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Ambulance UK Service Clinical Practice Guidelines (2006) Editors: Dr Joanne D Fisher, Dr Simon N Brown and Professor Matthew W Cooke Issued October 2006 ISBN 1 84690 060 3 Contents PART 2 ADULT GUIDELINES Foreword Disclaimer Copyright Acknowledgements Update analysis Glossary of terms Section 1: Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Guidelines Consent Patient condentiality Adult basic life support (BLS) Adult advanced life support (ALS) Adult foreign body airway obstruction Cardiac rhythm disturbance Implantable cardioverter debrillators (ICDs) Recognition of life extinct by Ambulance Clinicians (ROLE) Traumatic cardiac arrest Section 2: Pain Management Guidelines Section 2: Medical Emergencies in Adults Management of pain in adults Management of pain in children Medical emergencies in adults overview Abdominal pain Decreased level of consciousness Dyspnoea Headache Mental disorder Non-traumatic chest pain / discomfort PART 1: GENERAL GUIDELINES Section 1: Ethical Issues Section 3: Drug Protocols Drug introduction Drug codes Adrenaline (Epinephrine) Amiodarone Aspirin Atropine Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin g) Chlorphenamine (Chlorpheniramine, Piriton) Dextrose 40% gel Diazepam (as Diazemuls and Stesolid) Entonox/Nitronox Furosemide (Frusemide, Lasix) Glucagon (GlucaGen) Glucose 10% Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN and Suscard) Hydrocortisone Ibuprofen Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent) Lidocaine (Lignocaine) Metoclopramide (Maxolon) Morphine Sulphate Morphine Sulphate Oral Solution Naloxone Hydrochloride (Narcan) Oxygen Paracetamol solution or oral suspension (Calpol) Salbutamol (Ventolin) Sodium chloride 0.9% Sodium lactate, compound (Ringers lactate / Hartmann's solution) Syntometrine Tetracaine (AMETOP) Thrombolytics (Reteplase, Tenecteplase) Page 1 of 2 Section 3: Specic Treatment Options Acute coronary syndrome Anaphylaxis / allergic reactions in adults Asthma in adults Chemical, biological, radiological & nuclear incidents (CBRN) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Convulsions in adults Gastrointestinal bleeds (GI bleeds) Glycaemic emergencies in adults Heat exhaustion and heat stroke Hyperventilation syndrome Hypothermia Meningococcal septicaemia Overdose and poisoning in adults Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary oedema Sickle cell crisis Stroke / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) Section 4: Trauma Emergencies Trauma emergencies in adults overview Abdominal trauma Burns and scalds in adults Electrocution Head trauma The immersion incident Limb trauma Neck and back trauma Thoracic trauma Trauma in pregnancy October 2006 Contents Pain Guidelines Medical Emergencies in Adults Drugs Specic Treatment Options PART 3 PAEDIATRIC GUIDELINES Section 1: Emergencies in Children Medical emergencies in children overview Trauma emergencies in children overview Anaphylaxis and allergic reactions in children Asthma in children Burns and scalds in children Convulsions in children Dealing with the Death of a Child (Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) Glycaemic emergencies in children Overdose and poisoning in children Child basic life support (BLS) Child advanced life support (ALS) Child foreign body airway obstruction Newborn life support Page for age charts (resuscitation and other emergencies in children) PART 4 METHODOLOGY Guideline development methodology October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Methodology Safeguarding children Sexual assault Suspected abuse of vulnerable adults and recognition of abuse Trauma Emergencies Section 6: Treatment and Management of Assault and Abuse Treatment & Management of Assault Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Ethical Issues Birth imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Effects of pregnancy on maternal resuscitation Haemorrhage during pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) Pregnancy induced hypertension (including eclampsia) Vaginal bleeding: gynaecological causes (including abortion) Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Section 5: Obstetric and Gynaecological Emergencies Page 2 of 2 Dr Thomas Clarke The modernisation of the UK ambulance services heralds a new model for healthcare delivery with a much wider remit that has seen a shift away from the traditional role of simply transferring patients to further care. Today, the dedicated staff of the UK ambulance services work together, from the outset, to provide high quality, immediate, up-to-date, professional clinical care on which best patient outcome depends. Such care is reliant on clinical knowledge and expertise, and the Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee Clinical Practice Guidelines are designed to support staff both during training and in the eld. Up-to-date, professional clinical care for best patient outcome Dr Thomas Clarke Chairman Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee Dr Simon Brown Important new changes Professor Matthew Cooke The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee (JRCALC) Clinical Practice Guidelines set the standard of care for ambulance practice in the UK. It is vitally important, given the rapidly changing nature of healthcare delivery in the ambulance service, that such changes are reected in these guidelines. Importantly, the 2006 edition sees the introduction of a paediatric section, recognising that the management of children is frequently different from that of adults. In addition, the new guidance for cardiopulmonary resuscitation is incorporated, including the management of patients tted with an implantable cardioverter debrillator. Some sections included in previous editions have been removed, as they are now adequately covered in training manuals. The multidisciplinary approach to the development of these guidelines not only enhances ownership but provides a powerhouse of experience and expertise which feeds directly into the guidelines. JRCALC is indebted to those who were responsible for previous editions and those who have produced guidelines, or have allowed their work to be directly reproduced, for this current edition. Powerhouse of experience and expertise Dr Simon Brown Chairman, JRCALC Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee Professor Matthew Cooke Project Director, University of Warwick To the UK ambulance services best resourceits staff Foreword October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Foreword Foreword Disclaimer The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee has made every effort to ensure that the information, tables, drawings and diagrams contained in Clinical Practice Guidelines issued July 2006 is accurate at the time of publication. However, the JRCALC guidance is advisory and has been developed to assist healthcare professionals, together with patients, to make decisions about the management of the patients health, including treatments. It is intended to support the decisionmaking process and is not a substitute for sound clinical judgement. Guidelines cannot always contain all the information necessary for determining appropriate care and cannot address all individual situations; therefore individuals using these guidelines must ensure they have the appropriate knowledge and skills to enable appropriate interpretation. The committee does not guarantee, and accepts no legal liability of whatever nature arising from or connected to, the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of the content of these guidelines. Disclaimer Users of the guidelines must always be aware that such innovations or alterations after the date of publication may not be incorporated in the content. As part of its commitment to dening national standards, the committee will periodically issue updates to the content and users should ensure they are using the most up-to-date version of the guidelines; http://www.jrcalc.org.uk Although some modication of the guidelines may be required by individual ambulance services, and approved by relevant local clinical committees, to ensure they respond to the health requirements of the local community, the majority of the guidance is universally applicable to NHS ambulance services. Modication of the guidelines may also occur when undertaking research sanctioned by a research ethics committee. Whilst these guidelines cover the full range of paramedic treatments available across the UK they will also provide a valuable tool for ambulance technicians and other pre-hospital care providers. Many of the assessment skills and general principles will remain the same. Those not qualied to Paramedic level must practise only within their level of training and competence. Disclaimer October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Copyright COPYRIGHT Anyone wishing to reproduce the UK Ambulance Service Clinical Practice Guidelines 2006, either in whole or in part, in printed form, electronically or any other medium, and regardless of purpose, must consult with and gain the permission of: The Chief Executive Ambulance Service Association 7th Floor Capital Tower 91 Waterloo Road LONDON SE1 8XP Telephone +44 (0)20 7928 9620 TYPESETTING AND PUBLISHING Typesetting by DL Graphics Ltd, London; printed by Page Bros Ltd, Norwich designed and published by IHCD (part of Edexcel, a Pearson Company) on behalf of the Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee and the Ambulance Service Association. ERRORS, OMISSIONS AND COMMENTS Considerable effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy and consistency of these guidelines. If you nd an error, omission, or would like to comment then contact us using the form below or on our website at www.warwick.ac.uk/go/jrcalcguidelines. To: Dr Joanne D Fisher Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL. Name: Contact details: Copyright Please comment in the box below Copyright October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Acknowledgements The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee is indebted to the following who have contributed to the development of the UK Ambulance Service Clinical Practice Guidelines 2006. Barnard Greater Manchester Ambulance Service NHS Trust Neil Barnes Greater Manchester Ambulance Service NHS Trust Robin Beal Isle of Wight Ambulance Service NHS Trust Sarah Black Westcountry Ambulance Services NHS Trust Tony Bleetman Birmingham Heartlands and Solihull NHS Trust Graham Brown Westcountry Ambulance Services NHS Trust Richard Brown University Hospitals Leicester Simon Brown Royal Berkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Gillian Bryce Westcountry Ambulance Service NHS Trust John Burnham Lincolnshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Colin Cessford North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust Kirsty Challen South Manchester University Hospital Ravi Chauhan Warwick Emergency Care and Rehabilitation Thomas Clarke Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust David Coates Avon Ambulance Service NHS Trust Michael Colquhoun Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust / Resuscitation Council (UK) Mark Cooke Ambulance Service Association Matthew Cooke Warwick Medical School Andrew Currie Warwick Medical School Charles Deakin Royal College of Anaesthetists Richard Diment Ambulance Service Association Ben Disney University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire Sarah Docherty North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust Darren Earley Mersey Regional Ambulance Service NHS Trust Jon Ellis East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust Chris Evans Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust Gary Evans Lincolnshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Kevin Errington Staffordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Yaish Firas University Hospitals Birmingham Joanne Fisher Warwick Medical School James Gray South Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Dave Greggs East Anglia Ambulance Service NHS Trust Henry Guly Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust David Haigh Lincolnshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Glyn Harding Westcountry Ambulance Services NHS Trust Pam Hardy East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust Stephen Hines London Ambulance Service NHS Trust Kim Hinshaw Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Mike Jackson Mersey Regional Ambulance Service NHS Trust David Janes Sussex Ambulance Service NHS Trust Rose Jarvis Warwick Medical School Fiona Jewkes Wiltshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Graham Johnson Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust Acknowledgements October 2006 Acknowledgements Stephen Page 1 of 3 Acknowledgements Sue St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust Carl Keeble East Midlands Ambulance Service Yvette Acknowledgements Jones LaFlamme-Williams Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust Robin Lawrenson Scottish Ambulance Service NHS Trust Bill Lord Monash University, Melbourne, Australia Andrew Marsden Medical Director Scottish Ambulance Service Jeremy Mayhew Kent Ambulance Service NHS Trust Janet McComb Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust Iain McNeil Royal College of General Practitioners Ken Morgan Merseyside Ambulance Service NHS Trust Fionna Moore London Ambulance Service NHS Trust Steve Mortley East Anglian Ambulance Service NHS Trust Adrian Noon Ambulance Service Association Matthew OMeara Warwick Emergency Care and Rehabilitation Bill ONeil London Ambulance Service NHS Trust Rose Ann OShea Hinchingbrooke NHS Trust Keith Porter University Hospitals Birmingham Tom Quinn Staffordshire Ambulance Service/Coventry University Iain Robertson-Steel West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust Julian Sandell University College Hospital London Tina Sajjanhar Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust John Scott East Anglian Ambulance Service NHS Trust Dougie Shepard Scottish Ambulance Service Mike Smyth Hereford and Worcester Ambulance Service NHS Trust Richard Steyn Birmingham Heartlands and Solihull NHS Trust Richard Tafer Westcountry Ambulance Services NHS Trust Duncan Thomas Warwick Medical School Andy Thurgood West Midlands CARE Team Ian Todd London Ambulance Service NHS Trust Dominic Tolley Coventry & Warwickshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Eddie Tunn Mersey Regional Ambulance Service NHS Trust Paul Underwood Avon Ambulance Service NHS Trust Anton van Dellen Staffordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Darren Walter Greater Manchester Ambulance Service NHS Trust Michael Ward Oxfordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Jim Wardrope South Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Andy Weal Gloucestershire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Mark Whitbread London Ambulance Service NHS Trust Richard Whiteld Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust David Wilmot Wiltshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Richard Williams Royal College of Psychiatrists John Wood Avon Ambulance NHS Trust Malcolm Woollard Faculty of Pre-hospital Care Research Unit, James Cook University Hospital Matthew Wyse Coventry & Warwickshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Peak Flow Charts used with permission from Clement Clarke International. The Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths. Meningitis Research Foundation. The ICD image with permission from Medmovie.com. The committee would also like to thank the following for allowing the reproduction of their guidance to be published in the UK Ambulance Service Clinical Practice Guidelines 2006. Michael Colquhoun Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Personnel Andrew Marsden Michael Ward Simon Brown Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator Thomas Clarke Michael Colquhoun Mark Cooke Sue Jones Janet McComb Steven Bland Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents Sort Algorithm Iain McNeil Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents (Special Agent) Triage Algorithm Graham Brown JRCALC Drug Codes July 2006 Iain Robertson-Steel Resuscitation Council (UK) Howard Swanton Resuscitation Algorithms Thrombolytics Protocol Tom Quinn Mark Cooke Sue Dodd David Smith Fionna Moore Mark Whitbread Liam Penny Tom Evans Michael Langman Acknowledgements October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Acknowledgements The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale used with permission from Mosby. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Signicant revisions have been made to the 2006-2008 edition of the clinical practice guidelines. Some sections have been removed as these are now adequately covered in training manuals, and other important areas of clinical practice have been included. Importantly, the paediatric section has been expanded recognising that the management of children is frequently different from that of adults. The Resuscitation Councils (UK) latest guidance for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is incorporated, including a new guideline for the management of patients tted with an implantable cardioverter debrillator. All drug protocols now have administration tables including: age, dose, concentration, and volume. Drug dosages are no longer detailed within the guidelines and clinicians are referred to the specic drug protocol(s). In addition, standardised terminology relating to the administration of oxygen and uid has been included. Each guideline also includes a list of the key points. This report indicates where key changes have been made, and is a signpost to changes within the guidelines but is not a substitute for reading and assimilating the new guidance. Ethical Issues Consent The following aspects have been added to the existing guideline, each of which has become more prominent since the initial guideline was written: An update on recent (2004, 2005) case law and good practice criteria. Further analysis of existing references, in particular, Reference Guide to Consent for Examination and Good Practice in Consent Implementation (DH). Update Analysis The inclusion of a denitions section, covering the major terms/phrases used in the guideline (valid consent, informed consent, duration of consent). The inclusion of a paragraph outlining the three tests for consent. The inclusion of a paragraph explaining how to seek consent. A complete rewrite of consent for young people. The inclusion of a paragraph concerning consent versus duty of care versus human rights. Inclusion of a paragraph concerning consent and research. All other paragraphs underwent major rewriting. Patient condentiality The following aspects have been added to the existing guideline, each of which has become more prominent since the initial guideline was written: Denition of identiable information. The relevance of the Data Protection Act (1998) to patient condentiality. The NHS Code of Practice on patient condentiality. Patients rights of access to their health records. Disclosure to non-NHS partners. Involvement of research. Update Analysis October 2006 Page 1 of 18 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Pain Management Guidelines Pain management in adults A new guideline for the assessment and management of pain in adults. Sections covering pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of pain relief. Methods of pain scoring. Pain management in children A new guideline for the assessment and management of pain in children. Sections covering pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of pain relief. Methods of pain scoring. Drugs This edition sees the introduction of four new drug protocols: amiodarone, tetracaine, oral morphine sulphate solution and ibuprofen and the withdrawal of the nalbuphine hydrochloride protocol. The introduction of oral morphine sulphate solution further enhances pain management for patients and integrates care pathways between the ambulance service and other healthcare providers. The dosages and administration section has been standardised across all drug protocols, with the inclusion of administration tables. Calculations have been based on either average weight or age range, with the volume rounded (volumes <1ml rounded to two decimal places and volumes >1ml rounded to 1 decimal place) and the dose calculated. Update Analysis A caution has been added to relevant drug protocols warning that for patients likely to require thrombolysis intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. A list of drug codes has been provided for INFORMATION ONLY and represents drugs that may be commonly encountered in the emergency/urgent care environment. Drug introduction Drug route section now merged into the drug introduction section. Guidance on the use of abbreviations has been included. Adrenaline The dose for endotracheal administration has changed from 2 milligrams to 3 milligrams. The volume increased to 30 millilitres. Caution added severe hypertension may occur in patients on beta-blockers and half doses of adrenaline should be administered, unless there is profound hypotension. Caution added half doses of adrenaline should be administered for anaphylaxis for patients taking tricyclic anti-depressants. Amiodarone A new protocol for use in refractory ventricular brillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Amiodarone has Prescription Only Medicine exemption for use in cardiac arrest, thus, a Patient Group Directive is not required and any suitably trained paramedic can give it. A warning is included that amiodarone must be administered into a large vein as extravisation can cause burns. A warning is included that amiodarone must never be administered via the endotracheal route. Aspirin Anticoagulants now listed as a caution rather than a contra-indication. Clinical or ECG evidence of myocardial infarction (MI) or ischaemia has been added as an indication so patients with silent MI receive aspirin. Page 2 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Atropine In children, administration of atropine is restricted to persistent bradycardia caused by vagal stimulation from suction or intubation or for organophosphate poisoning. Benzylpenicillin (penicillin g) Change in the indications for administration to: Diazepam (Diazemuls and Stesolid) Administration for eclampsia has been expanded to initiate treatment if t lasts >2-3 minutes or if it is recurrent indicated by the presence of a non-blanching rash and signs/symptoms suggestive of meningococcal septicaemia. Some signs/symptoms may be absent and the order in which they appear may vary. A note has been added the earlier the drug is given the more likely the patient is to respond. Entonox Labour pains have been added to the list of indications because entonox is the appropriate analgesia for administration during transfer to further care. Glucagon (GlucaGen) The blood glucose level at which intervention is indicated has been increased to 4mmol/l. Glucose 10% The blood glucose level at which intervention is indicated has been increased to 4mmol/l. Glucose Gel Name changed from hypostop to glucose gel. Guidance provided on the dose required. Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN and Suscard) A note has been added to indicate that a tablet could be removed if side effects such as hypotension occurred. Contra-indication added unconscious patients. Hydrocortisone Change in the indications for administration to include Addisonian Crisis. Guidance has been included on dosage and information for patients with Addisonian Crisis. Adults hydrocortisone 100mg intravenous (IV) (OR IM when IV access is impossible)-given by SLOW IV administration. Children 1 month to 11 years, administer the dosages as per anaphylaxis and asthma table. A note has been added to indicate that it is better to administer hydrocortisone if there is any doubt about previous steroid status. Caution added in a patient likely to require thrombolysis, intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. The side effect of a burning and itching sensation in the groin is only when hydrocortisone sodium phosphate is administered too quickly. Addition of Solucortef to the presentation section. Ibuprofen New protocol for the relief of mild to moderate pain and/or high temperature and pain and inammation of soft tissue injuries. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 3 of 18 Update Analysis Caution added in a patient likely to require thrombolysis, intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Lidocaine (lignocaine) Contra-indication added where amiodarone has already been administered. Removal of the ET route of administration for children. Lidocaine as a local anaesthetic was removed as an action and information about its administration was added to the additional information section. Metoclopramide (Maxolon) Routine prophylactic administration prior to opiate analgesia no longer required. Caution added in a patient likely to require thrombolysis, intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. Caution added avoid in cases of drug overdose. Morphine sulphate The caution section emphasises that morphine should not to be used routinely for labour pains. Paediatric dose of 0.1mg/kg can be repeated at 5-10 minute intervals titrated against pain relief to a maximum of 0.2mg/kg. Note added regarding the peak effect of each dose which may not occur until 10-20 minutes after administration. It is also stressed that the appropriate dose of naloxone must be known before morphine has been administered so that it could be given if required. Update Analysis Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and acute alcohol intoxication is now included as a caution and not a contra-indication, stressing that morphine should not be administered until the patients drug information card has been checked. Morphine sulphate oral solution A new protocol for administration of morphine in cases of severe pain. Nalbuphine hydrochloride (Nubain) This protocol has been removed from the 2006-2008 edition because the manufacturers withdrew this product for commercial reasons. Morphine is the recommended alternative. Naloxone hydrochloride (Narcan) This protocol now extends to ambulance technicians, with the appropriate education/training. Administration will be by the IM route to a patient in an emergency situation. Sodium chloride 0.9% Caution is advised for the administration of uids in the prehospital environment. Sodium lactate, compound (Ringers lactate/Hartmanns solution) Caution is advised for the administration of uids in the prehospital environment. Tetracaine (AMETOP) A new protocol for the application of tetracaine, where venepuncture may be required, in the non-urgent situation or anticipated venepuncture for children and needle phobic patients. Page 4 of 18 New table relating to the administration of uid volumes for medical (20ml/kg) and trauma (5ml/kg) emergencies in children. New table relating to the administration of uid volumes for medical (20ml/kg) and trauma (5ml/kg) emergencies in children. October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Thrombolytics (reteplase, tenecteplase) Removal of Streptokinase. Details referring to permissions for the administration of heparin, the mechanism of action and the legal aspects and response from JRCALC have been removed from this guideline. The initial dose of heparin has been increased to 5,000U (except for patients <67kg receiving tenecteplase), this should be administered before thrombolysis. If a heparin infusion has not been commenced within 45 minutes a second dose of heparin 1,000U is recommended. Reteplase a reminder that heparin and reteplase are incompatible and therefore either a separate cannula should be used or the cannula must be ushed well prior to administering reteplase. Statement regarding heparin can be found. Page for age charts (resuscitation and other emergencies in children) Redesigned with one page dedicated to each age range. Drug codes A list of drug codes, that may be commonly encountered in the emergency/urgent care environment, has been provided. However, it should be noted that ONLY the drugs listed in the drug protocol section are for administration by registered paramedics; the remaining drugs are for administration by physicians or under patient group directions by paramedics who have undertaken extended training. Each page lists the drugs for resuscitation and other emergencies in children. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias The cardiac arrest and arrhythmias guidelines are based on the Resuscitation Councils resuscitation guidelines 2005 and are derived by international consensus. There is a new guideline detailing the management of patients tted with implantable cardioverter debrillators. Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Circulation check removed. Abnormal breathing is the indicator to initiate external chest compressions. Compression:ventilation ratio now 30:2 with an emphasis on effective chest compressions minimising the time off the chest. Try to change person performing chest compressions every 2 minutes. Inclusion of information explaining use of automatic external debrillator. Adult Advanced Life Support (ALS) Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: All unwitnessed arrests to have 2 minutes CPR before attempting debrillation. Airway managed by any effective means. Single shock sequence 150-200J biphasic or 360J monophasic. Recommence CPR immediately after debrillating, do not wait to assess: CPR analyse-drug-shock sequence. ET drug route ineffective IV and intraosseous (IO) superior. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 5 of 18 Update Analysis Information indicating relevant airway sizes, joules for debrillation and uids are also included. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Adult foreign body airway obstruction Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Renamed from Choking Guideline (Adult), updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines. Obstruction categorised as mild or severe. Introduction of a ow chart. Cardiac rhythm disturbance Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Broad complex tachycardia Previously, IV lidocaine was advised in this situation, and a major difference from previous guidance is the drug is no longer recommended for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia outside hospital. The reasons are: Evidence for its effectiveness in this situation is limited. The negative inotropic effects of the drug, particularly in higher doses may seriously compromise cardiac output, particularly if the rhythm does not convert. Dramatic deterioration in the patients condition may follow and lead to cardiac arrest. Administration of the drug at an early stage may limit the choice of more effective treatment later in hospital. Update Analysis Broad complex tachycardia may be caused by other arrhythmias that will not respond to lidocaine. Accurate diagnosis, particularly outside hospital is often very difcult and the patients condition may suffer if treated inappropriately. Implantable Cardioverter Debrillators (ICD) A new guideline for the assessment and management of patients tted with an Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD). ICDs deliver tiered therapy with bradycardia pacing, anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) and shocks for VT not responding to ATP, or VF. ECG records, especially at the time that shocks are given, can be vital in subsequent patient management. A recording should always be made if circumstances allow. Cardiac arrest should be managed according to normal guidelines. Avoid placing the debrillator electrode over or within 5 centimetres of the generator. A discharging ICD will not harm a rescuer touching the patient or performing CPR. An inappropriately discharging ICD can be temporarily disabled by placing a ring magnet over the generator. Recognition Of Life Extinct for ambulance personnel (ROLE) Removal of the preamble and historical background. Modication of the protocol to emphasise the desirability of making a paper trace of the monitor outlook as evidence of death. Recognition of increasing acceptability of the patients right to decide not to be resuscitated by the use of Living Wills/Advanced Directives. Modication to appendix C to improve the documentation process and inclusion of the addition of another choice: patient in a terminal phase of illness. This last choice will need very sensitive and careful handling by trainers and should be used with caution by the road staff. Removal of appendix D as all ambulance services now have leaets to hand out to bereaved relatives. Page 6 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Traumatic cardiac arrest This guideline recognises that traumatic cardiac arrest differs from the more usual medical cardiac arrest. Traumatic cardiac arrests are categorised as blunt or penetrating: Blunt (un-witnessed): 5 minutes CPR to rule out reversible causes, if unsuccessful then resuscitative efforts may be terminated. Blunt (witnessed): rapid evacuation to the emergency department for urgent surgical assessment/intervention assess for reversible causes such as tension pneumothorax, without delaying transport. Provide pre-alert. Penetrating: rapid evacuation to the emergency department for urgent surgical assessment/intervention assess for reversible causes e.g. tension pneumothorax without delaying transport. Provide pre-alert. If, after 20 minutes of advanced life support management, the patient is unresponsive, resuscitative efforts may be terminated as per the recognition of life extinct by ambulance clinician guidance. Medical Emergencies Medical emergencies in adults overview Information regarding medic alert jewellery. Guidance regarding assisted ventilation. Update Analysis Recognition of the dangers of restraint (positional) asphyxia. Insertion of blood glucose assessment. Fluid therapy evidence inserted. Guidance relating to the management of Addisonian Crisis. Reminder regarding uncorrectable ABCD problems and pre alert. Abdominal pain Additional reference made to: Ectopic pregnancy. Pelvic inammatory disease. Presence of similar symptoms in others. Elderly and confused patients. Paediatric patients. Appendicitis. Immunosuppressed, HIV and alcoholic patients. Fluid therapy evidence inserted. Section considering analgesia (Entonox etc). Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 7 of 18 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Decreased level of consciousness Change of title from unconsciousness to decreased level of consciousness. Denition altered to include AVPU scale scoring. Expansion on causes, with subheadings to group together related causes. Note to check with bystanders or friends and relatives for history. Note to check neurological signs. Note to check blood glucose. Expanded oxygen administration guidance (and for special cases e.g. COPD and laryngectomee patients). Indications for supporting ventilation in severely compromised patients. Instructions on looking for causes in the environment and on the patient medic alert bracelets, warning stickers in the home and patients warning cards, etc. Dyspnoea Insertion of information regarding assisted ventilation. Links to appropriate / relevant guidelines. Omitted section referring to children / with stridor. Headache Insertion of links in history section to relevant guidelines specically stroke/TIA, head injury and glycaemic emergencies. Update Analysis Insertion of blood glucose assessment section. Expanded oxygen and uid administration guidance. Mental disorder Additional section to emphasise that physical illness needs to be excluded as it can manifest as a mental health disorder. Patients with a mental health disorder may still have the capacity to consent to assessment and treatment and so they may also decline this and their wishes should be respected. Application for powers for compulsory assessment and treatment of patients under the Mental Health Act has different criteria and requirements from the capacity to consent. The law relating to this is under review in England and Wales. In Scotland it has already changed and comes under Mental Capacity legislation. Recognition of the dangers of restraint (positional) asphyxia. Non-traumatic chest pain/discomfort Acute coronary syndromes have been separated from the wider group of undifferentiated chest pain. This guideline is intended to help differentiate the cause of chest pain. An important new inclusion is the recommendation that a 12-lead ECG is performed on all patients with chest pains. For specic guidance on cardiac-related chest pain, the acute coronary syndrome guideline should be followed. Page 8 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Specic Treatment Options Acute coronary syndrome The key change is the new, wider focus on acute coronary syndrome rather than merely on acute ST elevation (MI). The growing use of pre-hospital thrombolytic treatment and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are highlighted. The fact that cardiac networks will largely determine the appropriate reperfusion strategy in the context of locally available facilities is also discussed. Anaphylaxis and allergic reactions in adults Common precipitants identied and their effect explained. Precise denitions used to facilitate rapid diagnosis. Mild reaction (allergy) linked with severe reaction (anaphylaxis) via a continuum, rather than two separate categories. Mild presentations distinguished from severe presentations, along the continuum, to promote appropriate management. Additional reference made to adrenaline self administration (Epipen), MAOI/ tricyclic use, beta-adrenergic blocker use, biphasic response, removal of triggering source, O2 administration, patient positioning, judicious use of crystalloid solution, brief explanation for the drugs used. Inclusion of new EU peak ow charts and explanation of changes. Asthma in adults Removal of references to the management of asthma in children. Signs of severe and life-threatening asthma in adults are given. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Assessment of degree of likelihood of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) contamination when no cause is known. Institute self-decontamination when appropriate. CHALETS mnemonic for rapid incident assessment. Surgical masks and gloves should be worn when dealing with infectious patients. Advise that blast injury may be co-existent with radiological incidents. Discussion of CBRN detection. Redesigned CBRN triage sieve and SORT. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Oxygen administration to be titrated to maintain an oxygen saturation of 90-92%. Convulsions in adults Removal of references to the management of convulsions in children. A reminder for ambulance clinicians to check if patients carry an information card/treatment plan. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 9 of 18 Update Analysis Conforms to current UK Resuscitation Councils drug guidelines. