Microbiology Exam 3 Notes
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Microbiology Exam 3 Notes

Course Number: BIO 119131, Fall 2012

College/University: Rutgers

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21:02 MicrobiologyforHealthSciences Exam3Notes October22,2012 Chapter12SterilizationandDisinfection PRINCIPLESOFSTERILIZATIONANDDISINFECTION Sterilization Sterilizationisthekillingofallmicroorganismsinamaterialoronthesurfaceofan object Asurfaceoranobjectiseithersterileoritisnotsterile,therearenogradationsin sterility Typicallythelastthingstodieswhenoneattemptssterilizationisthehighlyheat(and...

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object Asurfaceoranobjectiseithersterileoritisnotsterile,therearenogradationsinnamaterialoronthesurfaceofan 21:02 MicrobiologyforHealthSciences Exam3Notes October22,2012 Chapter12SterilizationandDisinfection PRINCIPLESOFSTERILIZATIONANDDISINFECTION Sterilization Sterilizationisthekillingofallmicroorganismsi sterility Typicallythelastthingstodieswhenoneattemptssterilizationisthehighlyheat(and chemical,etc)resistantendospores Sterilitymeanstherearenolivingorganismsinoronamaterial Disinfectant Adisinfectantisachemicalorphysicalagentthatisappliedtoinanimateobjectstokill themicrobes Disinfection Disinfectionmeansreducingthenumberofviablemicroorganismspresentinasample Notalldisinfectionsarecapableofsterilizing,but,ofcoursealldisinfectionsare employedwiththehopeofdisinfecting Antiseptic Typicallyanantisepticisachemicalagentthatisappliedtolivingtissuetokillmicrobes Notethatnotalldisinfectantsareantisepticsbecauseanantisepticadditionallymustnot besoharshthatitdamageslivingtissue Withthisconstraintimposedonantiseptics,ingeneralantisepticsareeithernotas cheapornotaseffectiveatkillingmicrobesasdisinfectants Table121TermsRelatedtoSterilizationandDisinfection Term Definition Sterilization Thekillingorremovalofall microorganismsinamaterialoronan object Disinfection Thereductionofthenumberofpathogenic microorganismstothepointwherethey posenodangerofdisease Antiseptic Achemicalagentthatcansafelybeused externallyonlivingtissuetodestroy microorganismsortoinhibittheirgrowth Disinfectant Achemicalagentusedoninanimate objectstodestroymicroorganisms.Most disinfectantsdonotkillspores Sanitizer Achemicalagenttypicallyusedonfood handlingequipmentandeatingutensilsto reducebacterialnumberssoastomeet publichealthstandards.Sanitizationmay simplyrefertothoroughwashingwithonly soapordetergent Bacteriostaticagent Anagentthatinhibitsgrowthofbacteria Germicide Anagentcapableofkillingmicrobes rapidly;somesuchagentseffectivelykill certainmicroorganismsbutonlyinhibitthe growthofothers Bactericide Anagentthatkillsbacteria.Mostsuch agentsdonotkillspores Viricide Anagentthatinactivatesviruses Fungicide Anagentthatkillsfungi Sporocide Anagentthatkillsbacterialendosporesor fungalspores TheControlofMicrobialGrowth Exponentialdeath Thekillingofmicroorganismsoccursexponentiallywheresomefractionoftheliving populationdiesperunittime Adefiniteproportionoforganismsdieinagiventimeinterval Soontheprobabilityoffindingevenasingleliveorganismbecomesverysmall.Most labssayasampleissterileiftheprobabilityisnogreaterthanonechanceinamillionof findingaliveorganism CleanlinessEffects Thefewerorganismspresent,theshorterthetimeneededtoachievesterility Thoroughlycleaningobjectsbeforeattemptingtosterilizethemisapracticalapplication ofthisprinciple Clearingobjectsoftissuedebrisandbloodisalsoimportantbecausesuchorganic matterimpairstheeffectivenessofmanychemicalagents OrganismalDifferences Microorganismsdifferintheirsusceptibilitytoantimicrobialagents Oftenwhatfailstobekilledbyadisinfectantareendosporesthoughcertainvirusesand somevegetativebacteriaarealsohighlyresistanttodisinfection Also,thesameorganismmaydifferinsusceptibilitydependingongrowthphasewith activelygrowingorganismstypicallymoresusceptibletodisinfectionthatnotgrowing cultures CHEMICALANTIMICROBIALAGENTS ThePotencyofChemicalAgents Potency,oreffectiveness,ofachemicalantimicrobialagentisaffectedbytime, temperature,pH,andconcentration Deathrateisaffectedbylengthoftimeorganismsareexposedtotheantimicrobial agent TemperatureEffects Increasingtemperaturesincreasestheefficacyofmostchemicalantimicrobials Theconverseofthisstatementisthatrelativelycoldtemperaturesresultinrelatively poordisinfection ConcentrationEffects Generally,theuseofmoredisinfectantprovidesbetterkillingthantheuseofless disinfectant BactericidalEffects Anantimicrobialthatkillsamicroorganism(or,morespecifically,abacterium)issaidto bebactericidal BacteriostaticEffects Someantimicrobialsareonlybacteriostatic,includingsomebactericidalagentsusedat toolowconcentrations Bacteriostaticmeansthattheantimicrobialinhibitsbacterialgrowthbutdoesnotkillthe bacteria;consequently,removalordilutionoftheantimicrobialcanresultina resurgenceofbacterialgrowth Notethatsufficient,prolongedapplicationofevenbacteriostaticagentscanoftenresult inbacterialdeath,aconsequence,forexample,ofextendeddormancyinwhichcellular repairisinhibited EvaluatingtheEffectivenessofChemicalAgents Phenolcoefficient Filterpapermethod UseDilutionTest PhenolCoefficient Phenolisadisinfectant Ithasbeenthestandarddisinfectanttowhichotherdisinfectantsarecomparedunder thesameconditions Resultofthiscomparisoniscalledthephenolcoefficient SalmonellatyphiandStaphylococcusaureusaretwoorganismsthataretypicallyused todeterminephenolcoefficients <1.0meansthatthedisinfectantislesseffectivethanphenol Table12.2 TheFilterPaperMethod Simplerthandeterminingthephenolcoefficient Smallfilterpaperdisksareinnoculatedandplacedonanagarplateandobservedafter theyareincubated Achemicalagentthatinhibitsgrowthofatestorganismisidentifiedbyacleararea aroundthediskwherethebacteriahavebeenkilled TheUseDilutionTest Abrothcultureofabacteriaiscoatedontosmallcylindersandallowedtodry Thecylindersaredippedinseveraldilutionsofthechemicalagentfor10minsand placedintoatubeofbroth Thetubesareincubatedandthenobservedforthepresenceorabsenceofgrowth Fig121a DisinfectantSelection Anidealdisinfectantshould: 1.Befastacting 2.Beeffectiveagainstalltypesofinfectiousagentswithoutdestroyingtissuesoracting asapoison 3.Easilypenetratematerialtobedisinfected 4.Beeasytoprepareandstableevenwhenexposedtoelements 5.Beinexpensive 6.Nothaveanunpleasantodor MechanismofActionofChemicalAgents ReactionsthatAffectProteins Denaturation:Hydrogenanddisulfidebondsaredisrupted,andthefunctionalshapeof theproteinmoleculeisdestroyed.Anyagentthatdenaturesproteinspreventsthemfrom carryingouttheirnormalfunctions.Whentreatedwithmildheatorwithsomedilute acids,alkalisorotheragentsforashorttime,proteinsaretemporarilydenatured. Denatureproteinproteinfoldingdisrupted Heat Attachgroupstoprotein(ex.Methyl) Oxidizingagent(removehydrogen) Hydrolysisbreakingdownamoleculebytheadditionofwater Denaturationisbactericidalifitpermanentlyalterstheproteinsothatproteinsnormal statecannotberestored(fryinganegg) Denaturationisbacteriostaticifittemporarilyalterstheprotein,andthenormalstructure canberecovered(boilingmilk) Fig122Denaturingproteins Apermanentlydenaturedprotein,likethatofafriedegg,cannotreturntoitsoriginal configuration Atemporarilydenaturedprotein,likethatinwarmedmilk,canrefoldintoitsoriginal configuration.Theproteinstructureofmilkthathasbeenwarmedisrecoveredwhenthe milkiscooled ReactionsthatAffectMembranes Membranescontainproteinsandlipids Surfactants:solublecompoundsthatreducesurfacetension,justassoapsand detergentsbreakupgreaseparticlesindishwater Includealcohol,detergents,andquaternaryammoniumcompounds Ex.Phenolsdissolvelipidsanddenatureproteins Wettingagents:detergentsolutionsthatareoftenusedwithotherchemicalagentsto helptheagentpenetratefattysubstances Detergentsolutionsdonotkillmicroorganisms,buthelpgetridoflipidsandother organicmaterialssothatantimicrobialagentscanreachtheorganisms Fig123Theactionofasurfactant Herethesurfactantmoleculehasionizedintosodiumionsandlonghydrocarbon chains,whosezigzaggedends,covalentlybondedtailsareabletoenteraninsoluble substancesuchasgrease.Theotherendofthesemoleculeshasacarboxylgroupwith anegativelychargedoxygen.Thesenegativechargesattractthepositivelycharged sidesofwatermolecules,therebymakingtheattachedinsolublesubstancesolublein watersothesubstancecanbewashedaway. ReactionsthatAffectOtherCellComponents Othercellcomponentsaffectedbychemicalagentsincludenucleicacidsandenergy producingsystems Alkylatingagentscanreplacehydrogenonaminooralcoholgroups Certaindyesinterferewithcellwallformation Somesubstances,suchaslacticacidandpropionicacid,inhibitfermentationandthus preventenergyproductionincertainbacteria,molds,andotherorganisms ReactionsthatAffectViruses Inordertocontrolviruses,theymustbeinactivated,thatisrenderedpermanently incapableofinfectingorreplicatingincells Inactivationcanbeeffectedbydestroyingeitherthevirusesnucleicacidortheir proteins SpecificChemicalAntimicrobialAgents Fig124StructuralFormulasofsomeimportantdisinfectants Isopropylalcohol Phenol Ethylalcohol Benzalkoniumchloride Ethyleneoxide Hexachlorophene AntimicrobialAgents Soapsmildalkali Detergentscationic,anionic QuaternaryammoniumcompoundsQuats Canbemadeeffective Acidsfoodpreparation;inhibitfermentation Heavymetalsmerthiolate(tincture),thiomerosal MoreAntimicrobialAgents HalogensChlorine,Iodine(iodophore) Alcohols Phenols Oxidizingagents Alkylatingagents SoapsandDetergents SoapscontainalkaliandsodiumandwillkillmanyspeciesofStreptococcus, Micrococcus,andNeisseria,andwilldestroyinfluenzaviruses Theylowersurfacetension,makemicrobesaccessibletootheragents Detergentsallowwatertopenetrateintoallcrevicesandcausedirtand microorganismstobeliftedoutandwashedaway Detergentsarecationicandanionic Cationicdetergentsareusedforlaunderingclothingandastosanitizefoodutensils Anionicdetergentsareusedforlaunderingclothingandashouseholdcleaningagents QuaternaryAmmoniumCompounds(quats):manycationicdetergentsarequats, whichhavefourorganicgroupsattachedtoanitrogenatom Oneproblemwithquatsisthattheireffectivenessisdecreasedinthepresenceofsoap, calcium,ormagnesiumions,orporoussubstancessuchasgauze AcidsandAlkalis AlkaliSoapisamildalkaliandhelpstodestroymicrobes AnumberoforganicacidslowerthepHofmaterialssufficientlytoinhibitfermentation Severalareusedasfoodpreservatives Lacticandproprionicacidsretardmoldgrowthinbreadsandotherproducts AcidslowerpHanddenatureproteins;usedinfoodproduction HeavyMetals Denatureproteins Solvernitrateisusedtopreventgonococcalinfections Mercurycompoundsdisinfectskinandinanimateobjects Copperinhibitsgrowth Seleniuminhibitsfungalgrowth Halogens Twohalogensareregularlyemployedasantimicrobialschlorineandiodine Drinkingwateriscommonlydisinfectedusinghypochlorite Hypochloritemayeitherbeaddeddirectly(i.e.,intheformofbleach)orcreatedwithin waterbybubblingchlorinegasthroughthewater Chlorineisusedtokillpathogensinwaterandtodisinfectutensils Notethatchlorineislesseffectiveinthepresenceofsignificantorganiccompounds (basicallybecausethehypochloriteioninteractswithoxidizesorganiccompounds indiscriminatelyandthusisusedupinthepresenceoffexcessorganiccompounds) (brominesometimesisemployedasasubstituteforchlorine) Iodinecompoundsareusedasskinantiseptics IodineisoftenemployedasatinctureorasaniodophorAtinctureisanalcoholsolution ofasubstance,inthiscaseiodine Iodinetincturesmaybeemployedasantiseptics Iodophorsareorganiccompoundsthatslowthereleaseofiodine Theiodophorsadditionallyserveassurfactants,thusincreasingpenetrationwhile