ob chapter 7
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ob chapter 7

Course: ORGANIZATI 102, Spring 2011

School: University of Malaya

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Chapter 7 Motivation Concept (syllabus chapter 5 ( part 1) 1. Motivation is defined as the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort forward attaining a goal. E) Motivation 2. The persistence dimension of motivation measures how long a person can maintain effort. B) persistence 3. The intensity element of motivation describes how hard a person tries. D) Intensity 4....

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7 Chapter Motivation Concept (syllabus chapter 5 ( part 1) 1. Motivation is defined as the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort forward attaining a goal. E) Motivation 2. The persistence dimension of motivation measures how long a person can maintain effort. B) persistence 3. The intensity element of motivation describes how hard a person tries. D) Intensity 4. Which level of Maslows hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying ones hunger, think, and other bodily needs? B) physiological The church you go to every Sunday is made up of people who have very different lifestyles and are a different stage in their life. Joanna is a 23-year-old, singer parent who works for minimum wage and shifts from motel to motel for accommodation. Josephine is a single, 45year-old woman who earns decent salary and has few interests and friends outside her office. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, has a loving family, and enjoys his work. You have decided to apply Maslows hierarchy of needs to determine what motivations each of these individuals. 5. Which of following needs would most likely motivate Joanna? C) physiological 6. Which of following needs would most likely motivate Josephine? A) social 7. Which of the following needs would motivate Jonathan the most? D) self-actualization 8. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs, which of the following is a lower-order need? B) safety 9. If we consider Maslows hierarchy of needs in the content of Japan, Greece, and Mexico, where uncertainty-avoidance characteristics are strong then security needs would be on top of the hierarchy. B) security 10. Which of the following needs in Maslows hierarchy refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming? B) self-actualization 11.Why is Maslows theory criticized? B) There is little evidence that needs are structured or operate in the way it describes. 12. According to Douglas McGregors Theory Y, a manager assumes that employees learn to accept responsibility. C) learn to accept responsibility 13. If Alberta is categorized as a Theory X manager, which of the following behaviors is she most likely to exhibit? C) She will strictly control all the details of any project she is managing. 14. The two-factor theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. E) two factor 15. Which of the following theories proposes the idea of a dual continuum? C) two factor theory 16. According to the two-factor theory, ----D) the aspects that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction 17. Which of the following is a motivational factor, according to Herzbergs twofactory theory? B) recognition 18. According to the two factor theory proposed by Herzberg, which of the following is considered a hygiene factor? B) quality of supervision 19. According to Herzberg, when hygiene factor are adequate, people wont be dissatisfied, but they will also bot be satisfied. E) hygiene factors 20. McClellands theory is based on which of the following needs? B) achievement, power and affiliation You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe has a high need for achievement, Mary has a high need for power, and Tim has a high need for affiliation. Sarah scored high on the need for power and low on the need for affiliation. Doug scored low on both need for power and need for affiliation. 21. Which of these five employees is most likely to be suitable for a new assignment that involves a high degree of personal responsibility and feedback? A) Joe 22. Which of these five employees is most suitable for handling your responsibilities when you are on a vacation? D) Sarah 23. Erika wants to become the head of the HR department. Although the role comes with a generous salary hike and will put her in charge of several subordinates, she is mainly pursuing this position because she believes she can do the job better than anyone else and want people to know this. According to McClellands theory of needs, which of the following needs is Erika primarily driven by in this case? B) the need for achievement 24. Which of the following statements is true according to McClellands theory of needs? A) People with a high achievement need prefer tasks that have a high level of risk. B) People with a high achievement need are interested in motivating others to do well. C) People with a high need for power and affiliation often make good managers in large firm. D) People with a high achievement need experience great satisfaction from success that come by luck. E) People with a high need for power and a low need for affiliation often make the best managers. 25. Which of the following needs, as detailed by Maslows hierarchy of needs, best corresponds to McClellands need for affiliation? B) social 26. Which of the following theories proposed that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation? D) self-determination theory 27. Which of the following statement is true regarding the cognitive evaluation theory? A) People need extrinsic rewards in order to be motivated. B) Extrinsic rewards tend to reduce intrinsic interest in a task. C) Intrinsic rewards are almost as effective as extrinsic rewards D) Externally imposed standards of work largely improved intrinsic motivation. E) Extrinsic rewards, including verbal praise, significantly decrease intrinsic motivation. 