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Gastro Intestinal Bleeds (GI Bleeds) Common causes of upper and lower GI bleeding identied and discussed; including initiating factors, common presentations and potential risk factors. Additional reference made to beta/calcium channel blocker use, consumption of iron tablets/foods and drink with red dye and alcohol abuse. Guide to estimating quantity of blood loss. Fluid therapy evidence inserted. Glycaemic emergencies in adults New focus on the causes of hypoglycaemia. Common symptoms replaces early and late stages. Signs of infection as a factor to attend hospital following treatment of a hypoglycaemic attack. Hyperventilation syndrome Change of title from hyperventilation to hyperventilation syndrome. Hypothermia Introduction of a table of severity. Inclusion of non-specic symptoms. Information on cardiac arrest in hypothermia. Fluid therapy evidence inserted. Update Analysis Meningococcal septicaemia Information regarding assisted ventilation. Overdose and poisoning in adults New section intentional overdose. Evidence-based information regarding uid therapy. Suicide assessment e.g. SAD PERSONS score inserted. Reference to CS gas in common poisons. New expanded table listing common poisons presentations and management. New table format for illegal drugs and insertion of ecstasy. Pulmonary embolism Link drawn between DVT and PE such that they can be thought of as two presentations of the same disease. Wells criteria table added. Expanded oxygen administration guidance. Pulmonary oedema The pathophysiology of the condition has been expanded. Addition of new symptoms. Recent symptoms of MI added to highlight this as the most likely precipitant. Contra-indications to continuous positive airway pressure added in line with the evidence. Page 10 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Sickle cell crisis Change of description of red blood cell architecture from discoid to bi-concave. Further explanation of serious sequelae of sickle cell disease including Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). Explanation of symptoms and signs of sickle cell disease in particular those that might indicate ACS. Management the patient may be able to guide their own treatment and may even have an individualised treatment plan. Guidance on obtaining ECG particularly as only sign of ACS. Guidance on the decreased need for initial uids. Stroke/Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) Change of title from Stroke to Stroke/Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA). Guideline now includes TIA, but excludes subarachnoid haemorrhage (covered in head injuries guideline). Strokes now referred to as intracranial haemorrhage or infarction (as opposed to ischaemic/embolic or bleed). Insertion of explanation of TIA. More detail to FAST assessment with terminology matching that of Stroke Association and Royal College of Physicians Stroke Guidelines Working. Stress on not administering aspirin (reason detrimental effect in haemorrhagic strokes and inability to assess swallowing function). Trauma emergencies in adults overview Change of title from trauma emergencies to trauma emergencies in adults. New mnemonic for assessment of life threatening injury by neck signs. New uid management guidance based upon the presence and absence of the central and radial pulses. Recognition of the dangers of restraint (positional) asphyxia. Abdominal trauma Expanded oxygen administration guidance. Guidance given on when to institute assisted ventilation. Guidance given on how to supply uids in trauma. Algorithm provided for supplying uids dependent on the presence of pulses. Removal of supplementary information on gun shot wounds and stabbing. Burns and scalds in adults Change of title from burns to burns and scalds in adults. The immersion incident Change of title from drowning to the immersion incident. New denitions of immersion and submersion. Mechanical drainage of the lungs should not be carried out. Guidelines on when to consider assisted ventilation. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 11 of 18 Update Analysis Change to provision of oxygen for all stroke patients, with emphasis now being on correcting hypoxia. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Electrocution Guideline now emphasises the risk of c-spine injury in electrocution. Hospital admission now not routinely required if electrocution is from domestic or low voltage source, with an asymptomatic patient with no injuries and normal 12-lead ECG. Head trauma Allows a risk balance for airway manoeuvres that could move the cervical spine to open the airway. Airway adjunctions are discussed, specically the laryngeal mask airway and Combitube. Emphasis is placed on both oxygenation and ensuring the adequacy of ventilation with support if necessary. The role of hypertonic saline and manitol is still unclear. Limb trauma Fluids now only recommended with blood loss greater than 500mls, with uid replacement commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. New guidelines on uid management based upon presence or absence of central and radial pulses. Neck and back trauma Update Analysis The criteria for when patients do not need spinal immobilisation has been further developed with the publication of the Canadian and NEXUs guidelines. This allows more precise criteria for not immobilising and particularly de-emphasises the mechanism of injury as a predictor of serious injury. A new ow chart has been developed to assist this. The new information from the Cochrane review of spinal immobilisation has been included, although this mainly stressed the lack of randomised controlled trials. There is greater recognition of the hazards of immobilisation but little is known about the risk-benets of various devices. Recognition that most penetrating trauma does not require spinal immobilisation. Re-emphasis of: Need for vacuum mattresses for long transfers. Compromises that need to be adopted in restless patients and in emergency extrication. Thoracic trauma Advice on patient transport semi-recumbent/upright, if not otherwise contraindicated. Expanded oxygen administration guidance oxygen (and for special cases COPD and laryngectomee). Advice given on when to institute assisted ventilation. Guidance given on how to supply uids in trauma. Algorithm provided for supplying uids dependent on the presence of pulses. Advice on analgesia expanded. Trauma in pregnancy Guidance on when to consider assisted ventilation. New evidence noted on decreased survival in penetrating trauma with the routine use of IV uids. New guidelines on uid management based upon the presence and absence of central and radial pulses. Page 12 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Obstetrics and Gynaecology Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Change of title from birth imminent to birth imminent: normal delivery and birth complications. Initial section on normal stages of labour followed by expanded sections on acute birth complications affecting both mother and fetus (including postpartum haemorrhage). Changes to transport destination related to gestation: <20 weeks transport to nearest ED Dept 20-36+ weeks transport to booked obstetric unit (previously up to 34 weeks) 37 weeks move on to next stage of assessment (previously 35-40 weeks). Premature delivery changed to preterm delivery (i.e. any delivery before 37 weeks). Postpartum haemorrhage and abruption sections general background expanded. Shoulder dystocia management expanded and claried. Change of title from normal pregnancy to effects of pregnancy on maternal resuscitation. Difculties and differences in maternal resuscitation are reviewed: resuscitation of the mother will resuscitate the fetus importance of 30 degrees left lateral tilt is emphasised Susceptibility to acid regurgitation emphasised need for early intubation in cardiorespiratory arrest. IMPORTANCE OF CONSIDERING EMERGENCY PERIMORTEM CAESAREAN SECTION AFTER 5 MINUTES OF ACTIVE CPR is emphasised. The prime aim is to make the mother easier to resuscitate by emptying the uterus. It is not primarily done to save the baby (although rarely the baby may survive a maternal arrest). Importance of informing the obstetric team early if admitting a pregnant woman undergoing active CPR. Ideally, senior obstetric staff should be waiting in ED when the patient is admitted (see perimortem section notes). Haemorrhage during pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic) Change of title from haemorrhage during pregnancy to haemorrhage during pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic). Present edition concentrates on bleeding in EARLY pregnancy (miscarriage and ectopic) and LATE pregnancy (placenta praevia and placental abruption). Postpartum haemorrhage is now contained in the chapter birth imminent: normal delivery and birth complications. The difference between revealed and concealed haemorrhage is emphasised. Need for awareness of how pregnant women react to increasing haemorrhage. They may exhibit no symptoms and signs until late (i.e. after loss of 30% blood volume) and then present with sudden collapse. Importance of establishing early, large bore venous access is noted. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 13 of 18 Update Analysis Effects of pregnancy on maternal resuscitation Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Pregnancy induced hypertension (including eclampsia) Clearer denitions and explanations of different types of hypertension in pregnancy: PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension (without proteinuria) PIH (with proteinuria) = pre-eclampsia. Expanded discussion about severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Emphasise the danger of overzealous IV uid administration (which can lead to pulmonary oedema). Describe in detail the TIME CRITICAL symptoms that may be associated with severe disease. In eclampsia: a) ts can occur with minimally-raised blood pressure; b) management of a single t should be supportive with avoidance of routine diazemuls (magnesium sulphate will be used in hospital). Diazemuls is still recommended for repeated ts. Vaginal bleeding gynaecological causes (including abortion) Change of title from vaginal bleeding (non obstetric causes) to vaginal bleeding gynaecological causes (including abortion). The newer methods of terminating a pregnancy are described (i.e. medical = non-surgical). A short review of colposcopy is also included. Update Analysis Treatment and management of assault and abuse Safeguarding children References included reecting recent legislation and guidelines relating to child protection issues, including: Every Child Matters: Change for Children, 2003. Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006. National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services, 2004. The Victoria Climbi Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry, 2003. Page 14 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Emergencies in children This edition sees the introduction of a paediatric section, recognising that the management of children is frequently different from that of adults. Medical emergencies in children overview Change of title from recognition and management of the seriously ill child to medical emergencies in children overview. Airway discussion of the relevance of stridor and stertor. Omitted over 12 years from respiratory rate table. Enhanced discussion of recession (including pathophysiology) in respiratory distress. Added table of effects of respiratory inadequacy on other body systems. Heart rate assessment indication of bradycardia as a peri-arrest sign. Omitted over 12 years from heart rate table. Blood pressure not necessary as part of prehospital assessment especially when it may delay denitive care. Extension of basic neurological assessment. Increased explanation of airway management ET intubation and needle cricothyroidotomy. Expansion of advice on breathing management. Expansion of advice on circulation management peripheral access IV, IO, etc., and uid administration algorithm. Reminder to address immediately treatable conditions e.g. convulsions, opiate poisoning, meningococcal septicaemia. Trauma emergencies in children overview Fluid administration is now 5ml/kg boluses titrated to response in trauma emergencies. Anaphylaxis and allergic reactions in children A new guideline for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions in children. Discussion about common precipitants. Physical signs and environmental indicators alert bracelets, warning stickers in the home and patient warning cards. Guidance relating to hydrocortisone administration. Discussion of possible sequelae. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 15 of 18 Update Analysis Inclusion of a table of the impact of effect of cerebral inadequacy on other body systems. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Asthma in children A new guideline for the assessment and management of asthma in children. Signs of severe and life-threatening asthma in children are given. The use of ipratropium is included. Infants <one year of age may be given more than one salbutamol nebuliser if needed, if they respond well to the rst one. Parenteral adrenaline should NOT now routinely be used in children however severe the asthma (change of guideline). Burns and scalds in children A new guideline for the assessment and management of burns and scalds in children. Convulsions in children A new guideline for the assessment and management of convulsions in children. Glycaemic emergencies in children A new guideline for the assessment and management of glycaemic emergencies in children. Additional details regarding special burns may be found in the adult section. Description of diabetes mellitus in children with emphasis on a number of differences from adults. Update Analysis There is a heavy emphasis on the dangers of administering intravenous uid to children and adolescents because of the risk of cerebral oedema and death. Fluid should only be given if there are signicant signs of circulatory failure (shock), NOT in pure dehydration. A description of hypoglycaemia in children and the differences from adults. Glucagon, whilst it works effectively in diabetic hypoglycaemia in children, is relatively discouraged (i.e. use GlucoGel) as it makes children vomit. Overdose and poisoning in children A new guideline written for children and outlining the types of overdose (ingestion) that may occur. General principles of management are discussed. Management of some specic, commoner poisons are discussed in more depth. New expanded table listing common poisons presentations and management. The risk of deliberate overdose in young people and need for transfer to hospital for assessment even if the overdose is not dangerous is emphasised. Page 16 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Child Basic Life Support (BLS) Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Lone rescuers witnessing or attending paediatric cardiac arrest will use a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 ventilations. They will start with 5 rescue breaths and continue with the 30:2 ratio as taught in adult BLS. Two or more rescuers will use the 15:2 ratio in a child up to the onset of puberty. It is inappropriate and unnecessary to establish the onset of puberty formally; if the rescuer believes the victim to be a child then they should use the paediatric guidelines. In an infant (less than 1 year) the compression technique remains the same: two-nger compression for single rescuers and two-thumb encircling technique for two or more rescuers. Above one year of age, there is no division between one- or two-hand technique. The one or two hands technique may be used according to rescuer preference. AED may be used in children above one year of age. Attenuators of the electrical output are recommended between 1 and 8 years of age. Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Endotracheal intubation should be avoided unless more basic measures fail to provide adequate ventilation. The laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable initial airway device for providers experienced in its use. Hyperventilation is harmful during cardiac arrest, the ideal tidal volume should achieve modest chest wall rise. When debrillating, a dose of 4 J kg-1 (biphasic or monophasic waveform) should be used for all shocks. Ventricular brillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) should be treated with a single shock, followed by immediate resumption of CPR (15 compressions to 2 ventilations). Do not reassess the rhythm or feel for a pulse. After 2 min of CPR, check the rhythm and give another shock (if indicated). Give adrenaline 10 micrograms kg-1 IV if VF/VT persists after a second shock. Repeat adrenaline every 3-5 min thereafter if VF/VT persists. Asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA) should be treated with adrenaline 10 micrograms kg-1 IV or IO and repeated every 3-5 min. Child foreign body airway obstruction Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Renamed from Choking Guideline (Child), obstruction categorised by ability to cough. Attempt ve rescue breaths. In the absence of response, proceed to chest compressions without further assessment of the circulation. Perform 1 minute CPR inspecting the airway before each cycle of ventilation. Remove any visible obstructions. Introduction of new ow chart. Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes October 2006 Page 17 of 18 Update Analysis Child Advanced Life Support (ALS) Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Neonatal resuscitation Updated in line with 2005 UK Resuscitation Guidelines: Protect the baby from heat loss. Ventilation: an initial ination for 2-3 seconds must be given for the rst few breaths to promote lung expansion. Suctioning meconium from the babys nose and mouth before delivery of the babys chest (intrapartum suctioning) is not useful and no longer recommended. Page for age charts (resuscitation and other emergencies in children) Paediatric dosages are shown as exact weight calculations. It is appreciated that where small volumes are involved an exact amount will be difcult to draw up; in these instances approximate as closely as possible to the stated dose. Methodology Guideline development methodology A new section outlining the methodology adopted by the guidelines development sub-committee. Update Analysis The procedure section including the following guidelines: airway management, assisted ventilation, blood glucose level testing, blood pressure measurement, clinical records, clinical waste and sharps, debrillation, ECG, equipment to scene, hospital alert / information call, infection control, intraosseous infusion, intravenous cannulation, intravenous fluid therapy, longboard, needle cricothyroidotomy, needle thoracocentesis, professional standards, street safety, peak ow readings, pulse oximetry, scene assessment, splintage, temperature taking and transportation have been removed from the 2006-2008 edition as this material is now covered in training manuals. Page 18 of 18 October 2006 Update Analysis Report of the Key Changes Glossary of Terms The glossary of terms listed below is designed to assist reading ease and is NOT provided as a list of short hand terms. The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee reminds the user that abbreviations are not to be used in any clinical documentation. AAA Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm CBRN ACPO(TAM) Association of Chief Police Ofcers (Terrorism and Allied Matters) Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear CCC Civil Contingencies Committee Acute Coronary Syndrome CCCG Chief Constables Co-Ordinating Group Automated External Debrillation CD Controlled Drug AHTPS Alder Hey Triage Pain Score CEPH Cephalic ALS Advanced Life Support CHD Coronary Heart Disease APGAR A Airway CMLO Consequence Management Liaison Ofcer G Grimace CNS Central Nervous System A Appearance CO Carbon Monoxide R - Respiration CO2 Carbon Dioxide Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome COAD Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease A Age COBR Cabinet Ofce Brieng Room S Sex COLD Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease H History COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease I Injuries Or Illnesses CPAP Continuous Positive Airway Pressure C Current Condition CPP Cerebral Perfusion Pressure E Estimated Time/Mode of Arrival CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ASW Approved Social Worker CRT Capillary Rell Test ATLS Advanced Trauma Life Support CRT Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy ATO Ammunition Technical Ofcer CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid ATP Anti-Tachycardia Pacing CT Computerised Tomography ATSAC Acpo(Tam) Strategic Advice Centre CVA Cardio Vascular Accident AVPU A Alert DIC Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation V Responds to voice DKA Diabetic Ketoacidosis P Responds to pain DM Diabetes Mellitus U Unresponsive DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Atomic Weapons Establishment DNAR Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Order bd Twice Daily DST BLS Basic Life Support Defence, Science and Technology Laboratory BM BM Stick Measures Blood Sugar DVT Deep Vein Thrombosis BP Blood Pressure E Ecstasy BR Breech EC Enteric Coated ECG Electrocardiograph ED Emergency Department EDD Estimated Date of Delivery EHO Environmental Health Ofcer EMS Emergency Medical Services EOD Explosives Ordnance Disposal ET Endotracheal P Pulse ARDS ASHICE AWE BSA Body Surface Area BVM Bag-Valve-Mask CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting CAC Central Ambulance Control CALD Chronic Airow Limitation Disease (CB)IED (Chemical or Biological) Improvised Explosive Device Glossary of Terms October 2006 Glossary of Terms ACS AED Page 1 of 3 Glossary of Terms ETA Expected Time of Arrival MAOI Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor antidepressant ETT Endotracheal Tube FCP Forward Control Point MAP Mean Arterial Pressure FMC Forward Military Commander MCD Maximum Cumulative Dose FSC Forward Scientic Controller mcg Microgram G Gravida MDMA Methylene Dioxymethamphetamine g Grams mg Milligram GCS Glasgow Coma Scale MI Myocardial Infarction GI Gastrointestinal MIMMS GL General Sales List Major Incident Medical Management and Support GLO Government Liaison Ofcer ml Millilitre GLT Government Liaison Team mmHG Millimetres of Mercury GP General Practitioner mmol Millimoles GSW Gunshot Wounds mmol/l Millimoles per Litre MOI Mechanisms of Injury MR Modied Release MSC M Motor GTN Glyceryl Trinitrate HazMat Hazardous Material HIV Human Immunodeciency Virus HONK Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Syndrome IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome ICD Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator ICP Intracranial Pressure IHD Ischemic Heart Disease S Sensation C - Circulation IPE Individual Protective Equipment IPPV Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation Non-Steroidal Anti-inammatory Drug NSAP Intra-Osseous Nasopharyngeal NSAID IO Nebulisation NP Intramuscular Nuclear Accident Response Organisation Neb IM NARO Non-Specic Abdominal Pain O2 Oxygen OP Oropharyngeal P Parity PCO2 Measure of the Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide PE Pulmonary Embolism PEA Pulseless Electrical Activity PEF Peak Expiratory Flow PHTLS Pre-hospital Trauma Life Support PIC Police Incident Commander PID Pelvic Inammatory Disease PIH Pregnancy Induced Hypertension PMBS Police Main Base Station PO Pulmonary Oedema POLSA Police Search Adviser POM Prescription Only Medicine PPCI Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Intravenous JHAC Joint Health Advisory Cell JIG Joint Intelligence Group JMC Joint Military Commander JVP Jugular Vein Pressure KED Kendrick Extraction Device kg Glossary of Terms IV Kilogram LA Left Atrium LMA Laryngeal Mask Airway LMP Last Menstrual Period LMW Low Molecular Weight LOC Level of Consciousness LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide LVF Left Ventricular Failure MACA Military Aid to the Civil Authorities MACC Military Aid to the Civil Community PPE Personal Protective Equipment MACP Military Aid to Civil Power pr Per Rectum MAGD Military Aid to Government Departments Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Glossary of Terms Glossary of Terms prn When Required qds Four Times a Day +ve Rhesus Positive Rh-ve Rhesus Negative ROLE Recognition Of Life Extinct RSI Rapid Sequence Intubation RTC Road Trafc Collision RVP Rendezvous Point(S) SaO2 Oxygen Saturation Of Arterial Blood SAH Subarachnoid Haemorrhage SAS Special Air Squadron SBP Systolic Blood Pressure SBS Special Boat Squadron SC Subcutaneous SCI Spinal Cord Injury SF Special Forces SIO Senior Investigating Ofcer SMC Senior Military Commander SO13 Metropolitan Police Anti-Terrorist Squad SpO2 Oxygen Saturation Measured With Pulse Oximeter SSA Senior Scientic Authority SSRIs Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors STEMI ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction STEP Safety Triggers For Emergency Personnel SVT Supraventricular Tachycardia T Term TAG Technical Assessment Group tds Three Times a Day TIA Transient Ischaemic Attack TKVO To Keep Vein Open TRF Technical Response Force UTI Urinary Tract Infection VAS Visual Analogue Scale VF Ventricular Fibrillation VT Ventricular Tachycardia VTE Venous Thromboembolism Glossary of Terms Glossary of Terms Rh October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Consent Patients have fundamental legal and ethical rights in determining what happens to their own bodies.1 Valid consent to treatment is, therefore, absolutely central to all forms of healthcare, from providing personal care to more invasive interventions.2 Seeking consent is also a matter of common courtesy between health professionals and patients. It is not uncommon in pre-hospital situations for patients to refuse care or treatment. Although patients may refuse, there is still, in certain circumstances, an ongoing moral duty and legal responsibility for Ambulance Clinicians to provide further intervention,3 particularly if life-threatening risk is involved. This procedure provides guidance on how these situations should be managed. The Department of Health (DH)1,2 and the Welsh Assembly Government4 have issued guidance documents on consent, which may be consulted for good practice and legal guidance. This guideline is applicable within England and Wales only. There are a number of laws and Acts in Ireland and Scotland that have a direct bearing on this guideline. CONTENTS Capacity to Consent the ability to comprehend and retain information material to the decision, especially as to the consequences of having or not having the intervention in question, and ability to believe it and to use and weigh this information in the process used by a person in making a decision about whether to consent or to withhold consent. Duration of Consent the length of approval gained by valid consent being given. This generally remains valid unless it is withdrawn by the patient, however new information must be given to patients as it arises, and consent regained. SEEKING CONSENT. Before you examine, treat or care for patients you must obtain their consent. Valid consent can only be given by a patient, (or, where relevant, someone with parental responsibility for a child or young person see Section 5) or a validly appointed proxy (for adults without capacity, see Section 4). Consent by a proxy is only valid if a fully completed Health Care Directive can be produced at the time. Patients can change their minds and withdraw consent at any time. If there is any doubt, you should always check that the patient still consents to your caring for or treating them. Consent must be continuous, if previously unexplained treatment is recommended to be carried out, further consent must be gained beforehand. Denitions Seeking Consent Refusal and Withdrawal of Consent Adults Without Capacity Children and Young People Duty of Care, Consent and Human Rights Advance Refusals of Treatment Self-harm Clinical Photography and Conventional or Digital Photography Exceptions to the Principles of Consent Consent and Research. Three basic tests are used5 to ensure that consent is valid: a. Does the patient have capacity? is the patient able to comprehend and retain information material to the decision, believe it and use that information in making a decision while bearing the full consequences in mind? b. Is the consent given voluntarily? consent is only valid6 if given freely, with no pressure or undue inuence to accept or refuse treatment. DEFINITIONS Valid Consent the voluntary and continuing permission of a patient to be given a particular examination, treatment, operation or examination. Consent is only valid when it is given by an appropriately informed person who has the capacity to consent to the intervention in question. Ethical Issues Informed Consent a patients consent to a clinical procedure (or to participation in a clinical study) after being advised of all relevant facts and all risks involved (see below). c. Has the patient received sufcient information? the patient must understand, in broad terms, the nature and purpose of the procedure as well as the potential consequences of consenting to it or refusing to consent. Failure to provide all relevant information may render the carer liable to an action for negligence.7 October 2006 Page 1 of 7 Ethical Issues INTRODUCTION Consent The type of information that needs to be given by the ambulance clinician will vary depending on circumstance and urgency, but the following is a useful guide to the type of information the patient should receive prior to treatment: Ethical Issues description and method of treatment, transport and ongoing care purpose and reason for treatment, transport and ongoing care possible complications treatment treatment options, including the option not to treat and the likely consequences explanation of likely benets of treatment a reminder that the patient can change their mind about consent at any time. and side-effects of In practice, patients also need to be able to communicate their decision. Care should be taken not to underestimate the ability of a patient to communicate, whatever their condition.8,9 Many people with learning disabilities have the capacity to consent if time is spent explaining the issues in simple language, using visual aids. Ambulance Clinicians should take all steps that are reasonable in the circumstances to facilitate communication with the patient, using interpreters or communication aids as appropriate, while allowing for the urgency of the situation. Adults are presumed to have capacity, but where any doubt exists, the ambulance clinician should assess the capacity of the patient to take the decision in question. This assessment and the conclusions drawn from it should be recorded in the clinical record. Refusal and Withdrawal of Consent If an adult with capacity makes a voluntary and appropriately informed decision to refuse treatment, or decides to withdraw their consent at any time, their decision must be respected. A patient is entitled to withdraw consent at any time. The ambulance clinician should stop the procedure, establish the patients concerns, and explain the consequences of withdrawal. If, however, stopping a procedure at that point may reasonably be seen to put the patients life at risk, then the ambulance clinician may continue until such risk no longer applies. Withholding or withdrawing treatment is not an option for Ambulance Clinicians unless consent is withdrawn, as duty of care and the patients human rights would be jeopardised (see Section 7). Page 2 of 7 Patients often refuse treatment and remain at the location, as is their right. There is, however, a responsibility to provide treatment against a patients wishes in specic circumstances. ADULTS WITHOUT CAPACITY Adults who usually have capacity may, especially in emergency situations, become temporarily incapable of having the three tests (Section 2) applied. In such circumstances it is permitted to apply treatments that are necessary and no more than is reasonably required in the patients best interests pending the recovery of capacity. This includes any action taken to preserve the life, health or well-being of the patient, and can include wider social, psychological or welfare considerations.10 Where possible, a general practitioner (GP) or professional carer should be fully involved if there is doubt concerning the patients capacity. A clinical record should be completed detailing advice and guidance given to the patient, or any referral to specialist staff, ideally signed by the patient (although this simply conrms their presence) and witnessed by a third party. CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE The legal position concerning consent and refusal of treatment by those under the age of 18 is different from the position for adults, in particular where treatment is being refused. Scotland and Ireland have different laws covering these areas. Under the Children Act 1989, young people aged 16 and 17 years are presumed to have sufficient understanding and intelligence to be able to consent to their own medical treatment.11 As with adults, Ambulance Clinicians must ensure that the consent of younger people of this age is valid, i.e. given voluntarily by an appropriately informed patient who is capable of consenting to the particular intervention. It is, however, good practice to involve the young persons family in the decision-making process, unless the young person specifically wishes to exclude them.11 Critical situations involving children and young persons involving a life threatening emergency may arise when consultation with either a person with parental responsibility is impossible, or the persons with parental responsibility refuse consent despite such emergency treatment appearing to be in the best interests of the child to prevent grave and irreversible mental or physical harm. In such cases the Courts October 2006 Ethical Issues Consent With patients under the age of 16, those who have sufcient understanding and intelligence to understand fully what is proposed also have the capacity to consent to the intervention.11 This means that the level of capacity of children varies with the complexity of the treatment/refusal and its consequences. There is no particular age when a child gains capacity to consent. In emergency care, consequences of non-treatment are usually evident, but must be fully explained to ensure that a refusal to give consent is fully informed. Where possible, the child or young person should be given the opportunity to express their wishes. If this is not possible or feasible, Ambulance Clinicians should obtain consent from any person with parental responsibility. If valid, informed consent is given by a young person, a parent or guardian cannot over-ride the decision. As is the case where patients are giving consent for themselves, those giving consent on behalf of young patients must have the capacity to consent to the intervention in question, be acting voluntarily, and be appropriately informed and be acting in the best interests of the child.12 In the absence of a person with parental responsibility and a child without capacity, Ambulance Clinicians must act in the childs wider best interest.3 Again, Section 3(5) of the Children Act 1989 provides for these situations. DUTY OF CARE, CONSENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS There is professional, legal and moral consensus about the clinical duty to obtain valid informed consent. Patients may, however, have cognitive and emotional limitations in understanding clinical information. Social and economic variations are also important variables in understanding the practical difculties in obtaining informed consent.13 It is the duty of Ambulance Clinicians to act in a patients best interest by overcoming such difculties so that the patient has a clear, unbiased and informed view of the care that is being proposed. Duty of Care may be dened as: The absolute responsibility of a healthcare professional to treat and care for a patient with a reasonable degree of skill and care. Ethical Issues Negligence arises when that duty is breached and reasonably foreseeable harm arises as a result. A lack of valid consent does not automatically absolve the carer of their duty of care, or risk of negligence.14 The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that: Treatment without consent, invasive treatment contrary to a patients best interest, and withholding medical care can all be deemed inhuman or degrading treatment in extreme cases. This means that any carer who does not treat a needy patient because valid consent was not gained, could be deemed to be negligent if a genuine effort was not made to gain such consent. ADVANCE REFUSALS OF TREATMENT Patients may have a living will or advance directive although it is not legally necessary for the refusal to be made in writing or formally witnessed (check your services policy in this area). This species how they would like to be treated in the case of future incapacity. Case law is now clear that an advance refusal of treatment that is made voluntarily by an appropriately informed person with capacity and applicable to subsequent circumstances in which the patient lacks capacity, is legally binding.15,16 Ambulance Clinicians should respect the wishes stated in such a document. In a pre-hospital emergency environment, there may be situations in which there is doubt about the validity of an advance refusal. If Ambulance Clinicians are not satised that the patient had made a prior and specic request to refuse treatment, they should continue to provide all clinical care in the normal way. SELF-HARM Cases of self-harm present particular difculties for health professionals. Where the patient is able to communicate, an assessment of their mental capacity should be made as a matter of urgency. If the patient is judged not to have capacity, they may be treated on the basis of temporary incapacity, as outlined above. Similarly, patients who have attempted suicide and are unconscious should be given emergency treatment in all circumstances.17 In a pre-hospital setting, an instance of self-harm may require urgent intervention, such as in the case of a toxic drug overdose. If the patient refuses treatment, and the delay caused to clinical intervention is tolerable, the patients GP should be urgently October 2006 Page 3 of 7 Ethical Issues have stated that doubt should be resolved in favour of the preservation of life and it will be acceptable for all carers to undertake treatment to preserve life or prevent serious damage to health.12 Section 3(5) of the Children Act 1989 also provides for emergency situations involving minors when a person with parental responsibility is not available. Consent Ethical Issues requested to attend the patient and fully assess their level of capacity. If the incident is more critical and there is insufcient time to arrange the attendance of additional healthcare professionals, crews currently overcome most situations with commendable determination to act in the best interests of the patient. These practices should continue, but strict determination of the patients capacity must be made. If a patient refuses decontamination treatment, for example following a chemical, biological radiological or nuclear incident, responsibility lies with the Ambulance Ofcer in charge of the incident, in liaison with the Police, Health Protection Agency and Public Health Laboratories to decide on an appropriate course of action. Powers lie within these groups to take action for the public good. Ambulance Clinicians usually act intuitively to assess whether they perceive a patient is at risk of suicide. An assessment tool is provided in the mental disorder guideline (in Scotland this is part of the Mental Health First Aid programme). It should be realised that this is only an additional support, designed to assist in identifying specic areas to be aware of when deciding to leave a patient on scene. It must be noted that this advice must be used in conjunction with, and adherence to, the Mental Health Act 1983, the various sections of which must be understood and applied appropriately. Treatment involving mentally disordered patients is covered by the Mental Health Act 1983, provided that the patient is formally detained under that Act. Exceptions under the Act only relate to treatment for the mental disorder itself, and not for other illnesses or conditions.19 This means that any patient detained under the Mental Health Act has every right to impart and deny consent for treatment for physical disorders that are not directly related to his/her mental illness.20 It is very likely that specialist nursing advice will be available in such circumstances. CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND CONVENTIONAL OR DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY CONSENT AND RESEARCH Any type of photography of a patient is not permitted unless it is directly to benet the patients treatment. It is, therefore, seen as treatment in itself, and requires valid consent. Photographs should be retained in the patients hospital file and no other copies are permissible. Once taken, these photographs form part of the patients hospital record. EXCEPTIONS TO THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSENT An unborn foetus has no rights under consent caselaw. A pregnant mother has every right to refuse treatment for herself or her foetus, irrespective of the potential harm that may arise to the foetus.16,18 The Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 provides that, on an order made by a magistrate or sheriff, persons suffering from certain notifiable infectious diseases can be medically examined, removed to, and detained in a hospital without their consent. Similarly, Section 47 of the National Assistance Act 1948 (or similar legislation in Scotland and Ireland) provides for the removal to suitable premises of persons in need of care and attention without their consent. Such persons must either be suffering from grave chronic disease or be aged, inrm or physically incapacitated and living in unsanitary conditions. These situations are extremely rare and Ambulance Clinicians should request a sector ofcer to attend such incidents. Page 4 of 7 Research Governance procedures should be in place in each service, and these should include guidance on consent. As a very brief guide, research subjects must enter a study voluntarily, be informed about risks and benets, and understand the difference between experiment and treatment.21 Post-decision questionnaires should be developed, adapted to individual studies, and used to assess the voluntariness and understanding of all research subjects.22 Applications to Research Ethics Committees must include evidence of valid consent for every research subject. Key Points Consent October 2006 Gaining valid consent is central to all forms of healthcare. Patients can change their minds and withdraw consent at any time. Consent is only valid if it is given freely by a person who has all the relevant facts, is able to assimilate them, and can fully understand the implications of their decision. Young persons who have the intelligence to fully understand the proposed treatment also have the capacity to consent to such treatment. The rules of consent do not absolve clinicians of their duty of care, nor do they affect the human rights of patients. Ethical Issues Consent 17 Department of Health. Good practice in consent implementation guide: consent to examination or treatment. London: HMSO, 2001. Network UCE. Refusal of Treatment. http://www.ethox.org.uk/Ethics/econsent.htm#refus al, 2003. 