simultaneouslysteadilysupplyingiodineoverlongperiods BetadineandIsodineareexamplesofiodophors Bromineisusedtoformagaseousmethylbromidetofumigatesoilthatwillbeusedin thepropagationofbeddingplants Alsousedinsomepoolsandindoorhottubs Chloramineislesseffectivethatotherchlorinecompoundsatkillingmicrobesbut superiorateliminatingtasteandodorproblems Alcohols Alcoholsworkbestas70to99%mixtureswithwater Alcoholwatermixturesareadditionallymorepenetratingthanpurealcohols Eitherethanolorisopropyl(rubbing)alcoholmaybeemployedfordisinfecting Alcoholsareespeciallyappropriateforapplicationtositesinwhichtheirpropensityto evaporateawayisconvenient(e.g.,todisinfectskinpriortoinjection) Thedownsideofalcoholsisthattheyarenotterriblypenetratingnorcapableofkilling endosporesorotherresistantcellsAlcoholsshouldnotbeappliedtowoundssincethey cancausetissuedamage Phenols Phenolandtheirderivatives(calledphenolics)areespeciallyusefulwhendisinfecting materialscontaminatedwithorganicmaterials Lysolemploysphenolics Somephenolicsaremildenoughforuseasantisepticswhileothersaretooharshor otherwisedangeroustobeemployedonlivingtissue OxidizingAgents Hydrogenperoxide(HOOH)isatypicaloxidizingagent Notethathydrogenperoxideisactuallynotaterriblyeffectiveantisepticordisinfectant Thisisbecausebacteriaandbodytissuescontainenzymes(catalase)thatinactivate hydrogenperoxide Ontheotherhand,theoxygenreleaseduponinactivationcanhelpoxygenatedeep woundsandthuskillstrictanaerobecontaminants AlkylatingAgents Formaldehyde,glutaraldehyde,andethyleneoxidesarealkylatingagentstheyadd carboncontainingfunctionalgroupstobiologicalmolecules Formaldehydeisemployedtoinactivatevirusesandtoxinstoproducewholekilled vaccinesandtoxoidvaccines[wholekilledvaccines] Glutaraldehydeiscapableofsterilizingequipment,thoughtoeffectsterilizationoften requiresmanyhoursofexposure Ethyleneoxideisagaseouschemosterilizerthatisespeciallyusefulduetoits extraordinarypenetratingpower;thisallowsittopenetrateallsortsofnooksand crannies Ethyleneoxideisemployedtosterilizeprepackagedlaboratoryequipmentthatis otherwisedestroyedbyheat(e.g.,plasticpetridishes) Dyes Mayinterferewithreplicationorblockcellwallsynthesis Acridineisusedtocleanwounds Crystalviolettotreatsomeprotozoanandfungalinfections Table12.3 PHYSICALANTIMICROBIALAGENTS PhysicalAntimicrobialAgents Heatdry,moist,pasteurization Thermaldeathpointtemperaturethatkillsbacteriain10minutes Thermaldeathtimetimerequiredtokillallbacteriaatagiventemperature PrinciplesandApplicationsofHeatKilling Thermaldeathpoint:thetemperaturethatkillsallthebacteriaina24houroldbroth cultureataneutralpHin10minutes Thermaldeathtime:thetimerequiredtokillallthebacteriainaparticularcultureata specifiedtemperature DecimalReductionTime(DRT):thelengthoftimeneededtokill90%oftheorganisms inagivenpopulationataspecifiedtemperature DryHeat,MoistHeat,andPasteurization Heatisahighlyefficientmeansofsterilizationsolongasthematerialtobesterilizedis resistanttoheat Differenttypesofheatapplicationinclude Dryheat Moistheat Pasteurization Dryheat Toeffectsterilizationdryheattypicallyrequireshighertemperaturesthanmoistheat Italsoislesspenetratingandrequireslongerexposure Usuallyusedtosterilizemetalobjectsandglasswareandistheonlysuitablemeansof sterilizingoilsandpowders Nevertheless,applicationofdryheatischeapandeasy Typicallyonebakesmaterialsinanovenat 171oCforatleastonehour 160oCforatleasttwohours 121oCforatleast16hours Notethatthelengthofexposurenecessaryisinverselyproportionaltothetemperature (lowertempsrequirelongerexposures) Noteadditionallythatthetimesgivenareforoncetheindicatedtemperaturehasbeen achieved;thisistrueforallmethodsofdisinfectionandsterilization:theclockdoesnot beginuntilthematerialhasbeenexposedtotheantimicrobial Incinerationisanothercommonmethodofdryheatsterilization,e.g.,suchastheflame incinerationofaninoculatingloop MoistHeat Moistheatismoreeffectivethandryheatatagiventemperatureorlengthofexposure Moistheatdestroysmicroorganismsbydenaturingproteins Thepresenceofwatermoleculeshelpsdisrupthydrogenbondsandotherweak interactionsthatholdproteinsintheirthreedimensionalshapes Mostheatmaydisruptmembranelipidsaswell Boilingwaterdestroysvegetativecellsofmostbacteriaandfungiandinactivatessome viruses,butisnoteffectiveinkillingallkindsofspores Moistheatisalsomorepenetratingthandryheat However,toachievesterilizationemployingmoistheatrequiresratherelaborate equipment,i.e.,theemploymentofanautoclave Justaswithdryheat,temperatureandlengthofexposureareinverselyrelatedand penetrationisabsolutelycritical Withmoistheat,penetrationisevenmoreofaproblemsincepenetrationofheatwithout associatedpenetrationofmoistureissimplydryheatanddryheatislesseffectiveasan antimicrobialthanmoistheat;consequently,thingsthatblockmoisturepenetrationcan inhibitsterilizingefficacy Boilingwateristhemostcommonformofapplicationofmoistheatbutisnotcapableof killingendosporesorkillingallviruses Autoclave:ahighpressuredeviceusedtoallowtheapplicationofmoistheatabovethe normalatmosphereboilingpointofwater Exposureto121degreesCfor15+minutesistypicallysufficienttosterilize Largeitems,largevolumes,anditemsthatarepoorlypenetratedbysteammaytake muchlongerthan15minutestosterilize Benefitofheatingunderpressure: Athighpressuresthetemperaturereaches121degreesC,whichishighenoughtokill spores,aswellasvegetativeorganisms,andtodisruptthestructureofnucleicacidsin viruses Fig1210Theautoclave Fig1211Checkingforsterility Pasteurization Pasteurization:aprocessinventedbyPasteurtodestroyorganismsthatcauseswine tosour,doesnotachievesterility Itdoesnotkillpathogens,especiallySalmonellaandMycobacterium,thatmightbe presentinmild,otherdairyproducts,andbeer Itdenaturesproteins Refrigeration,Freezing,Drying,andFreezeDrying Refrigeration Usedtopreventfoodspoilage Storageshouldbelimitedtoafewdaysbecausesomebacteriaandmoldscontinueto growatthistemperature Clostridiumbotulinumhavebeenfoundgrowingandproducinglethaltoxinsina refrigerator Freezing Althoughfreezingdoesnotsterilizefoods,itdoessignificantlyslowtherateofchemical reactionssothatmicroorganismsdonotcausefoodtospoil Bythawingandrefreezingicecrystalsformwithinthefoodandcellmembranesinthe foodsareruptured,andnutrientsleakout Freezingforseveraldayswillprobablykillmostparasitesfoundinmeat Drying Dryingcanbeusedtopreservefoodsbecausetheabsenceofwaterinhibitstheaction ofenzymes.Endosporespresentonfoodscansurvivedrying,buttheydonotproduce toxins.Dryingalsominimizesthespreadofinfectiousagents FreezeDrying AKAlyophilizationisthedryingofamaterialfromthefrozenstate Rapidfreezingallowsonlyverytinyicecrystalstoformincells,sotheneworganisms survivethisprocess Radiation UVLight Wavelengthsinthe200nmrangearemosteffectiveinkillingmicroorganismsby damagingDNAandproteins UVlightisabsorbedbythepurineandpyrimidinebasesofnucleicacids.Itisimportant ininactivatingviruses Doesnotpenetrateglass,cloth,paperormostothermaterials UVrayshelptokillbacteria IonizingRadiation Xraysandgammaraysareexamples Theseformsofradiationalsokillmicroorganismsandviruses IonizingradiationdamagesDNAandproducesperoxides,whichactaspowerful oxidizingagentsincells Thisradiationcanalsokillorcausemutationsinhumancellsifitreachesthem MicrowaveRadiation Fallsatthelongwavelengthendoftheelectromagneticspectrum Intheliquidstate,watermoleculesquicklyabsorbthemicrowaveenergyandthen releaseittosurroundingmaterialsasheat Sunlight Canhavedirectbactericidaleffectsbyoxidizinglightsensitivemoleculessuchas riboflavinandporphyrinsinbacteria Thedyes,eosinandmethylenebluecandenatureproteinsinthepresencesofstrong lightbecausetheyabsorbenergyandcauseoxidationofproteinsandnucleicacids SonicandUltrasonicWaves Cavitation Theformationofapartialvacuuminaliquid,inthiscase,thefluidcytoplasminthe bacterialcell Sonication Thedisruptionofcellsbysoundwaves Filtration thepassageofamaterialthroughafilterorstrainingdevice itisusedtoseparatebacteriafrommediaandtosterilizematerialsthatwouldbe destroyedbyheat OsmoticPressure Removeswaterfrommicrobes Itisusedtopreventspoilageoffoodssuchaspicklesandjellies Plasmolysis,orlossofwater,severelyinterfereswithcellfunctionandeventuallyleads tocelldeath Fig1215 Fig1217a Table125 21:02 Chapter13AntimicrobialTherapy SelectiveToxicity Chemotherpeuticindex Maximumtolerabledose(dividedby) Minimumdosethatwillcuredisease (Dosecalculatedaccordingtobodyweight) SpectrumofActivity AntimicrobialAgents Aspecialgroupofchemotherapeuticagentsusedtotreatdiseasescausedbymicrobes Antibiosis:literallymeansagainstlife Antibiotic:Achemicalsubstanceproducedbymicrobeswhichhasthecapacityto inhibitordestroythegrowthofbacteria/othermicrobes Synthetic/semisyntheticdrugs TheHistoryofChemotherapy 1910:PaulEhrlichusedSalvarsantotreatsyphilis 1935:GerhardDomagkdiscoveredprontosil,areddye,inhibitsgrowthofmanygram positivebacteria 1936:ErnestFourneaudiscoveredthatthesulfanilamideportioncontainedantimicrobial activity GeneralPropertiesofAntimicrobialAgents SelectiveToxicity TheSpectrumofActivity ModesofAction SideEffects TheResistanceofMicroorganisms 21:02 SelectiveToxicity Theantimicrobialagentmustharmthemicrobeswithoutcausingsignificantdamageto thehost Toxicdosagelevel:causeshostdamage Therapeuticdosagelevel:successfullyeliminatesthepathogenicorganismifthelevel ismaintained SpectrumofActivity Therangeofdifferentmicrobesagainstwhichanantimicrobialagentacts Broadspectrum:Agentseffectiveagainstbothgrampositiveandgramnegative bacteria Narrowspectrum:Agentseffectiveagainstasmallnumberofmicrobes *Anantimicrobialagentcanbebacteriocidal(bacteriakilling)orbacteriostatic(bacterial growthinhibiting) ModesofAction 1.Inhibitionofcellwallsynthesis 2.Disruptionofcellmembranefunction 3.Inhibitionofproteinsynthesis 4.Inhibitionofnucleicacidsynthesis 21:02 5.Actionasantimetabolites InhibitionofCellWallSynthesis Inhibitingcellwallsynthesisselectivelydamagesbacterialandfungalcells Penicillinandcephalosporincontainastructurecalleda lactamring 21:02 Thelactamringattachestotheenzymesthatcrosslinkpeptidoglycansandprevent cellwallsynthesis BacteriaBeforeExposuretoPenicillin BacteriaafterexposuretoPenicillin 21:02 DisruptionofCellMembraneFunction Certainpolypeptideantibiotics,suchaspolymyxins Actasdetergentsanddistortbacterialcellmembranes Bindtophospholipidsinthemembrane Especiallyeffectiveagainstgramnegativebacteriawhichhaveanoutermembrane InhibitionofProteinSynthesis Anexampleofselectivetoxicity Attackbacterialcellswithoutsignificantlydamaginganimalcells Aminoglycosideantibiotics:Tetracycline,Erythromycin,streptomycin,chloramphenicol Bindtothebacterial30SribosomalsubunitandinterferewiththetranslationofmRNA InhibitionofNucleicAcidSynthesis Differencesbetweentheenzymesusedbybacterialandanimalcellstosynthesize nucleicacids AntibioticsoftherifamycinfamilybindtoabacterialRNApolymeraseandinhibitRNA synthesis 21:02 ActionasAntimetabolites Substancesthataffecttheutilizationofmetabolitesandpreventmetabolicreactions Functionintwoways: Competitivelyinhibitingenzymes Erroneouslyincorporatedintoimportantmoleculessuchasnucleicacids CompetitiveInhibition a)PABA b)SulfaDrug c)competitiveinhibitorofPABA NucleicAcidBaseAnalogs 21:02 Antiviralagentslooklikenormalpurines Causebasepairingmismatchesoftencausepointmutations KindsofSideEffects Thesideeffectsofantimicrobialagentsfallintothreegeneralcategories: Toxicity Allergy Disruptionofnormalmicrobiota Diarrhea Superinfections AcquisitionofResistance Microorganismsnormallyacquireantibioticresistancebygeneticchanges: NaturalSelection ChromosomalMutation