28. Self-determination theory proposed that in additional to being driven by a need for autonomy, people seek ways to achieve competence and positive connections.. A) competence and positive connections 29. Rachels parents used to pay her an allowance every week to feed the cats and to do few other chores around the house. However, once her mother lost her job, her parents stopped giving her an allowance. Although Rachel quit making her bed every morning, she still continued to feed the cats. Which of the following best explain why Rachel continues to feed the cats? D) Without the extrinsic reward, the execution of the task relies on internal motivation. 30. The concept of self-concordance considers how strongly peoples reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. C) self-concordance 31. The investment of an employees physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance is called job engagement. C) job engagement 32. Which of the following statement is true regarding goal-setting theory? A) Goal commitment is more likely when individuals have an external locus of control. B) Externally generated feedback is more powerful than self-generated feedback. C) Generalized goals produce a higher level of output as compared to specific goals. D) People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals. E) Assigned goals generate greater goal commitment in low rather high power-distance cultures. 33. According to goal-setting theory, goals are more likely to have a stronger impact on performance when tasks are independent rather than interdependent. E) tasks are independent rather than interdependent 34. MBO emphasizes goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. A) tangible, verifiable, and measurable 35. MBO provides individual employees with personal performance objectives. A) personal performance objectives 36. Unlike in the case of goal-setting theory. MBO strongly advocates participatively set goals. C) participatively set goals 37. The self-efficacy theory is also known as the social cognitive theory or the social learning theory. D) self-efficacy 38. Self-efficacy refers to an individuals belief that he or she capable of performing a task. C) Self-efficacy 39. According to Albert Bandura, the most important source of increasing selfefficacy is enactive mastery. D) enactive mastery 40. Which of the following sources of increasing self-efficacy involves gaining relevant experience with a particular task or job? A) verbal persuasion B) enactive mastery C) vicarious modeling D) arousal E) cognitive learning 41. One of sources of self-efficacy is vicarious modelling, become more confident become you see someone else doing the task. D) vicarious modelling 42. With reference to the four sources of self-efficacy as proposed by Albert Bandura, verbal persuasion involves becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful. C) because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful 43. Which of the following ways of increasing self-efficacy is generally used by motivational speakers? E) verbal persuasion 44. The Pygmalion effect is also called the Galatea effect. C) Galatea 45. The best way for a manager to use verbal persuasion is through the Pygmalion effect, a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true. B) Pygmalion effect 46. A(n) reinforcer is any consequence, immediately following a response, that increases the probability that the behaviour will be repeated. B) reinforcer 47. The proponents of reinforcement theory view behaviour as environmentally caused. B) environmentally caused 48. Operant conditioning theory argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they dont want. D) Operant conditioning theory 49. To get the best results while using reinforcement theory, rewards should be given immediately following the desired behaviour. D) immediately given following the desired behaviour 50. Helen, a high school teacher, wants her student to actively participate more in class. She has decided to use reinforcement theory to get the required results. Which of the following methods is she most likely to use? A) She is going to call on students who never participate. B) She is going to yell at students, telling them they are not making good grades. C) She is going to ask the students that always participate to allow the others to have a chance. D) She is going to model what active participation should look like, at the beginning of the class. E) She is going to give students an extra mark each time that they contribute. 51. The concept of operant conditioning is a part of the broader concept of behaviourism, which argues that behaviour follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. D) behaviourism 52. What is the limitation of reinforcement theory in explaining changes in behaviour? E) It does not recognize the effect of cognitive variables. 53. According to social learning theory, which of the following process demonstrates whether an individual is capable of performing the modelled activities? C) motor reproduction process 54. George is trying to teach his two-year old son to gently caress their cat. George softly strokes the animal and every time his son does the same, he rewards him with kind words like good job! The child is very attentive during the process and claps his hands when his father praises him. However, as soon as George leaves, the boy lunges for the cat and grabs it by the tail. Which process of social learning theory is falling? C) retention processes 55. In equity theory, individuals asses the outcome-input ratio. D) outcome-input ratio 56. Karen graduated from college four years ago and has been working at Betaphy Inc. ever since. She has consistently received good performance evaluations for the quality of her work. She recently found out that her company hired a fresh