19 Bluglass R, Beedie MA. Mental Health Act 1983. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed) 1983;287(6388):359-60. 20 British Medical Association. Assessment of Mental Capacity. London: BMJ Books, 1995. Wendler D. Can we ensure that all research subjects give valid consent? Archives of internal medicine 2004;164(20):2201-4. 22 Flory J, Emanuel E. Interventions to improve research participants understanding in informed consent for research: a systematic review. JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association 2004;292(13):1593-601. Department of Health. Reference guide to consent for examination or treatment. London: HMSO, 2001. 2 18 21 1 Hassan TB, MacNamara AF, Davy A, Bing A, Bodiwala GG. Lesson of the week: Managing patients with deliberate self harm who refuse treatment in the accident and emergency department. BMJ 1999;319(7202):107-109. 3 4 Airedale N.H.S. Trust -v- Bland [1993] 2 WLR 316: House Of Lords, 1993. Welsh Assembly Government. Reference Guide to Examination or Treatment: Welsh Assembly Government: Available from: http://www.wales.gov.uk/subihealth/content/keypub s/pdf/refguide-e.pdf, 2002. 5 Agre P, Rapkin B. Improving informed consent: a comparison of four consent tools. IRB 2003;25(6):1-7. 6 Brooke PS. Signed 2004;34(6):24. 7 Mazur DJ. Inuence of the law on risk and informed consent. BMJ 2003;327(7417):731-4. 8 Bridson J, Hammond C, Leach A, Chester MR. Making consent patient centred. BMJ 2003;327(7424):1159-61. 9 Sugarman J, McCrory DC, Hubal RC. Getting meaningful informed consent from older adults: a structured literature review of empirical research. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46(4):517-24. Refer to methodology section; see below for consent search strategy. Grifths R. Consent to Examination & Treatment: The Incapable Adult Patient. Nurse Prescribing 2004;2(5):217-8. Electronic databases searched: 10 11 12 13 under duress? Nursing Gillick v. West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority: AC, 112, 1986. British Medical Association. Consent, rights and choices in health care for children and young people. London: BMJ Books, 2001. Sidaway v Board of Governors of Bethlem Royal Hospital AC, 871, 1985. 14 CINAHL(Ovid) years search 82 05 EMBASE (Ovid) years search 96 05 MEDLINE (Ovid) years search 66-95 MEDLINE (Ovid) years search 66-05 ERIC (Ovid) years search 66-05 EBM Review years search All Health Management NELH years search: all years. Kassutto Z. Informed Decision Making and Refusal of Consent. Clinical Paediatric Emergency Medicine 2002;4(4):285-291. 16 Consent search strategy Messer NG. Professional-patient relationships and informed consent. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2004;80(943):277-83. 15 METHODOLOGY British Medical Association. Report of the consent working party: Incorporating consent toolkit. London: British Medical Association, 2001 Ethical Issues October 2006 Page 5 of 7 Ethical Issues REFERENCES Consent Search strategy: Ethical Issues MEDLINE CINAHL OTHERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. controlled.ab. design.ab. evidence.ab. extraction.ab. randomized controlled trials/ meta-analysis.pt. review.pt. sources.ab. studies.ab or/1-9 letter.pt. comment.pt. editorial.pt. or/11-13 consent 10 not 14 15 and 16 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. Page 6 of 7 meta analysis/ systematic review/ systematic review.pt. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$).tw. metanal$ nursing interventions.pt. (review$ or overview$).ti. literature review/ exp literature searching/ cochrane$.tw. synthes$.tw. adj3 (literature$ or research$ or studies or data).tw. (medline or medlars or embase or scisearch or psycinfo or psychinfo or psyclit or psychlit).tw,sh. pooled analy$.tw. ((data adj2 pool$) and studies).tw. ((hand or manual$ or database$ or computer$) adj2 search$).tw. reference databases/ ((electronic$ or bibliographic$) adj2 (database$ or data base$)).tw. (review or systematic-review or practice-guidelines).pt. (review$ or overview$).ab. (systematic$ or methodologic$ or quantitativ$ or research$ or literature$ or studies or trial$ or effective$).ab. 18 and 20 19 adj10 20 or/1-17,21,22 editorial.pt. letter.pt. case study.pt. record review/ peer review/ (retrospective$ adj2 review$).tw. (case$ adj2 review$).tw. (record$ adj2 review$).tw. (patient$ adj2 review$).tw. (patient$ adj2 chart$).tw. (peer adj2 review$).tw. (chart$ adj2 review$).tw. (case$ adj2 report$).tw. exp case control studies/ exp prospective studies/ case studies/ human studies/ "edit and review"/ (adults$ or children).tw. or/24-42 43 not (43 and 23) 23 not 44 consent and pre-hospital 46 and 45 October 2006 meta.ab. synthesis.ab. literature.ab. randomized.hw. published.ab. meta-analysis.pt. extraction.ab. trials.hw. controlled.hw. search.ab. medline.ab. selection.ab. sources.ab. trials.ab. review.ab. review.pt. articles.ab. reviewed.ab. english.ab. language.ab. comment.pt. letter.pt. editorial.pt. animal/ human/ 24 not (24 and 25) consent 27 not (21 or 22 or 23 or 26) 29. or/1-20 30. 28 and 29 Ethical Issues Consent Additional sources searched: Scotlands Health On the Web http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov Ethical Issues Department of Health http://www.dh.gov.uk/Home/fs/en General Medical Council http://www.gmcuk.org/guidance/library/consent.asp Age of Consent http://www.avert.org/aofconsent.htm British Journal of Cancer http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/index.html British Medical Journal http://bmj.bmjjournals.com Ethical Issues October 2006 Page 7 of 7 Patient Condentiality Health professionals have a duty of condentiality regarding patient information.1 However, the priority is to ensure that all relevant information necessary is clearly and accurately passed to others when this is necessary for the ongoing care of the patient. The different aspects of legislation relating to these issues at times appear to conict with each other. This guidance provides a brief overview of the relevant legislation under the following headings: Only the minimum amount of data should be collected and used to achieve the agreed purpose. Information can only be retained for as long as it is needed to achieve its purpose. Strict rules apply to the sharing of information. NHS POLICY All NHS employees must be aware of, and respect a patients right to, condentiality.1,2 A disciplinary offence may have been committed for any behaviour contrary to their organisations policy or the NHS Code of Practice: Condentiality (in Scotland, the NHS COP on Protecting Patient Condentiality). Clinicians should be aware of how to access training, support or information they may need and be able to show that they are making every reasonable effort to comply with the relevant standards.1,2 patient identiable information Data Protection Act NHS Policy protecting patient information patients rights of access to personal health records disclosure to other bodies and organisations research PROTECTING PATIENT INFORMATION consent further reading references. There are ve essential steps that Ambulance Clinicians and support staff, need to take to ensure that they comply with the relevant standards of condentiality: PATIENT IDENTIFIABLE INFORMATION This is any information that may be used to identify a patient directly or indirectly. It may include: patients name, address, post code or date of birth any image or audio tape of the patient any other data that has the potential, however remote, that the patient may be identied from it (e.g. rare diseases, drug regimes, statistical analysis of small groups) patient record number combinations of any of the above increase the risk of a breach of condentiality,2 and include all verbal, written and electronic disclosure, whether formal or incidental. DATA PROTECTION ACT The main principles of the Data Protection Act 19983 should be read in conjunction with this guideline. The Act describes processes for obtaining, recording, holding, using and sharing information. Patients must be informed and give consent to any sharing of their personal information. Exceptions to this general rule may exist (see sections on Disclosure, and Consent). Ethical Issues 1. Record patient information concisely and accurately. Inaccurate patient clinical records may contain false information about the patient concerned, for example by omission, error, unfounded comment or speculation. This breaches standards and brings the professional integrity of the ambulance clinician and the organisation into question. 2. Keep patient information physically secure. The ambulance service has particular difculties in ensuring that information is not shared accidentally with the public. Not only must any care the patient received be treated condentially, the information gained must not be disclosed to anyone else unless to do so genuinely promotes patient care. Comments to the public must be guarded. Patient handover information should not be overheard or shared with those not directly involved in the patients ongoing treatment. Patient records, either electronic or written, must be protected against unwarranted viewing, thus patient clinical records must be shielded from the view of others, stored securely after treatment, and only handed over to those with direct patient care or supervisory responsibility, or authorised ambulance service ofcers. Discussion about each case/patient must not disclose personal information unless there is genuine and provable health benet.2 October 2006 Page 1 of 7 Ethical Issues INTRODUCTION Patient Condentiality 3. Follow guidance before disclosing any patient information Ethical Issues It is not sufcient for clinicians to understand the basic principles of condentiality alone. They must also understand and comply with their organisations requirements for information sharing. Similarly, it is the responsibility of each service to ensure that data-sharing policies are produced, communicated, monitored, updated and reviewed.1 If there is any doubt about the sharing of information, there must be a Data Protection Ofcer and/or a Caldicott Guardian available to advise.4,5 4. Conform to best practice All grades of Ambulance Clinicians come into contact with the public and other NHS disciplines. Any temptation to share information unnecessarily with other people who are known to them must be avoided, as the responsibility lies rmly with the holder of the data, both individually and organisationally.6 A commitment to best practice should be applied to all patient information in any form, e.g. patient records, electronic data, surface mail, email, faxes, telephone calls, conversations that may be overheard, private comments to friends or colleagues.7 5. Anonymise information where possible Patient information is said to be anonymised when items such as those in section 1 are removed.1-3 It means that the patient cannot be identied by the receiver of the information and any theoretical possibility of recognition is extremely small. Anonymise patient condential data wherever possible and reasonable. If information is recorded, retained or transmitted in any way, it should be anonymised unless to do so would prevent any genuine healthbenet reasons for its collection/storage.1, 2 PATIENTS RIGHTS OF ACCESS TO PERSONAL HEALTH RECORDS Patients have a right to see, and obtain a copy of personal health information held about them.8 This includes any legally appointed representative and those with parental responsibility for young patients. Children also have this right provided they have the capacity to understand the information. Ambulance Services have a right to charge for this information; guidelines exist for this.3 There are exceptions to patients rights to see their personal health information. If the data could identify someone else and such data cannot be removed from the record, it is subject to legal restrictions. If access to Page 2 of 7 data could cause serious harm to the patient or someone elses physical or mental well-being then the request can be refused.1,8,9 Within ambulance service operations, these instances are extremely rare. If there is doubt about whether such exceptions exist, the Caldicott Guardian or Data Protection Ofcer should be consulted and agreement reached with the patients lead clinician.9 Notwithstanding the exceptions noted above, clinicians should make every effort to support a patients right to gain access to their personal health data. It is a requirement that such data should be received by the patient within 40 days of the request. To enable this, services should have clear written procedures in place to deal with such requests.3 DISCLOSURE TO OTHER BODIES AND ORGANISATIONS: Police The police have the right of access to personal information (name, address etc) in the investigation, detection and prevention of any crime. They also have the right of access to condential health information (type of illness or injury etc.,) in the investigation, detection or prevention of a serious crime (rape, terrorism, murder etc). They have no right to expect to receive information where criminality, clinician safety and public safety are not involved. Generalised information regarding attendance at an incident may be passed to the police through locally agreed procedures, where details of the incident location and what is involved may be disclosed but passage of personal or condential health data may not. Fire Service and Other Emergency Services There is no right of access for emergency service personnel other than the police to a patients personal health information.2 Situations may occur where clinicians feel that such disclosure would be in the best interests of the patient, or that by not disclosing it, other emergency workers could be put at risk. Clinicians should follow the best practice advice given in the section above on NHS Policy on such occasions. Otherwise, data access should be governed by formal documented requests and consideration by the Data Protection Ofcer and/or the Caldicott Guardian. The Media There is no basis for disclosure of condential or identiable information to the media. Services may receive requests for information in special circumstances, e.g. requests for updates on celebrity patients or following large incidents, when answering press statements (Public Interest exemption). In such instances, the explicit consent of the data subjects should be gained and recorded prior to any disclosure.2 October 2006 Ethical Issues Patient Condentiality Ambulance Services are not registered to use patient information for primarily commercial purposes. If such use was permitted, each patient would need to give explicit consent for their data to be used within the commercial setting and be given an opt out facility. This would need to include all intended purposes of all parties to the agreement and lists of all persons/groups who would have access to the data.3 Due to the nature of commercial enterprise, this consent would need to be explicit (expressly and actively given) as opposed to implied (acceptance without voicing an objection). RESEARCH In all the above instances, the advice of a Service Caldicott Guardian and/or Data Protection Ofcer should be sought prior to the use or release of any personal health data. Key Points Patient Condentiality All data for research should be anonymised wherever possible. If anonymisation would be contrary to the aims of the research, prior consent must be gained. Formal research guidelines exist for the use of health data and these must be consulted. CONSENT Consent and patient condentiality are inextricably linked. In essence, the patient is said to be the owner of his/her own personal, non-anonymised patient data and therefore needs to give approval before it is used by other people.9 There are exceptions to this general rule: There may be legal requirements to disclose data without consent, e.g. due to notiable diseases. Even then, however, the patient must be informed that this has been executed.3 Where there is a risk to the patients well being by not informing other professionals without consent, e.g. where a child or vulnerable adult may be in need of protection and informing the relevant authorities would appear to safeguard the patients best interests. Inability to consent, e.g. some children, adults who lack capacity or patients who are seriously ill or injured and who could reasonably be expected to give consent if it were otherwise possible to do so. Even in such circumstances, data must be used cautiously and anonymised where possible. If a proxy, guardian or parent is available, they should be consulted.2 Health professionals have a duty of condentiality regarding patient information. The priority, however, is to ensure that all relevant information is passed to others to ensure ongoing patient care. Patient information must be recorded accurately, kept physically secure, and anonymised whenever possible. Follow guidance before disclosing any patient information. Data Protection Officers and Caldicott Guardians are there to assist. Emergency situations may call for the sharing of patient information with other, mainly emergency-agencies. Follow best practice and act in the best interest of the patient. Ensure you are aware of your Service rules for patient condentiality and follow them but remember that ongoing patient care should never be compromised in their application. Use of personal information without consent may be justied if it is in the public interest to do so. This may occur to prevent or detect a serious crime, for example. Ethical Issues October 2006 Page 3 of 7 Ethical Issues For Commercial Purposes Patient Condentiality REFERENCES Health Professions Council. Standards of conduct, performance and ethics: Your duties as a registrant London: Health Professions Council 2003. 2 Ethical Issues 1 NHS Scotland Code of Practice on Protecting Patient Confidentiality. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Health Department. Available from:http://www.condentiality.scot.nhs.uk/, 2003. 3 Data Protection Act 1998 1998. 4 NHS Executive. Report on the Review of Patientidentiable Information December 1997 (Caldicott Report). London: : HMSO, 1999. 5 Brooks J. Caldicott Guardians driving the condentiality agenda. Br J Healthcare Comput Info Manage 2004;21(3):20-1. 6 Thomas G. Team learning: the issue of patient condentiality Work Based Learning in Primary Care 2004;2(4):377-380. 7 Medical Defence Union. Condentiality: Medical Defence Union: London. Available from:ttp://www.themdu.com/gp/search/searchresults.asp, 2001. 8 General Medical Council. Condentiality: protecting and providing information: General Medical Council: London. Available from: http://www.gmcuk.org/guidance/library/condentiality.asp, 2000. 9 Woogara J. Patients rights to privacy and dignity in the NHS. Nurs Stand 2005;19(18):33-7. Further Reading The principles within the following documents have signicant impact on patient condentiality issues, and should be considered essential reading. Health Professions Council. Standards of conduct, performance and ethics: Your duties as a registrant: London: Health Professions Council 2003. NHS Scotland Code of Practice on Protecting Patient Confidentiality. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Health Department. Available from:http://www.condentiality.scot.nhs.uk/, 2003.Data Protection Act 1998 Also, refer to consent guideline. Page 4 of 7 October 2006 Ethical Issues Patient Condentiality METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section; see below for patient condentiality search strategy. Patient condentiality strategy Electronic databases searched: Ethical Issues CINAHL(Ovid) years search 82 - 05 EMBASE (Ovid) years search 80 - 05 MEDLINE (Ovid) years search 66-95 MEDLINE (Ovid) years search 66-05 ERIC (Ovid) years search 66-05 EBM Review years search All AMED years search 85 - 05 Search strategy: MEDLINE CINAHL OTHERS 1. controlled.ab. 1. meta analysis/ 1. meta.ab. 2. design.ab. 2. systematic review/ 2. synthesis.ab. 3. evidence.ab. 3. systematic review.pt. 3. literature.ab. 4. extraction.ab. 4. (metaanaly$ or metaanaly$).tw. 4. randomized.hw. 5. randomized controlled trials/ 5. metanal$ 6. meta-analysis.pt. 6. information.pt. 7. review.pt. 7. (review$ or overview$).ti. 8. sources.ab. 8. literature review/ 9. studies.ab 9. exp literature searching/ 10. or/1-9 10. cochrane$.tw. 11. letter.pt. 11. synthes$.tw. adj3 (literature$ or research$ or studies or data).tw. 12. comment.pt. 13. editorial.pt. 14. or/11-13 15. condentiality.ab. 16. 10 not 14 17. 15 and 16 5. published.ab. 6. meta-analysis.pt. 7. extraction.ab. 8. trials.hw. 9. controlled.hw. 10. search.ab. 11. medline.ab. 12. selection.ab. 13. sources.ab. 12. (medline or medlars or embase or scisearch or psycinfo or psychinfo or psyclit or psychlit).tw,sh. 14. trials.ab. 13. pooled analy$.tw. 17. articles.ab. 14. ((data adj2 pool$) and studies).tw. 18. reviewed.ab. 15. ((hand or manual$ or database$ or computer$) adj2 search$).tw. 15. review.ab. 16. review.pt. 19. english.ab. 20. language.ab. 21. comment.pt. 16. reference databases/ 17. ((electronic$ or bibliographic$) adj2 (database$ or data base$)).tw. 23. editorial.pt. 18. (review or systematic-review or practice-guidelines).pt. Ethical Issues 22. letter.pt. 26. 24 not (24 and 25) October 2006 24. animal/ 25. human/ Page 5 of 7 Patient Condentiality MEDLINE CINAHL OTHERS 27. condentiality 20. (systematic$ or methodologic$ or quantitativ$ or research$ or literature$ or studies or trial$ or effective$).ab. Ethical Issues 19. (review$ or overview$).ab. 28. 27 not (21 or 22 or 23 or 26) 29. or/1-20 30. 28 and 29 21. 18 and 20 22. 19 adj10 20 23. or/1-17,21,22 24. editorial.pt. 25. letter.pt. 26. case study.pt. 27. record review/ 28. peer review/ 29. (retrospective$ adj2 review$).tw. 30. (case$ adj2 review$).tw. 31. (record$ adj2 review$).tw. 32. (patient$ adj2 review$).tw. 33. (patient$ adj2 chart$).tw. 34. (peer adj2 review$).tw. 35. (chart$ adj2 review$).tw. 36. (case$ adj2 report$).tw. 37. exp case control studies/ 38. exp prospective studies/ 39. case studies/ 40. human studies/ 41. "edit and review"/ 42. (adults$ or children).tw. 43. or/24-42 44. 43 not (43 and 23) 45. 23 not 44 46. patient AND condentiality 47. 46 and 45 Page 6 of 7 October 2006 Ethical Issues Patient Condentiality Additional sources searched: BNID - British Nursing Index http://ds.datastarweb.com/ds/products/datastar/shee ts/bnid.htm Ethical Issues British Medical Journal http://bmj.bmjjournals.com Centre for Reviews and Dissemination http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/crddatabases.htm Department of Health http://www.dh.gov.uk/Home/fs/en Healthline http://www.healthline.com Health Politics http://www.health-politics.com LawDepot http://legal.dotheresearch.com Netreach http://www.netreach.co.uk Nurse-aide http://www.nurse-aide.com Ofcial Documents Archive http://www.archive.ofcial-documents.co.uk Ofce of Public Sector Information http://www.opsi.gov.uk The Cochrane Library http://www.updatesoftware.com/publications/cochrane Reference sections from relevant articles were searched. Ethical Issues October 2006 Page 7 of 7 Management of Pain in Adults INTRODUCTION Pain scoring Pain is one of the commonest symptoms in patients presenting to ambulance services. All patients in pain should have their pain assessed for its: Control of pain is important not only for humanitarian reasons but also because it may prevent deterioration of the patient and allow better assessment. There is no reason to delay relief of pain because of uncertainty with the denitive diagnosis. It does not affect later diagnostic efcacy.1 Many studies have demonstrated the inadequacy of pre-hospital pain relief 2,3 and that time to pain relief is reduced by pre-hospital administration of analgesia.4 Pain is a multi-dimensional construct (see Table 1). Pain relief will depend on: Treatment of the underlying condition. Cause, severity and nature of the pain. Psychological support and explanation. Age of the patient. Experience/knowledge of the clinician Distance from receiving unit Available resources. ASSESSMENT An assessment should be made of the requirements of the individual. Pain is a complex experience that is shaped by gender, cultural, environmental and social factors, as well as prior pain experience. Thus the experience of pain is unique to the individual. It is important to remember that the pain a patient experiences cannot be objectively validated in the same way as other vital signs. Attempts to estimate the patients pain should be resisted, as this may lead to an underestimation of the patients experience. Several studies have shown that there is a poor correlation between the patients pain rating and that of the health professionals, with the latter often underestimating the patients pain.5 Instead, Ambulance Clinicians need to seek and accept the patients self-report of their pain. This is reinforced by a popular and useful denition of pain: pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he/she says it does.6 Pain Guidelines severity duration location and radiation other factors that exacerbate or relieve the pain. All patients with pain should have a pain severity score undertaken. It has been recognised that pain scoring increases awareness of pain, reveals previously unrecognised pain7 and improves analgesic administration.8 This should be undertaken on all patients who are in pain and should be repeated after each intervention (the timing of the repeat score depends on the expected time for the analgesic to have an effect). The absolute value is used in combination with the patient assessment to determine the type of analgesia and route of administration that is most appropriate. The trend in the scores is more important than the absolute value in assessing efcacy of treatment. Scoring will not be possible in all circumstances (e.g. cognitively impaired individuals, communication difficulties, altered level of consciousness) and in these circumstances behavioural cues will be more important in assessing pain). MANAGEMENT Analgesia should normally be introduced in an incremental way, considering timeliness, effectiveness and potential adverse events. However, it may be apparent from the assessment that it is appropriate to start with stronger analgesia e.g. in apparent myocardial infarction, fractured long bones. Entonox should be supplied until the other drugs have had time to take effect and if the patient is still in pain, other analgesics administered. Administering analgesia in this step-wise, incremental way minimises the amount of potent analgesia that is required. Any pain relief must be accompanied by careful explanation of the patients condition and the pain relief methods being used. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Pain Guidelines Pain consists of several elements: Pharmacological treatment. nature There are a variety of methods of scoring pain using visual analogue scales and simple scoring systems. JRCALC consider that a simple 0-10 point verbal scale (0=no pain and 10=the worst pain imaginable) will be the most appropriate method in most pre-hospital situations. Table 1 Dimensions of pain Physical methods e.g. splinting. Management of Pain in Adults Patients with chronic pain, including those receiving palliative care, may experience breakthrough pain despite their usual drug regime. They may require large doses of analgesics to have signicant effect. If possible, contact should be made with the team caring for the patient. TREATING THE CAUSE Many conditions produce pain and it is vital to treat the cause of the pain, including underlying conditions. This will also help relieve the pain in many situations e.g. giving GTN in cardiac pain, oxygen in sickle cell crisis. Table 2 Non-Pharmacological Methods of Pain Relief. Psychological Fear and anxiety worsen pain, reassurance and explanation can go a long way towards alleviation of pain. Distraction is a potent analgesic, commonly used in children, but may also apply to adults; simple conversation is the simplest form of distraction. Burns dressings that may cool, such as those specically designed for the task9 or cellophane wrap, can alleviate the pain. Burns should not be cooled for more than 20 minutes total time and care should be taken with large burns to prevent the development of hypothermia.10 However, analgesia should also be provided at the earliest opportunity. Splintage Pain Guidelines Dressings Simple splintage of fractures provides pain relief as well as minimising ongoing trauma and bleeding. NOTE: Most commonly, a patient requires a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of pain relief. For example, morphine may be required to enable a splint to be applied. Table 3 Pharmacological Methods of Pain Relief (refer to specic drug protocols). Inhalational analgesia Entonox (50% Nitrous Oxide 50% Oxygen) is a good analgesic for adults who are able to self administer and who can rapidily be taught to operate the demand valve. It is rapidly acting but has a very short half life, so the analgesic effect wears off rapidly when inhalation is stopped. It can be used as the rst analgesic whilst other pain relief is instituted. It can also be used in conjunction with morphine, particularly during painful procedures such as splint application and patient movement. Oral analgesia Paracetamol and ibuprofen may be used in isolation or together for the management of mild to moderate pain. It is important to assess the presence of contra-indications to all drugs including simple analgesics. Non-steroidal anti-inammatory drugs are responsible for large numbers of adverse events, because of their gastro-intestinal side effects and their effects in asthmatics. Some ambulance services may also wish to add a paracetamol/codeine combination to their formulary. Page 2 of 5 October 2006 Pain Guidelines Management of Pain in Adults Parenteral and enteral analgesia Morphine is approved for administration by Paramedics. It remains the gold standard for parenteral analgesia and can be used intravenously or orally. As with other opiates morphine is reversed by naloxone. When administering opiates, naloxone MUST be available. If clinically signicant sedation or respiratory depression occurs following the administration of opiates the patients ventilations should be assisted. Decisions to reverse the opiate effect using an opiate antagonist such as naloxone should be made cautiously as this will return the patient to their pre-opiate pain level. Opiate analgesics should not be given intramuscularly because of erratic absorption. The intravenous route has the advantage of rapid onset and the dose can be easily titrated against analgesic effect. Oral morphine is useful for less severe pain but has the disadvantage of delayed onset, some unpredictability of absorption and having to be given in a set dose. It has the advantage of avoiding the need for intravenous access. It is widely used for patients with mild/moderate pain from injuries such as forearm fractures and hip fractures. Those with severe pain are best treated with an intravenous preparation, augmented with entonox if required. There is no evidence that metoclopramide is effective in relieving the nausea induced by opiates in hospital situations13,14 but this has not been evaluated in the pre-hospital environment where motion sickness may also contribute. Intranasal opiates (morphine, diamorphine and fentanyl) Intranasal opiates are not currently approved for administration by Paramedics. Although it has been suggested that they may be useful in the pre-hospital environment and are sometimes used by Doctors, legal restrictions on the administration of opiates by Paramedics have to be addressed before this will be possible. Intranasal opiate analgesia is becoming used more frequently in hospital15 and has the advantage of potent, rapid action without needing parenteral administration. Topical analgesia In vulnerable adults or needle phobic adults, where venepuncture may be required in a non urgent situation, tetracaine gel 4% can be applied to the skin overlying a suitable vein and the area covered with an occlusive dressing. Such an application takes about 20-30 minutes to work. Pain Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Pain Guidelines Opiates are often required in sickle cell disease11 (a review is underway to look at the optimal analgesic treatment in sickle cell disease12). Management of Pain in Adults METHODS OF PAIN REFLIEF WHICH REQUIRE APPROPRIATELY TRAINED DOCTORS These methods are included because it is necessary to know what can be done to reduce pain before hospital, if time and logistics allow. A suitably trained (immediate care trained) Doctor should be called early to the scene if it is thought that such assistance may be necessary. Hospital personnel may not all have these skills. Table 4 Relief Which Requires Appropriately Trained Doctors. Ketamine analgesia/ anaesthesia Ketamine is particularly useful in entrapments where a person can be extricated with combined analgesic and sedative effects. At present only Doctors may administer ketamine. Ketamine is a non-opiate, parenteral analgesic that at higher doses is a general anaesthetic agent. It is particularly useful in serious trauma because it does not signicantly depress blood pressure or respiration. Adults may experience unpleasant emergence phenomena. Ketamine produces salivation so careful airway management is important, although unnecessary interference should be avoided as laryngospasm may occasionally occur. Atropine may be used concurrently to minimise hypersalivation. Regional anaesthesia Pain Guidelines There is limited room for regional nerve blocks because of the environment and the need to transport the patient to hospital in a timely manner. However, they can be very effective in certain circumstances of severe pain and do not induce drowsiness or disorientation. Femoral nerve blocks may be useful and provide good analgesia for a lower limb injury such as a fractured femur. Clinicians undertaking regional anaesthesia must be suitably trained, prepared and experienced. Key Points Management of Pain in Adults Pain should be treated as early as possible. Pain relief does not affect later diagnosis. Pain management consists of treating the cause wherever possible, and analgesia involving psychological, physical and pharmacological interventions. All patients should have a pain score before and after each intervention. Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Pain Guidelines Management of Pain in Adults REFERENCES 1 14 Mackway-Jones K, Harrison M. Analgesia and assessment of abdominal pain. Emerg Med J 2000;17(2):128-a-129. 2 Lord BA, Parsell B. Measurement of Pain in the prehospital setting using a visual analogue scale. pre-hospital Disaster Med 2003;18(4):353-8. 3 Hennes H, Kim MK, Pirrallo RG. Pre-hospital pain management: a comparison of providers perceptions and practices. Prehosp Emerg Care 2005 9(1):32-9. Lee JS, Hobden E, Stiell IG, Wells GA. Clinically Important Change in the Visual Analog Scale after Adequate Pain Control. Acad Emerg Med 2003;10(10):1128-1130. 8 Silka PA, Roth MM, Moreno G, Merrill L, Geiderman JM. Pain Scores Improve Analgesic Administration Patterns for Trauma Patients in the Emergency Department. Acad Emerg Med 2004;11(3):264-270. 9 Castner T, Harz C, Schloer J. Cooling Out of the Bag: Rescue Service 2002. Available from: http://www.waterjel.nl/en/downloads_en.htm. 10 Allison K, Porter K. Consensus on the pre-hospital approach to burns patient management. Emergency Medical Journal 2004;21:112-114. 11 Rees DC, Olujohungbe AD, Parker NE, Stephens AD, Telfer P, Wright J. Guidelines for the management of the acute painful crisis in sickle cell disease. British Journal of Haematology 2003;120(5):744-752. 12 Bennett KCLB, Dunlop R, Lau J, Benjamin LJ, Carr DB. Drug treatments for pain in sickle cell disease. (Protocol): The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001. 13 Refer to methodology section. McCaffery M, Pasero C. Pain: Clinical manual. 2nd ed. New York: Mosby, 1999. 7 METHODOLOGY Solomon P. Congruence between health professionals and patients pain ratings: a review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 2001;15(2):174-180. 6 Kendall JM, Reeves BC, Latter VS. Multicentre randomised controlled trial of nasal diamorphine for analgesia in children and teenagers with clinical fractures. BMJ 2001;322(7281):261-265. Abbuhl FB, Reed DB. Time to analgesia for patients with painful extremity injuries transported to the emergency department by ambulance. Prehosp Emerg Care 2003;7(4):445-7. 5 15 Alsalim W, Leung WC, Butler J. Metoclopramide versus placebo with opioid. Emerg Med J 2004;21(3):334-335. Pain Guidelines October 2006 Pain Guidelines 4 Dibble C. Are routine anti-emetics required with IV morphine? 