ExtrachromosomalResistance RPlasmidsorRfactors MethodofDetectingGeneticResistance 21:02 MechanismsofResistance 1.AlterationofTargets 2.AlterationofMembranePermeability 3.DevelopmentofEnzymes 4.AlterationofanEnzyme 5.Alterationofametabolicpathway BetalactamaseEffectonPenicillin AlterationofTargets 21:02 Thismechanismusuallyaffectsbacterialribosomes ThemutationalterstheDNAsuchthattheproteinproducedortargetismodified Antimicrobialagentscannolongerbindtothetarget Resistancetoerythromycin,rifamycin,andantimetabolites EnzymeDevelopment Blactamase Theseenzymesarefoundinvariousbacteria TheycatalyzethebreakingoftheBlactamringinpenicillinsandsomecephalosporins FirstLine,SecondLine,ThirdLineDrugs 1930ssulfonamideswerefoundtocurethedisease,gonorrhea Sulfonamideresistantstrainsdevelopedandpenicillinwasusedasacure Penicillinresistantstrainsdevelopedandspectinomycinwasused Nowtherearespectinomycinresistantstrainsofgonorrhea EffectsofPrematureTerminationofAntibioticTreatment 21:02 21:02 21:02 21:02 KerbyBauerMethodofDeterminingMicrobialSensitivitiestoVariousAntibiotics MinimalInhibitoryConcentration(MIC)MicrobialSusceptibility 21:02 AnEpsilometer(E)TestforDeterminingAntibioticSensitivity InoculatingSamplesIntoIndividualWellsContainingSpecificChemicalAgents 21:02 IncubatorChamber StructureofPenicillinandRelatedMolecules 21:02 21:02 21:02 21:02 21:02 RedManSyndrome AgentsThatInhibitProteinSynthesis 21:02 AgentsThatInhibitNucleicAcidSynthesis 21:02 AgentsThatInhibitCellWallSynthesis AgentsThatInterfereWithCellMembraneFunction 21:02 AntimetabolitesandOtherAgents 21:02 AntifungalAgents 21:02 AntihelminthicAgents 21:02 AntiviralAgents 21:02 AntiprotozoanAgents 21:02 DisruptersofCellMembranes Polymyxins(A,B,C,D,andE) ObtainedfromsoilbacteriumBacilluspolymyxa Usuallyappliedtopically,oftenwithbacitracin,totreatskininfectionscausedby Pseudomonas Internally,cancausenumbnessintheextremities,seriouskidneydamage,and respiratoryarrest Tetracyclines ObtainedfromspeciesofStreptomyces Arebacteriostatic,readilyabsorbedfromthedigestivetract,andbecomewidely distributedintissuesandbodyfluids Havethewidestspectrumofactivityofanyantibiotics However,theydestroythenormalintestinalmicrobiotaandofterproducesevere gastrointestinaldisorders 21:02 InterferonsandImmunoenhancers Cellsinfectedwithvirusesproduceproteinscollectivelyreferredtoasinterferons Theseinterferonproteinsinduceneighboringcellstoproduceantiviralproteins Antiviralproteinspreventthesecellsfrombecominginfected Interferonsarecurrentlybeinggeneticallyengineeredandtestedasantiviralagents DoubleAntibioticTherapytoEradicateResistantStrainInfections 21:02 November7,2012 Chapter14HostMicrobeRelationshipsandDiseaseProcesses HOSTMICROBERELATIONSHIPS Symbiosis Symbiosis:anassociationbetweentwoormorespecies Mutualism:bothmembersoftheassociationlivingtogetherbenefitfromthe relationship Parasitism:theparasitebenefitsfromtherelationshipwhereastheotherorganism,the host,isharmedbyit Parasite:referstoprotozoa,helminthes,andarthropods,thatliveonorintheirhost Whatarethemostsuccessfulparasites? Thosethatmaintaintheirownlifeprocesseswithoutseverelydamagingtheirhosts Commensalism:inwhichtwospecieslivetogetherinarelationshipsuchthatone benefitsandtheotheroneisneitherbenefittednorharmed Antagonism:thesituationinwhichbothspeciesharmeachotherwithouteither benefiting Contamination,Infection,andDisease Contamination:meansthatthemicroorganismsarepresent 21:02 Infection:referstothemultiplicationofanyparasiticorganismwithinoronthehosts body;sometimestheterminfestationisusedtorefertothepresenceoflarger parasitessuchaswormsorarthropods Disease:adisturbanceinthestateofhealthwhereinthebodycannotcarryoutallits normalfunctions Pathogens,Pathogenicity,andVirulence Pathogenicity:thecapacitytoproducedisease;anorganismspathogenicitydepends onitsabilitytoinvadeahost,multiplyinthehost,andavoidbeingdamagedbythe hostsdefenses Virulence:referstotheintensityofthediseaseproducedbypathogens,anditvaries amongdifferentmicrobialspecies Thevirulenceofapathogencanbedecreasedby? Attenuation:theweakeningofthediseaseproducingabilityofthepathogen Table14.2MajorNormalMicroflora(UnlessOtherwiseNoted,Bacteria)oftheHuman Body Area Skin Organism Staphylococcusepidermis Staphylococcusaureus Lactobacillusspecies 21:02 Proprionibacteriumacnes Pityrosporonovale(fungus) Mouth Streptococcussalivarius Streptococcuspneumoniae Streptococcusmitis Streptococcussanguis Streptococcusmutans Streptococcusepidermidis Staphylococcusaureus Moraxellacatarrhalis Veillonellaalcalescens Lactobacillusspecies Klebisellaspecies Haemophilusinfluenzae Fusobacteriumnucleatum Treponemadenticola Candidaalbicans(fungus) 21:02 Entamoebagingivalis(protozoan) Trichomonastenax(protozoan) UpperRespiratoryTract Staphylococcusepidermis Staphylococcusaureus Streptococcusmitis Streptococcuspneumoniae Moraxellacatarrhalis Lactobacillusspecies Haemophilusspecies Intestine Staphylococcusepidermidis Staphylococcusaureus Streptococcusmitis Enterococcusspecies Lactobacillusspecies Clostridiumspecies Eubacteriumlimosum 21:02 Bifidobacteriumbifidum Actinomycesbifidus Escherichiacoli Enterobacterspecies Klebisellaspecies Proteusspecies Pseudomonasspecies Bacteroidesspecies Fusobacteriumspecies Treponemadenticola Endolimaxnana(protozoan) Giardiaintestinalis(protozoan) UrogenitalTract Streptococcusmitis Streptococcusspecies Staphylococcusepidermidis Lactobacillusspecies Clostridiumspecies 21:02 Actinomycesbifidus Candidaalbicans(fungus) Trichomonasvaginalis(protozoan) Table14.3BodyTissues,Organs,andFluidsThatAreNormallyMicrobeFree InternalTissuesandOrgans BodyFluids Middleandinnerear Blood Sinuses Cerebrospinalfluid Internaleye Salivapriortosecretion Bonemarrow Urineinkidneysandinbladder Muscles Semenpriortoentryintotheurethra Glands Organs Circulatorysystem Brainandspinalcord Ovariesandtestes 21:02 Normal(indigenous)Microflora Normalmicroflora:organismsthatliveonorinthebodybutdonotcausediseaseare referredtocollectivelyasnormalmicroflora,ornormalmicrobiota Mostorganismsamongthenormalmicrofloraare? Commensals:theyobtainnutrientsfromhostsecretions,wastesubstancesfoundon thesurfacesofskinandmucousmembranes Residentmicroflora Comprisemicrobesthatarealwayspresentonorinthehumanbody.Theyarefoundon theskinandconjunctiva,inthemouth,nose,throat,largeintestine,andinpassageways oftheurinaryandreproductivesystems.likeswarm,moistareas Whyaresomepartsofthebodylacinginresidentmicroflora? eitherbecausetheseregionsprovideconditionsunsuitableformicroorganisms,are protectedbyhostdefenses,orareinaccessibletomicroorganisms. Transientmicroflora microorganismsthatcanbepresentundercertainconditionsinanyofthelocations whereresidentmicrofloraarefound.Theyappearonmucousmembraneswhengreater thannormalquantitiesofnutrientsareavailableorontheskinwhenitiswarmerand moremoistthenusual.Pathogenscanbetransientmicroflora Opportunists amongtheresidentandtransientmicrofloraaresomespeciesoforganismsthatdonot usuallycausediseasebutcandosoundercertainconditions.Theseorganismsare calledopportunistsbecausetheytakeadvantageofparticularopportunitiestocause disease Whataresomeconditionsthatcreateopportunitiesfororganisms? 1.failureofhost'snormaldefenses 2.introductionoftheorganismsintounusualbodysites 3.disturbancesinthenormalmicroflora 21:02 KOCHSPOSTULATES Koch'sPostulates 1.thespecificcausativeagentmustbeobservedineverycaseofadisease 2.theagentmustbeisolatedfromadiseasedhostandmustbegrowninpureculture 3.whentheagentfromthepurecultureisinoculatedintohosts,theagentmustcause thesamedisease 21:02 4.theagentmustbereisolatedfromtheinoculatedhostandidentifiedasbeingidentical totheoriginalspecificcausativeagent. KINDSOFDISEASES InfectiousandNoninfectiousDiseases Infectiousdisease:arediseasescausedbyinfectiousagentssuchasbacteria, viruses,fungi,protozoa,andhelminths. Noninfectiousdisease:causedbyanyfactorotherthaninfectiousorganisms ClassificationofDiseases Inheriteddiseases:causedbyerrorsingeneticinfo Maybeassociatedwithinfectiousdiseasesbymakinghostssusceptible Congenitaldiseases:structuralandfunctionaldefectspresentatbirth,causedby drugs,excessiveXrayexposure,orcertaininfections. Ex.syphilis 21:02 Degenerativediseases:disordersthatdevelopinoneormorebodysystemsasaging occurs Nutritionaldeficiencydiseases:lowerresistancetoinfectiousdiseasesandcontribute totheseverityofinfections Ex.Bacteriumthatcausesdiphtheria(Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae)producesmore toxininpeoplewithirondeficiencies Endocrinediseases:areduetoexcessordeficienciesofhormones Mentaldisease:canbecausedbyavarietyoffactors,includingthoseofanemotional, orpsychogenicnatureaswellascertaininfections Immunologicaldiseases:suchasallergies,autoimmunediseases,and immunodeficienciesarecausedbymalfunctionoftheimmunesystem Neoplasticdiseases:involveabnormalcellgrowththatleadstotheformationof varioustypesofgenerallyharmlessorcancerousgrowthsortumors.Causesofsuch diseasesincludechemicals,physicalagentssuchavariousformsofradiation,and microorganism,especiallyviruses Iatrogenicdiseases:arecausedbymedicalproceduresand/ortreatments.Examples includesurgicalerrors,drugreactions,andinfectionsacquiredfromhospitaltreatment Nosocomialinfectionsareacquiredfromhospitaltreatment Ex.Staphylococcusaureusisacommonbacteriumassociatedwithsurgicalwound infections Idiopathicdiseases:arediseaseswhosecauseisunknown CommunicableandNoncommunicableDiseases Communicableinfectiousdisease:infectiousdiseasesthatcanbespreadfromone hosttoanother(ex.Rubeola)akacontagiousdiseases 21:02 Noncommunicableinfectiousdiseases:notspreadfromonehosttoanother THEDISEASEPROCESS HowMicrobesCauseDisease HowBacteriaCauseDisease Virulencefactors:structuralorphysiologicalcharacteristicsthathelporganismscause infectionanddisease;thesestructuresincludepiliforadhesiontocellsandtissues, enzymesthateitherhelpinevadinghostdefensesorprotecttheorganismfromhost defenses,andtoxinsthatcandirectlycausedisease Howcanbacteriaenterthebody? Penetratingtheskinormucousmembranes,bysexualtransmission,bybeingingested withfood,bybeinginhaledbyaerosols,orbytransmissiononafomite(anyinanimate objectcontaminatedwithaninfectiousagent) Adhesins:Proteinsorglycoproteinsfoundonattachmentpili(fimbriae)andcapsules. Mostadhesinsallowthepathogentoadhereonlytoreceptorsonmembranesofcertain cellsortissues. Attachmenttoahostcellisnotenoughtocauseinfection. Whatelsemustoccur? Themicrobesmustalsobeabletocolonizethecell'ssurfaceortopenetrateit Colonizationreferstothegrowthofmicroorganismsonepithelialsurfacessuchasthe skin,ormucousmembranesofotherhosttissues,despitehostdefensemechanisms Ex.Chlamydiapneumoniabiofilmsthatcolonizecoronaryarterieshavebeenimplicated inheartdisease Invasiveness:theabilityofamicroorganismtoinvadeandgrowinhosttissues Somebacteria,suchaspneumococciandotherstreptococci,releasedigestiveenzymes thatallowthemtoinvadetissuesrapidlyandcausesevereillnesses Streptococciproducetheenzymehyaluronidase,orspreadingfactor,whichdigests hyaluronicacid,agluelikesubstancethathelpsholdthecellsofcertaintissuestogether 21:02 BothbubonicplagueandpneumonicplaguearecausedbythebacteriumYersinia pestis,butinbubonicplague,theorganismsenterthebodybymeansofafleabite, migratethroughtheblood,andinfectmanyorgansandtissues Table14.4ExamplesofAdhesiveVirulenceFactors Bacterium Disease AdhesionMechanism Mycoplasmapneomoniae Atypicalpneumonia Adhesinoncellsurface adherestoreceptorin respiratorylining Neisseriameningitis Meningitis Adhesiononpili Streptococcuspneumonia