college graduate with no experience at a salary higher than hers. Which of the following theories will Karen most likely use to evaluation the situation? C) equity 57. According to the equity theory, there are four referent comparisons. The referent comparison known as other-inside refers to another individual or group of individuals inside the employees organisation. C) another individual or group of individuals inside the employees organisation 58. Self-inside, one of the four referent comparisons in the equity theory, refers to an employees experiences in a different position inside the employees current organization. A) an employees experiences in a different position inside the employees current organization 59. Other-outside is a referent comparison that refers to another individual or group of individual outside the employees organization. D) another individual or group of individual outside the employees organization 60. Jim is a salaried employee whose job is to develop content for online web sites. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and levels of performance are very similar. According the equity theory, what impact is this discovery most likely to have on his behaviour and performance? A) He will reduce the amount of work that he does on a daily basis. B) He will compare his earnings to those of another group of employees. C) He will increase his productivity and/or the overall quality of his work. D) He will seek a position with the company commensurate with his pay. E) He will begin to look for a position outside of the company. Magan graduated from college three years ago and has been working at Sterba Inc. ever since. A conscientious employee, she has consistently received good performance evaluations. She recently found out that a younger colleague, who was just recruited to her team, is drawing a higher salary than she is for doing the same type of work. 61. Following this discovery, Magan starts coming to work late and her productivity begin to suffer. Which of the following is most similar to the scenario mentioned above? A) Dawn starts coming to works early and stays late once she learns that the mid-term reviews is around the corner. B) Greg believes he works harder than any of the other members in his department as they often leave the office before him. C) Lisa starts working longer hours after learning that her co-workers earn less than she does for the same work. D) Myrtle produces a higher number of units to compensate for the lower quality of her output. E) Beth submits her resignation after she was passed over for promotion for the second time. 62. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument that Megan is trying to gain a sense of equity by distorting her perception of herself? A) She thinks that her colleague is paid more because she is an Ivy League graduate. B) She believes that she is less-capable than her colleague. C) She assumes that her colleague received a higher package due to change in industry standards. D) She believes that her salary is not commensurate with her skills and experience. E) She believes that she is doing a lot better career-wise compared to the people with whom she graduated. 63. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument that Megan is trying to gain a sense of equity by changing her inputs? A) She asks her boss for a raise, citing her years of experience with the company. B) She claims that extrinsic rewards make work seem like a chore and less enjoyable. C) She accepts additional responsibilities but fails to carry them out effectively. D) She takes long breaks from work and shirks her responsibilities. E) She constantly interrupts her colleague, refusing to let her get any work done. 64. Jackie thinks that she is paid a lot less than other employees in her division and feels extremely resentful. She starts taking long breaks and generally wastes time. Her actions resulted from a perceived lack of distributive justice. D) distributive 65. Edith believes that the methods for determining the salary hikes and bonuses in her company are extremely unfair. In this case, Edith perceives a lack of procedural justice. D) procedural 66. Which of the following types of justice relates most strongly to job satisfaction, employees trust, withdrawal from the organization, job performance, and citizenship behaviours? A) associative justice B) interactional justice C) distributive justice D) procedural justice E) integrative justice 67. Why do people who perceive themselves as victims of interactional injustice often blame their immediate supervisor rather than the organization at large? A) interactional justice or injustice is intimately tied to the conveyer of the information. 68. Which of the following theories discuss three relationships: effortperformance relationship, performance-reward relationship, and rewards-personal goals relationship? D) expectancy theory 69. Logan is an employee who processes health insurance forms. Initially he was criticized by his supervisor for sloppy work, but thereafter he improved considerably. Now he consistently processes his forms without errors and even does more than his fair share of work. However, Logans supervisor has not responded to the extra effort he has put in, giving him no praise or monetary benefits. This leads Logan to believe that his supervisor is biased against him. According to the expectancy theory, in this situation, there is a problems in the performance-reward relationship. C) performance-reward 70. Oscar is looking for a new job. He used to be the companys top sales representative and was eagerly expecting to be promoted. However, one of the regional managers friends was promoted to district manager instead. According to the expectancy theory, Oscars dissatisfaction with his current job stems from a breakdown in the performance-reward relationship. A) performance-reward 71. According to