2004. Available from: http://www.bestbets.org/cgi-bin/bets.pl?record=00266 Page 5 of 5 Management of Pain in Children All children in pain need analgesia1, regardless of age or situation. Pain is one of the commonest symptoms in patients presenting to ambulance services. Control of pain is important not only for humanitarian reasons but also because it may prevent deterioration of the child and allow better assessment. There is no excuse for leaving a child in pain because of lack of necessary skills in the clinician. If necessary, suitable expertise should be sought to provide pain relief. Pain is a multi-dimensional construct (see Table 1). Table 1 Dimensions of pain. Pain consists of several elements: Pain relief will depend on: Treatment of the underlying condition. Cause, severity and nature of the pain. Psychological support and explanation. All children in pain should have their pain assessed for its nature, severity, duration, location and radiation and any factors that exacerbate or improve the pain. Pain scoring There is no validated method of pain scoring for children in the pre-hospital environment. It is suggested that, pending this, a method that has been validated in the paediatric emergency department (ED) setting is used. The Wong and Baker faces (scoring 0 = no hurt, 1 = hurts little bit, 2 = hurts little more, 3 = hurts even more, 4 = hurts whole lot, 5 = hurts worst) (see appendix 1)4 are useful for younger children, as is the Alder Hey Triage Pain Score (AHTPS) (see Appendix 2). The AHTPS is a valid measure with good inter-observer rateability for use in EDs.5 The trend in the scores is more important than the absolute value in assessing efcacy of treatment. Scoring will not be possible in all circumstances (e.g. cognitively impaired individuals, communication difculties, altered level of consciousness) and in these circumstances behavioural cues will be more important in assessing pain. Age of child. Physical methods e.g. splinting. Pharmacological treatment. Experience/knowledge of the clinician. Distance from receiving unit. Available resources. ASSESSMENT An assessment should be made of the requirements of the child. Pain is a complex experience that is shaped by gender, cultural, environmental and social factors, as well as prior pain experience. Thus the experience of pain is unique to the individual. It is important to remember that the pain a child experiences cannot be objectively validated in the same way as other vital signs. Attempts to estimate the childs pain should be resisted, as this may lead to an underestimation of the childs experience. Several studies have shown that there is a poor correlation between the patients pain rating and that of the health professionals, with the latter often underestimating the patients pain.2 Instead, Ambulance Clinicians need to seek and accept the childs self-report of their pain. This is reinforced by a popular and useful denition of pain: pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he/she says it does.3 Pain Guidelines MANAGEMENT Analgesia should normally be introduced in an incremental way, considering timeliness, effectiveness and potential adverse events. Generally this should always include the nonpharmacological methods of treatment as a starting point and background to all pharmacological therapy. However, it may be apparent from the assessment that it is appropriate to start with stronger analgesia because of the childs condition; for example, a child with bilateral fractured femurs is likely to require vascular access to provide circulatory replacement and will be in severe pain. It would, therefore, be inappropriate to try paracetamol and ibuprofen and wait for them to work. Intravenous morphine would be indicated at an early stage, along with non pharmacological methods of pain control. However, a child with a small supercial burn might try paracetamol with or without ibuprofen. Entonox should be supplied until the other drugs have had time to take effect, and, if the child is still in pain, other analgesics administered. Administering analgesia in this step-wise, incremental way minimises the amount of potent analgesia that is required. Any pain relief must be accompanied by careful explanation, involving the child, where possible, and the carer. Include details of the childs condition, the pain relief methods being used, and any possible side-effects. October 2006 Page 1 of 8 Pain Guidelines INTRODUCTION Management of Pain in Children Children with chronic pain, including those receiving palliative care, may experience breakthrough pain despite their usual drug regime. They may require large doses of analgesics to have signicant effect. If possible, contact should be made with the team caring for the child. NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL METHODS OF PAIN RELIEF Treating the Cause Many conditions produce pain and it is vital to treat the cause of the pain, including underlying conditions. This will also help relieve the pain in many situations, e.g. giving oxygen in sickle cell crisis. Table 2 Non-Pharmacological Methods of Pain Relief. Psychological Fear and anxiety worsen pain and a child friendly environment (for example removing equipment which may cause fear and having toys or child friendly pictures around) may go a long way towards alleviation of pain. The presence of a parent has been shown to reduce the unpleasantness of hospital emergency procedures more than any other single factor and there is no reason why this should not be true in the pre-hospital setting. Pain Guidelines Distraction (toys, stories, games etc.) is a potent analgesic whatever is to hand may be used, but there is no substitute for forward planning.1 Dressings Splintage Burns dressings that may cool, such as those specically designed for the task6 or cellophane wrap, can alleviate the pain in the burnt or scalded child. Burns should not be cooled for more than 20 minutes total time and care should be taken with large burns to prevent the development of hypothermia.7 Simple splintage of fractures may provide pain relief as well as minimising ongoing trauma and bleeding. NOTE: These should be part of all other methods of pain relief. Page 2 of 8 October 2006 Pain Guidelines Management of Pain in Children PHARMACOLOGICAL METHODS OF PAIN RELIEF (refer to specic drug protocols) Table 3 Pharmacological Methods of Pain Relief (refer to specic drug protocols). Topical analgesia It is no longer acceptable to consider the pre-hospital portion of the childs treatment in isolation. The child is on a pathway of care, from the pre-hospital scene to the most appropriate setting within the hospital. Care that can be improved by one sector (pre-hospital) to enhance the quality of another (hospital cannulation) should be provided. Local anaesthetic agents such as tetracaine gel 4% can be applied to the skin overlying a suitable vein and the area covered with an occlusive dressing if it is thought likely that the child will require (further) venepuncture on arrival in hospital. Such an application takes about 20-30 minutes to work. Oral analgesia Paracetamol and ibuprofen may be used in isolation or together for the management of mild to moderate pain. Inhalational analgesia Entonox (50% Nitrous Oxide 50% Oxygen) is a good analgesic for children who are able to self-administer and who can rapidly be taught to operate the demand valve. It is rapid acting but has a very short half life, so the analgesic effect wears off rapidly when inhalation is stopped. It can be used as the rst analgesic whilst other pain relief is instituted. It can also be used in conjunction with morphine, particularly during painful procedures such as splint application and patient movement. Quite young children, providing they can be taught to operate the demand valve, and the childs fear of the noise of the gas ow and the mask can be overcome, can use the system. Flavoured (e.g. bubblegum) clear masks may help the child overcome the fear. Parenteral and enteral analgesia Morphine remains the gold standard for analgesia and can be administered intravenously, intraosseously, and orally (refer to morphine drug protocols). Opiate analgesics should be given intravenously rather than intramuscularly to avoid erratic absorption. As with the other opiates, morphine is reversed by naloxone. When administering opiates to children naloxone MUST be available and the required dose calculated in case urgent reversal is necessary. If clinically signicant sedation or respiratory depression occurs following the administration of opiates, the childs ventilation should be assisted. Decisions to reverse the opiate effect using an opiate antagonist such as naloxone should be made cautiously as this will return the child to their pre-opiate pain level. Intranasal opiates (morphine, diamorphine and fentanyl) are not currently approved for Paramedic administration. Intranasal opiate analgesia is becoming used more frequently in hospital8 and has the advantage of potent, rapid action without needing parenteral administration. There is no evidence that metoclopramide is effective in relieving nausea induced by opiates. Children have a significant risk of dystonic reactions with metoclopramide and therefore it is not advised in these circumstances. Pain Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 8 Pain Guidelines Oral morphine solution may also prove very effective in the child with moderate to severe pain such as a fractured forearm, but has the disadvantage of delayed onset, some unpredictability of absorption and having to be given in a set dose. It has the advantage of avoiding the need for intravenous access. Those with severe pain are best treated with an intravenous preparation, augmented with entonox if required. Management of Pain in Children PAIN RELIEF WHICH REQUIRES APPROPRIATELY TRAINED DOCTORS These methods are included because it is necessary to know what can be done to reduce pain in children before hospital, if time and logistics allow. A suitably trained (immediate care trained) Doctor should be called early to the scene if it is thought that such assistance may be necessary. Hospital personnel may not all have these skills. Table 4 Pain Relief Methods Which Require Appropriately Trained Doctors. Ketamine analgesia/ anaesthesia Ketamine is particularly useful in entrapments where a child can be extricated with combined analgesic and sedative effects. At present only Doctors may administer ketamine. Ketamine is a non-opiate, parenteral analgesic that at higher doses is a general anaesthetic agent. It is particularly useful in serious trauma because it does not signicantly depress blood pressure or respiration. Older children in particular may experience unpleasant emergence phenomena but these tend to be less common in the young. Ketamine produces salivation so careful airway management is important, although unnecessary interference should be avoided as laryngospasm may occasionally occur. Atropine may be used concurrently to minimise hypersalivation. Regional anaesthesia Pain Guidelines Page 4 of 8 There is limited room for regional nerve blocks because of the environment and the need to transport the child to hospital in a timely manner. However, they can be very effective in certain circumstances of severe pain and do not induce drowsiness or disorientation. Femoral nerve blocks may be useful and provide good analgesia for a lower limb injury such as a fractured femur. Clinicians undertaking regional anaesthesia must be suitably trained, prepared and experienced. October 2006 Pain Guidelines Management of Pain in Children Table 5 Pre-hospital analgesic drugs used in children. Drug Route Pain Severity Advantages Disadvantages Tetracaine gel 4% Topical N/A Reduces pain of venepuncture. Takes at least 20 minutes to work. Paracetamol Oral, Mild-moderate Not currently parenteral. Well accepted, antipyretic. Slow action. Mild-moderate Moderately good analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inammatory. Slow action. Rectal Ibuprofen Oral May cause bronchospasm in asthmatics. Inhaled Mild-moderate Quick, dose self regulating. Fear of mask. Understanding, coordination and cooperation equired. Oral morphine Oral Moderate-severe Good analgesic for minor/moderate injuries. May need to adjust dose of IV morphine if given subsequently. Slow action. Morphine Intravenous Intraosseous Intranasal1 Severe Rapid onset. Need access. Respiratory depression, vomiting. Easily reversed with naloxone. Some euphoria. Controlled drug. Diamorphine1 Intranasal Intravenous Intraosseous Severe Intranasal quick and effective. As for morphine if given IV. More euphoria. Intranasal not currently approved for Paramedics. Ketamine1 Intravenous Intramuscular Severe Can be increased to general anaesthesia in experienced hands. Emergence phenomena, salivation, occasional laryngospasm. No respiratory depression. 1 Currently not approved for Paramedic administration. Doctor administration only. Pain Guidelines October 2006 Page 5 of 8 Pain Guidelines Entonox Management of Pain in Children Key Points Management of Pain In Children All children in pain need analgesia. The method of pain relief used will depend on the cause, severity, nature of the pain and age of child. Analgesia should be introduced incrementally. Pain scoring faces are useful for use with young children. Morphine remains the gold standard for parenteral analgesia and the appropriate dose of naloxone should also be calculated and available. REFERENCES Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Prevention and Control of Pain in Children. A Manual for Health Care Professionals London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1997. 2 Pain Guidelines 1 Solomon P. Congruence between health professionals and patients pain ratings: a review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 2001;15(2):174-180. 3 McCaffery M, Pasero C. Pain: Clinical manual. 2nd ed. New York: Mosby, 1999. 4 Wong D, Baker C. Pain in children: comparison of assessment scales. Pediatric Nursing 1988;14(1):9-17. 5 Jewkes F, Lubas P, McCusker K, editors. Prehospital Paediatric Life Support 2nd ed. London: Blackwells, 2005. 6 Castner T, Harz C, Schloer J. Cooling Out of the Bag: Rescue Service 2002. 7 Allison K, Porter K. Consensus on the pre-hospital approach to burns patient management. Emergency Medical Journal 2004;21:112-114. 8 Kendall JM, Reeves BC, Latter VS. Multicentre randomised controlled trial of nasal diamorphine for analgesia in children and teenagers with clinical fractures. BMJ 2001;322(7281):261-265. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 6 of 8 October 2006 Pain Guidelines Management of Pain in Children APPENDIX 1 The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale Face 0 is very happy because he doesnt hurt at all. This rating scale is recommended for persons age 3 years and older. Face 2 hurts a little more. Face 1 hurts just a little bit. Face 3 hurts even more. Face 4 hurts a whole lot. Am th b e ula as n se ce ss C m lin en ic t o ian fp s ai ma n NO y co al py te th ra is tio p ns ag ar e a e nd pe u rm se itt in ed . Face 5 hurts as much as you can imagine, although you dont have to be crying to feel this bad. Ask the person to choose the face that best describes how he is feeling. Instructions: Point to each face using the words to describe the pain intensity. Ask the child to choose face that best describes own pain and record the appropriate number. From Hockenberry MJ, Wilson D, Winkelstein ML: Wongs Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, ed. 7, St. Louis, 2005, p. 1259. Used with permission. Copyright, Mosby. Pain Guidelines October 2006 Page 7 of 8 Pain Guidelines Instructions: Explain to the person that each face is for a person who feels happy because he has no pain (hurt) or sad because he has some or a lot of pain. Management of Pain in Children APPENDIX 2 Alder Hey Triage Pain Score Response Score 0 Score 1 Score 2 Cry or voice No cry/complaint Consolable, not talking, negative Inconsolable Normal conversation Complaining of pain Facial Expression Normal Short grimace <50% of the time Long grimace >50% of the time Posture Normal Touching/rubbing/ sparing Defensive/tense Movement Normal Reduced/restless Immobile/thrashing Colour Normal Pale Pale green EXPLANATORY NOTES Cry/Voice Score 0 Child not crying; although quiet is vocalising appropriately and noticing surroundings. Score 1 Child crying but consolable or is excessively quiet and negative towards carer. On direct questioning says its painful. Score 2 Child is inconsolable, crying and/or persistently complaining about pain. Pain Guidelines Facial expression Score 0 Normal expression and affect. Score 1 Some transient expressions that suggest pain but less than 50% of the time. Score 2 Persistent facial expressions suggesting pain/distress more than 50% of the time. Grimace open mouth, lips pulled back at corners, furrowed forehead and/or between eyebrows, eyes closed, wrinkled at corners. Posture This relates to the childs behaviour towards the affected body area. Score 0 Normal. Score 1 Exhibiting increased awareness of body area e.g. by touching, rubbing, pointing, sparing or limping. Score 2 Affected area is held tense and defended so that touching it is deterred, non weight bearing. Movement Score 0 Normal. Score 1 Movement is reduced or child is noted to be restless/uncomfortable. Score 2 Movement is abnormal either very still/rigid or writhing in agony/shaking. Colour Score 0 Normal. Score 1 Pale. Score 2 Very pale green, the colour that is sometimes seen with nausea or fainting/extreme pallor. Page 8 of 8 October 2006 Pain Guidelines Adrenaline (epinephrine) Drug Introduction ADM/ADX Legal Considerations Drugs administered by Ambulance Clinicians fall into two categories: 1. non-prescription drugs such as aspirin 2. drugs under the Medicines Act 19681 designated prescription-only medicines (POMs). Under normal circumstances, POMs can only be prescribed by a qualied Doctor (or dentist) but exemptions exist under Part III of Schedule 5 to the Prescription Only Medicines (Human Use) Order 1997 which allow suitably trained ambulance Paramedics to administer these drugs in specied circumstances. For the purposes of this order a Paramedic is dened as being on the register of Paramedics maintained by the Health Professions Council pursuant to paragraph 11 of Schedule 2 to the Health Professions Order 2001. Safety Aspects Drug Prescribing Terms In the case of prescription medicines, a variety of abbreviations are used, some of which are described Appendix 1. NOTE: Internationally recognised units and symbols are used where possible. DRUG ROUTES There are a number of drug routes that appropriately trained ambulance personnel can use to administer drugs. These are divided into parenteral routes (see Table 1), which require a physical breach of the skin or mucous membrane (e.g. by injection) and non-parenteral routes (see Table 2) (i.e. absorbed passively via the gastrointestinal tract, mucous membranes or skin). Table 1 Parenteral Routes Intramuscular (IM) Always check drugs to ensure the correctness of: type strength packaging intact clarity of uid expiry date. Injection of the drug into muscle, which is then absorbed into the blood. Absorption may be decreased in poor perfusion states. Intra-osseous (IO) A rigid needle inserted directly into the bone marrow. Resuscitation drugs and uid replacement may be administered by this route. Absorption is as quick as by the intravenous route. Intravenous (IV) Direct introduction of the drug into the cardiovascular system that normally delivers the drug to the target organs very quickly. Subcutaneous (SC) Injection of the drug into subcutaneous tissue. This has a slower rate of absorption than from IM injection. Drug Documentation The following should be noted: avoid unnecessary use of decimal points, e.g. 3mg, not 3.0mg quantities of 1 gram or more should be written as 1g etc., quantities less than 1 gram should be written in milligrams, e.g. 500mg, not 0.5g quantities less than 1mg should be written in micrograms, e.g. 100 micrograms, not 0.1mg when decimals are unavoidable a zero should be written in front of the decimal point where there is no other gure, e.g. 0.5mL, not .5mL use of the decimal point is acceptable to express a range, e.g. 0.5 to 1g micrograms and nanograms should not be abbreviated nor should units in medicine and pharmacy the term millilitre (ml or mL) is used; cubic centimetre, c.c., or cm3 should not be used. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Drugs This section outlines the common drugs currently available for administration by Ambulance Clinicians (refer to specic drug protocols). Drug Introduction REFERENCES Table 2 Non-Parenteral Routes HM Government. The Medicines Act 1968 (Commencement No. 8) Order 1989 Statutory Instrument 1989 No. 192 (C. 6) London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1989/Uksi_1989019 2_en_1.htm. HM Government. The Prescription Only Medicines (Human Use) Amendment Order 2003. Statutory Instrument 2003 No. 696: London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2003/20030696.htm Joint Formulary Committee, editor. British National Formulary. 50th ed. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 2005. 1 Endotracheal (ET) Inhaled (INH) Facilitates the rapid absorption of drugs from the bronchial tree when administered through an ET tube. Often used as a secondary route in cardiac arrest patients when IV access has not been established. Drug doses must be doubled and the drug blown down to maximise effectiveness. Absorption is variable. Gaseous drugs that are absorbed via the lungs. 2 3 APPENDIX 1 Some common abbreviations4 Nebulisation (Neb) Liquid drugs agitated in a stream of oxygen create fine droplets that are absorbed rapidly from the lungs. ac approx bd CD Oral Drug is swallowed and is absorbed into the blood from the gut. Effects usually start 3040 minutes after administration. In serious trauma or illness, absorption may be delayed. ec f/c IM IV m/r MAOIs max MR NSAID o. d o. m o. n p. c PGD POM pr prn q.d.s Drugs Rectal Drug is absorbed from the wall of the rectum. This route is used for patients who are having seizures and who cannot be cannulated without risk to themselves or ambulance personnel. Effects usually occur 515 minutes after administration. Sublingual Tablet or aerosol spray is absorbed from the mucous membrane beneath the tongue. Effects usually occur within 23 minutes. q.q.h s/c SOS SR stat t.d.s Transdermal (TD) Absorption of a through the skin. t.i.d top Page 2 of 2 drug October 2006 ante cibum (before food) approximately twice daily preparation subject to prescription requirements under The Misuse of Drugs Act enteric-coated (termed gastro-resistant in BP) lm-coated intramuscular intravenous modied-release monoamine-oxidase inhibitors maximum modied release non-steroidal anti-inammatory drug omni die (every day) omni mane (every morning) omni nocte (every night) post cibum (after food) patient group direction prescription only medicine per rectum (rectally) when required quater die sumendus (to be taken four times daily) quarta quaque hora (every four hours) sugar-coated when required slow release immediately ter die sumendus (to be taken three times daily) ter in die (three times daily) topical Drugs JRCALC Drug Codes July 2006 The drug codes listed below are provided for INFORMATION ONLY and represent drugs that may be commonly encountered in the emergency/urgent care environment. ONLY the drugs listed in the drug protocol section of these guidelines are for use by registered Paramedics; the remaining drugs are for use by physicians or under patient group directions by Paramedics who have undertaken extended training. CODE ADENOSINE ADRENALINE (EPINEPHRINE) 1:1,000 ADE ADM ADRENALINE (EPINEPHRINE) 1:10,000 ADX AMINOPHYLLINE AMIODARONE AMOXICILLIN ALTEPLASE ASPIRIN ATRACURIUM ATROPINE BENZYLPENICILLIN CEFALEXIN CEFOTAXIME CO-DYDRAMOL CHLORPROMAZINE CODEINE CODEINE-PARACETAMOL COMBINATION COLLOID GEL SOLUTION AMN AMO AMX APL ASP ATC ATR BPN CEF CFT CDY CHZ COD CPC COL CHLORPHENAMINE (CHLORPHENIRAMINE) CHLORAMPHENICOL EYE PREPARATION CETIRIZINE CIPROFLOXACIN COAMOXICLAV CYCLIMORPH CYCLIZINE CLOTRIMAZOLE DICLOFENAC DICOBALT EDETATE DIHYDROCODEINE DIAMORPHINE DOMPERIDONE DOXYCYCLINE DIAZEPAM ENOXAPARIN (low molecular weight heparin) ERGOMETRINE MALEATE ERYTHROMYCIN ETOMIDATE FLUCLOXACILLIN FLUORESCEIN SODIUM FLUMAZENIL FUROSEMIDE FUSIDIC ACID EYE PREPARATION GLUCOSE GEL GLUCOSE 50% CPH CPL CTZ CXN CXV CYM CYZ CZL DCF DCO DHC DMO DMP DXN DZP ENP ERG ERY ETO FCX FLR FLZ FRM FUA GLG GLL Drugs October 2006 KEY ADENOSINE ADRENALINE1:1,000 preparation (M indicates 1,000) ADRENALINE 1:10,000 preparation (X indicates 10,000) AMINOPHYLLINE AMIODARONE AMOXICILLIN ALTEPLASE ASPIRIN ATRACURIUM ATROPINE BENZYLPENICILLIN CEFALEXIN CEFOTAXIME CO-DYDRAMOL CHLORPROMAZINE CODEINE CODEINE-PARACETAMOL COMBINATION COLLOID GEL SOLUTION (Gelofusine, Haemaccel) CHLORPHENAMINE CHLORAMPHENICOL CETIRIZINE CIPROFLOXACIN COAMOXICLAV CYCLIMORPH CYCLIZINE CLOTRIMAZOLE DICLOFENAC DICOBALT EDETATE DIHYDROCODEINE DIAMORPHINE DOMPERIDONE DOXYCYCLINE DIAZEPAM ENOXAPARIN ERGOMETRINE MALEATE ERYTHROMYCIN ETOMIDATE FLUCLOXACILLIN FLUORESCEIN SODIUM FLUMAZENIL FUROSEMIDE FUSIDIC ACID GLUCOSE GEL GLUCOSE 50% (Latin sufx L used to indicate 50%) Page 1 of 2 Drugs DRUG NAME JRCALC Drug Codes July 2006 DRUG NAME CODE Drugs GLUCAGON GLUCOSE 10% GLYCERYL TRINITRATE (GTN) HEPARIN (STANDARD UNFRACTIONATED) HALOPERIDOL HYDROCORTISONE IBUPROFEN IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE KETAMINE LIDOCAINE (LIGNOCAINE) LORAZEPAM LEVONORGESTREL MIDAZOLAM MORPHINE SULPHATE METOCLOPRAMIDE METHYLPREDNISOLONE METRONIDAZOLE NITROFURANTOIN NALBUPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE NALOXONE HYDROCHLORIDE NITROUS OXIDE/OXYGEN 50/50 OBIDOXIME CHLORIDE ONDANSETRON ORAL REHYDRATION SALTS OXYTOCIN OTOSPORIN EAR DROPS OXYGEN OXYTETRACYCLINE PARACETAMOL TABLETS, ORAL SOLUTION OR SUSPENSION PROCYCLIDINE PROCHLORPERAZINE PRALIDOXIME MESYLATE PREDNISOLONE PENICILLIN V PHENOXYMETHYLPENICILLIN PROPOFOL PETHIDINE ROCURONIUM RETEPLASE SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% SALBUTAMOL SODIUM LACTATE, COMPOUND SODIUM THIOPENTONE SUXAMETHONIUM SYNTOMETRINE TRAMADOL TERBUTALINE TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN TRIMETHOPRIM TENECTEPLASE TETRACAINE (AMETHOCAINE) TETANUS/LOW DOSE DIPHTHERIA VACCINE VECURONIUM WATER FOR INJECTION Page 2 of 2 KEY GLU GLX GTN HEP HPD HYC IBP IPR KET LID LRZ LVG MDZ MOR MTC MTP MTZ NFT NLB NLX NOO ODC ODT ORS OXT OTS OXG OXL PAR GLUCAGON GLUCOSE 10% (X indicates 10%) GLYCERYL TRINITRATE HEPARIN HALOPERIDOL HYDROCORTISONE IBUPROFEN IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE KETAMINE LIDOCAINE LORAZEPAM LEVONORGESTREL MIDAZOLAM MORPHINE METOCLOPRAMIDE METHYLPREDNISOLONE METRONIDAZOLE NITROFURANTOIN NALBUPHINE NALOXONE NITROUS OXIDE AND OXYGEN 50/50 OBIDOXIME CHLORIDE ONDANSETRON ORAL REHYDRATION SALTS OXYTOCIN OTOSPORIN EAR DROPS OXYGEN OXYTETRACYCLINE PARACETAMOL PCY PCZ PDM PRD PNV PHP PPL PTH RCR RPA SCP SLB SLC STP SUX SYN TRM TER TIG TMP TNK TTC TTD VEC WFI PROCYCLIDINE PROCHLORPERAZINE PRALIDOXIME MESYLATE PREDNISOLONE PENICILLIN V PHENOXYMETHYLPENICILLIN PROPOFOL PETHIDINE ROCURONIUM RETEPLASE SODIUM CHLORIDE (PHYSIOLOGICAL 0.9%) SALBUTAMOL SODIUM LACTATE COMPOUND SODIUM THIOPENTONE SUXAMETHONIUM SYNTOMETRINE TRAMADOL TERBUTALINE TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN TRIMETHOPRIM TNK (in common use) TETRACAINE TETANUS TOXOID/LOW DOSE DIPHTHERIA VECURONIUM WATER FOR INJECTION October 2006 Drugs Adrenaline (epinephrine) ADM/ADX PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Pre-lled syringe or ampoule containing 1 milligram of adrenaline (epinephrine) in 1ml (1:1,000) ADM. Cardiac arrest Anaphylaxis Pre-filled syringe containing 1 milligram of adrenaline (epinephrine) in 10ml (1:10,000) ADX. Life threatening asthma with failing ventilation and continued deterioration despite nebuliser therapy. ACTIONS Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic that stimulates both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. As a result the myocardial and cerebral blood ow is enhanced during CPR and CPR becomes more effective due to increased peripheral resistance maintaining a central blood reserve. Reverses allergic anaphylaxis. manifestations of CONTRA-INDICATIONS Do not give repeated doses of adrenaline in hypothermic patients. acute Relieves bronchospasm in acute severe asthma. CAUTIONS Severe hypertension may occur in patients on beta-blockers and half doses should be administered unless there is profound hypotension. Drugs For patients taking tricyclic anti-depressants (e.g. amitriptyline, imipramine) half doses of adrenaline should be administered for anaphylaxis. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 ADM/ADX Adrenaline (epinephrine) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 1. Cardiac arrest Route: IV/ET rapid bolus Concentration 1 milligram in 10ml (1:10,000) AGE DOSE Adult 1 milligram (IV) 10.0ml Adult 3 milligrams (ET) 30.0ml 11 years 350 micrograms 3.5ml 10 years 320 micrograms 3.2ml 9 years 290 micrograms 2.9ml 8 years 260 micrograms 2.6ml 7 years 230 micrograms 2.3ml 6 years 210 micrograms 2.1ml 5 years 190 micrograms 1.9ml 4 years 160 micrograms 1.6ml 3 years 140 micrograms 1.4ml 2 years 120 micrograms 1.2ml 18 months 110 micrograms 1.1ml 12 months 100 micrograms 1.0ml 9 months 90 micrograms 0.90ml 6 months 80 micrograms 0.80ml 3 months 60 micrograms 0.60ml 1 month 44 micrograms 0.44ml Birth N/A REPEAT every 3-5 minutes of ongoing cardiac arrest. VOLUME N/A 2. Anaphylaxis Route: IM antero-lateral aspect of thigh or upper arm. REPEAT every 5 minutes as clinically indicated. Concentration 1000 micrograms in 1ml (1:1,000) AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult 500 micrograms 0.50ml 6 years-<12 years 250 micrograms 0.25ml 6 months-<6 years 120 micrograms 0.12ml <6 months NOTE: 250 micrograms in pre-pubertal children even if >12 years of age. 0.05ml 50 micrograms Drugs 3. Asthma Route: SC/IM antero-lateral aspect of thigh or upper arm. Concentration 1000 micrograms in 1ml (1:1,000) AGE DOSE Adult 500 micrograms Child REPEAT after 5 minutes if clinically indicated. Not indicated Page 2 of 2 VOLUME 0.5ml October 2006 Drugs Amiodarone AMO PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Pre-filled syringe containing 300 milligrams amiodarone in 10ml. Ventricular brillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) refractory to debrillating shocks. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Class 3 antiarrhythmic, lengthens cardiac action potential & therefore effective refractory period and QT interval on ECG. No other contra-indications in the context of the treatment of cardiac arrest. Blocks potassium channels in cardiac muscle. SIDE EFFECTS Bradycardia. Signicant sodium channel blocking activity. Vasodilatation causing hypotension, ushing. Bronchospasm. Arrhythmias Torsades de pointes. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IV intravenous bolus single dose (or IO < 7 years) CONCENTRATION 300 milligrams in 10ml DOSE Adult 300 milligrams bolus single dose 10.0ml 11 years 177 milligrams bolus single dose 5.9ml 10 years 159 milligrams bolus single dose 5.3ml 9 years 144 milligrams bolus single dose 4.8ml 8 years 129 milligrams bolus single dose 4.3ml 7 years 114 milligrams bolus single dose 3.8ml 6 years 102 milligrams bolus single dose 3.4ml 5 years 93 milligrams bolus single dose 3.1ml 4 years 81 milligrams bolus single dose 2.7ml 3 years 72 milligrams bolus single dose 2.4ml 2 years 60 milligrams bolus single dose 2.0ml 18 months 57 milligrams bolus single dose 1.9ml 12 months 48 milligrams bolus single dose 1.6ml 9 months 45 milligrams bolus single dose 1.5ml 6 months 39 milligrams bolus single dose 1.3ml 3 months 30 milligrams bolus single dose 1.0ml 1 month 21 milligrams bolus single dose 0.70ml Birth N/A Drugs VOLUME NOTE: Administer into large vein as extravasation can cause burns. Drugs AGE NOTE: NEVER to be given via endotracheal route. N/A October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Aspirin ASP PRESENTATION INDICATIONS 300 milligram aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in tablet form (dispersible). Adults with: clinical or ECG evidence of myocardial infarction or ischaemia ACTIONS Has an anti-platelet action which reduces clot formation. Analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inammatory. central chest pain, possibly of cardiac origin. Aspirin should be administered to any patient with chest pain unless the diagnosis is very clearly noncardiac or the drug is contraindicated. CAUTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS As the likely benets of a single 300 milligram aspirin outweigh the potential risks, aspirin may be given to patients with: Known aspirin allergy or sensitivity. Asthma Current treatment with anti-coagulants. Pregnancy Haemophilia or other clotting disorders. Children under 16 years. Kidney or liver failure Gastric or duodenal ulcer SIDE EFFECTS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Gastric bleeding. In suspected MI a 300 milligram aspirin tablet should be given regardless of any previous aspirin taken that day. Wheezing in some asthmatics. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Adults Adults with apparent, suspected or possible myocardial infarction. Aspirin is contra-indicated in children under the age of 16 years as it may rarely precipitate Reyes Syndrome. This syndrome is very rare and occurs in young children, damaging the liver and brain. It has a mortality rate of 50%. Route: Oral chewed or dissolved in water AGE DOSE Adult 300 milligrams Drugs Drugs Concentration 300 milligrams. VOLUME 1 tablet October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Atropine ATR PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Pre-lled syringe containing 1 milligram atropine in 10ml. Cardiac arrest, after administration of adrenaline, in the management of asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA) with a rate of 60 or below. Pre-lled syringe containing 1 milligram atropine in 5ml. Pre-lled syringe containing 3 milligrams atropine in 10ml. An ampoule containing 600 micrograms in 1ml. ACTIONS May reverse effects of vagal overdrive. May increase heart rate by blocking vagal activity in sinus bradycardia, second or third degree heart block. Enhances A-V conduction. Symptomatic bradycardia in the presence of ANY of these adverse signs: absolute bradycardia (pulse <40 beats per minute) systolic blood pressure <90mmHg paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmias requiring suppression inadequate perfusion causing, for example, confusion etc. Where there is a high risk of asystole: recent asystole mobitz II AV block complete heart block with wide QRS complexes ventricular pauses >3 seconds Organophosphate poisoning. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONTRA-INDICATIONS May induce tachycardia when used after myocardial infarction, which will increase myocardial oxygen demand and worsen ischaemia. Hence, bradycardia in a patient with an MI should ONLY be treated if the low heart rate is causing problems with perfusion, such as hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg). Should NOT be given to treat bradycardia in suspected hypothermia. SIDE EFFECTS Dry mouth, visual blurring and pupil dilation. Confusion and occasional hallucinations. Tachycardia, and in the elderly, retention of urine may occur. Drugs Do not use small (<100 micrograms) doses as they may cause paradoxical bradycardia. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 3 ATR Atropine DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Asystole/PEA with a rate of 60 or below The intravenous and I/O route is vastly superior to the ET route in cardiac arrest and should always be used in preference. Route: IV (preferred route) or ET AGE DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME Adult 3 milligrams (IV) 100 micrograms per ml 30.0ml Adult 3 milligrams (IV) 200 micrograms per ml 15.0ml Adult 3 milligrams (IV) 300 micrograms per ml 10.0ml Adult 6 milligrams (ET) 300 micrograms per ml 20.0ml If no improvement administer further 500 micrograms (0.5 milligrams) NOTE: Maximum dose 3 milligrams. SYMPTOMATIC BRADYCARDIA Route: IV AGE DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME Adult 500 micrograms 100 micrograms per ml 5.0ml Adult 500 micrograms 200 micrograms per ml 2.5ml Adult 500 micrograms 300 micrograms per ml 1.6ml ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING Route: IV/IM AGE DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME Adult 2 milligrams 100 micrograms per ml 20.0ml Adult 2 milligrams 200 micrograms per ml 10.0ml Adult 2 milligrams 300 micrograms per ml 6.6ml Child 20 micrograms/kg (IV/IO <7 years) In organophosphate poisoning the doses required may be VERY HIGH and on line medical support should be sought before giving further atropine. Refer to bradycardia table. Drugs The emergence of atropine side effects (dry flushed skin, dilated pupils and tachycardia) suggests that a sufcient dose has been given. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Drugs Atropine ATR BRADYCARDIA CONCENTRATION Route: IV 100 micrograms per ml AGE DOSE 11 years 10 years 200 micrograms per ml 600 micrograms per ml VOLUME VOLUME VOLUME 600 micrograms 6.0ml 3.0ml 1.0ml 600 micrograms 6.0ml 3.0ml 1.0ml 9 years 572 micrograms 5.7ml 2.9ml 0.95ml 8 years 516 micrograms 5.2ml 2.6ml 0.86ml 7 years 460 micrograms 4.6ml 2.3ml 0.77ml 6 years 412 micrograms 4.1ml 2.1ml 0.69ml 5 years 370 micrograms 3.7ml 1.9ml 0.62ml 4 years 328 micrograms 3.3ml 1.6ml 0.55ml 3 years 288 micrograms 2.9ml 1.5ml 0.48ml 2 years 244 micrograms 2.4ml 1.2ml 0.41ml 18 months 222 micrograms 2.2ml 1.1ml 0.37ml 12 months 196 micrograms 2.0ml 0.98ml 0.33ml 9 months 178 micrograms 1.8ml 0.89ml 0.30ml 6 months 156 micrograms 1.6ml 0.78ml 0.26ml 3 months 120 micrograms 1.2ml 0.60ml 0.20ml 1 month 100 micrograms 1.0 ml 0.50ml 0.17ml Birth 100 micrograms 1.0 ml 0.50ml 0.17ml BRADYCARDIA in children is most commonly caused by HYPOXIA, requiring immediate ABC care, NOT drug therapy. Drugs For administration ONLY in cases of bradycardia caused by vagal stimulation (such as suction or intubation) or organophosphate poisoning. Drugs October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) PRESENTATION Ampoule containing 600 benzylpenicillin as powder. BPN INDICATIONS milligrams of ACTIONS Antibiotic active against a range of bacteria. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Administer en-route to hospital (unless already administered by GP etc). Administer by slow IV injection. If it is not possible to gain rapid vascular access, the drug should be given by the IM route, as detailed below, into the antero-lateral aspect of the thigh or upper arm preferably in an area that is well perfused. Route: IV (or IO <7 years) Concentration 600 milligrams dissolved in 9.6ml water for injections. AGE DOSE <1 year 300 milligrams 5.0ml 1-<9 years 600 milligrams The signs and symptoms are: respiratory rate and effort raised heart rate raised (relative bradycardia is a very late sign) capillary rell >2 seconds, skin cold to touch (especially in extremities). Skin may appear mottled (early in illness skin may be warm) oxygen saturation may be poor or unrecordable (due to poor perfusion) temperature raised (peripheral shutdown or any anti-pyretics given may mask this) rigors vomiting/diarrhoea/abdominal pain rash develops into petechial, bruise-like purpuric rash or blood blisters. May be no rash pain in joints, muscles and limbs seizures level of consciousness: early in shock alert/able to speak as shock advances babies become limp, oppy and drowsy; older children/adults may develop difculty in walking/standing, drowsy, confused. 10.0ml 9 years adult 1.2 grams (2 vials) VOLUME The initial treatment of suspected meningococcal septicaemia. This is indicated by the presence of a non-blanching rash and signs/symptoms suggestive of meningococcal septicaemia (as below). Some signs/symptoms may be absent and the order in which they appear may vary. 20.0ml Route: IM Meningococcal septicaemia is commonest in young children and young adults. It may progress rapidly and the sooner benzylpenicillin is administered the better the outcome. Concentration 600 milligrams dissolved in CONTRA-INDICATIONS 1.6ml water for injections. Genuine penicillin allergy. DOSE <1 year 300 milligrams 1.0ml 1-<9 years 600 milligrams 2.0ml 9 years adult 1.2 grams (2 vials) Drugs VOLUME Drugs AGE 4.0ml October 2006 Page 1 of 2 BPN Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Penicillin Allergy In the context of meningococcal septicaemia the release of toxins into the blood stream may actually make the patient feel worse initially and can cause sudden hypotension. Where vascular access is available uid therapy at 250ml for adults, up to 20ml/kg for children should be commenced en route unless the journey time is short. Antibiotic allergy This will be a very difcult judgement for ambulance staff as many members of the public think that they have a penicillin allergy because of minor gastrointestinal upset or other minor symptoms. DO NOT give penicillin if the history is suggestive of unconsciousness, collapse, swelling, difculty in breathing or rash on previous administration of penicillin. Penicillin MAY be given if the history is suggestive only of diarrhoea, vomiting or other gastrointestinal upset on previous administration as this is related to the side effects of penicillin rather than an allergy to it. Hypersensitivity reactions, including urticaria, fever, joint pain, angio-oedema, anaphylaxis and convulsions may occur. Gastrointestinal upset (diarrhoea, vomiting etc) is a recognised side effect of high dose antibiotic therapy. If in doubt do NOT give penicillin and ensure rapid transport to hospital with an appropriate alert message. Document your consideration of penicillin and your reasons for not administering it. Drugs Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Chlorphenamine (Chlorpheniramine, Piriton) CPH PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Ampoule containing 10 milligrams chlorphenamine malleate in 1ml. Severe anaphylactic reactions, secondary to IM adrenaline. ACTIONS Symptomatic allergic reactions falling short of anaphylaxis but causing patient distress e.g. severe itching etc. An antihistamine that blocks the effect of histamine released during a hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Also has anticholinergic properties. CONTRA-INDICATIONS Known hypersensitivity. Children less than 1 year of age. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IV Concentration 10 milligrams in 1ml. AGE DOSE Adult >12 years 10 milligrams Child 6-<12 years 5 10 milligrams Child 1 year-<6 years 2.5 milligrams VOLUME Administer by SLOW intravenous (IV) injection over 1 minute 1.0ml 0.5ml 1.0ml 0.25ml CAUTIONS SIDE EFFECTS Hypotension Sedation Dry mouth Headache Blurred vision Psychomotor impairment Gastro-intestinal disturbance Transient hypotension Convulsions (rare) Epilepsy Glaucoma Hepatic disease Due to the sedative and psychomotor side effects, anyone receiving chlorphenamine should be advised against driving or undertaking any other complex psychomotor skills. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Drugs The elderly are more like to suffer side effects. Dextrose 40% gel PRESENTATION INDICATIONS One box containing three single dose plastic tubes of 40% dextrose gel (23 grams each). Known or suspected hypoglycaemia in a patient with a sufcient level of consciousness for there to be no risk of choking or aspiration. ACTIONS CAUTIONS Rapid absorption through the buccal mucosa resulting in a rapid increase in blood glucose levels. Reduced level of consciousness patient may choke or aspirate. In such circumstances glucose gel can be administered by soaking a gauze swab and placing it between the patients lip and gum to aid absorption. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Glucose gel may be repeated as necessary in the hypoglycaemic patient although a failure to achieve effective results should prompt the use of glucagon or glucose 10% (refer to glucose 10% drug protocol) as an alternative. None. DOSAGE AND ADMINSTRATION Blood glucose concentration should be measured after each dose. Route: Buccal Concentration 40% dextrose gel AGE DOSE Adults up to 69 grams Children <23 grams VOLUME up to 3 tubes CHILDREN Assessment should be more frequent in children who should require a smaller dose for a response. <1 tube Drugs CHILDREN For those less than 12 years of age, an appropriate amount, considering the patients age and ensuring protection of the airway should be given. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Diazepam (as Diazemuls and Stesolid) DZP PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Ampoule containing 10 milligrams diazepam in an oil-in-water emulsion making up 2ml of milky white uid (Diazemuls). Fits longer than 5 minutes and STILL FITTING. Rectal tube containing 2.5 milligrams, 5 milligrams or 10 milligrams diazepam in 2.5ml volume (Stesolid). Repeated ts not secondary to an uncorrected hypoxia or hypoglycaemic episode. Status epilepticus. Eclamptic ts (initiate treatment if t lasts >2-3 minutes or if it is recurrent). Symptomatic cocaine toxicity hypertension, chest pain or tting). ACTIONS CAUTIONS Central nervous system depressant, acts as an anti-convulsant and sedative. (severe Respiratory depression. Should be used with caution if alcohol, antidepressants or other CNS depressants have been taken as side effects are more likely. The intravenous route is preferred for terminating ts and thus, where IV access can be gained rapidly, Diazemuls should be the rst choice. Early consideration should be given to using Stesolid when IV access cannot be rapidly and safely obtained, which is particularly likely in the case of children. In small children Stesolid should be considered the rst choice treatment and IV access sought subsequently. The earlier the drug is given the more likely the patient is to respond, which is why the rectal route is preferred in children, while the IV route is sought. Diazepam should only be used if the patient has been tting for >5 minutes (and is still tting), or if ts recur in rapid succession without time for full recovery in between. There is no value in giving this drug preventatively if the t has ceased. In any clearly sick or ill child, there must be no delay at the scene while administering the drug, and if it is essential to give diazepam, this should be done en route to hospital. Care must be taken when inserting the rectal tube and this should be inserted no more than 2.5cm in children and 4-5cm in adults. (All tubes have an insertion marker on nozzle). Drugs Recent doses by carers/relatives should be taken into account when calculating the maximum cumulative dose. SIDE EFFECTS Respiratory depression may occur, especially in the presence of alcohol, which enhances the depressive side effect of diazepam. In addition, opioid drugs also enhance the cardiac and respiratory depressive effect of diazepam. Hypotension may occur. This may be signicant if the patient has to be moved from a horizontal position to allow for extrication from an address. Caution should therefore be exercised and consideration given to either removing the patient at or, if tting has stopped and it is considered safe, allowing a 10 minute recovery period prior to removal. Drowsiness and light-headedness, confusion and unsteadiness. Occasionally amnesia may occur. October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Drugs ADDITIONAL INFORMATION DZP Diazepam (as Diazemuls and Stesolid) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IV or IO < 7 years) ADULT Administer SLOWLY titrated to response. Repeat after 5 minutes 20 milligrams maximum dose. Concentration 10 milligrams in 2ml AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult 10 milligrams 2.0ml 11 years 10 milligrams 2.0ml 10 years 9.5 milligrams 1.9ml 9 years 8.5 milligrams 1.7ml 8 years 8 milligrams 1.6ml 7 years 7 milligrams 1.4ml 6 years 6.5 milligrams 1.3ml 5 years 5.5 milligrams 1.1ml 4 years 4.9 milligrams 0.98ml 3 years 4.3 milligrams 0.86ml 2 years 3.65 milligrams 0.73ml 18 months 3.3 milligrams 0.66ml 12 months 2.95 milligrams 0.59ml 9 months 2.65 milligrams 0.53ml 6 months 2.3 milligrams 0.46ml 3 months 1.8 milligrams 0.36ml 1 month 1.3 milligrams 0.26ml Birth 1.05 milligrams CHILDREN Administer SLOWLY titrated to response ONCE only. 0.21ml ADULT If required repeat after 5 minutes maximum dose 20 milligrams. Route: Rectal AGE DOSE Adult 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml (1 tube) Child 6-12 years 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml (1 tube) Child 1-<6 years 5 milligrams Drugs Child <1 year CONCENTRATION 5 milligrams in 2.5ml VOLUME 2.5ml (1 tube) 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml (1 tube) CHILDREN Repeat ONCE if required. If a SINGLE dose of diazepam has been given by the PR route and IV access is subsequently available a SINGLE dose of IV Diazepam may be given in place of the repeat PR dose where required. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Entonox/Nitronox (Nitrous oxide 50%-oxygen 50%) NOO PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Entonox is a combination of nitrous oxide 50%oxygen 50%. It is stored in medical cylinders that have a blue body with white shoulders. Moderate to severe pain. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Inhaled analgesic agent. Severe head injuries with impaired consciousness, as it will further impair consciousness. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Decompression sickness (the bends) where Entonox will expand the size of nitrogen bubbles within the blood stream, further aggravating the problem. Anyone who has been diving within the previous 24 hours should be considered at risk. 1 Adults Entonox should be self-administered via a facemask or mouthpiece, after suitable instruction. It will take about 3-5 minutes to take effect, but it may be 5-10 minutes before maximum effect is achieved. Labour pains. Violently disturbed psychiatric patients. Children Entonox is safe to use with children provided they are capable of following the administration instructions. Hospital emergency department staff should be informed when Entonox has been used. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Administration of Entonox should be in conjunction with pain score monitoring. Minimal side effects. Entonox has major advantages: CAUTIONS analgesic effect is rapid, with minimal side effects Chest injuries and other conditions when a pneumothorax is suspected, as it may expand this (unless a chest drain is in situ). no cardiac or respiratory depression can be self-administered analgesic effect rapidly reverses, so as not to mask symptoms Drugs the 50% oxygen concentration is valuable in many medical and trauma conditions Entonox can be administered whilst establishing intravenous access to deliver morphine. The usual precautions must be followed with regard to caring for the Entonox equipment and the cylinder MUST be inverted several times to mix the gas when temperatures are low. Drugs For convenience nitrous oxide 50% oxygen 50% is referred to as Entonox because of the UK ambulance personnels familiarity with this name. 1 October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Furosemide (Frusemide, Lasix) FRM PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Ampoules containing furosemide 50 milligrams/5ml. OR Ampoules containing furosemide 40 milligrams/2ml. OR Pre-lled syringe containing furosemide 80 milligrams. Pulmonary oedema secondary to Left Ventricular failure (LVF). ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Furosemide is a potent diuretic with a rapid onset (within 30 minutes) and short duration. Pre-comatose state secondary to liver cirrhosis, severe renal failure with anuria. Children <16 years. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IV AGE DOSE CONCENTRATION Adult 50 milligrams 50 milligrams/5ml VOLUME 5.0ml Adult 40 milligrams 40 milligrams/2ml 2.0ml Adult 40 milligrams 80 milligrams/8ml (pre-lled syringe) Administer SLOWLY over 2 minutes. 4.0ml ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Nitrates are the first line treatment for acute pulmonary oedema. Use furosemide secondary to nitrates in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema where transfer times to hospital are prolonged. Hypotension. Gastro-intestinal disturbances. CAUTIONS Hypokalaemia (low potassium) could induce arrhythmias. Drugs Pregnancy. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Glucagon (Glucagen) GLU PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Glucagon injection, 1 milligram of powder in vial for reconstitution with water for injections. Hypoglycaemia, especially in known diabetics, where blood glucose level <4.0 millimoles per litre or if hypoglycaemia is clinically suspected and where oral glucose administration is not possible. ACTIONS Glucagon is a hormone that induces conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, thereby raising the blood glucose level. The unconscious patient where hypoglycaemia may be a possible cause. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RELATIVE CONTRA-INDICATION Generally the choice between the use of oral glucose gel, glucagon IM or glucose 10% IV as rst line treatment of hypoglycaemia will be a clinical decision made by the Paramedic taking into account all of the available information. Low glycogen stores (e.g. recent use of glucagon). Glucagon should not be given by IV injection because of increased vomiting associated with IV use. Check blood glucose 510 minutes after administration to ensure it has improved to >5.0 millimoles per litre. Glucagon may be relatively ineffective in those who have already used up their body stores of glycogen (in particular hypoglycaemic children who are not diabetics). Oral glucose gel smeared round the mouth or glucose 10% is preferable as rst line treatment in such patients where IV access is obtainable. SIDE EFFECTS Nausea, vomiting. Diarrhoea. Rarely, acute hypersensitivity reaction. Hypokalaemia. CAUTIONS If patient is likely to require thrombolysis then intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. Alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia may render glucagon ineffective, however a hypoglycaemic patient who is intoxicated may not fall into this category. Hypoglycaemic patients who t should preferably be given Glucose 10% IV. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Drugs Route: IM antero-lateral aspect of thigh or upper arm Concentration 1 milligram per vial. AGE DOSE Adult 1 milligram Over 25kg (8-years) 1 milligram VOLUME 1 vial 1 vial Below 25kg 500 micrograms 0.5 vial Birth 100 micrograms 0.1 vial Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Glucose 10% GLX PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Packs containing 500ml of 10% glucose solution (50 grams). Hypoglycaemia, especially in known diabetics, where blood glucose level <4.0 millimoles per litre or if hypoglycaemia is clinically suspected and where oral glucose administration is not possible. The unconscious patient, where hypoglycaemia may be a possible cause. ACTIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Reversal of hypoglycaemia. Generally the choice between the use of glucagon IM or glucose 10% IV as rst line treatment of hypoglycaemia will be a clinical decision made by the ambulance clinician taking into account all of the available information. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Adults It is appropriate to cannulate with the largest bore cannula that can condently be placed and its position in the vein conrmed by a 10-20ml ush of sodium chloride 0.9%. The glucose solution should be administered by IV infusion approximately 100ml (10 grams glucose) at a time. Route: IV Concentration 50 grams in 500ml. DOSE Adult 10 grams 100.0ml 11 years 10 grams 100.0ml 10 years 10 grams 100.0ml 9 years 10 grams 100.0ml 8 years 10 grams 100.0ml 7 years 10 grams 100.0ml 6 years 10 grams 100.0ml 5 years 9.3 grams 93.0ml 4 years 8.2 grams 82.0ml 3 years 7.2 grams 72.0ml 2 years 6.1 grams 61.0ml 18 months 5.6 grams 56.0ml 12 months 4.9 grams 49.0ml 9 months 4.5 grams 45.0ml 6 months 3.9 grams 39.0ml 3 months 3.0 grams 30.0ml 1 month 2.2 grams 22.0ml Birth 1.8 grams 18.0ml Drugs VOLUME The dose may be repeated after 5 minutes if there is no response. If the patient has shown a PARTIAL response then further infusion may be necessary, titrated to response, up to a maximum of 300ml (30 grams) to restore a normal GCS. If after the second dose there has been NO response, rapid transport should be initiated and the hospital pre-alerted. Consideration should be given to alternative diagnoses or the likelihood of a third dose en route beneting the patient. Children <40kg When administering glucose 10% to children a single dose of 5ml/kg is recommended. In larger children this may equate to a volume in excess of 100ml, in which case the adult protocol should be followed. October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Drugs AGE Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN, Suscard) GTN PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Metered dose spray containing 400 micrograms glyceryl trinitrate per dose. Cardiac chest pain due to angina or myocardial infarction. Tablets containing glyceryl trinitrate 2, 3 or 5 milligrams for buccal administration (depends on local ordering). Acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS A potent vasodilator drug resulting in: Hypotension (actual or estimated systolic blood pressure <90mmHg). dilatation of coronary arteries/relief of coronary spasm. dilatation of systemic veins resulting in lower pre-load. Hypovolaemia. Head trauma. Cerebral haemorrhage. reduced blood pressure. Sildenal (Viagra) and other related drugs glyceryl trinitrate must not be given to patients who have taken sildenal or related drugs within the previous 24 hours. Profound hypotension may occur. Unconscious patients. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The mucosa must be moist for GTN absorption, moisten if necessary. Route: Buccal/Sub-lingual (spray under the patients tongue and close mouth). AGE DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME Adult 1-2 spray 400 micrograms per dose spray Adult 2 milligrams 2 milligrams per tablet 1 tablet Adult 3 milligrams 3 milligrams per tablet 1 tablet Adult 5 milligrams 5 milligrams per tablet 1 tablet N/A Remove tablet if side effects occur e.g. hypotension. Drugs October 2006 Drugs The effect of the rst dose should be assessed over 5 minutes. Further doses can be given every 5-10 minutes as indicated provided systolic blood pressure is >90mmHg. Page 1 of 2 GTN Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN, Suscard) ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Glyceryl trinitrate causes vasodilatation, with enlargement of the venous system bed. This causes pooling of blood in the veins with reduction in preload to the heart. This relieves the work of the left ventricle, and secondarily reduces lung vessel congestion, lessening breathlessness and is the primary treatment in acute left ventricular failure. Throbbing headache. When using buccal nitrates the patient may spit out the remainder of the tablet when their chest pain is relieved. This may avoid the onset of headache. Tachycardia. Flushing. Dizziness. Postural hypotension. These side effects are mainly related to a generalised vasodilation effect of this drug and are usually transient. Drugs Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Hydrocortisone HYC PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Ampoule containing 100 milligrams hydrocortisone as either sodium succinate or sodium phosphate in 1ml. Severe or life threatening asthma where callhospital time is >30 minutes. Anaphylaxis. OR Addisonian Crisis. Solu-cortef a powder for reconstitution with up to 2ml of water. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Glucocorticoid drug that reduces inammation and suppresses immune response. Known allergy (which will be to the sodium succinate or sodium phosphate rather than the hydrocortisone itself). CAUTIONS SIDE EFFECTS None relevant to a single dose. Sodium phosphate may cause burning or itching sensation in the groin if administered too quickly. Drugs If patient is likely to require thrombolysis then intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 HYC Hydrocortisone DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Anaphylaxis or Asthma Route: IV OR IM when IV access is impossible/IO (<7 years). CONCENTRATION 100 milligrams per 1ml 100 milligrams per 2ml VOLUME VOLUME AGE DOSE Adult 200 milligrams 2.0ml 4.0ml 11 years 140 milligrams 1.4ml 2.8ml 10 years 130 milligrams 1.3ml 2.6ml 9 years 110 milligrams 1.1ml 2.2ml 8 years 100 milligrams 1.0ml 2.0ml 7 years 92 milligrams 0.92ml 1.8ml 6 years 82 milligrams 0.82ml 1.6ml 5 years 74 milligrams 0.74ml 1.5ml 4 years 66 milligrams 0.66ml 1.3ml 3 years 57 milligrams 0.57ml 1.1ml 2 years 49 milligrams 0.49ml 0.98ml 18 months 45 milligrams 0.45ml 0.90ml 12 months 39 milligrams 0.39ml 0.78ml 9 months 36 milligrams 0.36ml 0.72ml 6 months 31 milligrams 0.31ml 0.62ml 3 months 24 milligrams 0.24ml 0.48ml 1 month 18 milligrams 0.18ml 0.36ml Birth 14 milligrams 0.14ml 0.28ml Administer by SLOW intravenous injection over a minimum of 2 minutes to avoid side effects. NOTE: It is better to give hydrocortisone if there is any doubt about previous steroid administration. Steroid-dependent patients who become unwell (Addisonian Crisis) ADULTS 100 millgrams IV (OR IM when IV access is impossible) given by SLOW IV administration Drugs CHILDREN 1 MONTH 11 YEARS Use dosages as per table above Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Ibuprofen IBF PRESENTATION INDICATIONS A solution or suspension containing ibuprofen 100 milligrams in 5ml or tablet form containing 200 milligrams, 400 milligrams, and 600 milligrams. Relief of mild to moderate pain and/or high temperature. Pain and inammation of soft tissue injuries. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Analgesic (pain relieving) (temperature reducing) drug. and antipyretic Should not be administered to dehydrated patients. Asthma Known allergy or hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Anti-inammatory (inammation reducing). Active upper gastro-intestinal disturbance (e.g. oesophagitis, peptic ulcer, dyspepsia). SIDE EFFECTS Ibuprofen may cause nausea, vomiting, and tinnitus. If a product containing NSAID properties (e.g. Diclofenac, Naproxen) has been given within the last four hours or if the maximum cumulative daily dose has been given then further NSAID i.e. ibuprofen should NOT be given. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: Oral AGE DOSE VOLUME Adults >12 years 200-400 milligrams max 1.6grams/day Varies 7 years <12 years 200 milligrams Varies 2 years <7 years 100 milligrams Varies 6 months <2 years 50 milligrams Varies 1 month <6 months 5 milligrams/kg Varies NOTE: Can be given in addition to paracetamol. Drugs October 2006 Drugs 3-4 times daily preferably following food in 3-4 divided doses. In severe conditions (body-weight over 7 killograms) 30 milligramsg/kg daily maximum. Page 1 of 1 Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent) IPR PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Nebules containing ipratropium bromide 250 micrograms in 1ml or 500 micrograms in 2ml. Acute severe or life threatening asthma (to be given concurrent with rst dose of salbutamol). Acute asthma unresponsive to salbutamol. ACTIONS 1. Ipratropium bromide is an antimuscarinic bronchodilator drug. It may provide short term relief in acute asthma, but beta2 agonists (such as salbutamol) generally work more quickly. Ipratropium should be considered in acute severe or life threatening asthma or in cases of acute asthma or COPD which fail to improve with standard therapy (including salbutamol). Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), unresponsive to salbutamol. CONTRA-INDICATIONS None in the emergency situation. 2. Ipratropium is considered of greater benet in: a. children suffering acute asthma. b. adults suffering with COPD. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: Nebuliser 250 micrograms in 1ml AGE 125-250 micrograms 2.0ml 2.0ml 250 micrograms 1 month-<2years VOLUME 500 micrograms 2-12 years VOLUME DOSE Adult 500 micrograms in 2ml 1.0ml 1.0ml 0.50ml1.0ml 0.50ml1.0ml Nebulised with 6-8 litres per minute oxygen, ONCE only. Concurrent with rst dose of salbutamol in acute severe or life-threatening asthma. Concurrent with the second or later dose of salbutamol in COPD or asthma unresponsive to salbutamol alone. NOTE: May be mixed with salbutamol in same nebuliser in life-threatening asthma. CAUTIONS SIDE EFFECTS Ipratropium should be used with care in patients with: Headache. Nausea and vomiting. Drugs glaucoma (protect the eyes from mist). Dry mouth. pregnancy and breastfeeding. Difculty in passing urine and/or constipation. Tachycardia/arrhythmia. Paroxysmal tightness of the chest. Allergic reaction. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Lidocaine (Lignocaine) LID PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Lidocaine 1% ampoules or mini-jet containing 100 milligrams in 10ml. If amiodarone is NOT available to treat shock resistant ventricular fibrillation (VF) the use of lidocaine may be considered in its place i.e. after three shocks have failed to convert VF. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Suppresses the automaticity of the His-Purkinje system. Known allergy to lidocaine or other local anaesthetics. Elevates the electrical stimulation threshold of the ventricles during diastole. Bradycardia. Asystole. Torsades de pointes. Paroxysmal bradycardia. VT secondary to underlying Porphyria. Where amiodarone has already been administered. SIDE EFFECTS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CNS excitation including convulsions. Lidocaine 1% may also be used as a local anaesthetic agent by appropriately skilled and trained clinicians. Refer to local procedures. Fall in blood pressure because of myocardial depression. Bradycardia. Drugs Cardiac arrest. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 LID Lidocaine (Lignocaine) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Ventricular brillation (VF) NOTE: Lidocaine may be used as an alternative if amiodarone is not available, but amiodarone is the drug of preference in the treatment of arrhythmias. Route: ADULTS IV/ET CHILDREN NOT to be given via ET route IV (or IO < 7 years). Concentration 1% (100 milligrams in 10ml). Administer slowly over 2-3 minutes. AGE DOSE Adult 100 milligrams (IV) VOLUME 10.0ml Adult 200 milligrams (ET) 20.0ml 11 years 35.0 milligrams 3.5ml 10 years 32.0 milligrams 3.2ml 9 years 29.0 milligrams 2.9ml 8 years 26.0 milligrams 2.6ml 7 years 23.0 milligrams 2.3ml 6 years 21.0 milligrams 2.1ml 5 years 19.0 milligrams 1.9ml 4 years 16.0 milligrams 1.6ml 3 years 14.0 milligrams 1.4ml 2 years 12.0 milligrams 1.2ml 18 months 11.0 milligrams 1.1ml 12 months 9.8 milligrams 0.98ml 9 months 8.9 milligrams 0.89ml 6 months 7.8 milligrams 0.78ml 3 months 6.0 milligrams 0.60ml 1 month 4.4 milligrams 0.44ml Birth N/A Repeat if necessary after 1520 minutes to a maximum of 200 milligrams. NOTE: DO NOT give lidocaine if amiodarone has been given already. N/A Drugs Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Metoclopramide (Maxolon) MTC PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Ampoule containing metoclopramide 10 milligrams in 2ml. The treatment of nausea or vomiting in adults over 20 years. ACTIONS Prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting following administration of morphine sulphate or nalbuphine. An anti-emetic which acts centrally as well as on the gastro-intestinal tract. CAUTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS If patient is likely to require thrombolysis then intramuscular administration of any drug should be avoided. Age less than 20 years. Avoid in cases of drug overdose. Renal failure. Avoid in rst trimester of pregnancy. Phaeochromocytoma. Gastro-intestinal obstruction. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Metoclopramide should always be given in a separate syringe to morphine sulphate. The drugs must not be mixed. Severe extra-pyramidal effects are more common in children and young adults. Drowsiness and restlessness. Cardiac conduction abnormalities following IV administration. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ONCE only, given over 2 minutes, prior to opiate administration. Route: IV Concentration 10 milligrams in 2ml. DOSE Adult 10 milligrams VOLUME 2.0ml Drugs AGE Monitor pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate and cardiac rhythm before, during and after administration. Page 1 of 1 Drugs October 2006 October 2006 Drugs 1 of 1 Page Morphine Sulphate MOR PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Ampoules containing Morphine Sulphate 10 milligrams in 1ml. Pain associated with suspected myocardial infarction (analgesic of rst choice). Severe pain. The decision about which analgesia and which route should be guided by clinical judgement (refer to adult and child pain management guidelines). ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Morphine is a strong opioid analgesic drug for parenteral administration for pain relief. It is particularly useful for treating severe continuous pain of visceral or soft tissue origins. Do NOT give circumstances: Morphine produces sedation, euphoria and analgesia; it may both depress respiration and induce hypotension. Respiratory depression (Adult <10 breaths per minute, Child <20 breaths per minute). Histamine is released following morphine administration, this may contribute to its vasodilatory effects and it may also cause bronchoconstriction. morphine in the following Children under 1 year of age. Hypotension (actual, not estimated, systolic blood pressure <90mmHg in adults, <80mmHg in school children, <70mmHg in pre-school children). Administration of morphine to patients with clinical signs of haemorrhagic or cardiogenic shock may precipitate irreversible hypotension. Head injury with significantly impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Score <12). Phaeochromocytoma (tumour on the adrenal gland). This is a rare condition which is usually unknown to the patient or has been identied and treated. Known hypersensitivity to morphine. Drugs Known severe renal or hepatic impairment. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 4 MOR Morphine Sulphate CAUTIONS SIDE EFFECTS Use with extreme caution (minimal doses) during pregnancy. NOTE not to be used for pain associated with labour where Entonox is the analgesia of choice. Respiratory depression. Cardiovascular depression. Nausea and vomiting. Morphine should be given with great caution to patients with chest injuries, particularly those with any respiratory difculty, although if respiration is inhibited by pain, morphine may actually improve respiratory status. Drowsiness. Pupillary constriction. Patients with other respiratory problems e.g. asthma, COPD. Head injury. Agitation following head injury may be due to acute brain injury, hypoxia or pain. The decision to administer analgesia to agitated head injured patients is a clinical one. It is essential however, that any such patient who receives analgesia is closely monitored as opiates may cause disproportionate respiratory depression and hence increase intracranial pressure. Acute alcohol intoxication. All opioid drugs potentiate the central nervous system depressant effects of alcohol and they should therefore be used with great caution in patients who have consumed a signicant amount of alcohol. Patients taking antidepressants, sedatives or major tranquilliser drugs, as these will potentiate the respiratory and cardiovascular depressant effects of morphine. Patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) SHOULD NOT be given morphine until their drug information card has been checked. Drugs Page 2 of 4 October 2006 Drugs Morphine Sulphate MOR DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ENSURE that NALOXONE is available and that the appropriate dose for the age/weight of children is known before morphine is administered. Morphine, when given IV takes a minimum of 2-3 minutes to begin to work, with the peak effect not being achieved for 10-20 minutes. Due to the variable absorption rate of morphine when given IM, particularly in the cardiac and trauma patient, this route should NOT be used. If morphine is used in trauma, larger doses (520 milligrams) may be needed. Administration must be in conjunction with pain score monitoring. Morphine should be diluted with sodium chloride 0.9% or water for injection to make a concentration of 10 milligrams in 10ml (1 milligram in 1ml). Route: IV Concentration 10 milligrams in 10ml (see above) DOSE 5 milligrams VOLUME 5.0ml Elderly >65 2.5 milligrams 2.5ml 11 years 3.5 - 7.1 milligrams 3.5ml-7.1ml 10 years 3.2 - 6.4 milligrams 3.2ml-6.4ml 9 years 2.9 - 5.7 milligrams 2.9ml-5.7ml 8 years 2.6 -5.2 milligrams 2.6ml-5.2ml 7 years 2.3 - 4.6 milligrams 2.3ml-4.6ml 6 years 2.1 - 4.1 milligrams 2.1ml-4.1ml 5 years 1.9 - 3.7 milligrams 1.9ml-3.7ml 4 years 1.6 - 3.3 milligrams 1.6ml-3.3ml 3 years 1.4 - 2.9 milligrams 1.4ml-2.9ml 2 years 1.2 - 2.4 milligrams 1.2ml-2.4ml 18 months 1.1 - 2.2 milligrams 1.1ml-2.2ml 12 months 0.98 - 2 milligrams 0.98ml-2.0ml <12 months N/A N/A ADULTS - If pain is not reduced to a tolerable level after 5 minutes, further 5 milligram doses may be given by slow IV injection at 5 minute intervals to 20 milligrams maximum. The patient should be closely observed throughout remaining treatment and transfer. In medical cases, smaller doses tend to be more effective (2.5-5 milligrams). CHILDREN - The doses and volumes given are the initial and maximum doses. Administer 0.1ml/kg (equal to 0.1 milligrams/kg) as an initial slow bolus over 2-3 minutes. If pain is not reduced to a tolerable level after 5-10 minutes then further doses of up to 0.1 milligrams/kg, titrated to response, may be repeated, at 5-10 minute intervals, up to the maximum dose 0.2 milligrams/kg. Drugs AGE Adult Administer by slow IV injection (rate of approximately 1 milligram per minute, titrated to response) whilst observing the patient over the next 5-10 minutes for effect. NOTE: peak effect of each dose may not occur until 10-20 minutes after administration. Drugs October 2006 Page 3 of 4 MOR Morphine Sulphate SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Naloxone reverses the effects of morphine and should be given if there is any indication of respiratory or cardiovascular depression. It must always be immediately available (refer to naloxone monograph for dosing). Morphine is a Class A controlled drug under Schedule 2 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations of 1985, and must be stored and its prescription and administration documented in accordance with these regulations. Hypotension may be corrected by uid therapy, however, caution should be exercised in the patient with cardiac inadequacy, and this option is more appropriate to the trauma scenario. Morphine is not licensed for use in children but its use has been approved by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for off label use. This means that it can legally be administered under these guidelines by Paramedics. Morphine frequently induces nausea or vomiting, which in the case of myocardial infarction may increase cardiac workload. Slow IV administration of morphine and use of the lowest dose required to achieve analgesia will minimise this risk of vomiting, but the motion of the ambulance may exaggerate nausea. Unused morphine in open vials or syringes must be discarded, preferably in the presence of a witness. Drugs Page 4 of 4 October 2006 Drugs Morphine Sulphate Oral Solution PRESENTATION INDICATIONS 5ml unit dose vials containing morphine sulphate 10 milligrams in 5ml (2 milligrams in 1ml). MOR Severe pain. The decision about which analgesia and which route should be guided by clinical judgement (see adult and child pain management guidelines). ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Morphine is a strong opioid analgesic drug for oral administration for pain relief. It is particularly useful for treating severe continuous pain of visceral or soft tissue origins. Do NOT give oral morphine in the following circumstances: Morphine produces sedation, euphoria and analgesia; it may both depress respiration and induce hypotension. Cardiac pain use intravenous morphine. Histamine is released following morphine administration, this may contribute to its vasodilatory effects and it may also cause bronchoconstriction. Respiratory depression (Adult <10 breaths per minute, Child <20 breaths per minute) or inadequate tidal volume. Unable to swallow or protect own airway. Children under 1 year of age. Hypotension (actual, not estimated, systolic blood pressure <90mmHg in adults, <80mmHg in school children, <70mmHg in pre-school children). Head injury with significantly impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Score <12). Phaeochromocytoma (tumour on the adrenal gland). This is a rare condition which is usually unknown to the patient or has been identied and treated. Known hypersensitivity to morphine. Drugs Known severe renal or hepatic impairment. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 3 MOR Morphine Sulphate Oral Solution CAUTIONS SIDE EFFECTS Use with extreme caution (minimal doses) during pregnancy. NOTE not to be used for pain associated with labour where Entonox is the analgesic of choice. Respiratory depression. Cardiovascular depression. Nausea and vomiting. Morphine should be given WITH GREAT CAUTION to patients with chest injuries, particularly those with any respiratory difculty, although if respiration is inhibited by pain, morphine may actually improve respiratory status. Drowsiness. Pupillary constriction. Patients with other respiratory problems e.g. asthma, COPD. Head injury. Agitation following head injury may be due to acute brain injury, hypoxia or pain. The decision to administer analgesia to agitated head injured patients is a clinical one. It is essential however, that any such patient who receives analgesia is closely monitored as opiates may cause disproportionate respiratory depression and hence increase intracranial pressure. Acute alcohol intoxication. All opioid drugs potentiate the central nervous system depressant effects of alcohol and they should therefore be used with great caution in patients who have consumed a signicant amount of alcohol. Patients taking antidepressants, sedatives or major tranquilliser drugs, as these will potentiate the respiratory and cardiovascular depressant effects of morphine. Patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) SHOULD NOT be given morphine until their drug information card has been checked. Drugs Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Drugs Morphine Sulphate Oral Solution MOR DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ENSURE that NALOXONE is available and that the appropriate dose for the age/weight of children is known before morphine is administered. Administration must be in conjunction with pain score monitoring. Route: Oral ADULTS Dosage to be given is (0.1ml/kg) up to a maximum of 20 milligrams. Concentration 10 milligrams in 5ml. AGE DOSE Adult 10-20 milligrams VOLUME 11 years 7 milligrams 3.5ml 10 years 6.4 milligrams 3.2ml 9 years 5.8 milligrams 2.9ml 8 years 5.2 milligrams 2.6ml 7 years 4.6 milligrams 2.3ml 6 years 4.2 milligrams 2.1ml 5 years 3.8 milligrams 1.9ml 4 years 3.2 milligrams 1.6ml 3 years 2.8 milligrams 1.4ml 2 years 2.4 milligrams 1.2ml 18 months 2 milligrams 1.0ml 12 months 1.96 milligrams 0.98ml <12 months N/A 5-10ml N/A SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Naloxone reverses the effects of morphine and should be given if there is any indication of respiratory or cardiovascular depression. It must always be immediately available (refer to naloxone monograph for dosing). Morphine is not licensed for use in children but its use has been approved by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for off label use. This means that it can legally be administered under these guidelines by Paramedics. Unused morphine in open vials or syringes must be discarded, preferably in the presence of a witness. Drugs Hypotension may be corrected by uid therapy, however, caution should be exercised in the patient with cardiac inadequacy, and this option is more appropriate to the trauma scenario. Morphine frequently induces nausea or vomiting, use of the lowest dose required to achieve analgesia will minimise this risk of vomiting, but the motion of the ambulance may exaggerate nausea. Drugs October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Naloxone Hydrochloride (Narcan) NLX PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Naloxone Hydrochloride 400 micrograms/1ml ampoule. Respiratory depression, depression of cardiovascular system and central nervous system depression associated with opioid overdose. ACTIONS Antagonism of the effects (including respiratory depression) of opioid drugs. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Naloxone may be administered intramuscularly, undiluted, (into the outer aspect of the thigh or upper arm) when IV access is impossible, but absorption may be slow. Wherever possible, the IV route should be used. Overdose with opioid drugs can be fatal as a result of respiratory and cardiovascular depression. The effects of naloxone are short lived and patients frequently relapse once the drug has worn off. All cases of opioid overdose should be transported to hospital, even if the initial response to naloxone has been good. If the patient refuses, consider, if the patient consents, a loading dose of 800 micrograms IM to minimise the risk described above. Accidental overdose morphine, nalbuphine. of opioid drugs, e.g. Overdose of some common analgesics, e.g. co-proxamol (Distalgesic) containing substances such as dextropropoxyphene and codeine (in combination with paracetamol) produce respiratory depression, which is reversed by naloxone. Unconsciousness associated with respiratory depression of unknown cause, where opioid overdose is a possibility. (Refer to depressed level of consciousness guideline). CONTRA-INDICATIONS 1. Neonatal patients of opioid addicted mothers, as serious withdrawal effects may occur emphasis should be on bag-valve-mask ventilation and oxygenation. Some prescription opioid drugs include: SIDE EFFECTS Dextromoramide Dipipanone Dextropropoxyphene Diamorphine Dihydrocodeine Meptazinol Methadone Morphine Oxycodone Pentazocine Pethidine Phenazocine (Temgesic) (Used in combination in Codis, Diarrest, Migraleve, Paracodol, Phensedyl, Solpadeine, Solpadol, Syndol, Terpoin, Tylex, Veganin) (Palum) (Dicanol) (Used in combination in Distalgesic/co-proxamal) (Heroin) (Co-dydramol, DF 118) (Meptid) (Physeptone, Methadose) (Oramorph, Sevredol, MST Continus, SRMRhotard) (Oxycontin) (Fortral) (Pamergan) (Narphen) In patients who are physically dependent on narcotic drugs, violent withdrawal symptoms, including cardiac arrhythmias, may be precipitated by naloxone. Ideally, in these cases titrate the dose of naloxone as described above, to effectively reverse the cardiac and respiratory depression, but still leave the patient in a groggy state. Drugs Buprenorphine Codeine NOTE: This list is not comprehensive, other opioid drugs are available. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 NLX Naloxone Hydrochloride (Narcan) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Respiratory arrest/extreme respiratory depression When the URGENCY of the situation outweighs the need for a controlled effect. Route: IV/IM bolus Concentration 400 micrograms in 1ml. AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult 400 micrograms (IV) 1ml Adult 800 micrograms (IM) 2ml If there is no response administer further doses of 400 micrograms, every 2-3 minutes until an effect is noted. Repeated doses may need to be given up to every 2-3 minutes en-route to hospital, as the half-life of naloxone is short. The maximum dose of naloxone is 10 milligram (equivalent to 25 repeat doses of 400 micrograms). Respiratory Depression When a more CONTROLLED effect is required, e.g. in known or potentially aggressive patients who are suffering respiratory depression rather than arrest, dilute up to 800 micrograms (2ml) of naloxone into 8ml of water for injections or sodium chloride intravenous infusion 0.9% (to a total of 10ml). Administer IV by slow injection, titrated to response. Aim to relieve respiratory depression, but maintain patient in groggy state. Route: IV/IM Concentration 400 micrograms in 1ml. FIRST DOSE 11 years 352 micrograms 0.88ml 3520 micrograms 8.8ml 10 years 320 micrograms 0.80ml 3200 micrograms 8.0ml 9 years 288 micrograms 0.72ml 2880 micrograms 7.2ml 8 years 260 micrograms 0.65ml 2600 micrograms 6.5ml 7 years 232 micrograms 0.58ml 2320 micrograms 5.8ml 6 years 208 micrograms 0.52ml 2080 micrograms 5.2ml 5 years 184 micrograms 0.46ml 1840 micrograms 4.6ml 4 years 164 micrograms 0.41ml 1640 micrograms 4.1ml 3 years 144 micrograms 0.36ml 1440 micrograms 3.6ml 2 years Drugs AGE VOLUME SUBSEQUENT DOSE VOLUME 124 micrograms 0.31ml 1240 micrograms 3.1ml 18 months 112 micrograms 0.28ml 1120 micrograms 2.8ml 12 months 100 micrograms 0.25ml 1000 micrograms 2.5ml 9 months 88 micrograms 0.22ml 880 micrograms 2.2ml 6 months 78 micrograms 0.19ml 800 micrograms 2.0ml 3 months 60 micrograms 0.15ml 600 micrograms 1.5ml 1 month 44 micrograms 0.11ml 440 micrograms 1.1ml Birth IM ONLY 200 micrograms 0.50ml N/A N/A If NO response (or a partial but inadequate response), a subsequent dose of 100 micrograms/kg (NOTE: this is 10 times the initial dose) Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Oxygen OXG PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Oxygen (O2) is a gas provided in compressed form in a cylinder. It is also available in liquid form, in a system adapted for ambulance use. It is fed via a regulator and ow meter to the patient by means of plastic tubing and an oxygen mask or nasal cannula. All cases with cardiac symptoms, decreased level of consciousness, sickle cell disease, carbon monoxide poisoning, major trauma, and long bone fracture. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with oxygen saturation (SpO2) <90-92%. Hypoxia with SpO2 <95%. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Essential for cell metabolism. Adequate tissue oxygenation is essential for normal physiological function. It assists in reversing hypoxia, by raising the concentration of inspired oxygen. Hypoxia will, however, only improve if respiratory effort or ventilation and tissue perfusion are adequate. If ventilation is inadequate or absent, assisting or completely taking over the patients ventilation is essential to reverse hypoxia. Paraquat poisoning. Debrillation. Explosive environments. NOTE: COPD is NOT a contra-indication in the critically ill or injured hypoxic patient but the COPD guidelines should be followed. CAUTIONS Drugs Oxygen increases the re hazard at the scene of an accident. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 OXG Oxygen DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Oxygen therapy is essential in virtually ALL cases of serious or potentially serious illness or injury. A pulse oximeter should always be used to measure O2 saturation whenever O2 is being administered (except in possible carbon monoxide poisoning where results may be articially elevated). This is to monitor the effects of O2 therapy and the effectiveness of the patients ventilation. Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonre-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an SpO2 of >95%, except in patients with COPD (see below). High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation in all patients sustaining major trauma, long bone fracture, chest pain, acute coronary syndrome, sickle cell crisis, and patients with decreased level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <15). Patients with COPD should receive metered oxygen therapy to achieve an O2 saturation in the range of 90-92%. In cases of serious respiratory distress, cardiac chest pain, or major trauma in COPD patients, high concentration oxygen may be required. Oxygen therapy is administered via a mask and tubing. Masks are either the standard (non-reservoir bag) or with reservoir bag. Oxygen may also be administered via an automatic ventilator or self inating bag-valve-mask and reservoir. High concentration Oxygen can be provided through a non-rebreathing mask with a reservoir bag and with an oxygen ow rate sufcient to keep the reservoir bag fully inated (usually 10-15 litres/min). Oxygen saturation levels 95-100% normal 90-95% evidence of hypoxia 85-90% serious hypoxia <85% critical hypoxia Hypoxic drive is found in COPD patients with chronic lung damage, where as a result of long standing respiratory failure, a higher than normal carbon dioxide (CO2) level is retained in the blood stream. This would normally trigger a persistent high respiratory rate to attempt to lower the CO2 level. To compensate, the body becomes less sensitive to raised CO2, and begins to react to a lowered O2 level, as a trigger to breathe. Giving high concentration O2 will raise the O2 level in the blood stream, and may prevent the natural lowering of O2 occurring to stimulate breathing. This in turn may cause respiratory depression or respiratory arrest. If this occurs, oxygen should be delivered through assisted ventilation or intermittent positive pressure ventilation and the patient removed rapidly to hospital with a Hospital Alert Message. Drugs Low ow 2428% oxygen can be provided at ow rates of 2 litres per minute through a medium concentration, non reservoir bag mask. Most patients with acute asthma DO NOT have COPD and require high concentration O2 with a non-rebreathing mask with a reservoir bag and with an oxygen ow rate sufcient to keep the reservoir bag inated before and after nebulisation. Layngectomee patients Layngectomee and other neck breathing patients breathe through a stoma in the neck. A facemask or nasal cannula may be of little or no value. An appropriate method of administration must be considered that delivers oxygen to the stoma. Some elderly patients have a mixture of COPD, which causes irreversible bronchospasm, and asthma, which is reversible. The priority in treating these patients is to ensure adequate oxygenation. Less seriously ill or injured patients still require O2 therapy as per individual guidelines. SIDE EFFECTS In cardiac arrest 100% O2 must be delivered via automatic ventilator or bag/mask/reservoir during ventilation. Non-humidified O2 is drying and irritating to mucous membranes over a period of time. In patients with COPD who rely upon hypoxic drive for respiration there is a small risk that high-ow oxygen may cause respiratory depression or respiratory arrest (refer to COPD guideline). Page 2 of 2 In carbon monoxide poisoning administering 100% O2 increases the speed of elimination of CO from red cells. October 2006 Drugs Paracetamol Oral Solution/ Suspension PAR PRESENTATION INDICATIONS A solution or suspension containing paracetamol 120 milligrams in 5ml or paracetamol 250 milligrams in 5 ml. Relief of mild to moderate pain and/or high temperature. Intended primarily for use in children but may also be applicable to adults. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Analgesic (pain relieving) (temperature reducing) drug. and antipyretic Known allergy to paracetamol containing products. If a product containing paracetamol (e.g. Calpol, Disprol) has been given within the last four hours or if the maximum cumulative daily dose has been given then further paracetamol should NOT be given. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Ensure paracetamol has not been taken within the previous 4 hours. Route: Oral (5ml syringe). Concentration 120 milligrams in 5 ml. AGE DOSE VOLUME MAXIMUM DOSE Adult >12 years 6 to <12 years 960 milligrams or 1gram 40ml 41.6ml 4 grams in 24 hours 480 or 500 milligrams 20ml 20.8ml 2 grams in 24 hours 12 months to <6 years (120 or 125)-(240 or 250) milligrams 5ml -10ml 1 gram in 24-hours 3 months to <12 months (60 or 62.5)-(120 or 125) milligrams 2.5ml 5ml 500 milligrams in 24-hours Route: Oral (5ml syringe). Concentration 250 milligrams in 5 ml. AGE DOSE VOLUME MAXIMUM DOSE Adult >12 years 960 milligrams or 1gram 19.2ml 20ml 4 grams in 24 hours 6 to <12 years 480 or 500 milligrams 9.6ml 10ml 2 grams in 24 hours 12 months to <6 years (120 or 125)-(240 or 250) milligrams 2.5ml 5ml 1 gram in 24-hours SIDE EFFECTS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION A febrile child should not be left at home except where a full assessment has been carried out, the child has no apparent serious underlying illness and the child is referred to the General Practitioner with the full consent of the parent (or carer). Drugs Drugs 3 months to <12 months (60 or 62.5)-(120 or 125) milligrams 1.25ml 2.5ml 500 milligrams in 24-hours Side effects are extremely rare. October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Salbutamol (Ventolin) SLB PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Nebules containing salbutamol 2.5 milligrams/ 2.5ml or 5 milligrams/2.5 ml. Acute asthma attack where normal inhaler therapy has failed to relieve symptoms. ACTIONS Expiratory wheezing associated with allergy, anaphylaxis, smoke inhalation or other lower airway cause. Salbutamol is a selective beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulant drug. This has a relaxant effect on the smooth muscle in the medium and smaller airways, which are in spasm in acute asthma attacks. If given by nebuliser, especially if oxygen powered, its smooth-muscle relaxing action, combined with the airway moistening effect of nebulisation, can relieve the attack rapidly. Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Shortness of breath in patients with severe breathing difculty due to left ventricular failure (secondary treatment). CAUTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Salbutamol should be used with care in patients with: None in the emergency situation. hypertension. SIDE EFFECTS Tremor (shaking). angina. Tachycardia. overactive thyroid. Palpitations. late pregnancy (can relax uterus). Severe hypertension may occur in patients on beta-blockers and half doses should be used unless there is profound hypotension. Headache. Feeling of tension. Peripheral vasodilatation. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION In acute severe or life threatening asthma ipratropium should be given concurrently with the rst dose of salbutamol. In acute asthma or COPD unresponsive to salbutamol alone a single dose of ipratropium may be given concurrently with the second or later dose of salbutamol. Drugs October 2006 Drugs Salbutamol often provides initial relief. In more severe attacks however, the use of steroids by injection or orally and further nebuliser therapy will be required. Do not be lulled into a false sense of security by an initial improvement after salbutamol nebulisation. Page 1 of 2 SLB Salbutamol (Ventolin) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION NOTE: Ensure pre- and post-nebulisation observations including peak ow readings are taken and documented. Route: Nebulised with 6-8 litres per minute oxygen. CONCENTRATION 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml AGE DOSE 5 milligrams in 2.5ml VOLUME VOLUME Adult (>12-years) 5 milligrams 5.0ml 2.5ml 6 to <12 years 5 milligrams 5.0ml 2.5ml 12-months to <6-years 2.5 milligrams 2.5ml 1.25ml <12-months 2.5ml 1.25ml 2.5 milligrams Salbutamol is less effective in children <12 months and a single dose of 2.5 milligrams should be administered. If this is ineffective, further doses should not be given. In severe attacks nebulisation may need to be repeated as necessary. The pulse rate in children may exceed 140 after signicant doses of salbutomol. This is not usually of any clinical signicance and should not usually preclude further use of the drug. Otherwise there is no limit on the maximum number of nebulised doses a patient may have. Repeat doses should, however, be discontinued if the side effects are becoming signicant (e.g. tremors, tachycardia >140 beats per minute in adults etc.) This is a clinical decision by the ambulance clinician. If there is no improvement in peak ow after 5 minutes, administer a further 5 milligrams, nebulised with 6-8 litres per minute oxygen. In life threatening or acute severe asthma do not delay further care. LOAD & GO to NEAREST SUITABLE RECEIVING HOSPITAL and provide nebulisation en-route Drugs Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Sodium Chloride (Physiological Saline) 0.9% SCP PRESENTATION INDICATIONS 500ml and 1,000ml packs of sodium chloride intravenous infusion 0.9%. May be used as an alternative to sodium lactate intravenous infusion for blood and uid loss, to correct hypovolaemia and improve tissue perfusion. 5 and 10ml ampoules for use as ushes. Dehydration. Fluid replacement in hyperglycaemic ketoacidotic diabetic coma and pre-coma. As a ush after drug administration. As a ush when an intravenous cannula is in situ and where drug therapy may not be desirable. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Crystalloid solution for uid replacement. None. To establish and maintain the patency of a cannula or for ushing drugs through. SIDE EFFECTS Drugs Infusion of an excessive volume may overload the circulation and precipitate heart failure (evidenced by increased breathlessness, wheezing and distended neck veins). Volume overload is unlikely if the patient is correctly assessed initially and it is very unlikely indeed if patient response is assessed after initial 250 ml infusion and then after each 250 ml of infusion. If there is evidence of this complication, the patient should be transported rapidly to nearest suitable receiving hospital whilst administering high concentration oxygen. No further uid should be given. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 SCP Sodium Chloride (Physiological Saline) 0.9% DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION In hypovolaemia, Medical Emergencies (e.g. anaphylaxis, GI bleeding, heat exhaustion). Route: IV rapid infusion. ADULTS Monitor physiological response; re-assess perfusion, pulse, respiratory rate and blood pressure wherever possible. If these observations improve, slow the infusion rate. If no improvement administer further 250ml boluses (maximum 2 litres). Concentration 0.9%. AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult 250ml 250ml Medical Emergencies 20ml/kg AGE Medical Emergencies initial volume 5ml/kg DOSE VOLUME DOSE VOLUME 11 years 700ml 700ml 180ml 180ml 10 years 640ml 640ml 160ml 160ml 9 years 570ml 570ml 140ml 140ml 8 years 520ml 520ml 130ml 130ml 7 years 460ml 460ml 120ml 120ml 6 years 410ml 410ml 100ml 100ml 5 years 370ml 370ml 90ml 90ml 4 years 330ml 330ml 80ml 80ml 3 years 290ml 290ml 70ml 70ml 2 years 240ml 240ml 60ml 60ml 18 months 220ml 220ml 60ml 60ml 12 months 200ml 200ml 50ml 50ml 9 months 180ml 180ml 50ml 50ml 6 months 160ml 160ml 40ml 40ml 3 months 120ml 120ml 30ml 30ml 1 month 90ml 90ml 20ml 20ml Birth 70ml 70ml 20ml ADULTS In hypovolaemia: If the patient remains hypotensive despite repeated 250ml boluses AND the patient is trapped on scene, request on-line clinical support. Excessive rise of blood pressure may cause re-bleeding and further haemorrhage. Aim to maintain a systolic blood pressure of 90mmHg, measured accurately where possible or estimated by the presence of a radial pulse where time is critical. 20ml CHILDREN In hypovolaemia: If necessary a further dose of up to 20ml/kg may be administered as above. If still hypovolaemic seek on-line medical help. Drugs CHILDREN In hyperglycaemia: Generally emergency IV uids should be minimised or avoided because of serious side effects that may occur. See paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. Route: IV ush AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult or Child >5years 2ml-5ml 2-5ml Adult or Child >5years 10ml-20ml (when infusing glucose) Child: Neonatal <5years 2ml Child: Neonatal <5years 10ml (when infusing glucose) Page 2 of 2 10-20ml 2.0ml October 2006 10-20ml If infusion is established as a precaution administer by slow rate to keep vein open. Drugs Sodium Lactate Compound (Hartmanns/Ringer Lactate) SLC PRESENTATION INDICATIONS 500ml and 1,000ml bags of Compound Sodium Lactate Intravenous Infusion (also called Hartmanns Solution for Injection or Ringer-Lactate Solution for Injection). Blood and uid loss, to correct hypovolaemia and improve tissue perfusion. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Fluid volume replacement. Should NOT be used as uid replacement in diabetic hyperglycaemic ketoacidotic coma and pre-coma; use sodium chloride intravenous infusion 0.9% instead. SIDE EFFECTS Infusion of an excessive volume may overload the circulation and precipitate heart failure (increased breathlessness, wheezing and distended neck veins). Volume overload is unlikely if the patient is correctly assessed initially and it is very unlikely indeed if patient response is assessed after initial 250ml infusion and then after each 250ml of infusion. If there is evidence of this complication, the patient should be transported rapidly to nearest suitable receiving hospital whilst administering high-ow oxygen. Do not give further uid. Dehydration. CAUTIONS Compound sodium lactate intravenous infusion should not be given except to keep vein open in ISOLATED head injuries because large-volume infusions may increase intra-cranial pressure. HOWEVER, in head injured patients with other signicant trauma, infuse as normal to correct volume loss. Inadequate infusion decreases cerebral blood ow and increases hypoxia. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Compound sodium lactate intravenous infusion contains mainly sodium, but also small amounts of potassium and lactate. It is useful for initial uid replacement in cases of blood loss. Sodium lactate diffuses rapidly into extra-cellular space (around 75%), so it is useful for initial resuscitation of major uid loss, followed by blood or colloid. It is also useful as sole volume replacement in small volume losses. Drugs The volume of compound sodium lactate intravenous infusion needed is 3 times as great as the volume of blood loss. Sodium lactate has NO oxygen carrying capacity. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 SLC Sodium Lactate Compound (Hartmanns/Ringer Lactate) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION In hypovolaemia, Medical Emergencies (e.g. anaphylaxis, GI bleeding, heat exhaustion) Route: IV rapid infusion AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult 250ml 250ml Medical Emergencies 20ml/kg Medical Emergencies initial volume 5ml/kg AGE DOSE VOLUME DOSE VOLUME 11 years 700ml 700ml 180ml 180ml 10 years 640ml 640ml 160ml 160ml 9 years 570ml 570ml 140ml 140ml 8 years 520ml 520ml 130ml 130ml 7 years 460ml 460ml 120ml 120ml 6 years 410ml 410ml 100ml 200ml 5 years 370ml 370ml 90ml 90ml 4 years 330ml 330ml 80ml 80ml 3 years 290ml 290ml 70ml 70ml 2 years 240ml 240ml 60ml 60ml 18 months 220ml 220ml 60ml 60ml 12 months 200ml 200ml 50ml 50ml 9 months 180ml 180ml 50ml 50ml 6 months 160ml 160ml 40ml 40ml 3 months 120ml 120ml 30ml 30ml 1 month 90ml 90ml 20ml 20ml Birth 70ml 70ml 20ml ADULTS Monitor physiological response; re-assess perfusion, pulse, respiratory rate and blood pressure wherever possible. If these observations improve, slow the infusion rate. If no improvement administer further 250ml boluses/ aliquots to maintain a radial pulse (maximum 2 litres). 20ml CHILDREN If necessary a further dose of up to 20ml/kg may be administered as above. If further uid is required seek on-line medical help. Excessive rise of blood pressure may cause re-bleeding and further haemorrhage. Aim to maintain a systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg, measured accurately where possible or estimated by the presence of a radial pulse where time is critical. If the patient remains hypotensive despite repeated 250ml boluses AND the patient is trapped on scene, request on-line clinical support. Drugs Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Syntometrine SYN PRESENTATION An ampoule containing ergometrine micrograms and oxytocin 5 units in 1ml. INDICATIONS 500 Postpartum haemorrhage within 24 hours of delivery of the infant where bleeding from the uterus is uncontrollable by uterine massage. ACTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Stimulates contraction of the uterus within 7 minutes of IM injection. Known hypersensitivity. Active labour. Severe cardiac, liver or kidney disease. Hypertension and severe pre-eclampsia. Possible multiple pregnancy/known or suspected fetus in utero. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IM Concentration 500 micrograms ergometrine and 5 units oxytocin in 1ml. AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult 500 micrograms ergometrine 5 units oxytocin 1ml SIDE EFFECTS Nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain. Headache. Hypertension and bradycardia. Drugs Chest pain and rarely anaphylactic reactions. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 1 Tetracaine 4% Gel (Ametop) TTC PRESENTATION INDICATIONS 1 or 1.5 gram tubes of white semi-transparent gel. Where venepuncture may be required in a non urgent situation, in individuals who are believed to have a fear of, or likely to become upset if undergoing venepuncture (usually children, some vulnerable adults or needle phobic adults). Venepuncture includes intravenous injection, cannulation and obtaining venous blood. Transparent occlusive dressing. ACTIONS Tetracaine 4% cream is a local anaesthetic agent which has properties to allow it to penetrate intact skin, thus providing local anaesthesia to the area of skin with which it has been in contact. Time application so that the area is anaesthetised at time of arrival in ED. CAUTIONS CONTRA-INDICATIONS Allergy to elastoplast or other adhesive dressing discuss risk/ benet with carer. DO NOT apply tetracaine in the following circumstances: the application of tetracaine should not take preference over life saving or any other clinically urgent procedures if the area being considered for anaesthesia will require venepuncture in less than 15 minutes known allergy to tetracaine cream, or any of its other constituents known allergy to the brand of transparent occlusive dressing if the patient is allergic to other local anaesthetics if the patient is pregnant or breastfeeding if the patient is less than one month old avoid applying to open wounds, broken skin, lips, mouth, eyes, ears, anal, or genital region, mucous membranes. Mild vasodilatation over the treated area is to be expected. Occasionally local irritation may occur. Drugs October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Drugs SIDE EFFECTS TTC Tetracaine 4% Gel (Ametop) DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: Topical Apply to two sites. Apply one tube directly over a vein that looks as if it would support cannulation the back of the hand usually works well. Do not rub the cream in. Concentration Variable. AGE DOSE All ages 1-1.5 gram VOLUME 1 tube Place an occlusive dressing directly over the blob of cream, taking care to completely surround the cream to ensure it does not leak out. Repeat the procedure in one similar, alternative site. REMEMBER to tell the hospital staff the time of application and location when handing the patient over at the hospital. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Do not leave on for more than an hour. Although the application of tetracaine may not directly affect the quality of experience that the patient receives from the ambulance service, it is in line with good patient care as the overall pathway of care the patient will receive will be enhanced. 30-40 minutes after application the area will become numb and remain numb for 4-6 hours. Tetracaine only needs refrigeration if it is unlikely to be used for a considerable time. Stores should be kept refrigerated. Generally speaking, it does not require refrigeration in everyday use. Drugs Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Drugs Thrombolytics (Reteplase, Tenecteplase) Rpa/Tnk and Adjunctive Heparin HEP PRESENTATION INDICATIONS Vials of reteplase 10 units for reconstitution with 10ml water for injection. Acute myocardial infarction within six hours of symptom onset. Vials of tenecteplase 10,000 units for reconstitution with 10ml water for injection, or 8,000 units for reconstitution with 8ml water for injection. Ensure patient fulfils the criteria for drug administration following the model checklist (below). Variation of these criteria is justiable at local level with agreement of appropriate key stakeholders (e.g. cardiac network). ACTIONS Activates the fibrinolytic system, inducing the breaking up of intravascular thrombi and emboli. Drugs JRCALC MODEL CHECKLIST PRIMARY ASSESSMENT 1. Can you conrm that the patient is conscious, coherent, and able to understand that clot dissolving drugs will be used? 2. Can you conrm that the patient is aged 80 or less? 3. Can you conrm that the patient has had symptoms characteristic of a heart attack (i.e. continuous pain in a typical distribution of 15 minutes duration or more)? 4. Can you conrm that the symptoms started less than 6 hours ago? 5. Can you conrm that the pain built up over seconds and minutes rather than starting totally abruptly? 6. Can you confirm that breathing does not inuence the severity of pain? 7. Can you conrm that the heart rate is between 40-140 beats per minute. 8. Can you confirm that the systolic blood pressure is more than 80mmHg and less than 180mmHg and that the diastolic blood pressure is below 110mmHg? 9. Can you conrm that the electrocardiogram shows abnormal ST segment elevation of 2mm or more in at least 2 standard leads or in at least 2 adjacent precordial leads, not including V1? NOTE: ST elevation can sometimes be normal in V1 and V2. 10. Can you conrm that the QRS width is 0.16 seconds or less, and that left bundle branch block is absent from the tracing? NOTE: right bundle-branch block permitted only with qualifying ST elevation. 11. Can you confirm that there is NO atrioventricular block greater than 1st degree? NOTE: if necessary after treatment with IV atropine. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Drugs NOTE: Whilst the strength of thrombolytics is traditionally expressed in units these units are unique to each particular drug and are NOT interchangeable. HEP Thrombolytics (Reteplase, Tenecteplase) Rpa/Tnk and Adjunctive Heparin SECONDARY ASSESSMENT (CONTRA-INDICATIONS) CONSENT 12. Can you conrm that the patient is not likely to be pregnant, nor has delivered within the last two weeks? 13. Can you conrm that the patient has not had an active peptic ulcer within the last 6 months? 14. Can you conrm that the patient has not had a stroke of any sort within the last 12 months and does not have permanent disability from a previous stroke? 15. Can you confirm that the patient has no diagnosed bleeding tendency, has had no recent blood loss (except for normal menstruation) and is not taking warfarin (anticoagulant) therapy? 16. Can you conrm that the patient has not had any surgical operation, tooth extractions, signicant trauma, or head injury within the last 4 weeks? 17. Can you conrm that the patient has not been treated recently for any other serious head or brain condition? (This is intended to exclude patients with cerebral tumours). 18. Can you conrm that the patient is not being treated for liver failure, renal failure, or any other severe systemic illness? Previous streptokinase treatment is a contraindication to the later use of streptokinase. Whilst this is not relevant to the use of tenecteplase or reteplase, it is always worth noting that thrombolytic treatment has been used in the past. NOTE: many patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) will not be legally competent to give informed consent, and the Paramedic must act in the individual patients best interest (refer to consent guideline). The suggested information for a patient who is being considered for pre-hospital thrombolysis is as follows:It is likely that you have suffered a heart attack, and the best treatment is a clot dissolving drug called xxx. The quicker you receive this drug, the lower the risk from the heart attack which is why Doctors recommend the treatment is started as soon as possible. These drugs can cause serious side effects in a small minority of patients which I can explain to you in more detail if you so wish, but the risks attached to this treatment are very much less than the likely benet. Would you like me to give you the injection or would you prefer to have more details? In the unlikely event that patients do want more information they should be given the following information:Treatment at this stage saves the lives of about 4 patients for every 100 we treat. But it can sometimes cause serious bleeding. The biggest risk is stroke which affects about 1 patient in every 200. Some patients also have allergic and other effects that do not usually cause any major problem. Drugs Page 2 of 5 October 2006 Drugs Thrombolytics (Reteplase, Tenecteplase) Rpa/Tnk and Adjunctive Heparin HEP RETEPLASE DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IV bolus injections separated by 30 minutes. Concentration 10 units in 10mls. AGE DOSE VOLUME Adult First dose 10 units note time administered 10ml Second dose 10 units 30 minutes after rst dose 10ml A bolus intravenous injection of unfractionated heparin should be given before the rst dose of reteplase and the cannula ushed well with saline OR a separate cannula used for reteplase since the two agents are physically incompatible. HEPARIN Route: IV single bolus unfractionated heparin. AGE DOSE Adult 5,000U (prior to administration of reteplase) If a heparin infusion HAS NOT commenced within 45 minutes of the original bolus of reteplase, administer a second dose of heparin 1,000U. AT HOSPITAL Drugs It is essential that care of the patient is handed over as soon as possible to a member of hospital staff qualied to administer the second bolus (if not already given) and commence a heparin infusion. Drugs October 2006 Page 3 of 5 HEP Thrombolytics (Reteplase, Tenecteplase) Rpa/Tnk and Adjunctive Heparin TENECTEPLASE DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Route: IV single bolus adjusted for patient weight. Concentration 1,000 U/ml. AGE DOSE VOLUME <60kg (>9st6lbs) 6000 units 6.0ml 60-69kg (9st6lbs-10st12lbs) 7000 units 7.0ml 70-79kg (11st -12st6lbs) 8000 units 8.0ml 80-89kg (12st8lbs-14st) 9000 units 9.0ml >90kg (>14st2lbs) 10000 units 10.0ml A single bolus intravenous injection of unfractionated heparin should be given before administration of tenecteplase and the cannula ushed well with saline. HEPARIN Route: IV single bolus unfractionated heparin. AGE DOSE Adult <67kg 4,000U (prior to administration of tenecteplase) Adult >67kg 5,000U (prior to administration of tenecteplase) If the heparin infusion HAS NOT commenced within 45 minutes of the original bolus of tenecteplase, administer a second dose of heparin 1,000U. AT HOSPITAL It is essential that care of the patient is handed over as soon as possible to a member of hospital staff qualied to commence a heparin infusion. Drugs Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Drugs Thrombolytics (Reteplase, Tenecteplase) Rpa/Tnk and Adjunctive Heparin HEP IN ALL CASES HEPARIN Ensure a debrillator is immediately available at all times. Heparin is required as adjunctive therapy with reteplase and tenecteplase to reduce the risk of reinfarction. Monitor conscious level, pulse, blood pressure and cardiac rhythm during and following injections. Manage complications (associated with the acute MI) as they occur using standard protocols. The main early adverse event associated with thrombolysis is bleeding, which should be managed according to standard protocols. AT HOSPITAL emphasise the need to commence a heparin infusion in accordance with local protocols. It is extremely important that the initial bolus dose is given at the earliest opportunity prior to administration of thrombolytic agents and a heparin infusion is commenced immediately on arrival at hospital. A further intravenous bolus dose of 1,000 units heparin may be required if a heparin infusion HAS NOT commenced within 45 minutes of the original bolus of thrombolytic agent. Recent trials have suggested that low molecular weight heparin may be useful in patients under 75 years of age (older patients have much higher bleeding risk with this treatment). Research is ongoing and local protocols should be followed. Further information is available at www.warwick.ac.uk/go/emergencycare ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SIDE EFFECTS Time is muscle! Do not delay transportation to hospital if difculties arise whilst setting up the equipment or establishing IV access. Qualied single responders should press on with administering a thrombolytic if indicated while awaiting arrival of an ambulance. Bleeding: major seek medical advice and transport to hospital rapidly. minor e.g. at injection sites use local pressure. The increasing availability of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) means some patients with MI will be taken direct to a specialist cardiac centre instead of receiving thrombolysis (see acute coronary syndrome guideline). Local protocols should be followed. Arrhythmias these are usually benign in the form of transient idioventricular rhythms and usually require no special treatment. Treat VF as a complication of MI with standard protocols; bradycardia with atropine as required. Anaphylaxis extremely rare (0.1%) with third generation bolus agents. Drugs Hypotension often responds to laying the patient at. Drugs October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) 3. Keeping the airway open Basic life support refers to maintaining airway patency, and supporting breathing and circulation without the use of equipment other than a protective device, usually a facemask or shield. In the pre-hospital environment BLS includes the use of a bag-mask and Guedal airway. Look, listen and feel for normal breathing, taking no more than 10 seconds to determine if the patient is breathing normally. If you have any doubt whether breathing is normal, act as if it is not normal. BLS is undertaken as a prelude to debrillation, often with an automated external debrillator (AED). Agonal breathing (occasional gasps, slow, laboured noisy breathing) is common in the early stages of cardiac arrest. It is a sign of cardiac arrest and should not be confused as a sign of life / circulation. a. If the patient is breathing normally: ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT SEQUENCE (see Appendix 1) This sequence is for a single ambulance clinician, however, when more than one clinician is present, tasks can be shared and undertaken simultaneously. turn into the recovery position undertake assessment, transport accordingly re-assess regularly. monitoring and b. If the patient is not breathing normally: 1. Safety Ensure that you, the patient and any bystanders are safe. it may be difcult to be certain that there is no pulse if there are no signs of life (lack of movement, normal breathing, or coughing), or there is doubt, start chest compressions at a rate of 100 compressions per minute compression depth should be 45cm. Allow the chest to recoil completely after each compression. Take approximately the same amount of time for each compression and relaxation. Minimise interruptions to chest compression. Do not rely on a palpable carotid or femoral pulse as a gauge of effective arterial ow. 2. Check Responsiveness Gently shake the patient by the shoulders and ask loudly: Are you alright? a. The responsive patient: take history and make assessment of what is wrong, with further action determined accordingly. b. The unresponsive patient: obtain help if appropriate turn the patient onto his back and then open the airway using head tilt and chin lift. Look in the mouth. If a foreign body or debris is visible attempt to remove it with a nger sweep, forceps or suction as appropriate when there is a risk of back or neck injury, establish a clear upper airway by using jaw thrust or chin lift in combination with manual in-line stabilisation of the head and neck by an assistant (if available). If life threatening airway obstruction persists despite effective application of jaw thrust or chin lift, add head tilt a small amount at a time until the airway is open; establishing a patent airway takes priority over concerns about a potential back or neck injury. 4. Combine chest compression with rescue breaths After 30 compressions, open the airway again and provide two ventilations with the most appropriate equipment available, using an inspiratory time of one second with adequate volume to produce normal chest expansion. Each time compressions are resumed the ambulance clinician should place his hands without delay in the centre of the chest. Add supplemental oxygen as soon as possible. Continue chest compressions and ventilation in a ratio of 30:2. Stop to recheck only if he starts breathing normally; otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation until starting advanced life support techniques. Performing chest compressions is tiring; try to change the person doing chest compressions every two Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias minutes; ensure the minimum of delay during the changeover. Once the airway is secure (for example after tracheal intubation) continue chest compressions uninterrupted at 100 per minute (except for defibrillation or further assessment as indicated). Ventilate 10 times per minute. Avoid hyperventilation. 4b. If no shock is indicated: immediately resume CPR using a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths continue as directed by voice / visual prompts. 5. Continue to follow AED prompts until: If attempts at ventilation do not make the chest rise as in normal breathing, then before the next attempt at ventilation: qualied help arrives and takes over the patient starts to breathe normally check the patients mouth and remove any obstruction you are exhausted recheck that the airway position is optimal with adequate head tilt / chin lift or jaw thrust the resuscitation attempt is abandoned. do not attempt more than two breaths each time before returning to chest compressions. Key Points Adult Basic Life Support CPR in conned spaces Over the head CPR and straddle CPR may be considered for resuscitation in conned spaces. THE RECOVERY POSITION There are several variations of the recovery position each with its own advantages. No single position is perfect for all patients. The position should be stable, near a true lateral position with the head dependent, and with no pressure on the chest to impair breathing. If the patient has to be kept in the recovery position for more than 30 minutes, turn the patient to the opposite side to relieve pressure on the lower arm. Agonal breathing is common in the early stages of cardiac arrest and should not be confused as a sign of life/circulation. If there are no signs of life, start chest compressions at a rate of 100 compressions per minute using a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths. Once the airway is secure, chest compressions should be uninterrupted with ventilations 10 times per minute; avoid hyperventilation. As soon as an AED is available switch on the debrillator and attach the electrode pads and follow voice/visual prompts. To relieve pressure on the lower arm, whilst in the recovery position, turn the patient to the opposite side every 30 minutes. Use of the Automated External Debrillator (AED) 1. Make sure you, the patient and any bystanders are safe. SELECT BIBILOGRAPHY 1 Van Alem AP, Sanou BT, Koster RW. Interruption of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation with the use of the automated external debrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2003;42(4):449. 