Pneumonia Surfaceadhesinsattachto carbohydrateonrespiratory lining Dentalcaries Capsuleattachestotooth enamel Shigellaspecies Dysentery Unknownmechanismfor attachmenttointestinal lining Escherichiacoli Diarrhea Adhesinsonpiliattachto UpperRespiratoryTract Mouth Streptococcusmutans IntestinalTract 21:02 receptoronintestinallining Campylobacterjejuni Diarrhea Adhesinsonflagellaattach tointestinallining Vibriocholarae Cholera Adhesinsonflagellabindto receptorsonintestinallining Treponemapallidum Syphilis Bacterialproteinattachesto cells Neisseriagonorrhoeae Gonorrhea Adhesinsonpiliattachto liningofgenitaltract UrogenitalTract 21:02 Whatisthedifferencebetweencoagulaseandstreptokinase? Coagulase:acceleratestheclottingofblood Keepsorganismsfromspreadingbutalsohelpswallthemofffromimmunedefenses thatmightotherwisedestroythem Streptokinase:dissolvesbloodclots Pathogenstrappedinbloodclotsfreethemselvestospreadtoothertissuesbysecreting virulencefactors Toxin:anysubstancethatispoisonoustootherorganisms.Somebacteriaproduce toxins,whicharesynthesizedinsidebacterialcellsandareclassifiedaccordingtohow theyarereleased. Exotoxins:solublesubstancessecretedintohosttissues.Exotoxinsaremorepowerful toxinsproducedbyseveralgrampositiveandafewgramnegativebacteria.Mostare polypeptides,whicharedenaturedbyheat,UVlight,andchemicalssuchas formaldehyde. Endotoxins:PartofthecellwallandarereleasedintohosttissuesfromGramnegative bacteria,oftenwhenthebacteriadieordivide.Allendotoxinsconsistof lipoplysaccharidecomplexes,thecomponentsofwhichvaryamonggenera.Theyare relativelystablemoleculesthatdonotdisplayaffinitiesforparticulartissues.Theyhave nonspecificeffects. Figure145Enzymaticvirulencefactorshelpbacteriainvadetissuesandevadehost defenses Hyaluronidasedissolvesthecementthatholdstogetherthecellsthatlinetheintestinal tract.Bacteriathatproducehyaluronidasecantheninvadedeepercellswithinthe intestinaltissues Coagulasetriggersbloodplasmaclotting,allowingbacteriaprotectionfromimmune defenses.Streptokinasedissolvesbloodclots.Bacteriatrappedwithinaclotcanfree themselvesandspreadtheinfectionbyproducingstreptokinase. 21:02 Table14.5PropertiesofToxins Property Exotoxins Endotoxins Organismsproducing AlmostallGrampositive; someGramnegative AlmostallGramnegative(b/cof theLPStriggerssepticshock) Locationincell Extracellular,secretedinto medium Boundwithinbacterialcellwall; releasedupondeathof bacterium Chemicalstructure Mostlypolypeptides Lipopolysaccharidecomplex Stability Unstable;denaturedabove 60degreesCandUVlight Relativelystable;canwithstand severalhoursabove60degrees C Toxicity Amongthemostpowerful Weak,butcanbefatalin toxinsknown(someare100 relativelylargedoses to1milliontimesasstrong asstrychnine) Effectontissues Highlyspecific;someactas Nonspecific;acheallover neurotoxinsorcardiac systemiceffectsorlocalsite muscletoxins reactions Feverproduction Littleornofever Antigenicity Strong;stimulatesantibody Weak;recoveryfromdisease productionandimmunity oftendoesnotproduceimmunity Toxoidconversionanduse Bytreatmentwithheator Rapidriseintemperaturetohigh fever Cannotbeconvertedtotoxoid; 21:02 chemicals;toxoidusedto immunizeagainsttoxin Examples cannotbeusedtoimmunize Botulism,gasgangrene, tetanus,diphtheria, staphylococcalfood poisoning,cholera, enterotoxins,plague Salmonellosis,tularemia, endotoxicshock 21:02 Givingantibioticsthatkillsuchbacteriacanreleasesufficienttoxintocausethepatient todieofseverelyreducedbloodpressure(endotoxicshock) Causefever,dropsinbloodpressure,andtissuedamage(ex.Typhoidfever) ProducedbyClostridium,Bacillus,Staphylococcus,Streptococcus,andseveralother leaveagreenishringaroundcolonies Betahemolysins:hemolyzebloodcellsbutcompletelybreakdownhemoglobin bacteria Hemolysins:lyseredbloodcells Alphahemolysins:hemolyzebloodcellsbutonlypartiallybreakdownhemoglobinand and leaveaclearringaroundcolonies Staphylococciandstreptococciproducedifferenthemolysins Leukocidins:exotoxinsproducedbymanybacteria,includingstreptococciand staphylococci;damageordestroycertainkindsofwhitebloodcellscalledneutrophils andmacrophages Leukostatin:interfereswiththeabilityofleukocytestoengulfmicroorganismsthat secreteexotoxin Toxemia:spreadingofexotoxinsbybloodfromthesiteofinfection Intoxications:diseasethatresultfromingestionofatoxin;toxinsarepreformedby pathogens ExampleClostridiumbotulinumproducestoxinsthataccumulateduringstorageofan improperlysterilizedjarorcanoffoodandhaveanimmediateandoftenlethaleffecton consumer Neurotoxins:exotoxinsthatactontissuesofthenervoussystemtopreventmuscle contraction(botulism)ormusclerelaxation(tetanus) Enterotoxins:exotoxinsthatactontissuesofthegut(ex.Cholera) 21:02 Manyactasantigens,foreignsubstancesagainstwhichtheimmunesystemreacts Toxoid:analteredtoxinthathaslostitsabilitytocauseharmbutthatretains antigenicity;toxoidscanbeusedtostimulatethedevelopmentofimmunitywithout causingdisease Exampletetanusbooster:itstimulatesyourbodytoproduceimmunitysothatifyouare exposedtoactivetetanustoxinthroughacutorpunctureoftheskin,youwillnotget tetanus Table14.6EffectsofExotoxins Bacterium NameofToxinor ActionofToxin HostSymptoms Disease Bacillusanthracis Anthrax(cyotoxin) Increasesvascular permeability Hemmorhageand pulmonaryedema Bacilluscereus Enterotoxin Causesexcessive lossofwaterand electrolytes Diarrhea Clostridium botulinum Botulism(eight serologicaltypes; neurotoxins) Blocksreleaseof acetylcholineat nerveendings Respiratory paralysis,double vision Clostridium perfringens Gasgangrene (alphatoxin,a hemolysin) Breaksdown lecithinincell membranes Cellandtissue destruction Foodpoisoning (enterotoxin) Causesexcessive lossofwaterand electrolytes Diarrhea 21:02 Clostridiumtetani Tetanus(lockjaw) (neurotoxin) Inhibitsantagonists ofmotorneuronsof brain;1nanogram cankill2tonsof cells Violentskeletal musclespasms, respiratoryfailure Corynebacterium diphtheriae Diphtheria; producedbyvirus infected(cytotoxin) bacteria Inhibitsprotein synthesis Heartdamagecan causedeathafter apparentrecovery Escherichiacoli Travelersdiarrhea (eneterotoxin) Causesexcessive lossofwaterand electrolytes Diarrhea Escherichiacoli O157;H7 (enterotoxin) Hemolyticuremic syndrome Destroysintestinal liningandcauses hemorrhagesin kidney Bleedingandkidney hemorrhageand failure Pseudomonas aeruginosa Variousinfections (exotoxinA) Inhibitsprotein synthesis Lethal,necrotizing lesions Shigelladysenteriae Bacillarydysentery (enterotoxin) Cytotoxiceffects;as Diarrhea,causes potentasbotulinum paralysisinrabbits toxin fromspinalcord hemorrhageand edema Staphylococcus aureus Foodpoisoning (enterotoxin) Stimulatesbrain centerthatcauses Vomiting 21:02 vomiting Scaldedskin syndrome (exofoliatin) Causesintradermal separationofcells Rednessand sloughingofskin Streptococcus pyogenes Scarletfever (erythrogenic,or redproducingtoxin) Causesvasodilation Maculopapular (slightlyraised, discolored)lesions Vibriocholarae Cholera (enterotoxin) Causesexcessive lossofwater(upto 30liters/day)and electrolytes Diarrhea;cankill withinhours 21:02 HowVirusesCauseInfection Productiveinfection:whenvirusesenteracellandproduceinfectiousoffspring Abortiveoffspring:whenvirusesenteracellbutareunstabletoexpressalltheir genestomakeinfectiousoffspring. Latentviralinfections:thevirusmaybelatentandcomeoutatalaterstageinlife PersistentViralInfections:involveacontinuedproductionofvirusesovermany monthsoryears Howdofungaldiseasesresult? Fromfungalsporesthatareinhaledorfromfungalcellsandorsporesthatentercells throughacutorwound Table14.7 ExamplesofChanges(CytopathicEffects)toVirusInfectedCells Virusfamily Cytopathiceffect Adenoviridae Cellsswell Herpesviridae Cellsswell Picornaviridae Cellsswellandlyse Paramyxoviridae Cellmembranesfuse,andupto100nuclei accumulateinanewlyformedgiantcell Rhabdoviridae(rabies) InclusionbodiescalledNegribodiesform (siteofviralinfectionortheaccumulation 21:02 ofviralantigens) Orthomyxoviridae Producehemaglutininsthatcause erythrocytestoagglutinate,orclump together 21:02 Signs,Symptoms,andSyndromes Sign:acharacteristicofadiseasethatcanbeobservedbyexaminingthepatient Examplesswelling,redness,rashes,coughing,pusformation,runnynose,fever, vomiting,anddiarrhea Symptom:characteristicofadiseasethatcanbeobservedorfeltbyonlythepatient Pain,shortnessofbreath,nausea,sorethroat,headache,andmalaise(discomfort) Syndrome:combinationofsignsandsymptomsthatoccurtogetherandareindicative ofaparticulardiseaseorabnormalcondition Infectionsofgut(entericinfections)nausea,vomiting,anddiarrhea Upperrespiratoryinfectionscoughing,sneezing,sorethroat,andrunnynose Sequelae:aftereffectsofdiseases TypesofInfectiousDisease Acutedisease:developsrapidlyandrunsitscoursequickly Examplesmeaslesandcolds ChronicDisease:developsmoreslowlythananacutedisease,isusuallylesssevere, andpersistsforalong,indeterminateperiod ExampleTBandleprocy Subacutedisease:intermediatebetweenanacuteandachronicdisease Latentdisease:characterizedbyperiodsofinactivityeitherbeforesignsandsymptoms appearorbetweenattacks 21:02 Localinfection:confinedtoaspecificareaofthebody Exampleboilsandbladderinfections Focalinfection:confinedtoaspecificarea,butpathogensfromit,ortheirtoxins,can spreadtootherareas Exampleabscessedteeth Systemicinfection:infectsmostofthebody Exampletyphoidfever Whenfocalinfectionsspread,theybecomesystemicinfections Septicemia:onceknownasbloodpoisoning;pathogensarepresentinandmultiplyin blood Primaryinfection:initialinfectioninapreviouslyhealthyperson Secondaryinfection:inindividualswithweakenedimmunesystemsduetoprimary infections Superinfection:secondaryinfectionthatresultsfromthedestructionofnormal microfloraandoftenfollowstheuseofbroadspectrumantibiotics StagesofInfectiousDisease 1.incubationperiod:timebetweeninfectionandtheappearanceofsignsand symptoms;lengthofthisperioddependsonthepropertiesofthepathogenandthe responseofthehosttotheorganism;factorsthataffectincubationperiodvirulence, howmanyorganismsenterthebody,wheretheyenterinrelationtothetissuesthey effect 2.prodromalphase:shortperiodduringwhichnonspecific,oftenmild,symptoms appear 21:02 Prodrome:asymptomindicatingtheonsetofadisease Somediseasesdonothaveaprodromalphase Peoplearecontagiousduringthisstage 3.invasivephase:individualexperiencesthetypicalsignsandsymptomsofthe disease Acme:thetimewhenthesignsandsymptomsreachtheirgreatestintensity;pathogens invadeanddamagetissues Insomediseases,suchasmeningitis,thisphaseisreferredtoasbeing fulminating,or suddenandsevere Pyrogens:substancesthatactonthecenterinthehypothalamusandsetthe thermostatatahigherthannormaltemperature;causeoffeverinsomedisease 4.declinephase:symptomsbegintosubside;thehostdefensesandtheeffectsof treatmentfinallyovercomethepathogen Secondaryinfectionsmayoccur 5.convalescencephase:tissuesarerepaired,healingtakesplace,andthebody regainsstrengthandrecovers;nolongerhavediseasesymptoms Sequelaemayoccur Figure146b Figure148 Table14.8 TermsUsedtoDescribeInfections Figure149 Table149 21:02 *Dontmemorize Fig1411b 21:02 November12,2012 Diseases *readthesesectionsandknowspecificthingsaboutdiseases(i.e.,whethertheycross theplacenta) *Knowwhatdifferentorganismsdo *Thinkabouthowtheseorganismscanspreadtheplasmids(ex.E.colihas enteroinvasiveandenterotoxigenicstrains) Chapter19 DiseasesoftheSkin StaphylococcalInfections:invasionthroughhairfollicle(folliculitis)orcommonlycalled pimples;adeeperpusfilledinfectioniscalledaboil(furuncle)andafurtherspreadof theinfectioncanleadtoacarbuncle. Hospitalpersonnelcanoftenspreadinfectionssincetheycanbeasymptomaticcarriers (estimatedthat50%ofadultsarenasalcarriers). ScaldedSkinSyndromeS.aureuscausedby2differentexotoxinscalled exfoliatins.Oneexotoxinisproducedfromaplasmidandtheotheriscarriedonthe chromosome.Thetoxiniscarriedinthecirculationsoallpartsoftheskincanbe damagedbytheexfoliatin. 