the expectancy theory, the performance-reward relationship is the degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to desired outcomes. A) the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to desired outcomes 72. Mark is an excellent technical writer. He has never missed a deadline and all his project are of superior quality. He now wants to telecommute two days a week, so that he can spend more time with his family. He feels that he has proven his reliability. However, his boss is unable to comply with his request and gives him a substantial raise instead. According to the expectancy theory, Marks disappointment demonstrates a breakdown in the rewards-personal goals relationship. C) rewards-personal goals 73. With reference to the expectancy theory, which of the following examples indicates a weak rewards-personal goals relationship? A) An employee lacks the skills required to reach the desired performance level. B) An organizations appraisal system assesses non-performance factors such as creativity and initiative C) An organization rewards its employees based on factors such as seniority and skill level. D) An employee believes that his manager does not like him and hence expects a poor appraisal. E) An employee works hard in order to be relocated to the Paris office but instead is transferred to Beijing 74. If a manager incorrectly assumes that all employees want the same thing, then according to the expectancy theory. It is most likely to result in a week rewards-personal goals relationship. D) rewards-personal goals

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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 247REVISED7-2Heat247into a known amount of water at a known temperature, which is the initial temperature. Once the system comesto equilibrium, the water temperature is the final temperature. In this
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 248REVISED248Chapter 7Thermochemistry7-3Although no perfectlyreversible process exists, themelting and freezing of asubstance at its transitiontemperature is an exampleof a process that is nearly
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 249REVISEDHeats of Reaction and Calorimetry2497-3Exothermic and endothermic reactions(a) An exothermic reaction. Slaked lime, Ca(OH)2,is produced by the action of water on quicklime,(CaO). The react
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 250REVISED250Chapter 7EXAMPLE 7-3ThermochemistryUsing Bomb Calorimetry Data to Determine a Heat of ReactionThe combustion of 1.010 g sucrose, C12H22O11, in a bomb calorimeter causes the temperature t
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 251REVISED7-3Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry251As with the bomb calorimeter, the heat of reaction is defined as the quantityof heat that would be exchanged with the surroundings in restoring thecal
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 252REVISED252Chapter 7Thermochemistry7-4CONCEPT ASSESSMENTHow do we determine the specific heat of the bomb calorimeter or the solutioncalorimeter (coffee-cup calorimeter)?7-4WorkWe have just lea
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 253REVISED7-4Work253VacuumVacuumPistonGasGasWater bath(a)(b)MMhM FIGURE 7-8Pressurevolume work(a) In this hypothetical apparatus, a gas is confined by a massless piston of area A.A massl
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 254REVISED254Chapter 7ThermochemistryIf pressure is stated in atmospheres and volume in liters, the unit of workis the liter-atmosphere, L atm; while the SI unit of work is the joule. The conversion f
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 255REVISED7-57-5The First Law of Thermodynamics255The First Law of ThermodynamicsThe absorption or evolution of heat and the performance of work requirechanges in the energy of a system and its surr
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 256REVISED256Chapter 7EXAMPLE 7-6ThermochemistryRelating U, q, and w Through the First Law of ThermodynamicsA gas, while expanding (recall Figure 7-8), absorbs 25 J of heat and does 243 J of work. Wh
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 257REVISED7-5Internal energyU(U1U1)U1Uoverall257State 2U2U(U2The First Law of ThermodynamicsState 1U1 U1U2U2)U20Because U has a unique value in each state, U also has a unique value; it
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 258REVISED258Chapter 7ThermochemistryVacuumVacuumGasGasWater bathFIGURE 7-12A different method of achievingthe expansion of a gasIn this expansion process, the weights inFigures 7-8 and 7-11 h
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 259REVISED7-6Heats of Reaction: U and HIn comparing the quantity of work done in the two different expansions(Figs. 7-8 and 7-11), we found them to be different, thereby proving that work isnot a stat
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 260REVISEDChapter 7ThermochemistryFIGURE 7-13Initial stateTwo different paths leading to thesame internal energy changein a systemUiInitial stateUiwIn path (a), the volume of the systemremains
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 261REVISED7-67-8Heats of Reaction: U and H261CONCEPT ASSESSMENTSuppose a system is subjected to the following changes: a 40 kJ quantity ofheat is added and the system does 15 kJ of work; then the sy
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 262REVISED262Chapter 7ThermochemistryThen we can use the ideal gas equation to write this alternative expression.P V = RT1nf - ni2Here, nf is the number of moles of gas in the products 12 mol CO22 an
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M07_PETR4521_10_SE_C07.QXD10/16/095:53 PMPage 263REVISED7-6EXAMPLE 7-7Heats of Reaction: U and H263Stoichiometric Calculations Involving Quantities of HeatHow much heat is associated with the complete combustion of 1.00 kg of sucrose, C12H22O11?