2 Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA. Effects of Interrupting Precordial Compressions on the Calculated Probability of Debrillation Success During Out-ofHospital Cardiac Arrest. Circulation 2002;105(19):2270-2273. 3 Hallstrom A, Cobb L, Johnson E, Copass M. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation by Chest Compression Alone or with Mouth-to-Mouth Ventilation. N Engl J Med 2000;342(21):1546-1553. 4 Bahr J, Klingler H, Panzer W, Rode H, Kettler D. Skills of lay people in checking the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 1997;35(1):23. 2. If you do not have an AED with you, perform CPR until an AED arrives. 3. As soon as an AED is available: switch on the debrillator and attach the electrode pads. If more than one ambulance clinician is present, CPR should be continued whilst this is done follow the spoken / visual directions ensure nobody touches the patient whilst the AED is analysing the rhythm. 4a. If a shock is indicated: ensure nobody touches the patient push the shock button as directed continue as directed by the voice/visual prompts. Page 2 of 4 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) Hauff SR, Rea TD, Culley LL, Kerry F, Becker L, Eisenberg MS. Factors impeding dispatcherassisted telephone cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2003;42(6):731. 6 Handley AJ. Teaching hand placement for chest compressiona simpler technique. Resuscitation 2002;53(1):29. Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias 5 METHODOLOGY The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) UNRESPONSIVE? Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Summon help if appropriate Open airway NOT BREATHING NORMALLY? 30 Chest compressions 2 rescue breaths 30 chest compressions Page 4 of 4 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Adult Advanced Life Support (ALS) The heart rhythms associated with cardiac arrest are divided into two groups: 1. shockable rhythms ventricular brillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) 2. non-shockable rhythms asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA). The principal difference in the management of these two groups is the need for attempted debrillation in VF/VT. Subsequent actions including chest compressions, airway management and ventilation, venous access, administration of adrenaline and the management of reversible factors, are common to both groups. Undue time should not be spent trying to establish intravenous access, and interruptions to chest compressions while attempting this must be kept to a minimum. Paramedics should not regard the administration of drugs as a priority in the management of cardiac arrest, and should not incur criticism if none are given during a resuscitation attempt. The interventions that unequivocally improve survival are early debrillation and effective basic life support. Attention should focus therefore on early debrillation and high quality, uninterrupted cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The value of drugs in the management of cardiac arrest is debatable. Establishing intravenous access for their administration is often difcult in the prehospital arena, particularly in patients with cardiac arrest. Increasing evidence testies to the value of CPR in this situation, and particularly chest compressions. 1. SHOCKABLE RHYTHMS (VF/PULSELESS VT) Attempt debrillation (one shock 150-200 Joules biphasic or 360 Joules monophasic). Immediately resume chest compressions (30:2) without re-assessing the rhythm or feeling for a pulse. Continue CPR for 2 minutes, and then pause briey to check the monitor, If VF/VT persists: give a further (2nd) shock (150-360 Joules biphasic or 360 Joules monophasic) resume CPR immediately and continue for 2 minutes pause briey to check the monitor if VF/VT persists give adrenaline 1 milligram IV followed immediately by a (3rd) shock (150-360 Joules biphasic or 360 Joules monophasic) resume CPR immediately and continue for 2 minutes pause briey to check the monitor if VF/VT persists give amiodarone 300 milligrams IV followed immediately by a (4th) shock (150-360 Joules biphasic or 360 Joules monophasic) resume CPR immediately and continue for 2 minutes give adrenaline 1 milligram IV immediately before alternate shocks (i.e. approximately every 3-5 minutes) give further shocks after each 2 minute period of CPR and after conrming that VF/VT persists. If organised electrical activity is seen, check for a pulse. Having conrmed cardiac arrest, summon help if appropriate. Start CPR beginning with chest compressions. Ventilate with high concentration oxygen. Personnel working outside hospital should perform CPR for two minutes (about 5 cycles of 30:2) before attempting debrillation unless the arrest is witnessed by healthcare professionals and a defibrillator is immediately available. As soon as the debrillator arrives, diagnose the rhythm by applying paddles or self adhesive pads to the chest. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias If a pulse is present, start post-resuscitation care. Sequence of Actions The Adult ALS Algorithm (see Appendix 1) If no pulse is present, continue CPR and switch to the non-shockable algorithm. If asystole is seen, continue CPR and switch to the non-shockable algorithm. 2. NON-SHOCKABLE RHYTHMS (ASYSTOLE AND PEA) If these rhythms are identied, start CPR 30:2 and give adrenaline 1 milligram as soon as intravascular access is achieved. If asystole is displayed, without stopping CPR, check the leads are attached correctly. Give atropine 3 milligrams if the rhythm is asystole or slow PEA (<60/minute). October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION Adult Advanced Life Support (ALS) Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Secure the airway as soon as possible to enable continuous chest compressions without pausing for ventilation. of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis or thoracotomy can be performed outside hospital by specialist teams. After two minutes CPR 30:2 recheck the rhythm. If asystole is present or there has been no change in ECG appearance resume CPR immediately. 3. Toxins only rarely will an antidote be available outside hospital, and in most cases supportive treatment will be the priority. If VF / VT recurs, change to the shockable rhythm algorithm. 4. Thromboembolism massive pulmonary embolism is the commonest cause but diagnosis in the eld is difcult once arrest has occurred. Specic treatments (like thrombolytic drugs) are not available to ambulance personnel in the UK at present. If an organised rhythm is present, attempt to palpate a pulse. If a pulse is present begin post resuscitation care. If no pulse is present (or there is any doubt) continue CPR. Give adrenaline 1 milligram IV every 35 minutes (alternate loops). If signs of life return during CPR, check the rhythm and attempt to palpate a pulse. THE WITNESSED, MONITORED ARREST If a patient who is being monitored has a witnessed arrest: POTENTIALLY REVERSIBLE CAUSES Potential causes or aggravating factors for which specic treatment exists must be considered during any cardiac arrest. For ease of memory these are presented as the 4Hs and 4Ts according to their initial letter. Those amenable to treatment include: conrm cardiac arrest, summon help if appropriate if the rhythm is VF/VT and a debrillator is not immediately available consider a precordial thump if the rhythm is VF/VT and a defibrillator is immediately available, give a shock rst. When the arrest is witnessed but unmonitored, using the paddles or adhesive electrodes will allow assessment of the rhythm more quickly than attaching ECG electrodes. 4 Hs 1. Hypoxia ensure adequate ventilation, adequate chest expansion and breath sounds. Verify tracheal tube placement. 2. Hypovolaemia PEA caused by hypovolaemia is usually due to haemorrhage from trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding or rupture of an aortic aneurysm. Intravascular volume should be restored rapidly with IV uid. Rapid transport to denitive surgical care is essential. 3. Hypothermia refer to hypothermia immersion incident guidelines. and 4. Hyperkalaemia and other electrolyte disorders are unlikely to be apparent in the pre-hospital arena or amenable to treatment. Key Points Adult Advanced Life Support (ALS) 4Ts 1. Tension Pneumothorax the diagnosis is made clinically; decompress as soon as possible by needle thoracocentesis. Unless the arrest is witnessed by HCP and a debrillator is immediately available, perform CPR for 2 minutes (approximately 5 cycles of 30:2) before attempting debrillation. Secure airway as soon as possible to enable continuous chest compressions. For shockable rhythms debrillate and resume chest compressions (30:2) without re-assessing the rhythm or feeling for a pulse for 2 minutes then check rhythm, if VT/VT persists follow ALS algorithm. For non-shockable rhythms start CPR at a ratio of 30:2 and give adrenaline 1mg as soon as intravascular access is achieved. Always consider reversible features (4Hs and 4Ts) and correct when possible. 2. Cardiac Tamponade is difcult to diagnose as the typical signs (high venous pressure, hypotension) disappear after cardiac arrest occurs. Cardiac arrest after penetrating chest trauma is highly suggestive Page 2 of 4 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Adult Advanced Life Support (ALS) 1 2 3 4 5 Wik L, Hansen TB, Fylling F, Steen T, Vaagenes P, Auestad BH, et al. Delaying Debrillation to Give Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Patients With Out-of-Hospital Ventricular Fibrillation: A Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003;289(11):1389-1395. Berg RA, Sanders AB, Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Heidenreich JW, Porter ME, et al. Adverse Hemodynamic Effects of Interrupting Chest Compressions for Rescue Breathing During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest. Circulation 2001;104(20):2465-2470. Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Berg RA, Sanders AB, Ewy GA. Importance of Continuous Chest Compressions During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Improved Outcome During a Simulated Single Lay-Rescuer Scenario. Circulation 2002;105(5):645-649. Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA. Effects of Interrupting Precordial Compressions on the Calculated Probability of Debrillation Success During Out-ofHospital Cardiac Arrest. Circulation 2002;105(19):2270-2273. Wik L, Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, Sorebo H, Svensson L, Fellows B, et al. Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Out-ofHospital Cardiac Arrest. JAMA 2005;293(3):299-304. 6 Abella BS, Alvarado JP, Myklebust H, Edelson DP, Barry A, OHearn N, et al. Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. JAMA 2005;293(3):305-310. 7 METHODOLOGY The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. Dorian P, Cass D, Schwartz B, Cooper R, Gelaznikas R, Barr A. Amiodarone as Compared with Lidocaine for Shock-Resistant Ventricular Fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;346(12):884-890. 11 Nolan JP, Morley PT, Hoek TL, Hickey RW, Resuscitation ALsTFotILco. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. An advisory statement by the Advancement Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 2003;57(3):231-5. Kudenchuk PJ, Cobb LA, Copass MK, Cummins RO, Doherty AM, Fahrenbruch CE, et al. Amiodarone for Resuscitation after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Due to Ventricular Fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1999;341(12):871-878. 10 13 Aung K, Htay T. Vasopressin for Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2005;165(1):17-24. 9 Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, Jones BM, Silvester W, Gutteridge G, et al. Treatment of Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest with Induced Hypothermia. N Engl J Med 2002;346(8):557-563. Van Alem AP, Sanou BT, Koster RW. Interruption of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation with the use of the automated external debrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2003;42(4):449. 8 12 The Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study G. Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia to Improve the Neurologic Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Outcome after Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med 2002;346(8):549-556. BIBILOGRAPHRY Adult Advanced Life Support (ALS) APPENDIX 1 Adult Advanced Life Support Algorithm Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias UNRESPONSIVE? Open airway Look for signs of life Summon help if appropriate CPR 30:2 Until debrillator/monitor attached Assess rhythm Shockable (VF/pulseless VT) 1 Shock 150-360 j biphasic or 360 j monophasic Immediately resume CPR 30:2 for 2 min Non-Shockable (PEA/Asystole) During CPR: Correct reversible causes1 Check electrode position and contact Attempt/verify: IV access airway and oxygen Give uninterrupted compressions when airway secure Give adrenaline every 3-5 min Consider: amiodarone atropine Immediately resume CPR 30:2 for 2 min 1 Reversible Causes Hypoxia Hypovolaemia Hypo/hyperkalaemia/metabolic Hypothermia Page 4 of 4 Tension pneumothorax Tamponade, cardiac Toxins Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary) October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Adult Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) INTRODUCTION Foreign body airway obstruction is an uncommon but potentially treatable cause of accidental death. Most cases occur when eating and are therefore usually witnessed. The signs and symptoms vary depending on the degree of airway obstruction (Table 1). Apply up to ve back slaps, checking to see if each back slap has relieved the obstruction. The aim is to relieve the obstruction with each backslap rather than necessarily to give all ve If five back slaps do not relieve the airway obstruction, give up to ve abdominal thrusts If the obstruction is still not relieved, continue alternating ve back slaps with ve abdominal thrusts. In adults, food usually sh, meat or poultry is the commonest cause of obstruction. If the patient is conscious: ASSESSMENT Table 1 General Signs of Foreign Body Airway Obstruction GENERAL SIGNS OF FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Attack usually occurs while eating Patient may clutch his neck Signs of mild airway obstruction Signs of severe airway obstruction Response to question Are you choking? Response to question Are you choking? Patient speaks and answers Yes Patient unable to speak If the patient at any time becomes unconscious: Support the patient carefully to the ground Begin BLS with chest compressions (from 4 of the adult BLS sequence). Chest compressions should be initiated even if a pulse is present in the unconscious patient. During CPR, each time the airway is opened the patients mouth should be quickly checked for any foreign body that has been partly expelled. If these measures fail and the airway remains obstructed: Attempt to visualise the vocal cords with a laryngoscope Patient may respond by nodding Remove any visible foreign material with forceps or suction If this fails or is not possible, and you are trained in the technique, perform needle cricothyroidotomy. Other signs Other signs Patient is able to: Patient unable to breathe Breathing sounds wheezy 1. Chest thrusts/compressions generate a higher airway pressure than back blows and finger sweeps. Attempts at coughing are silent 2. Avoid blind nger sweeps. Manually remove solid material in the airway only if it can be seen. Patient may be unconscious 3. Following successful treatment for FBAO, foreign material may remain in the upper or lower respiratory tract and cause complications later. Patients with a persistent cough, difficulty swallowing or the sensation of an object being stuck in the throat must be assessed further. speak cough breathe NOTE: MANAGEMENT Adult foreign body airway obstruction sequence (see Appendix 1) NOTE: also suitable for children over the age of 1 year 4. Abdominal thrusts can cause serious internal injuries and all patients so treated must be assessed for injury in hospital. Signs of mild airway obstruction Encourage patient to cough but do nothing else. Monitor carefully, rapid transport to hospital. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Signs of severe airway obstruction Adult Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) METHODOLOGY Key Points Adult Foreign Body Airway Obstruction Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Potentially treatable cause of death; often occurs whilst eating. Asking the patient are you choking? can aid diagnosis. Backslaps and abdominal thrusts may relieve the obstruction, check after each manoeuvre to see if obstruction is relieved. Abdominal thrusts can cause internal injuries and patients should be assessed in hospital. Avoid blind nger sweeps; manually remove solid material in the airway ONLY if it can be seen. The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. APPENDIX 1 Adult Foreign Body Airway Obstruction Treatment Algorithm Assess severity Severe airway obstruction (Ineffective cough) Unconscious Start CPR Page 2 of 2 Mild airway obstruction (Effective cough) Conscious 5 back blows 5 abdominal thrusts October 2006 Encourage cough Continue to check For deterioration to ineffective cough or relief of obstruction Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION heart failure implies the arrhythmia is compromising left ventricular function. This may cause breathlessness, confusion and hypotension or other features of reduced cardiac output ischaemic chest pain implies that the arrhythmia (particularly tachyarrhythmia) is producing myocardial ischaemia. It is particularly important if there is underlying coronary disease or structural heart disease in which ischaemia is likely to lead to life threatening complications including cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrhythmia is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction and may precede cardiac arrest or complicate the early post resuscitation period. Rhythm disturbance may also present in many other ways and be unrelated to coronary heart disease. The management of disorders of cardiac rhythm is a specialised subject often requiring detailed investigation and management strategies that are not available outside hospital. Diagnosis of the precise rhythm disturbance may be complicated and the selection of optimal treatment difcult. Very often, expert advice will be required, yet this expertise is rarely immediately available in the emergency situation. PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT Management is determined by the condition of the patient as well as the nature of the rhythm. In all cases give high concentration oxygen and gain venous access. 1. BRADYCARDIA Introduction A bradycardia is dened as a ventricular rate below 60bpm, but it is important to recognise patients with a relative bradycardia in whom the rate is inappropriately slow for their haemodynamic state. ASSESSMENT Assess for adverse signs present (see below). Always take a defibrillator to any patient with suspected cardiac rhythm disturbance. Assess for risk of asystole (see below). Establish cardiac rhythm monitoring as soon as possible. MANAGEMENT Document the arrhythmia. This should be done with a 12 lead ECG whenever possible. Provide a printout for the hospital, and if possible archive the record electronically so that further copies can be available at a later time if needed. Repeat the recording if the rhythm should change at any time. Record the ECG rhythm during any intervention (vagotonic procedures or the administration of drugs). If patients are not acutely ill there may be time to seek appropriate advice. The presence of adverse signs or symptoms will dictate the need for urgent treatment. The following adverse factors indicate a patient who is unstable because of the arrhythmia: evidence of low cardiac output: pallor, sweating, cold clammy extremities, impaired consciousness or hypotension (SBP <90mmHg) excessive tachycardia, dened as a heart rate of >150bpm If one or more adverse signs are present (see Appendix 1): systolic blood pressure <90mmHg ventricular rate <40bpm ventricular arrhythmias compromising BP or requiring treatment heart failure. Give high concentration oxygen and gain IV access. Give atropine 500mcg IV and repeat after 35 minutes if necessary up to a total of 3 milligrams. CAUTIONS Doses of atropine lower than 500mcg may paradoxically cause further slowing of ventricular rate. Use atropine cautiously in acute myocardial ischaemia or infarction; an increased rate may worsen ischaemia. excessive bradycardia, dened as a heart rate of <40bpm Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 1 of 6 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias 2. RISK OF ASYSTOLE 3. TACHYCARDIA If the patient is initially stable (i.e. no adverse signs are present) or a satisfactory response is achieved with atropine, next determine the risk of asystole. This is indicated by: Introduction previous episode of asystole Mobitz type II AV block complete (third degree) AV block, especially with a broad QRS complex or an initial ventricular rate <40bpm ventricular standstill >3 seconds. These guidelines are intended for the treatment of patients who maintain a cardiac output in the presence of the tachycardia. Pulseless tachycardia is treated with immediate attempts at cardioversion following the algorithm for the treatment of pulseless VT/VF. MANAGEMENT (see Appendix 2) 1. Support the ABCs. If there is a risk of asystole, (i.e. one or more of these signs is present), or the patient shows adverse signs and has not responded satisfactorily to atropine, transvenous pacing is likely to be required. One or more of the following interventions may improve the patients condition during transport: 2. Give high concentration oxygen and gain IV access. 3. Establish cardiac rhythm monitoring. 4. Record and monitor BP and SpO2. 5. Record a 12-lead ECG if possible, if not, record a rhythm strip. transcutaneous pacing should be undertaken if available If transcutaneous pacing is not available: 6. If the rhythm changes at any time, make a further recording. st pacing may produce ventricular contraction. Give serial rhythmic blows with the closed st over the lower left sternal edge to pace the heart at a rate of 5070bpm 7. Make a continuous record of the rhythm during any therapeutic intervention (whether a drug or physical manoeuvre like carotid sinus massage). adrenaline boluses may be given to maintain cerebral perfusion. 8. The response to treatment can provide important additional information about the arrhythmia. 9. Identify and treat reversible causes; give analgesia if indicated. NOTES a. Do not give atropine to patients with cardiac transplants; paradoxical high degree AV block or sinus arrest may result. b. Complete heart block with a narrow QRS complex escape rhythm is not an absolute indication for pacing. The ectopic pacemaker (which is situated in the atrioventricular junction) may provide a stable rhythm at an adequate rate. c. Initiate transcutaneous pacing (if equipment is available): patient is severely symptomatic, particularly when high degree block (Mbitz type II or third degree AV block) is present. 4. BROAD COMPLEX TACHYCARDIA The rhythm is likely to be ventricular tachycardia, particularly in the context of ischaemic heart disease, patients showing adverse signs (reduced consciousness, SBP <90mmHg, chest pain or heart failure), or in the peri-arrest situation. In all cases, maintain the supportive measures above and monitor the patient during transport. Provide a pre-alert message according to local protocols. if there is no response to atropine 10.Try to dene the cardiac rhythm from the ECG. Determine the QRS duration and determine whether the rhythm is regular or irregular. If the QRS duration is 120msec or more the rhythm is a broad complex tachycardia. If less than 120msec, the rhythm is a narrow complex tachycardia. NOTE: Transcutaneous pacing may be painful; use analgesia. Verify mechanical capture. Monitor the patient carefully; try to identify the cause of the bradycardia. Page 2 of 6 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Atrial brillation conducted aberrantly may produce an irregular broad complex tachycardia, but the diagnosis is difcult to make with certainty and often requires expert examination of the ECG. This emphasises the importance of recording the ECG when the arrhythmia is present. Ambulance personnel may greatly assist the subsequent diagnosis and management of patients by obtaining good quality ECG recordings. It is advantageous if these can also be archived electronically so that additional copies are available in the future. It is frustratingly common for paper copies of ECGs to be lost after admission to hospital. In all cases, ensure the patient is received into a suitable high dependency unit maintaining cardiac monitoring throughout. Ensure detailed hand-over to appropriate staff and that ECGs are safely handed over. Key Points Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance 5. NARROW COMPLEX TACHYCARDIA If the rhythm is narrow complex (QRS <120 msec) AND REGULAR, it is likely to be either: Sinus tachycardia. This is a physiological response, for example to pain, fever, blood loss or heart failure. Treatment is directed towards the cause. Trying to slow the rate is likely to make the situation worse. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This is often seen in patients without other forms of heart disease. There may be a history of previous attacks. BIBILOGRAPHY 1 Committee M, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Scheinman MM, Aliot EM, Alpert JS, Calkins H, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias executive summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American HeartAssociation Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines(Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Supraventricular Arrhythmias)Developed in collaboration with NASPE-Heart Rhythm Society. Eur Heart J 2003;24(20):1857-1897. 2 Guidelines for the management of patients with atrial brillation. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines and Policy Conferences (Committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with atrial brillation) developed in collaboration with the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Eur Heart J 2001;22(20):1852-1923. Atrial utter with regular AV conduction (often 2:1 and a rate of 150bpm). If sinus tachycardia is absent, start with vagal manoeuvres. In some cases the patient may be aware of techniques that have terminated previous episodes. The Valsalva manoeuvre (forced expiration against a closed glottis) may be effective and is conveniently achieved (especially in supine patients) by asking the patient to blow into a 20ml syringe with sufcient force to push back the plunger. If this fails, perform carotid sinus massage provided no carotid bruit is heard on auscultation. A bruit may indicate the presence of atheromatous plaque, rupture of which may cause cerebral embolism and stroke. Record the ECG (preferably multi-lead) during each manoeuvre. If the arrhythmia is successfully terminated by vagal procedures, it is very likely to have been SVT. If the rhythm is atrial utter, slowing of ventricular rate may occur and allow the identication of utter waves on the ECG. In all cases give high concentration oxygen. Gain venous access. Always take a debrillator to any patient with suspected cardiac rhythm disturbance. Establish cardiac rhythm monitoring as soon as possible preferably with a 12-lead ECG. Record the ECG rhythm during any intervention and archive. Ensure all ECGs are safely handed over to receiving staff and archive so further copies can be retrieved if necessary. Maintain the supportive measures above and monitor the patient during transport. AN IRREGULAR narrow complex rhythm is most commonly atrial brillation, less commonly atrial utter with variable block. Maintain the supportive measures above and monitor the patient during transport. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 3 of 6 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance METHODOLOGY Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. Page 4 of 6 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance APPENDIX 1 Bradycardia Algorithm Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias If appropriate, give oxygen, cannulate a vein and record a 12-lead ECG. Adverse signs. Systolic BP <90mm Hg Heart rate <40 beats min-1 Ventricular arrhythmias compromising BP Heart failure YES NO Atropine 500 mcg IV Satisfactory response YES NO YES Risk of asystole? Recent asystole Mbitz II AV block Complete heart block with broad QRS Ventricular pause >3 sec NO Interim measures: Atropine 500mcg IV repeat to maximum of 3 milligrams Observe OR Transcutaneous pacing Transfer to further care Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Transfer to further care October 2006 Page 5 of 6 Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance APPENDIX 2 Tachycardia Algorithm Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Support ABCs: give high concentration oxygen; cannulate a vein Monitor ECG, BP, SpO2 Record 12-lead ECG if possible; if not, record rhythm strip Identify and treat reversible causes Rapid transport to Hospital Provide an alert message en-route Is patient stable? Signs of instability include: 1. Reduced conscious level 2. Chest pain 3. Systolic BP <90mmHg 4. Heart failure (Rate-related symptoms uncommon at less than 150 beats min-1) Unstable Prepare for imminent arrest Stable Broad Is QRS narrow (<0.12 sec)? Broad QRS Is QRS regular? Narrow Narrow QRS Is rhythm regular? Irregular Regular Regular Possibilities include: AF with bundle branch block Pre-excited AF Polymorphic VT (e.g. torsade de pointes) Possibilities include: Ventricular tachycardia SVT with bundle branch block Irregular Irregular narrow complex tachycardia Probable atrial brillation Use vagal manoeuvres Monitor ECG continuously Normal sinus rhythm restored? YES NO Probable re-entry PSVT: Record 12-lead ECG in sinus rhythm Possible atrial utter Transfer to Hospital Page 6 of 6 Obtain medical input if practicable October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION The Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD) has revolutionised the management of patients at risk of developing life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Several clinical trials have testified to their effectiveness in reducing deaths from sudden cardiac arrest in selected patients,1-5 and the devices are implanted with increasing frequency. 6-8 ICDs are used in both children and adults. ICD systems consist of a generator connected to electrodes placed transvenously into cardiac chambers (the ventricle, and sometimes the right atrium and / or the coronary sinus (Figure 1). The electrodes serve a dual function allowing the monitoring of cardiac rhythm and the administration of electrical pacing, debrillation and cardioversion therapy. Modern ICDs are slightly larger than a pacemaker and are usually implanted in the left subclavicular area (Figure 1). The ICD generator contains the battery and sophisticated electronic circuitry that monitors the cardiac rhythm, determines the need for electrical therapy, delivers treatment, monitors the response and determines the need for further therapy. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) (biventricular pacing) for the treatment of heart failure. These treatment modalities and specications are programmable and capable of considerable sophistication to suit the requirements of individual patients. The implantation and programming of devices is carried out in specialised centres. The patient should carry a card or documentation which identies their ICD centre and may also have been given emergency instructions. The personnel caring for such patients in emergency situations are not usually experts in arrhythmia management, nor familiar with the details of the sophisticated treatment regimes offered by modern ICDs. Moreover, the technology is complex, and evolving rapidly. The non-specialist may have difculty remaining familiar with the detail of this. In an emergency, patients will often present to the ambulance service or Emergency Department (ED), and the purpose of this guidance is to help those responsible for the initial management of these patients. GENERAL PRINCIPLES Some important points should be made at the outset. When confronted with a patient tted with an ICD who has a persistent or recurring arrhythmia or where the ICD is ring, expert help should be summoned at the outset. Outside hospital this will normally be from the ambulance service who should be summoned immediately by dialling 999. Figure 1 Usual Location of an ICD (used with the permission of medmovie.com). The available therapies include: Conventional programmable pacing for the treatment of bradycardia Anti-tachycardia Pacing (ATP) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) Delivery of Biphasic shocks for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular brillation (VF) Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias When confronted with a patient in cardiac arrest, the usual management guidelines are still appropriate (refer to cardiac arrest and arrhythmia guidelines).9,10 If the ICD is not responding to VF or VT, or if shocks are ineffective, external debrillation / cardioversion should be carried out. Avoid placing the debrillator electrodes / pads / paddles close to or on top of the ICD; ensure a minimum distance of 5cm between the edge of the debrillator paddle pad/electrode and the ICD site. Most ICDs are implanted in the left sub-clavicular position (see Figure 1) and are usually readily apparent on examination; the conventional (apical / right subclavicular) electrode position will then be appropriate. The anterior / posterior position may also be used, particularly if the ICD is right sided. Whenever possible, record a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and record the patients rhythm (with any shocks). Make sure this is printed out and stored electronically (where available), for future reference. Where an external debrillator with an October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias The Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD) The Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD) Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias electronic memory is used, (whether for monitoring or for therapy) ensure that the ECG report is printed and handed to appropriate staff. Again, whenever possible, ensure that the record is archived for future reference. Record the rhythm during any therapeutic measure (whether by drugs or electricity). All these records may provide vital information for the ICD centre that may greatly influence the patients subsequent management. The energy levels of the shocks administered by ICDs (up to 40 Joules) are much lower than those employed with external debrillators (100 360J). Personnel in contact with the patient when an ICD discharges will not be harmed, and no special precautions are necessary when handling or treating such patients. Chest compression and ventilation can be carried out as normal and protective examination gloves worn as usual. Placing a ring magnet over the ICD generator can temporarily disable the shock capability of an ICD. The magnet does not disable the pacing capability for treating bradycardia. The magnet may be kept in position with adhesive tape if required. Removing the magnet returns the ICD to the status present before application. The ECG rhythm should be monitored at all times when the device is disabled. An ICD should only be disabled when the rhythm for which shocks are being delivered has been recorded. If that rhythm is VT or VF, external cardioversion/debrillation must be available. With some models it is possible to programme the ICD so that a magnet does not disable the shock capabilities of the device. This is usually done only in exceptional circumstances, and consequently, such patients are rare. The manufacturers of the ICDs also supply the ring magnets. Many implantation centres provide each patient with a ring magnet and stress that it should be readily available in case of emergency. With the increasing prevalence of ICDs in the community it becomes increasingly important that emergency workers have this magnet available to them when attending these patients. Decisions to apply a Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) order will not be made in the emergency situation by the personnel to whom this guidance is directed. Where such an order does exist however, it should not be necessary to disable an ICD to enable the implementation of such an order. Many problems with ICDs can only be dealt with permanently by using the programmer available at the ICD centre. arrange further assessment will mean that ambulance clinician should transport the patient to hospital. For ED staff however, this might mean referral to the medical admitting team or local ICD centre. Coincident conditions that may contribute to the development of arrhythmia (like acute ischaemia, worsening heart failure), should be managed as appropriate according to usual practice. Oxygen (O2) in high concentration will nearly always be appropriate. Receiving ICD therapy may be unpleasant like a rm kick in the chest, and psychological consequences may also arise.11,12 It is important to be aware of these, and help should be available from implantation centres. An emergency telephone helpline may be available. MANAGEMENT To be read in conjunction with the treatment algorithm (Appendix 1). Approach and assess the patient and perform basic life support according to current BLS guidelines. Monitor the ECG. 1. If the patient is in cardiac arrest 1.1 Perform basic life support in accordance with current BLS guidelines. Standard airway management techniques and methods for gaining IV access (if required) should be used. 1.2 If a shockable rhythm is present (VF or pulseless VT), but the ICD is not detecting it, perform external defibrillation and other resuscitation procedures according to current resuscitation guidelines. 1.3 If the ICD is delivering therapy (whether by antitachycardia pacing or shocks) but is failing to convert the arrhythmia, then external debrillation should be provided, as per current guidelines. 1.4 If a non-shockable rhythm is present, manage the patient according to current guidelines. If the rhythm is converted to a shockable one, assess the response of the ICD, as in 1.2 above, performing external debrillation as required. 1.5 If a shockable rhythm is converted to one associated with effective cardiac output (whether by the ICD or by external debrillation), manage the patient as usual and arrange further treatment and assessment. The guidelines should be read from the perspective of your position and role in the management of such patients. For example, the recommendation to Page 2 of 5 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias 2. If the patient is not in cardiac arrest Manage any underlying cause (acute ischaemia, heart failure etc.). Sedation may be valuable. Disable ICD (apply magnet) ONLY if haemodynamically compromised. Determine whether an arrhythmia is present. 2.2 If no arrhythmia is present: If therapy from the ICD has been effective, the patient is in sinus rhythm or is paced, monitor the patient, give O2 and arrange further assessment to investigate possibility of new myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, other acute illness or drug toxicity / electrolyte imbalance etc. Key Points Implantable Cardioverter Debrillators (ICD) An ICD may deliver inappropriate shocks (i.e. in the absence of arrhythmia) if there are problems with sensing the cardiac rhythm or there are problems with the leads. Record the rhythm (with shocks if possible), disable the ICD with a magnet, monitor the patient and arrange further assessment with help from the ICD centre. Provide supportive treatment as required. 