? Democracy was becoming morewidespreadb. How did the reformers seek to improve life for the common man? For them tobecome more involved in politics. Congress and government had t
North Texas - HIST - 2610
X. Territorial Expansion and War, 1841-1848A. Introduction Manifest Destiny very deliberate, aggressive action by individuals andgovernment. People wanted land so they could grow cotton that needed plantations that neededslaves.B. Foreign Policy under
North Texas - HIST - 2610
VIII. The Jacksonian Era, 1824-1840A. Introduction to the Jacksonian Era Jackson dominates the period of his time1. Jacksonian Democracy- meaning the rise of a common man. New political methods.More people will get involved. He extended the power of pr
North Texas - HIST - 2610
VII. Nationalism and Sectionalism, 1815-1824 after the war, it wasnt all bad, it got a little bitbetter with nationalism. We finally saw ourselves as a country.A. Nationalism after the War of 18121. Economic Nationalism huge economic growth because we
North Texas - HIST - 2610
G. The Jefferson Administration, 1801-18091. The Revolution of 1800? Jeffersons name for the election.a. First Inaugural Address, 1801 First president inaugurated in DC.b. Government Positions (spoils system) First party leader president. Put in hisow
North Texas - HIST - 2610
F. The Adams Administration, 1797-18011. Federalist Party Dissension2. Problems with France Adams entire presidency dealt with France.a. Violations of U.S. Neutrality after end of diplomatic relations; in the sameway the British had. French started ta
North Texas - HIST - 2610
E. Washingtons Second Term Foreign Policy (issues that were the main part of his second term) and PartyPolitics, 1793-17961. The French Revolution primary place of foreign policy issues for US. This was where lower classesrose up against monarchy. Amer
North Texas - HIST - 2610
VI. Securing the Republic, 1789-1815A. Questions Facing the U.S. in 1789 it was unsure if US would survive as a republic. All other countriesopposed them for not being monarchies.- Would national government under the constitution be strong enough to de
North Texas - HIST - 2610
V. Confederation and Constitution, 1781-1789A. The U.S. in 1783 US was only republic in a world of monarchies, they were scared and weak.French didnt side with us because they liked us, just because they hate the British. Other countriesdidnt like us.
North Texas - HIST - 2610
IV. The American Revolution, 1763-17837 years war (French and Indian war) British completely beat the French. British doubled theirdebt in this war. This is why they had to break down the system that had worked for so longIndians decided to side with t
North Texas - HIST - 2610
III. The Old Colonial System, 1660-1763A. The Idea of Empire1. Charles II, 1660 - The Restoration2. Second Wave of Colonies, 1660-16903. Mercantilism4. Navigation Acts, 1660-1663Enumerated ArticlesCustom DutiesB. Problems of Enforcement1. The Col
North Texas - HIST - 2610
II. Puritanism in New England - to 1690A. IntroductionJohn Winthrop City on a HillB. The Puritan Theology1. Martin Luther2. John CalvinPredestinationCovenant of Grace - The ElectC. Puritan Opposition to the Church of England1. Teachings and Gover
North Texas - HIST - 2610
I. The Settlement of Virginia, 1607-1624A. Private Enterprise Colonization1. Elizabeth I, 1558-16032. Sir Walter RaleighLost Colony, 1587-15903. Joint Stock CompanyJames I, 1603-16254. Virginia Company of London5. Jamestown, 1607B. Years of Survi
North Texas - HIST - 2620
06Gilded Age Politics and the Farmers DiscontentWhat were the origins and impact of the Populist Party?I.II.III.IV.Gilded Age PoliticsA. Campaigns & Elections different colored ballots, everyone knew who you votedfor, voter fraudB. Partisan Polit