21:02 StreptococcalInfections:StreptococcuspyogenescausesStrepThroatanda complicationoftheinfectioncanbeascarletfeverrashcausedbyanerythrogenic toxin(whichiscarriedonaprophage).Anothercomplicationoftheinfectioninvolvesthe immunesystemandwellbediscussedwithRheumaticFever. Erysipelascausedbyhemolyticstreptococci.Itcanreadilyspreadthroughtissue sinceitmakestheenzymehyaluronidase.Itcanspreadthroughthelymphaticsand causesepticemiaifleftuntreated. Redbloodcellslyse "FleshEatingBacteria"arestreptococciwhichcanmakeenzymessuchasproteases whichgivestheorganismtheabilitytodigesthumantissuerapidly. Pyodermameanspusfilled. ImpetigopyodermalesionscausedbyStaphylococciorStreptococci. AcnetheanaerobicorganismPropionibacteriumacnesassociatedwiththeinfection. Asthesebaceousglandssecretemoreoilontotheskin,organismscanmultiplytoa greaterdegreesincetheyhavemorenutrients(oil)forgrowth. Overgrowthofthe organismcanleadtoskinporesbecomingcloggedandinflamedwhichcanleadto tissuedestruction.Treatmentfortheconditioncanbelowlevelofantibioticsand Accutane. BurninfectionsPseudomonasaeruginosacanoftenstartgrowingunderthescab (eschar)thatdevelopsoverburnedskin.Thisinfectionishardtodetectbutifleftto continuecaneasilyreachthecirculation.Thescabmustberemoved(debridement)so theorganismcannotcontinuetogrowunderneathit.Theorganismalsomakestissue killingtoxins. EyeInfectionspg.592 Ophthalmianeonatorumconjuctivitisofthenewborn.Neisseriagonorrhoeaeor Chlamydiatrachomatispresentinthebirthcanalinfecttheeyesofthebaby.Silver nitrateortetracyclineisusedfortreatment. Chlamydialifecyclepg.263 21:02 "PinkEye"Bacterialconjunctivitiscanbecausedbyanumberoforganismssuchas Staphylococci,Streptococci,NeisseriaandPseudomonas.Itcanbetreatedwitha sulfonamideointment. TrachomaswollenconjunctivacausedbyChlamydiatrachomatis.Canleadto blindnessifleftuntreated. UrogenitalandSexuallyTransmittedDiseasesChapter20 UrinaryTractInfections(UTI)canbe"ascending"or"descending"dependingon wheretheinfectionstartsintheurinarysystem.E.colicauses80%oftheUTIsbutother fecalentericorganismscancauseinfectionssuchProteusandKlebsiella.UTIsare oftennosocomialinfectionsduetoproceduressuchascatherization. E.colicancauseopportunisticinfectionsiftheygetintoanotherareaofthebodywhere theynormallydonotoccupy BacterialVaginitisIfthepHofthevaginaincreases,thenormalfloraorganism, Gardnerellavaginalis,interactswithanaerobicbacteriatocauseinfection.Vaginal epithelialcellscoveredwithGardnerella"cluecells"canbeseeninamicrosopesmear andcanbeusedforadiagnosis. ToxicShockSyndromeS.aureusstrainsthatmakeexotoxin"C"causethedisease whichinvolvesfever,rashandadropinbloodpressure(shock).Anyareaofthebody infectedwiththisexotoxinproducingstraincancausethissyndrome. GonorrheaNeisseriagonorrhoeaecausestheinfection.Someofthevirulencefactors thattheorganismhasare:attachmentpili,endotoxin,aproteasewhichcancleavethe IgAantibody.Italsocansurviveinsidepolymorphonuclearleukocytes. Humansarethe onlynaturalhostandthisorganismcanbetransmittedbycarriersthatshowno symptomsofthedisease.Theinfectioncanleadtopelvicinflammatorydisease(PID). Theinfectioncanbecomedisseminatedandasdiscussedcancauseofeyeinfections. Theorganismscansurviveinpusforhoursandonfomites(ex.sheets). 21:02 SyphilisTheorganismTreponemapallidumistransmittedsexuallybutcanalsobe passedthroughsaliva.6stagesofthedisease: 1.Incubation. 2.Primarywhereachancreispresent. 3.PrimaryLatentwheretheorganismisinthecirculation. 4.Secondaryskineruptionsandpustularrashes.Mucouspatchesinthemouth. The personishighlycontagioussincetheorganismsareinhighnumberinthelesions. 5.SecondaryLatentSymptomscanoccuranytime.Theorganismcancrossthe placentaandinfectthefetus. 6.TertiaryAllorgansofthebodycanbedamagedbytheorganism.Infectedtissuecan become"walledoff"fromthecirculationduetoaninflammatoryresponsewhichis referredtoasagumma. ChlamydiaInfectionscausedbytheintracellularorganismChlamydiatrachomatis.It causesnongonococcalurethritis(NGU)andcanleadtoPID. OtherNGUinfectionscanbecausedbymycoplasmainfections. Mycoplasmahominis isfrequentlyapartofofthenormalfloraandcancauseNGU.Theorganismcan colonizetheplacentaandcauseabortions. ItcanalsoleadtoPID. Chapter21UpperandLowerRespiratoryInfections DiptheriaCorynebacteriumdiptheriacausesthedisease.Theorganismmakesan exotoxin(carriedonaprophage)whichinhibitsproteinsynthesis. Theorganismcauses apseudomembranetobeformedintheairwayduringtheinfectionwhichcancause suffocationifleftuntreated.Theexotoxincanalsogetintothecirculationanddamage otherorgansofthebody.Humansaretheonlynaturalhostfortheorganism.Thetoxoid ispartoftheDTPvaccine. Diptheroids:corynebacteriathataresoundinoronsuchbodysitesasthenose,throat, nasopharynx,urinarytract,andskin;nottoxinproducing Tobetoxinproducing,thebacteriophageDNAmustbeintegratedintothebacterial chromosome,whereitstoxinproducinggenesareexpressed 21:02 WhoopingCough(Pertussis)Bordetellapertussisistheorganismthatcausesthe infection.Itonlyinfectshumansandmakesanexotoxinandendotoxin. Thereare3 stagesofthedisease: 1.catarrhal(drycough) 2.paroxysmalwithacomplicationofcyanosisifairwaybecomesblocked.Strainingto drawinairgives"whooping"sound. 3.convalescent(mildcough). ItispartoftheDTPvaccineasawholecellextractbutrecentlythevaccinehasbeen reformulatedtoincludeonlycertainproteinsfromtheorganism Virulencefactors Exotoxin Endotoxin Hemagglutinins,surfaceantigensthathelpitattachtotheciliaofepithelialcellsinthe upperrespiratorytractproducesmucus PneumoniaOftencausedbyStreptococcuspneumoniaebutotherorganismscan causeit.ThereisavaccineforS.pneumoniaeanditisrecommendedthatchildren andolderpeoplereceiveit. MycoplasmaPneumoniacausedbyMycoplasmapneumoniaewhichlacksacell wall.Itisoftencalledprimaryatypicalpneumoniaor"walkingpneumonia". Alveolidecreaseinsizebyinwardswellingofthealveolarwalls,butalveolidonotfill withfluid LegionnairesDiseasecausedbyLegionellapneumophila.Itsurvivesinwhiteblood cells.Itistransmittedbyanaerosolfromthingslikeairconditioners,humidifiersetc. 21:02 TBMycobacteriumtuberculosiscausestheinfection.Itgrowsslowandsurvivesin macrophagesandwhitebloodcells.Itcansurviveinsputumformonths.Lunglesions withtissuedeatharereferredtoastubercles.Itcanspreadinthecirculationandinfect moreorgansincludingbonesandthisformisreferredtoasmiliarytuberculosis. Since AIDS,therehasbeenariseintheinfectionwhichisdevelopingresistancetodrugs. Theorganismcanremaindormantinthebodyafterapersonhasrecoveredfromthe infectionbutcanbereactivatedatalatertimeusuallyduetoapersonbecoming immunocompromised.Thereisskintestfordiagnosisanddrugcocktailstreatthe infectionwhichareoften:isoniazid,rifampinandethambutol. M.boviscaninfect humansthroughunpasteurizedmilk. Resistanceisbecomingaproblem Chapter22GastrointestinalDiseases FoodPoisoningfoodthathaspreformedtoxinsinit.Diseasecausedbytoxinsare referredtoasintoxicationsratherthaninfections.Staphylococcus,Clostridium (perfringensandbotulinum),andBacilluscereusfallintothiscategory. S.aureusmakesenterotoxinsAorD.Itinflamestheintestinesandstimulatesthe vomitingcenterofthebrain.Itisaheatstabletoxinthatcanenterthebloodandtravel backtotheintestine. Clostridiumperfringensmakesanenterotoxinandtheorganismisalsoaendospore former.Thetoxinisreleasedduringthesporulationstageoftheorganism. This organismalsocauses"gasgangrene"(refertopage597). Sincetheorganismisan anaerobeitwillgrowdeepintissuewhereoxygenisnotavailable. Itmakesenzymesto destroyhostcellsandwillcausedeathifleftuntreated. Bacilluscereusmakesanenterotoxinwhichinducesvomiting. 21:02 Enteritisisinflammationoftheintestine.Usuallythesmallintestineandifthelarge intestineisinvolvedititscalleddysentery.Systemicinfectionsarecalledenteric fevers. SalmonellosisSalmonellaenteritidisisthemostcommonorganismcausingthis disease.Itcanbecontaminatinganimals,water,reptilesandhumancarrierscan contaminatefood.Itisoftencontaminatinginmeatanddairyproducts.Itdoesmakean endotoxinsinceitisagramnegativeorganism.Complications:enterocolitisanda personcanhaveachronicinfectioninthegallbladderwhichmeanstheyarenow carriersoftheinfection. TyphoidFeverSalmonellatyphiistheorganism.Theorganismtravelsfromthe intestineintothelymphtissueandmultipliesinthemacrophages.Itmakesanendotoxin anditcanleadtosepticemiasoitmustbetreatedwithantibiotics. Italsocansurvivein thegallbladder.Thereisanattenuatedvaccineavailableforit. Shigellosisreferredtoasbacillarydysentery.Theorganismmakesanendotoxinand thereareanumberofspecies(serovars)whichcausethedisease.Humansand primatesaretheonlyknownhosts.Ingestedwithfoodanduncleanenvironments. The S.dysenteriaeserovarmakesaneurotoxincalledShigatoxinwhichcanleadtocoma. Diseaseinvolvesdehydrationandelectrolytelosssincethereisalargevolumeoffluid lostwiththeinfection. CholeraVibriocholeraemakesanenterotoxincalledcholeragenwhichdamages intestinallining."Ricewaterstools"areacharacteristicoftheinfectionwhichcanresult inseveredehydration.Theorganismcanbecontaminatingwaterandtheshellfishliving init.VibrioparahemolyticusisamoremildformofthediseaseandiscalledVibriosis. Thisorganismalsomakesanenterotoxin. 21:02 Escherichiacolitraveler'sdiarrhea.EnteroinvasivestrainsmakeKantigenfrom plasmidswhichallowittoattachandinvademucosalcells. Enterotoxigenicstrains makeenterotoxinscarriedonplasmids.Thediseasecancauseseveredehydration. Afterrecoveryapersoncouldbecomelactoseintolerantandbeleftwithirritablebowel syndrome.Sincethisorganismshouldneverbefoundincleanwaterinspectorsof waterlookforE.coliinwatersamples.Ifitispresent,itwouldsuggestthewateris contaminatedwithfecalmaterial. EnterohemorrhagicstrainsO157:H7arefoundincattleintestinesandthatfecal materialcancontaminatewaterormeattobeconsumed.Shigatoxins1and2aremade inthisstrain.Acomplicationishemorrhagicuremicsyndromewhichcanleadtokidney failureanddeath. E.colicarriedinourintestinescancauseopportunisticinfections. 21:02 CampylobacterjejuniandC.fetusseenofteninundercookedchicken.Resultsin copiousdiarrhea. YersiniosisYersiniaenterocoliticacanbefoundcontaminatingalmostanyfoodbut prefersmarineenvironments.Itproducesanenterotoxinandsurvivesandactually growsatrefrigeratortemperatures. PepticUlcersHelicobacterpyloriisanorganismthatcansurvivetheacidityofthe stomachsinceitcanneutralizeit.Itmultipliesinthemucosaandultimatelyleadsto ulcers.Upto90%ofulcerscanbecuredbyantibiotictreatment.Thereislinkofthis organismwithstomachcancer. *Linktocancer Clostridiumdifficilegrampositive,anaerobicendosporeformingrod.Majorcauseof antibioticassociatedcolitisandpseudomembranouscolitis. Allstrainsproducetwo toxins.Theenterotoxinisresponsibleformostoftheobservablesymptoms. Relapseof theinfectioncanoccurduetoendosporegermination. *Lookonpages364365formoreinformation. Majorprobleminhospitalsettings Chapter23SystemicDiseases PuerperalFevercausedbyStreptococcuspyogenes.Aftervaginaldeliverytheuterine wallbecomesirritatedandorganismscanenterthissiteandeventuallygetintothe bloodstream. GroupBStreptococcicancauseNeonatalSepsiswithmeningitisasapotential complication.Thebabybecomescontaminatedthroughthebirthcanal. Mothersare nowcheckedfortheorganismbeforelaborsothattheycanbetreatedwithantibioticsto preventthiscomplicationinthenewborn 21:02 RheumaticFeverStreptococcuspyogenescauses"StrepThroat"andthose symptomsgoawaybutfever,rashandarthritisdevelops.Heartdamagecanbea complicationduetotheantibodiesmadeagainsttheorganismreactingtoheartprotein. Theseantibodiesareconsideredcrossreactivesincetheyrecognizeproteinonthe organismaswellasontheheartmuscle. AnthraxBacillusanthraciscausestheinfection.Sporesareeatenfromcontaminated foodorbreathedin.Thereare3forms:cutaneous,respiratoryandintestinal.Plasmids carrygenesfor3exotoxins(lethalfactor,edemafactor,protectiveantigen)andcapsule formationandthesetraitsmakethisorganismlethal.Theexotoxinsinhibitmacrophages fromdestroyingtheorganismandinterferewithotherpartsofourimmunesystem. Ultimatelybloodclotsinlungcapillariescausedeath.Preventionisbyvaccinationand peopleworkingwithanimalsandanimalparts(skins)mustkeeptheworkingareaclean sincesporescanbecontaminatingfuretc.ofanimals. Capsulesantiphagocytic PlagueYersiniapestismakesexotoxinswhichinhibitsmacrophagesandotherpartsof theimmunesystem.Itisfoundinwildrodentswhichcanbebittenbyafleaandnow thefleacanbiteahumanandtransfertheorganism.Theorganismtravelsthroughthe lymphtissueandtheswollenlymphtissuesareoftenreferredtoas"buboes".Ifthis organismsgetsintothebloodstreamincancause"pneumonicplague"whichspreads directlytootherhumansandisusuallyfatal. LymeDiseaseBorreliaburgdorfericausesthedisease.Deersandrodentsarethe sourceoftheorganismandtickscantransfertheorganismfromthemtohumans. The" Bull'sEyeRash"isatelltalesignofthediseasebutnoteveryonegetsit. Early antibiotictreatmentisnecessarytopreventcomplicationssuchasnervedamageand arthritis. 21:02 RickettsialSystemicDiseasesarecausedbygramnegativeobligateintracellular parasites.Theyareconsideredemergingdiseasessincethereisagrowingnumberof newrickettsialdiseasesbeingdiscovered.Thedifferentorganismsinvadeanddamage bloodvessellinings.Leakagefromthebloodvesselcauseskinlesionscalled petechiae.Theorganismsmaydestroybrainandhearttissueaswell.Allrickettsial diseasecancausefever,headache,weaknessandliverandspleenenlargement.The infectioncanbetreatedwithantibioticsbutitoftenremainslatent. Theorganismsare transmittedtohumansthroughanthropodvectors. EpidemictyphusiscausedbyRickettsiaprowazekiiandisgottenfromthebitesof bodylicewhichreleasetheorganismatthistime.Scratchingthebiteareacausesthe organismtoentertheskin.Thisorganismcanspreadeasilyinovercrowdedand uncleanenvironments.ArecurrenceofthisinfectioniscalledBrillZinsserdisease whichusuallycausesmildersymptoms.Avaccineisavailable. RockyMountainSpottedFeveriscausedbyRickettsiarickettsiaandistransmittedby ticks.Antibioticsareusedtotreattheinfectionbutcanbelethalifleftuntreated. Chapter24NervousSystemDiseases BacterialMeningitisNeisseriameningitidisisoftenthecauseandthereare3strains (A,B,C)thatcauseinfection.Theorganismmakesanunusuallargeamountof endotoxinwhichcancausetheinfectedpersontogointoshock.Thereisavaccine available.Peoplecanbecarriersoftheorganismandnotbecomesickthemselves. HaemophilusinfluenzaetypeB(hib)wasthecommoncauseofbacterialmeningitisin youngchildrenbeforetheHibvaccinebecameavailable. ListeriosiscausedbyListeriamonocytogenes.Foundcontaminatingmanyfoods especiallydairyproducts.Itcanbeaproblemforimmunocompromisedpeopleand cancrosstheplacentaandcausedeathofthefetus. 21:02 TetanusClostridiumtetaniisananaerobic,endosporeformer.Theendosporescan infectapuncturewoundandthengerminateintovegetativecellsandreleasean exotoxin.Thisexotoxincangetintothebloodstreamandcausesmusclestostayina permanentstateofcontractionwithultimatedeath.Thereisthevaccinefortetanus whichismadeupofthetoxoid. Botulism - caused by Clostridium botulinum. Makes the most potent toxin know, which is a neurotoxin carried on a prophage. This neurotoxin prevents the muscles in the body from contracting and they stay in a relaxed state. The illness can be food born if the toxin is contaminating food. Canned food not treated properly can be the source since the organism is anaerobic and a endospore former. The endospores can germinate in canned food since the environment is anaerobic. Infants can eat honey contaminated with endospores which germinate into toxin producing organisms. The organism endospore can also contaminate a wound and germinate into vegetative cells producing the toxin. 21:02 TableofDiseases DiseasesoftheSkin BacterialSkinDiseases Folliculitis Staphylococcusaureus Skinabscess;encapsulated,sonot reachedbyantibiotics ScaldedSkinSyndrome S.aureus Vesicularlegionsoverentireskin surface,fever;mostcommonin infants Scarletfever Streptococcuspyogenes Sorethroat,fever,rashcausedby toxin;canleadtorheumaticfever andothercomplications Erysipelas S.pyogenes Skinlesionsspreadtosystemic infection;raretodaybutcommon andfatalbeforeantibioticswere available PyodermaandImpetigo Staphylococci,streptococci Skinlesions;usuallyinchildren; easilyspreadbyhandsandfomites Acne Proprionobacteriumacnes Skinlesionscausedbyexcessof malesexhormones;infectionis secondary;commoninteenagers Burninfections Pseudomonasaeruginosa andotherbacteria Growthofbacteriaundereschar, oftenanosocomialinfection; difficulttodiagnoseandtreat; causativeagentstypically antibioticresistant 21:02 DiseasesoftheEye Opthalmianeonatorum Neisseriagonnorrhoae Infectionacquiredduringpassage throughbirthcanalcausescornea lesionsandcanleadtoblindness; silvernitrateorantibioticshave nearlyeradicateditindeveloped countries Bacterialconjunctivitis Haemophilusinfluenza biogroupaegyptius, Staphylococcusaureus, Streptococcuspneumonia, Neisseriagonorrhoeae, Pseudomonasspecies Highlycontagiousinflammationof theconjunctivainyoungchildren Trachoma Chlamydiatrachomatis Infectionanddestructionofcornea andconjunctiva;causeof preventableblindness Urinarytractinfection Escherichiacoli,Proteus mirabilis,andother bacterialspecies Dysuria;sometimesleadsto chroniccystitis;oftenascendor descendinurinarytract Prostatitis E.coliandotherbacterial species Dysuria,urgentandfrequent urination,lowfever,backpain;can UrogenitalandSexually TransmittedDiseases BacterialUrogenitaldiseases 21:02 causeinfertility Pyelonephritis E.coliandotherbacterial species,sometimesthe yeastCandida Inflammationofpelvisofkidney, oftencausedbyurinarytract blockage;dysuria,nocturia, sometimesfever BacterialVaginitis Gardnerellavaginaliswith anaerobes Frothy,fishsmellingdischarge; painandinflammation Toxicshocksyndrome Staphylococcusaureus Toxinsreachbloodandcause fever,rash,andshockthatcan leadtodeath Gonnorhea Neisseriagonorrheoae Infectiousorganismsrelease endotoxinthatdamagesmucosa; pusfilleddischarge;cancausePID andinfectothersystems Syphilis Treponemapallidum Chancredevelopsinprimary stage;mucousmembranelesions andrashoccurinsecondarystage; permanentcardiovascularand neurologicaldamageoftenoccurin tertiarystage NongonnococcalUrethritis Chlamydiatrachomatisand Scanty,wateryurethraldischarge, mycoplasmas inflammation,sometimessterility; cancauseneonatalinfectionsand BacterialSexuallyTransmitted Diseases 21:02 fetaldeath Lymphogranulomavenerenum Chlamydiatrachomatis Genitallesions,fever,malaise, headache,nausea,vomiting,skin rash;lymphnodesbecomepus filledbuboes Pharyngitis Streptococcuspyogenes Inflammationofthethroat;fever withoutcoughornasaldischarge Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Inflammationofthepharynxwith pseudomembraneandsystemic effectsoftoxin Whoopingcough Bortadellapertussis Catarrhalstagewithfever, sneezing,vomiting,andmild cough;paroxysmalstagewithropy mucusandviolentcough; convalescentstagewithmildcough Classicpneumonia Streptococcuspneumonia, staphylococcusaureus, Klebisellapneumonia Inflammationofbronchioralveoli oflungswithfluidaccumulation andfever DiseasesoftheRespiratory System BacterialUpperRespiratory Diseases BacterialLowerRespiratory Infections 21:02 Mycoplasmapneumonia Mycoplasmapneumonia Mildinflammationofbronchior alveoli Legionnairesdisease Legionellapneumonophila Inflammationofthelungs,fever, chills,headache,diarrhea, vomiting,andfluidinlungs Tuberculosis Mycobacteriumtuberculosis Tuberclesinlungsandsometimes inothertissues;organismscan persistinwalledofflesionsandbe reactivated GastrointestinalDiseases BacterialFoodPoisoning Staphylococcalenterotoxicosis Staphylococcusaureus Heatstableenterotoxincauses tissuedamage,abdominalpain, nausea,vomiting Otherkindsoffoodpoisoning Clostridiumperfringens,C. botulinum,Bacilluscereus Diarrheaandsometimesintestinal infectionandgasgangrene Bacterialenteritisandenteric fevers Salmonellosis Salmonellatyphimurium,S. Abdominalpain,fever,diarrhea enteritis withbloodandmucusfromtoxin; enterocolitisfrominvasionof organisms;chronicinfectionsand carrierstatesoccur Typhoidfever Salmonellatyphi Organismsinvademucosaand 21:02 lymphatics,multiplyinphagocytes andothertissues;highfeverand rosespots;carrierstateandlife threateningcomplicationscan occur Shigellosis Shigellastrains Organismscauseintestinallesions andreleasetoxins;symptoms includecramps,fever,profuse diarrheawithbloodandmucus Asiaticcholera Vibriocholerae Organismsinvadeintestinallining, releasepotenttoxinthatincreases liningpermeability;symptoms includenausea,vomiting,copious diarrhea,fluidimbalances Vibriosis Vibrioparahaemolyticus Organismscolonizemucosaand releasetoxin;nausea,vomiting, diarrheaareselflimiting Travelersdiarrhea PathogenicstrainsofE. coli,otherbacteria(also virusesandprotozoa) Organismscaninvademucosa and/orproducetoxin,cause nausea,vomiting,diarrhea, bloating,malaise,abdominalpain; selflimitingexceptforpostinfection complications;dehydrationand deathininfants Otherkindsofbacterialenteritis Campylobacterjejuni,C. Campylobacterspeciescause fetus,Yersiniaenterocolitica enteritisininfantsanddebilitated patients;Yersiniareleasesatoxin thatcausesenteritiswithpain resemblingappendicitis 21:02 Bacterialinfectionsoftheupper gastrointestinaltract Ulcers,stomachcancer Helicobacterpylori Definiteassociationwithulcers; probablycofactorinstomach cancer Cholecystitis,cholangitis UsuallyE.coli Blockageofbileductsby gallstonescausesinflammationof gallbladderandbileducts; accumulationofbilecancause infectiontospreadtobloodstream orliver Pseudomembranouscolitis Clostridiumdifficile Formationofpseudomembraneon themucosalsurfaceofthecolon; occursinpatientswhose gastrointestinalmicroflorahave beenalteredbytheuseof antibiotics Septicemia Variousbacterialspecies Septicshockduetoendotoxinsof causativeagents,fever, lymphangitis Puerperalfever Streptococcuspyogenes Organismsfromuterusinvade bloodandcausesepticemia,pelvic distention,bloodydischarge SystemicDiseases Bacterialsepticemiasandrelated diseases 21:02 Rheumaticfever Streptococcuspyogenes Fever,arthritis,rash,mitralvalve damageduetoimmunological reaction Bacterialendocarditis Staphylococcusor streptococcusstrains Inflammationandvegetationof heartvalvesandlining,fever, malaise,bacteremia,heart murmur,congestiveheartfailure thatcancausedeath Anthrax Bacillusanthracis Cutaneouslesionsbecome necrotic;respiratoryinfections alwaysfatal;intestinalinfections similartofoodpoisoning Plague Yersiniapestis Bubonicplaguecausesbuboes,or enlargedlymphnodes,and hemorrhagesturnskinblack; septicemicplagueoccurswhen organismsinvadebloodandcause hemorrhageandnecrosisinmany tissues;pneumonicplaguefrom inhalationoforganismscauses pneumonia Lymedisease Borreliaburgdorferi Rashandflulikesymptomsat onset,laterarthritisandnerveand heartdamage;cancrossplacenta RickettsialDiseases Gramnegativeobligate intracellularparasites Theyareconsideredemerging diseasessincethereisagrowing