North Texas - HIST - 2620
03Big Business and Labor in the Gilded AgeWhat was the impact of big business and industrialization on Americas working classes?I.II.III.IV.U.S. Economic DominanceA. Political Unity confidence was gained in the USB. Geographic Unity connecting all
North Texas - HIST - 2620
02Losing the War, Winning the Peace: The New SouthHow did the south try to change after the civil war? Did it actually change?I. MythmakingA. Ending Reconstruction the question at the time was how to deal with the southernerswho were traitors in north
North Texas - HIST - 2620
12The Depression & the New DealHow did the government deal with the Great Depression?I.II.III.The 1st New DealA. Relief1. Civilian conservation corpsI.Plant trees, clean beaches, construction, etc2. Works progress administration tried to put peo
North Texas - HIST - 2620
11The Great Crash and its ImpactWhat were the causes of the 1929 stock market crash and what impact did it have on America?I.CausesA. Economic DiversityII.III.IV.I.buying on credit; cars, landII.Wealthiest fifth had half of national incomeB. C
North Texas - HIST - 2620
10The Roaring TwentiesWhy did some Americans try to restore traditional social values during the 1920s? How was this done?I.II.III.IV.Introduction: NormalcyA. Disillusionment America became dry with the prohibition, women were now smoking, havingm
North Texas - HIST - 2620
07Progressivism in AmericaI.II.III.OriginsA. PoliticsB. EconomicsC. Muckrakers journalists who use emotion to captivate the American publicFeaturesA. DemocracyI.Populists wanted a secret ballotII.Direct primariesIII.Initiative, referendum,
LSU - ARTH - 1441
Garnier, Paris Opera House,1864-71Louis Sullivan, Schlesinger & Mayerdepartment store, Chicago, 1899-1904Frank Lloyd Wright,Robie House, Chicago,1908-09Frank Lloyd Wright,Robie House, 1908-09Picasso, Portrait ofAmbroise Vollard,1910Frank Lloyd
LSU - ARTH - 1441
Abstract Expressionism(1950s)Minimal Art(1960s)Ellsworth Kelly, Red Blue Green, 1963De Kooning, Composition,1955Minimal Art (1960s)Pop Art (1960s)Kelly, Red Blue Green, 1963Andy Warhol, Campbells Soup Cans, 1961-64Minimal Art (1960s)Pop Art (1
LSU - ARTH - 1441
SOME TERMS FOR TODAYS CLASS Action Painting (pertains to Pollock and De Kooning) Allover or Overall Abstraction (pertains to Pollock) Gestural painting (pertains to Pollock and especially De Kooning) Color Field painting (pertains to Rothko) Hard Edg
LSU - ARTH - 1441
INTRODUCTION TO DADAMovement founded in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1916, during World War ISome Characteristics of Dada cynical, negative reaction to the war critical attack on traditional European cultural values rather silly, childish sort of humor i
LSU - ARTH - 1441
The Origins of CubismPicasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907An Early Form of CubismPicasso, Brick Factoryat Tortosa, 1909Georges BraqueCzanne, c. 1900Picasso, 1909Another example of the relationshipbetween Picasso and CzanneCzanne, c. 1900Picas
LSU - ARTH - 1441
A beam of light passed through a prism breaksinto bands of colorthe colors of the spectrum.Colors of the Spectrum:RedOrangeYellowGreenBlueIndigo(Note: Indigo +VioletViolet = Purple)Neutral Colors:Black, White, GrayPrimary Colors:Red, Yellow
LSU - ARTH - 1441
Monet, Sailboats at Argenteuil, 1874Renoir, Luncheon of theBoating Party, 1881IMPRESSIONISMPOST-IMPRESSIONISMTerm coined in 1910 for art that comes after Impressionism.Dissatisfied with merely transcribing or reproducing nature, PostImpressionists s
LSU - ARTH - 1441
Boffrand, Salon de la PrincesseWatteau, Pilgrimage to CytheraRococo Architecture and PaintingWatteau, Pilgrimage to CytheraDavid, Oath of the HoratiiNeoclassical Paintingvs.Rococo PaintingNeoclassical Paintingand ArchitectureDavid, Horatii, 1784