Systemicdiseasesotherthan causedbyrickettsia 21:02 numberofnewrickettsialdiseases beingdiscovered.Thedifferent organismsinvadeanddamage bloodvessellinings.Leakagefrom thebloodvesselcauseskinlesions calledpetechiae.Theorganisms maydestroybrainandhearttissue aswell.Allrickettsialdiseasecan causefever,headache,weakness andliverandspleenenlargement. Theinfectioncanbetreatedwith antibioticsbutitoftenremains latent.Theorganismsare transmittedtohumansthrough anthropodvectors. RockyMountainspottedfever R.rickettsi Westernhemisphere;arthropod vectorreservoirtick;vertebrate reservoirrodents,dogs Rickettsialpox R.akari UnitedStates,Korea,Russia; arthropodvectorreservoirmite; vertebratereservoirhouse mouse Epidemictyphus Rickettsiaprowazekii Worldwide;Arthropodvector reservoirlouse;vertebrate reservoirhuman NervousSystemDiseases Bacterialmeningitis 21:02 Newborn(02months) E.coli,other Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcusspecies Preschool(2mos5years) Matureadult(over40years) Haemophilusinfluenza, typeb;Neisseria meningitides Neisseriameningitides, Streptococcuspneumoniae Staphylococcusspecies Listeriosis Listeriamonocytogenes Akindofmeningitisseeninfetuses andimmunodeficientpatients Tetanus Clostridiumtetani Toxinmediateddisease;muscle stiffness,spasms,paralysisof respiratorymuscles,heartdamage, andusuallydeath Botulism Clostridiumbotulinum Preformedtoxinfromfoodprevents releaseofacetylcholine;paralysis anddeathresultunlesstreated promptly;ininfantsandwounds, endosporesgerminateand producetoxin Youthandyoungadult(540 years) Tissuenecrosis,brainedema, headache,fever,occasionally seizures Maximumincidence68months Sporadicorepidemic Sporadic 21:02 Diseasesgroupedbyorganism Organism Areaof Disease CommonCharacteristics Folliculitis Grampositivebacteriathat divideinplanestoproduce clustersorpackets.Normally associatedwiththeskinand mucousmembranes,certain speciesofstaphylococciare involvedinskinboils, abscesses,andcarbuncles, especiallyiftheyproducethe enzymecoagulase,which causesbloodclotting. Staphylococcusaureusis involvedincasesoffood poisoning,toxicshock syndrome,pneumonia,and staphylococcalmeningitis. Body Grampositive bacteria Staphylococcal Infections Staphylococcus aureus Skin 21:02 Skin Scaldedskin syndrome Urogenital Toxicshock syndrome Eye Bacterial Conjunctivitis Respiratory system Classicpneumonia Gastrointestin Foodpoisoning al Staphylococcal enterotoxicosis Streptococcal Infections Grampositive,andcertain speciesareaerobic,while othersareanaerobic.On bloodagar,certainspecies partlydestroytheredblood cellsandaresaidtobe alphahemolytic.Other speciescompletelydestroy thebloodcellsandarebeta hemolytic.Those streptococciproducingno bloodcelldestructionare gammahemolytic. 21:02 Skin Scarletfever Skin Erysipelas Skin "FleshEating Bacteria" Systemic Puerperalfever Systemic Rheumaticfever Eye Bacterial conjunctivitis Respiratory system Classicpneumonia Skin Pyodermaand Impetigo Nervous system Bacterialmeningitis Proprionobacterium acnes Skin Acne Pseudomonas aeruginosaand otherbacteria Skin Burninfections Neisseria gonnorrhoae Eye Opthalmia neonatorum Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pneumoniae Staphylococci and/orstreptococci 21:02 Urogenital Gonnorhea Neisseria meningitides Nervous system Bacterialmeningitis Haemophilus influenza Eye Bacterial conjunctivitis Thepasteurellasbelongto thefamilyPasteurellaceae. Theyaredistinguishedfrom vibriosandenterobacteriaby theirsmallsizeandinabilityto move.Thegenera Pasteurella,Haemophilus, andActinobacillusareamong theimportantmembersofthe group.ThespeciesH. influenzaeisacauseof meningitisinchildren,while P.multocidacausescholera infowl. Trachmoma Nongonococcal urethritis Urogenital Escherichiacoli Eye Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Lymphogranuloma venerenum Urogenital Urinarytract infection Gastrointestin Travelersdiarrhea 21:02 al Upper gastrointestin al Cholecystitis, cholangitis Nervous system Bacterialmeningitis Gardnerella vaginalis Urogenital BacterialVaginitis Treponemapallidum Urogenital Syphilis Corynebacterium diphtheriae Respiratory system Diptheria Grampositiverodsfoundin variousenvironments, includingthesoil.The bacteriacontaincytoplasmic phosphategranulesthatstain ascharacteristic metachromaticgranules. Bortadellapertussis Respiratory system Whoopingcough Klebisella pneumonia (enterobacteria) Respiratory system Classicpneumonia Legionella pneumonophila Respiratory system Legionnaires disease Mycobacterium Respiratory Tuberculosis 21:02 tuberculosis system Clostridium perfringens Gastrointestin Foodpoisoning al Clostridium botulinum Gastrointestin Foodpoisoning al Nervous system Botulism Clostridiumdificile Upper gastrointestin al Pseudomembranou scolitis Clostridiumtetani Nervous system Tetanus Bacilluscereus Gastrointestin Foodpoisoning al Bacillusanthracis Systemic Salmonella typhimurium (enterobacteria) Gastrointestin Salmonellosis al eneteric Grampositive,rodshaped bacteria;producehighly resistantendospores;grow anaerobically Anthrax Gastrointestin Typhoidfever al eneteric Salmonellaenteritis (enterobacteria) Gastrointestin Salmonellosis al enteric Growaerobically 21:02 Shigellastrains Gastrointestin Shigellosis al enteric Vibriocholera (enterobacteria) Gastrointestin Asiaticcholera al enteric Vibrio parahaemolyticus (enterobacteria) Gastrointestin Vibriosisenteric al Yersinia enterocolitica (enterobacteria) Gastrointestin Enteritis al Yersinia pestis(enterobacteri a) Systemic Plague curved,Gramnegative, facultativelyanaerobicrods. Theybelongtothefamily Vibrionaceae.Onespecies, Vibriocholerae,isthecause ofcholerainhumans. Membersofthegenus AeromonasandPlesiomonas areinvolvedinhuman intestinaldisease.Speciesof Photobacteriumaremarine organismsknownfortheir abilitytoproducelightasa resultofchemicalactions stimulatedbytheenzyme luciferase.Thisproductionof lightisknownas bioluminescence. 21:02 Helicobacterpylori Upper gastrointestin al Ulcers,stomach cancer Borreliaburgdorferi Systemic Lymedisease Gramnegative Systemic obligateintracellular parasites Listeria monocytogenes Nervous system Rickettsialdiseases RockyMountain spottedfever, epidemictyphus Listeriosis

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Rutgers - BIO - 119131
OrganismAreaofBodyDiseaseCommonCharacteristicsTGrampositivebacteriathatdivideinplanestoproduceclustersorpackets.Normallyassociatedwiththeskinandmucousmembranes,certainspeciesofstaphylococciareinvolvedinskinboils,abscesses,andcarbuncles,espec
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
CHAPTER 12GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLEASSETSASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLEDescriptionBrief Exercise1. Characteristics of intangibleassets2. Recognitionandmeasurementof purchasedintangibles3. Recognitionandmeasurementof internallydevelo
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
BE 10-1$57,000 + $1,400 + $28,200 = $86,600BE 10-2Direct labourMaterial purchased for buildingInterest on loan to finance constructionAllocation of plant overhead based onlabour hours worked on buildingArchitectural drawings for buildingTotal cos
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
(extracted from Wiley solution files)EXERCISE 10-19(a)Automatic Equipment.Accumulated DepreciationEquipment.Equipment.Cash.CashInstallation cost(cash)Market value ofused equipment* CostLess: Gain deferredAdjusted cost$4,0001,10050,800$5
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
(extracted from Wiley solution files)EXERCISE 10-24(a) Fair value modelIf the company chooses to measure the investment propertyunder the fair value model it will have to recognize in net incomeor loss, for each period, changes in fair value from yea
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
EXERCISE 11-10 (20-25 minutes)(a) Situation 1(1) December 31, 2010DepreciationExpense18,000AccumulatedDepreciation Equipment18,000($100,000 $10,000) 5 yearsThe equipment is reported on the balance sheet at a carryingamount of $82,000 ($100,
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
E12-1(a) 3, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20*, 23, 26*(b)1.2.4.5.6.7.8.9.11.12.14.18.21.22.24.25.Long-term investments in the balance sheet.Biological asset in the balance sheet.Current asset (prepaid rent) in the balance sheet.Property, p
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
Ex 10-2Purchase:Cash paid for equipment, includingsales tax of$8,000Freight and insurance while in transitCost of moving equipment into place atfactoryWage cost for technicians to testequipmentMaterial cost for testingSpecial plumbing fixtures
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
Ex10-3(a)LandLegal fees for titlesearchArchitects feesCash paid for landand old buildingRemoval of old building($20,000 $5,500)Surveying beforeconstructionInterest on short-termloans duringconstructionExcavation beforeconstructionMachiner
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
Kieso, Weygandt, Warfield, Young, WiecekIntermediate Accounting, Ninth Canadian EditionEXERCISE 11-1 (15-20 minutes)(a) Factors to consider in establishing the assets useful lifeinclude the following: physical life of the asset (this may be the case
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
Ex 10-7ItemLandLandImprovementsBuilding(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(h)(i)(j)(k)(l)(m)(n)(o)(p)(q)Other Accounts($275,000)Notes Payable$275,000$8,0007,0006,000(1,000)22,000250,0009,000$ 4,00011,000(5,000)13,00019,00014,0003
Sheridan College - ACCG - 21646
Ex10-261.Under the assumption that the building is expected to havea remaining useful life that extends considerably beyond the15 year life of the new roof, the following entries areappropriate:BuildingRoof (new roof)*.Cash.2,500,0002,500,000Acc
National American - SC - 1100
LP 6: Ethanol SummarySequestering Greenhouse GasesAccording to the U.S. EPA, gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are oftencalled greenhouse gases. This section of the EPA Climate Change Site provides information anddata on emissions of greenhouse g
National American - SC - 1100
LP5: Population/Environment1. What effects will declining or increasing populations have on a nation? How will thischange between rich and poor nations? What can be done about it?Rapidly growing populations may be exceeding the carrying capacity of the
National American - SC - 1100
Pollution of WaterWater pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality ofwater that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives in it. When humansdrink polluted water it often has serious effects on th
NYU Poly - EL - 5123
Zhuzhou Tang, ID:0485249Homework 21. Describe how the cones in the retina behind the human eye enable us to perceivecolor. What are the different types of cones we have? what colors are they eachsensitive to?There are cones in the retina behind the h
NYU Poly - EL - 5123
Zhuzhou Tang, ID:0485249Computer Assignment 61Zhuzhou Tang, ID:0485249Zhuzhou Tang, ID:0485249Through observation DFT coefficients have large magnitudes in low frequency. Astrong edge in the source will generate a strong edge in the magnitude spectr
NYU Poly - EL - 625
EL625Solutions to Problem Set 11.1a) The system is not causal since we can see that y (t) depends on u(t + ) for 0 &lt; 1.b) This could be confusing because of the way the variable t appears. To avoid thisconfusion, let = t + so d = d and = 1 gives = t
NYU Poly - EL - 625
Solutions to Problem Set 2EL6252.1a) Let x1 = iL1 , x2 = iL2 and x3 = vC be the state variables. We have thendx2vL= 2;dtL2dx1vL= 1;dtL1dx3x1 + x2=dtCApplying Kirchos voltage law around the rst loop gives e1 + R1 x1 + vL1 + x3 = 0. Then
NYU Poly - EL - 625
EL625Solutions to Problem Set 32.22a) For the system:D2 y1 + 4Dy1 + 3y2 = u1 + u2 D2 y2 + 5Dy2 + Dy1 + y1 = u2 ,we havey1 = D1 4y1 + D1 (3y2 + u1 + u2 )y2 = D1 5y2 y1 + D1 (y1 + u2 )Using x1 = y1 , x3 = y2 , x2 = 3y2 + u1 + u2 , and x4 = y1 + u2 w
NYU Poly - EL - 625
Solutions to Problem Set 4EL6254.1a) The current entering C (t) equals the rate of change of charge on C (t). Thusdq (t)d[C (t)vC (t)]== C (t)vC (t) + C (t)vC (t) = iC (t).dtdtNowv (t) vC (t) vC (t)= v (t) vC (t) 2vC (t) = v (t) 3vC (t)R1R2
NYU Poly - EL - 625
Solutions to Problem Set 5EL6254.12 We have1 1001A=00 2 3so + 1 101 det[I A] = det 002 +3= ( + 1)(2 + 3 + 2) = ( + 1)2 ( + 3) = 0.Thus the eigenvalues are 1 = 1 with multiplicity 2 and 2 = 2 with multiplicity 1. ByMethod 2 with the trial
NYU Poly - EL - 625
Solutions to Chapter 5EL6255.1 For this system, we see thats102 s + 3[sI A] =Since[sI A]1 =so1s12(s1)(s+3)01s+3.2111=,(s 1)(s + 3)2 s1 s+3we nd thatet01t3t3t(e e ) e2(t) =andH (s) = C [sI A]1 B + D =5.3 We apply Lever
NYU Poly - EL - 625
Chapter 6 solutions6.1a) - This Z -transform does not exist because f (k ) is not bounded at k = 1.b), c), e) and h) - These Z -transforms exist since the f (k ) are bounded for all k 0 andgo to zero as k so they are of exponential order with A = 0.d
UT Dallas - HEALTH - 1305
AbortionexamplesandissuesAwomanwhowas7monthspregnantwashitbyacarinBristol.Thebabywasdeliveredinhospital,butdidnotsurvive.The27yearolddriverwillbechargedwithcausingdeathbydangerousdriving.Iftheunbornbabyhaddiedbeforebeingdelivered,nosuchchargecouldh
APIIT - CS - 505
APIIT - CS - 505
APIIT - CS - 505
CPS 130 Homework 3 - Solutions1. (CLRS 3-2) (a) and (b) only. Indicate, for each pair of expressions (A, B) below, whether A is O, o, , , or of B. Assume that k 1, &gt; 0 and c &gt; 1 are constants. Your answer should be in the form of a table with `yes' or `n
APIIT - CS - 505
University of Phoenix - PHI/105 - 105
The NASW, national association social workers, has a high set of standards and values.As a mom I go to urgent care often like hospitals they prioritize every client by theircondition or injury. For example a pregnant woman in intense labor would go befo
University of Phoenix - PHI/105 - 105
When I was 19 I became pregnant as most young people I was not ready to have a child. My family doesnot believe in abortion but I needed to look at all my options I had. There were many factors I had toconsider with my decision to abort, give up, or kee
University of Phoenix - PHI/105 - 105
SyllabusPHI/105 Version 51You will be asked to keep a journal throughout the course on the topics discussed each week. Your journal,containing all 9 weeks of journal entries, will be submitted as a single document in Week Nine . It will begraded at t
University of Phoenix - PHI/105 - 105
The father of modern philosophy better known as Rene Descartes was a mathematician anddiscovered Analytic Geometry. He believed everything could be questioned and should bequestioned. He also believed in the existence of corporeal objects. He was the fi
University of Phoenix - PHI/105 - 105
Socrates believed that if you abide by the laws of your community you have no reason to feardeath. Since God never told him if life or death is better he thought the Athenians beliefs woulddo. Socrates believed that in the afterlife there would be Gods
University of Phoenix - HSM 230 - 230
Compose a 200- to 300-word response to the following: The Community Services Code of Ethics inAppendix A of Ethical Leadership in Human Services states, Whatever your personal feelings about thejustice and appropriateness of particular laws, all board m
Broward College - HISTORY - woh2040
The Road to 9/11By:Jason WhiteThis film depicts the Middle East culture, the Islamic history and the lead up to 9/11. Thefilm starts with the events of 1918 and the fall of the Ottoman Empire in WWI and brings us allthe way through to the present. Th
Ashford University - CRJ 305 - 305
StatetheproblemasathesisDomesticviolenceisthebiggestsocialproblemfacingAmericatoday.Ifsocietydoesnt stepin,childrenwhowitnessorexperiencedomesticviolencewillbecomefutureabusers themselves.Preventingabuseismorecosteffectivethanpayingfortheconsequencesof
Ashford University - CRJ 305 - 305
1RUNNING HEAD: PURPOSES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIMINAL SENTENCINGPurposes and Effectiveness of Criminal SentencingJames L. JonesCRJ 401 Juvenile JusticeMr. Scott AxtonJan 14, 2012Purposes and Effectiveness of Criminal SentencingIn the world today,
Ashford University - CRJ 305 - 305
1RUNNING HEAD: CRIMINOLOGYCriminologyJames L. JonesCRJ 308 Psychology of Criminal BehaviorMr. Jon SternSep 02, 2012The history of criminology refers to the study of crime and the different ways through whichpeople respond to crime (Bernard, 2008).
University of Phoenix - HUM - 111
Axia College MaterialAppendix AMidterm ExamAccess the Week Four Electronic Reserve Readings located under the materials section ofyour student website.Read, watch, and listen to the media presented on the Boston Tea Party.Write a paragraph of approx
Ashford University - INF 103 - INF103
Running Head: THE TIMELINE AND MODERN USE OF VIRTUAL REALITYThe Timeline and Modern Use of Virtual RealityJason W. MillerAshford UniversityINF103: Computer LiteracyProfessor Bonita Spight-WilliamsOctober 29, 2012THE TIMELINE AND MODERN USE OF VIRTU
Air Force Academy - ECON - 10
TECNOLOGA DE MATERIALESPROBLEMARIOC9.2. 1. Un polietileno de alto peso molecular tiene un pesomolecular medio de 450.000 g/mo!. Cul es el grado depolimerizacin promedio?Solucin:La unidad repetitiva o mero en el polietileno es +CH 2CH2-],cuya masa m
Wisconsin - CS - 2031
WHATS REPLACING THE DAY AFTERTHANKSGIVING FOR SHOPPING SALES?BlackFriday is traditionally a big day for retailersIts when Christmas shoppers spend a lot of money,moving retailers out of the red and into the blackBut Black Friday may soon be replaced
Wisconsin - CS - 2031
INTRODUCTION9-1THE CHANGING INTERNETSoftware-as-a-service(SaaS)Push, not pull, technologies and personalizationF2b2CVoice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)Web 2.09-2How can IT support business processes?Information Technology CapabilitiesBusiness
Wisconsin - CS - 2031
RuleBasedSystems(ExpertSystems)AdditiontoChapter4.RulebasedSystemsArchitecturecomponents: knowledgebase intheformofrules inferenceengine/interpreter workingmemorystoresfacts,etc. userinterface2ArchitectureRule-Based Systems consist of a rule
Stevenson University - COMPUTER S - ISM4213
ANSWERS TO PROJECT QUESTIONS3.58Consider the table:STAFF_MEETING (EmployeeName, ProjectName, Date)The rows of this table record the fact that an employee from a particular projectattended a meeting on the given date. Assume that a project meets at m
Clarkson - ECON - 137
Econometrics Final ProjectStudy of Coffee ProductionDecember 2, 2010Econometrics Final ProjectIntroduction:More than 2.25 billion cups of coffee are consumed worldwide everyday. Americansconsume about 1/5 of all the coffee produced in the world, how
Clarkson - MARKETING - MK 320
MK320 Section 1MK 320NMotionA championship basketball game with ten seconds on the clock, and both teamsare tied. The visiting team pushes the ball down the court and scores while the buzzersounds. After the game, the home teams coach wants to review
Texas San Antonio - GBA - 2013
Exam 1: Review* First and foremost, I highly suggest that students reviewthe outlines posted on Blackboard.* This review sheet is comprised of the various conceptswith which you should make yourself familiar.* The best way to utilize this review shee
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
TRAVAUX DIRIGES DEPHYSIQUEFiltre lectriqueCorrigFilire SPExercice n1CCLquivalent Thvenin du circuit entre A et B est :ZRRVeETh =Veet RTh = Z c + cRRuZc + RZc + RLa tension au borne de Ru scritRuRRuVS = EThsoitVS =VeRu + RthRu (
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
SYSTEMES DU SECOND ORDREI. GENERALITE.Un systme linaire du second ordre dentre e et de sortie s est rgit par une quation diffrentielle dudeuxime ordre du type :2a2systmedusecondordreved VsdVs+ a1+ a 0 Vs = Ve2dtdtvso les coefficients a2
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Chapitren3Tale GnieElectroniqueLes filtres analogiquesObjectifs :Prsenter les filtres et tudier leur influence sur le spectre en frquence dune grandeur dentre priodique.Dterminer les fonctions de transfert des filtres lmentaires et donner leur repr
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Enseignements E.E.A.Electronique analogiqueP r o b l m e se t c o r r ig sanne 2010par Sylvain GronimiUniversit Paul SabatierElectronique analogique Problmes et corrigsTABLE DES PROBLEMESPartie 1Rappel sur la thorie des circuitsMise en quations
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CNAM de SaclayCorrig de l'Examen : Traitement Analogique du Signal (2)26 juin 2004Ce document donne soulign ou encadr en vert, les rponses du devoir de Traitement Analogique du Signal du 26 juin2004. Il comporte galement des calculs et explications qu
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Universit J. FourierAnne 2005 - 2006Signaux et SystmesCorrig d'ExamenM1 Physique UE Phy-403iF.Montanet et H. MayareLes partiesIetIIsont indpendantes. Les tous les documents sont autoriss. Lescalculatrices de poches seront utiles. Le barme (sur
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Universit J. FourierAnne 2005 - 2006Signaux et SystmesCorrig d'ExamenM1 Physique UE Phy-403iF.Montanet et H. MayareLes partiesIetIIsont indpendantes. Les tous les documents sont autoriss. Lescalculatrices de poches seront utiles. Le barme (sur
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Exercices sur les filtres passifs : corrigsExercice 1/1. G//0 = 1/RC2. Daprs la fonction de transfert on a un filtre passe haut du 1er ordre.3. 0 = 1/RC = 2fcfc = 1/2RC4. C = 1/2Rfc = 1/2 (627.103 x 6,8.103) = 3737pFPour fc, |G| = 1/2 = Us/Ue
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Le Filtrage analogiqueLes filtres analogiquesCNAM 2006-2007 LD-P1Les filtres analogiquesCNAM 2006-2007 LD-P2Sommaire :1. Rle . 62. Diffrents types de filtres . 62.1. Filtres capacit commute . 72.2. Calculateur . 83. Rappels sur la thorie du fi
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
Traitement du signal- MCPC 2000-0119/07/111ORSAYDpartement Mesures PhysiquesTDs et Corrections de TD en Traitement du SignalRoger REYNAUDSommaireTD1 - Signaux et sries de Fourier. 31 - Valeurs moyennes, valeurs efficaces, puissances . 32 - Taux
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
INTEGRATED CIRCUITSDATA SHEETI2C-bus allocation tableGeneral1997 Mar 03File under Integrated Circuits, IC12Philips SemiconductorsI2C-bus allocation tableGeneralI2C-BUS ALLOCATION TABLE (IN GROUP ORDER)The group number represents the hexadecimal
École Centrale Paris - GéNIE ELE - 42
QUANTIFICATIONERREURS de CONVERSIONERREURS de CONVERSIONECHANTILLONNAGEUechtUmestUtCODAGEBinaire naturel et dcalComplment 1 et 2CODAGEamplitude + signeGray