2.3 If an arrhythmia is present: If an arrhythmia is present and shocks are being delivered, record the arrhythmia (and shocks if possible) on the ECG. Determine the nature of the arrhythmia. Transport rapidly to hospital in all cases. TACHYCARDIA REFERENCES 2.3.1 If the rhythm is supraventricular i.e. sinus tachycardia, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, junctional tachycardia, etc. and the patient is haemodynamically stable, and the patient is continuing to receive shocks, disable the ICD with a magnet. Consider possible causes, treat appropriately and arrange further assessment in hospital. 1 Hallstrom AP, AVID Investigators. Antiarrhythmics versus implantable debrillators (AVID): rationale, design and methods. American Journal of Cardiology 1995;75(7):470-5. 2 Connolly SJ, Hallstrom AP, Cappato R, Schron EB, Kuck KH, Zipes DP, et al. Meta-analysis of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator secondary prevention trials. Eur Heart J 2000;21(24):20712078. 3 Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ, Klein H, Wilber DJ, Cannom DS, et al. Prophylactic implantation of a debrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2002;346(12):877-83. 4 Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, Poole JE, Packer DL, Boineau R, et al. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-debrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352(3):225-37. 5 Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS, Daubert JP, Higgins SL, Klein H, et al. Improved Survival with an Implanted Debrillator in Patients with Coronary Disease at High Risk for Ventricular Arrhythmia. N Engl J Med 1996;335(26):1933-1940. 6 Gregoratos G, Abrams J, Epstein AE, Freedman RA, 2.3.2 If the rhythm is ventricular tachycardia: Pulseless VT should be treated as cardiac arrest (1.2 above). If the patient is haemodynamically stable, monitor the patient and convey to the emergency department. If the patient is haemodynamically unstable, and ICD shocks are ineffective, treat as per VT guideline. An ICD will not deliver anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) or shocks if the rate of the VT is below the programmed detection rate of the device. Conventional management may be undertaken according to the patients haemodynamic status. Recurring VT with appropriate shocks. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias ICDs deliver therapy with bradycardia pacing, ATP and shocks for VT not responding to ATP or VF. ECG records, especially at the time that shocks are given, can be vital in subsequent patient management. A recording should always be made if circumstances allow. Cardiac arrest should be managed according to normal guidelines. Avoid placing the debrillator electrode over or within 5cm of the ICD generator site. A discharging ICD will not harm a rescuer touching the patient or performing CPR. An inappropriately discharging ICD can be temporarily disabled by placing a ring magnet temporarily over the ICD site. October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias The Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD) The Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD) Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Hayes DL, Hlatky MA, et al. ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 guideline update for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmia devices: summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee to Update the 1998 Pacemaker Guidelines). Circulation 2002;106(16):2145-61. 7 Winters SL, Packer DL, Marchlinski FE, Lazzara R, Cannom DS, Breithardt GE, et al. Consensus statement on indications, guidelines for use, and recommendations for follow-up of implantable cardioverter debrillators. North American Society of Electrophysiology and Pacing. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE 2001;24(2):262-9. 8 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Implantable cardioverter debrillators (ICDs) for the treatment of arrhythmias review of guidance no. 11 London, 2005. 9 de Latorre F, Nolan J, Robertson C, Chamberlain D, Baskett P. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2000 for Adult Advanced Life Support: A statement from the Advanced Life Support Working Group and approved by the Executive Committee of the European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 2001;48(3):211-221. 10 Resuscitation Council (UK). Resuscitation Guidelines 2005. London: Resuscitation Council (UK) http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/guide.htm. 11 Sears SFJ, Shea JB, Conti JB. How to respond to an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock. Circulation 2005;111(23):e380-2. 12 Eads AS, Sears SFJ, Sotile WM, Conti JB. Supportive communication with implantable cardioverter debrillator patients: seven principles to facilitate psychosocial adjustment. Journal of cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation 2000;20(2):109-14. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias The Implantable Cardioverter Debrillator (ICD) APPENDIX 1 ICD Treatment Algorithm Implantable Cardioverter Debrillators ICD Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias SAFETY It is SAFE to touch a patient who has an ICD tted. Even if it is ring. Primary survey ABC Monitor ECG Is the patient in cardiac arrest? YES NO Does the patient have an arrhythmia? CONSIDER Is ICD ring? Is ICD ring? YES Was shock effective/ appropriate? NO NO YES Treat as per clinical guidelines (Even if ICD is ring) Avoid ICD site if external debrillation is required Assess patient Monitor 12-lead ECG Monitor BP Treat as per clinical guidelines If ICD ineffective or inappropriate, disable ICD with ring magnet (if available) and treat as appropriate. If BP low treat underlying causes, consider and treat arrhythmias e.g. VT Convey to Emergency Department Alert Receiving Unit Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 5 of 5 INTRODUCTION In patients with cardio-pulmonary arrest, vigorous resuscitation attempts must be undertaken whenever there is a chance of survival, however remote. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify patients in whom there is absolutely no chance of survival, and where resuscitation would be both futile and distressing for relatives, friends and healthcare personnel and where time and resources would be wasted undertaking such measures. The views of an attending General Practitioner (GP) or relevant third party should be considered. Hypostasis: The pooling of blood in congested vessels in the dependent part of the body in the position in which it lies after death (See Guidance Note 1). Rigor mortis: The stiffness occurring after death from the post mortem breakdown of enzymes in the muscle bres (See Guidance Note 2). In all other cases resuscitation must be commenced and the facts pertaining to the arrest must be established. Following arrival and the recognition of pulselessness and apnoea (in the presence of a patent airway), chest compression and ventilations should be commenced whilst the facts of the collapse are ascertained. IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS RESUSCITATION CAN BE DISCONTINUED CONDITIONS UNEQUIVOCALLY ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH WHERE RESUSCITATION SHOULD NOT BE ATTEMPTED When the patients death is expected due to terminal illness. All the conditions, listed below, are unequivocally associated with death in ALL age groups (see below for further details): The presence of a DNAR (Do Not Attempt Resuscitation) order or an Advanced Directive (Living Will) that states the wish of the patient not to undergo attempted resuscitation (see 3b). Efforts would be futile if ALL the following exist together: 1. massive cranial and cerebral destruction 2. hemicorporectomy 3. massive truncal injury incompatible with life including decapitation 15 minutes since the onset of collapse 4. decomposition/putrefaction no bystander CPR prior to arrival of the ambulance 5. incineration the absence of any of the exclusion factors on the owchart (Appendix 1) 6. hypostasis asystole (at line) for >30 seconds on the ECG monitor screen. 7. rigor mortis In the newborn, fetal maceration is a contraindication to attempted resuscitation. FURTHER DETAILS Decapitation: Self evidently incompatible with life. Massive cranial and cerebral destruction: Where the injuries are considered by the ambulance clinician to be incompatible with life. Hemicorporectomy (or similar massive injury): Where the injuries are considered by the ambulance clinician to be incompatible with life. Decomposition/putrefaction: Where tissue damage indicates that the patient has been dead for some hours, days or longer. Incineration: The presence of full thickness burns with charring of greater than 95% of the body surface. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Submersion of adults for longer than 1 hour, children longer than 1.5 hours (NOTE: submersion NOT immersion) (See Guidance Note 3). Whenever possible a conrmatory ECG, demonstrating asystole, should be documented as evidence of death. In this situation a 3 or 4 electrode system using limbs alone will cause minimum disturbance to the deceased. If a paper ECG trace cannot be taken it is permissible to make a diagnosis of asystole from the screen alone (NOTE: due caution must be applied in respect of electrode contact, gain and, where possible, using more than one ECG lead). The use of the ow chart shown in Appendix 1 is recommended. If efforts are NOT deemed to be futile then resuscitation must continue to establish the patients response to Advanced Life Support interventions. If the patient does not respond despite full ALS intervention and remains asystolic October 2006 Page 1 of 7 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias for >20 minutes then the resuscitation attempt may be discontinued. ACTION TO BE TAKEN AFTER DEATH HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED Removal of endotracheal tubes and/or indwelling cannulae should be in accordance with local protocol. In light of the fact that earlier guidelines have been in use by a number of Services for almost 10 years, we no longer believe that it is necessary for a medical practitioner to attend to conrm the fact of death. Moreover, the new GP Contract contains no obligation for a GP to do so when requested to attend by Ambulance Control. DO NOT ATTEMPT RESUSCITATION (DNAR) / ADVANCED DIRECTIVE (LIVING WILL)1 Ambulance clinicians should initiate resuscitation unless: 1. A formal DNAR2 order is in place, either written and handed to the ambulance crew or verbally received and recorded by Ambulance Control from the patients attendant requesting the ambulance providing that: a. the order is seen and corroborated by the ambulance crew on arrival b. the decision to resuscitate relates to the condition for which the DNAR order is in force: resuscitation should not be withheld for coincidental conditions. 2. A known terminally ill patient is being transferred to a palliative or terminal care facility (unless contrary instructions have been issued or the patient and/or carers express a specic wish for resuscitation to be attempted). Such information may be passed to and recorded by Ambulance Control as above. 3. An Advanced Directive (Living Will) has been accepted by the treating physician (patients GP or Hospital Consultant) as a DNAR order. This should be communicated to Ambulance Control and logged against the patients address. a. Patients may have an Advanced Directive (Living Will) although it is not legally necessary for the refusal to be made in writing or formally witnessed. This species how they would like to be treated in the case of future incapacity. Case law is now clear that an advance refusal of treatment that is valid, and applicable to subsequent circumstances in which the patient lacks capacity, is legally binding. An advance refusal is valid if made voluntarily by an appropriately informed person with capacity. Staff should respect the wishes stated in such a document. b. In an out of hospital emergency environment, there may be situations where there is doubt about the validity of an advance refusal or DNAR order. If staff are NOT satised that the patient had made a prior and specic request to refuse treatment, they should continue to provide all clinical care in the normal way. Page 2 of 7 Services should be encouraged, in conjunction with their coroners service (or Procurator Fiscal in Scotland), to develop a local procedure for handling the body once death has been veried by ambulance personnel. As a guide the attached procedure (Appendix 2) and record form (Appendix 3) are suggested. We further propose the adoption of a locally approved leaet for handing to bereaved relatives. GUIDANCE NOTE 1 Initially, hypostatic staining may appear as small round patches looking rather like bruises, but later these coalesce to merge as the familiar pattern. Above the hypostatic engorgement there is obvious pallor of the skin. The presence of hypostasis is diagnostic of death the appearance is not present in a live patient. In extremely cold conditions hypostasis may be bright red in colour, and in carbon monoxide poisoning it is characteristically cherry red in appearance. GUIDANCE NOTE 2 Rigor mortis occurs rst in the small muscles of the face, next in the arms, then in the legs (30 minutes to 3 hours). Children will show a more rapid onset of rigor because of their large surface area/body mass ratio. The recognition of rigor mortis can be made difcult where, rarely, death has occurred from tetanus or strychnine poisoning. It is stated that the diagnosis of rigor mortis can be conrmed by rmly pressing on a joint such as the knee, when the rigor mortis will be abolished and the joint becomes accid. In some, rigidity never develops (infants, cachectic individuals and the aged) whilst in others it may become apparent more rapidly (in conditions in which muscle glycogen is depleted): exertion (which includes struggling), strychnine poisoning, local heat (from a re, hot room or direct sunlight). Rigor should not be confused with cadaveric spasm (sometimes referred to as instant rigor mortis) which develops immediately after death without preceding October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias accidity following intense physical and/or emotional activity. Examples include: death by drowning or a fall from a height. In contrast with true rigor mortis only one group of muscles is affected and NOT the whole body. Rigor mortis will develop subsequently. Resuscitative efforts are unlikely to be successful in those submerged for periods exceeding 15 minutes with the exception of those in categories 2-5 above. Key Points Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians GUIDANCE NOTE 3 Submersion victims With thanks to Dr F StC Golden for his advice in this specialist area.3 Attempting to predict criteria for commencing resuscitative efforts on victims found in water is fraught with danger because of many interacting factors that may contribute to extending accepted anoxic survival times. Chief among these is the heat exchange that occurs in the lungs following aspiration of water. Should the water temperature be very cold, it will rapidly cool the blood in the pulmonary circulation, which in turn selectively cools the brain for as long as a viable cardiac output continues. Should brain temperature be rapidly cooled to a degree where protection from hypoxia/anoxia is possible (circa 20C) in the 70 seconds or thereabouts before cardiac failure occurs, then the chances of successful resuscitation are considerably enhanced even if cardio respiratory arrest has been present for an hour or more. For this outcome to be likely, the water temperature has to be near freezing, and usually, but not necessarily, the body mass relatively small. Hence the majority of the accounts of successful resuscitation after submersion pertain to small children being rescued from ice water. REFERENCES 1 Part 2: Ethical Aspects of CPR and ECC. Resuscitation 2000;46(1-3):17. 2 British Medical Association. Decisions relating to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. A joint statement from the British Medical Association, The Resuscitation Council (UK) and the Royal College of Nursing. London: Ethics Department, British Medical Association, 2002. 3 Golden F, Tipton M. Essentials of Sea Survival. Leeds: Human Kinetics, 2002. It would seem prudent that resuscitative efforts should be made on: 1. Those with a witnessed submersion time of 10-15 minutes or less, even though they appear to be dead on rescue. Ambulance clinicians are increasingly called upon to diagnose death and initiate the appropriate responses to death. In patients with cardio pulmonary arrest, vigorous resuscitation efforts must be made whenever there is a chance of survival however remote. Some conditions are incompatible with recovery and in these cases resuscitation need not be attempted. In some situations, once the facts of the patient/situation/etc are known, resuscitation efforts can be discontinued. Patients can and do make anticipatory decisions NOT to be resuscitated. An Advanced Directive (Living Will), if veriable, must be respected. 2. All those where there is a possibility of their being able to breathe from a pocket of air while underwater. 3. All those submerged for up to an hour in ice water or for longer (1.5 hours) in small children. 4. Anyone showing any signs of life on initial rescue. 5. Those whose airway has been only intermittently submerged for the duration of their immersion, e.g. those wearing lifejackets but in whom the airway is being intermittently submerged, provided the body still has a reasonably fresh appearance. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 3 of 7 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Baskett P, Fisher J, Marsden AK. Recognition of death by ambulance personnel. JRCALC Newsletter 1996:1. Marsden AK, Ng GA, Dalziel K. When is it futile for ambulance personnel to initiate cardio-pulmonary resuscitation? BMJ 1995;311(6996):49-51. Home Office. Reforming the Coroner and Death Certication Service. A Position Paper. London: The Stationery Ofce, 2004. Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Service Liaison Committee and Ambulance Service Association. JRCALC Clinical Practice Guidelines 2004 for use in UK Ambulance Services. IHCD: Norwich, 2004. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 4 of 7 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians Pulseless/Apnoeic with open airway Cardiac Arrest 1. Massive cranial or cerebral injury. 2. Hemicorporectomy. 3. Massive truncal injury. 4. Decomposition or putrefaction. 5. Incineration. 6. Hypostasis. 7. Rigor mortis. Condition unequivocally associated with death? DNAR Terminal illness? Prolonged (>1.5 hours) submersion? YES NO Start ventilations and chest compressions Attach debrillator Analyse rhythm shock advised? YES YES OR DONT KNOW NO Evidence of CPR in past 15 minutes? NO YES Pregnancy is an indication for rapid transfer to hospital to deliver the infant, if necessary by emergency Caesarean section in order to resuscitate the infant. Continue full resuscitation protocol Asystole despite 20 minutes ALS1 EXCEPT in cases of drowning and hypothermia NO Any suspicion of: Drowning? Hypothernia? Poisoning or overdose Pregnancy? NO Asystole >30 seconds? YES YES Cease resuscitation 1 Crews without ALS capability should Load and Go at the earliest opportunity. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 5 of 7 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Appendix 1 Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians Appendix 2 Action to be taken after Verication of Fact of Death Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Ambulance crew diagnose death. Are there any suspicious circumstances? YES Take steps to preserve the scene. Ask Control to contact Police and advise them of a suspicious death. Remain on scene. Complete documentation2. NO Death in home or place of normal residence. Death in a public place. Remove patient1 to a destination according to agreed local policy. Request Ambulance Control to inform Police of details of case and destination. Leave patient documentation2 with patient. Are relatives present? YES Offer condolences. Leave leaet with relatives. Notify control who inform GP or Out of Hours Service. Complete documentation2. NO Seek contact details (Control may have some). Where NONE ask control to inform police. Remain on scene until police or other person arrives. Complete documentation2. The Ambulance Service has a responsibility to remove the patient from public gaze. Operational policy will be agreed locally with Police and Coroners services. 2 A suggested example of Verication of Fact of Death report is attached as Appendix C. 1 Page 6 of 7 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians CONFIDENTIAL PRF Number: VERIFICATION OF FACT OF DEATH Date: Time of verication of death: hrs Patients Name: Patients Address: Age or Date of Birth: GP Name: GP Address: 1. Condition unequivocally associated with death State Condition: 2. Patient pulseless and apnoeic where one or more of the following facts are established: DNAR or Validated Advanced Directive (Living Will) Expected death as a result of terminal illness (incl. during transport) Asystole with no evidence of CPR in past 15 minutes and NO signs of: a. DROWNING b. HYPOTHERMIA c. POISONING OR OVERDOSE d. PREGNANCY Asystole AND prolonged submersion State Duration: 3. Following 20 minutes of Advanced Life Support where ALL the following are conrmed: NO HEART SOUNDS NO RESPIRATORY SOUNDS PUPILS FIXED AND DILATED NO PALPABLE PULSES ASYSTOLE ON ECG FOR 30 SECONDS Circle Control notied YES NO Time hrs Request police contact YES NO Time hrs Police (if requested) on scene YES NO Time hrs Request GP contact YES NO Time hrs GP (if requested) on scene YES NO Time hrs Relatives/Neighbours contacted YES NO Time hrs Minister of Religion contacted YES NO Time hrs Veried by: Call Sign/PIN: Witnessed by: Call Sign/PIN: Station: Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 7 of 7 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Appendix 3 Record Form Traumatic Cardiac Arrest Arrested on arrival at the scene: Traumatic cardiac arrest is a very different condition from the more usual cardiac arrest which is often related to ischaemic heart disease. Management of traumatic cardiac arrest must be directed toward identifying and treating the underlying cause of the arrest or resuscitation is unlikely to be successful. resuscitation can be stopped in blunt traumatic cardiac arrest when the patient is apnoeic, pulseless, without organised cardiac electrical activity and without pupillary light reexes on arrival and where there has been no change after ve minutes of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation with full resuscitative effort in penetrating traumatic cardiac arrest, resuscitation should be continued for 20 minutes while transferring rapidly to hospital. If a patient has not responded after 20 minutes of Advanced Life Support (ALS) (refer to advanced life support guideline) then resuscitation can be terminated. Traumatic cardiac arrest may develop as a result of: 1. Hypoxia caused by manageable issues such as obstruction of the airway (e.g. facial injury or decreased level of consciousness) or breathing problems (e.g. pneumo/haemothorax). 2. Hypoperfusion caused by compromise of the heart (e.g. stab wound causing cardiac tamponade) or hypovolaemia (either occult or revealed haemorrhage). Arrested in the presence of Emergency Medical Services (EMS): MANAGEMENT: Ventricular brillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) may be present, although this is unlikely. However, if present it should be managed by defibrillation according to the standard shockable rhythm algorithm (refer to advanced life support guideline) and followed by treatment of any identied potential cause. The potential causes should be addressed by applying standard trauma management principles (refer to trauma emergencies guideline). Any problem should be dealt with adequately before moving on to the next: A Airway obstruction; ensure the airway is open and clear. B Impaired breathing; search for and manage a sucking chest or a tension pneumothorax (refer to thoracic trauma guideline). If not absolutely certain then needle thoracocentesis should be performed on both sides. Support and assist ventilation. C Hypovolaemia as a result of major blood loss; apply external haemorrhage control and secure vascular access while transferring without delay to denitive treatment. termination of resuscitative effort in the patient who has suffered a trauma related cardiac arrest (blunt or penetrating) in the presence of the EMS crew should be considered if the patient has not responded to 20 minutes of ALS. If no cause amenable to treatment is found by following the above interventions and circulation is not restored, then survival is not possible and further intervention is medically inappropriate.1-9 The only exceptions to this are pregnancy (when the patient should be rapidly transferred to hospital to deliver the infant), in the presence of hypothermia and with trauma involving children. In this case the JRCALC guideline on paediatric cardiac arrest should be followed and the patient transported rapidly to a hospital Emergency Department. After stopping resuscitation, the Recognition of Life Extinct by Ambulance Clinicians (ROLE) (refer to ROLE guideline) procedure should be followed and the Police informed (See also Appendix 1). D Major head injury (refer to head trauma guideline) or spinal cord injury (refer to neck and back trauma guideline) impairing ventilation through CNS depression or loss of neuromuscular function. The international literature and published evidencedbased guidelines over the last ve years are quite clear: Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias INTRODUCTION Traumatic Cardiac Arrest 6 Key Points Traumatic Cardiac Arrest Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Traumatic cardiac arrest is different from cardiac arrest due to primary cardiac disease. Assessment and management should follow the trauma guideline, treating problems as they are found. If the patient is in blunt traumatic cardiac arrest on crew arrival and there is no change after 5 minutes of full resuscitation, further effort is futile. If the patient suffers a traumatic cardiac arrest from penetrating trauma or arrests in the presence of the crew and there is no response to resuscitation after 20 minutes of active resuscitation while moving to hospital, further effort is futile. The ROLE procedure should be followed if resuscitation is terminated. Pasquale M, Rhodes M, Cipolle M, Hanley T, Wasser T. Dening dead on arrival: impact on a level I trauma center. J Trauma 1996;41((4):726-30. 7 Fulton R, Voigt W, Hilakos A. Confusion surrounding the treatment of traumatic cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Surg 1995 181(3):209-14. 8 Battistella FD, Nugent W, Owings JT, Anderson JT. Field Triage of the Pulseless Trauma Patient. Arch Surg 1999;134(7):742-746. 9 Pickens JJ, Copass MK, Bulger EM. Trauma Patients Receiving CPR: Predictors of Survival. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2005;58(5):951-958. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. REFERENCES 1 Powell DW, Moore EE, Cothren CC, Ciesla DJ, Burch JM, Moore JB, et al. Is emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy futile care for the critically injured patient requiring pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation? Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2004;199(2):211-215. 2 Hopson LR, Hirsh E, Delgado J, Domeier RM, McSwain JNE, Krohmer J. Guidelines for withholding or termination of resuscitation in pre-hospital traumatic cardio-pulmonary arrest: joint position statement of the national association of EMS physicians and the american college of surgeons committee on trauma. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2003;196(1):106-112. 3 Martin SK, Shatney CH, Sherck JP, Ho C-C, Homan SJ, Neff J. Blunt Trauma Patients with Prehospital Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA): Poor Ending Assured. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2002; 53(5):876-881. 4 Rosemurgy A, Norris P, Olson S, Hurst J, Albrink M. Prehospital traumatic cardiac arrest: the cost of futility. J Trauma 1993;35(3):468-73. 5 Pepe PE, Swor RA, Ornato JP, Racht EM, Blanton DM, Griswell JK, et al. Resuscitation In The Out-OfHospital Setting: Medical Futility Criteria For On-Scene Pronouncement Of Death. Prehospital Emergency Care 2001 5(5):79 87 Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias Traumatic Cardiac Arrest Cardiac Arrest & Arrhythmias Appendix 1 Traumatic Cardiac Arrest Ensure airway is open and clear Look for signs of life CPR 30:2 Until defibrillator/monitor attached Assess rhythm Shockable (VF/ pulseless VT) Non-shockable (PEA/asystole) 1 shock 150-360 Joules or 360 Joules monophasic Immediately resume CPR 30:2 For 2 mins Immediately resume CPR 30:2 For 2 mins Transfer to hospital rapidly Address treatable causes (continue ALS) Airway obstruction Ensure the airway is open and clear if necessary with adjuncts e.g. LMA/ET Impaired breathing Search for and manage a sucking chest or tension pneumothorax if not absolutely certain undertake needle thoracocentesis Major injury to head, neck, back May impair ventilation because of CNS depression/loss of neuro-muscular function therefore improve ventilation Arrested on arrival at scene? Hypovolaemia Apply external haemorrhage control Secure vascular access en-route Arrested in the presence of EMS? Blunt Traumatic Cardiac Arrest IF on arrival the patient is aponoeic, pulseless, with no organised cardiac electrical activity and no pupillary light reflexes AND where there has been no change after FIVE minutes of ALS, resuscitative efforts may cease Penetrating Traumatic Cardiac Arrest Rapidly transfer patients to hospital performing ALS. IF there has been no change after TWENTY minutes of ALS, resuscitative efforts may cease Blunt or Penetrating Traumatic Cardiac Arrest Rapidly transfer patients to hospital performing ALS. IF there has been no change after TWENTY minutes of ALS, resuscitative efforts may cease EXCEPTIONS Pregnant women, patients suffering from hypothermia and children continue resuscitative effects and transfer to hospital rapidly. ROLE After ceasing resuscitation follow the recognition of life extinct protocol. Cardiac Arrest and Arrhythmias October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Medical Emergencies in Adults overview INTRODUCTION Aspiration Although the care of a wide range of medical conditions will be quite specic to the presenting condition, there are general principles of care that apply to most medical cases, regardless of underlying condition(s). Administer oxygen (O2) early and select appropriate treatment method: oropharyngeal airway nasopharyngeal airway laryngeal mask airway ASSESSMENT endotracheal intubation Primary Survey MUST be performed on ALL patients. The primary survey is an invaluable tool for initial assessment of any ill patient, which will detect any TIME CRITICAL problems. In some cases, it may be necessary and appropriate to commence early transport and correct problems en-route. Assess ABCDs. Assess and document vital signs from the above survey, including the time the observations were made. via the stoma in laryngectomy and other neck breathing patients. Breathing Assessment (inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation). Assess for skin colour and for any evidence of pallor, cyanosis, peripherally and centrally (apply pulse oximeter). Expose the chest to observe chest wall movement. If breathing is absent or inadequate, proceed to resuscitation procedures. If unilateral chest movement is occurring, treat underlying cause if possible. Assess respiratory rate and effort and other factors to assess the work of respiration. Note any wheezing, noisy respiration, either on inspiration or expiration. Listen for stridor (higher pitched noise on inspiration), suggestive of upper respiratory obstruction. Check position of trachea in suprasternal notch. Listen to the chest with a stethoscope. Ask the patient to breathe in and out briskly through their mouth. Listen on both sides of the chest: STEPWISE PATIENT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT In ABCD management, manage decits as they are encountered: i.e. do not move on to rectication of Breathing or Circulation until Airway is secured. Airway Assessment LOOK for obvious obstructions e.g. teeth, foreign bodies, vomit, blood or soot/burns/oedema in burn victims. LISTEN for noisy airow e.g. snoring, gurgling or no airow. above the nipples in the mid-clavicular line for air movement. at the rear of the chest, below the shoulder blade. FEEL in the mid-axilla under the armpit Exclude and be prepared to manage airway obstruction resulting from vomit or other debris. Listen for: normal or reduced air entry equal air entry on each side wheezing (on expiration) Stepwise Airway Management crepitations at the rear of the chest (crackles, heard low down in the lung elds at the rear indicates uid in the lung in heart failure) Correct any AIRWAY decits immediately by: Positioning and posture: additional crackles and wheeze on inspiration that may be associated with inhalation of blood or vomit. head tilt chin lift jaw thrust. Medical Emergencies in Adults Pulse oximetry should be undertaken. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Medical Emergencies in Adults (needle cricothyroidotomy) Medical Emergencies in Adults overview Stepwise Breathing Management Stepwise Circulatory Management Correct any BREATHING decits immediately: Identify any circulation decits: administer high concentration oxygen (O2)1 (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in: 1. patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (who may need a lower concentration refer to COPD guideline) and 2. those with conditions such as chest pain, acute coronary syndrome, sickle cell crisis, and with decreased level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <15) ( who should have 100% routinely refer to specic guidelines) consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: Medical Emergencies in Adults SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate Restraint (Positional) Asphyxia. If the patients condition requires that they are physically restrained (e.g. by Police Ofcers) in order to prevent them injuring themselves or others or for the purpose of being detained under the Mental Health Act, then it is paramount that the method of restraint allows both for a patent airway and adequate respiratory volume. Under these circumstances it is essential to ensure that the patients airway and breathing are adequate at all times. arrest external haemorrhage where appropriate, consider cannulation for drug administration. Fluid Therapy NOTE: Special guidance applies in pregnant women (refer to specic guidelines in the obstetrics and gynaecological section). Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult acute blood loss. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.2 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. Medical patients may present with significant dehydration resulting in reduced uid in both the vascular and tissue compartments. Often this has taken time to develop and will take time to correct. Rapid uid replacement into the vascular compartment can compromise the cardiovascular system particularly where there is pre-existing cardiovascular disease and in the elderly. Gradual rehydration over many hours rather than minutes is indicated. If there is visible external blood loss (e.g. vomited blood) greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Circulatory Assessment Assess for evidence of haemorrhage externally (epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematemesis, melaena). Assess skin colour and temperature. Palpate a radial pulse If absent, assess for a carotid pulse, which, if present assess for pulse rate, volume and regularity. Check capillary rell time in ngertips and toes. If abnormal, check centrally (chest) (normal <2 seconds). Check blood glucose levels in all patients with history of diabetes, impaired consciousness, seizures, collapse resulting from heat exhaustion or alcohol consumption. Page 2 of 5 Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement3 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, abnormal cardiac rhythm. If the clinical conditions suggest that major uid loss (ruptured aortic aneurysm, anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding) has occurred then commence 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Re-assess vital signs prior to further uid administration. DO NOT delay at scene for fluid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid ENROUTE TO HOSPITAL. October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Medical Emergencies in Adults overview Note initial level of responsiveness on AVPU scale (see below), and time of assessment. NOTE: This list is not inclusive; patients with other signs may also be time critical, this is where the clinical judgement of the Paramedic is important. A Alert V Responds to voice P Responds to painful stimulus U Unresponsive Assess and note pupil size, equality and response to light. Check for purposeful movement in all four limbs. Check sensory function. All patients with altered mental status must have their blood glucose levels assessed. Continually re-assess ABCD and initiate appropriate treatments en-route in case of deterioration. CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE, THEN COMMENCE TRANSPORT TO NEAREST SUITABLE RECEIVING HOSPITAL. If airway and breathing cannot be corrected, or haemorrhage cannot be controlled, evacuate immediately, continuing resuscitation as appropriate enroute and alert. Provide a Hospital Alert Message. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). HISTORY In order to gather as much relevant information as possible, without delaying care, the accepted format of history taking is as follows: If any of the following features are identied within the Primary Survey, then the patient should be considered TIME CRITICAL. The priority, other than correcting immediately life-threatening A and B conditions, is to get the patient to denitive care in hospital. Further assessment and treatment should continue en-route: presenting complaint why they called for help at this time Evaluate history of presenting complaint details of when the problem started, exacerbating factors and previous similar episodes direct questioning about associated symptoms, by system. Ask about all appropriate systems past medical history, including current medication family history social history. airway impairment severe breathlessness failing ventilation severe haemorrhage circulatory collapse and shock due to infection Combined with a good physical examination, this format of history taking should ensure that you correctly identify those patients who are time critical, urgent or routine. The history taken must be fully documented. In many cases, a well-taken history will point to the diagnosis. Addisonian crisis cardiac chest pain cardiogenic shock severe hypotension due to bradycardia or extreme tachycardia anaphylaxis any person with GCS <15, who does not have a cause that can be treated in pre-hospital environment such as hypoglycaemia (check airway in all decreased GCS cases, check glucose level) status epilepticus unable to complete a sentence. Medical Emergencies in Adults The presence of Medic Alert type jewellery (bracelets or necklets) can provide information on the patients pre-existing health risk that may be relevant to the current medical emergency. SECONDARY SURVEY In NON-TIME CRITICAL conditions, perform a more thorough patient assessment with a brief Secondary Survey. It may be easier and more appropriate to perform this in the ambulance and, in many instances, en-route to hospital, even when the patient is not time critical. October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Medical Emergencies in Adults Disability Assessment Medical Emergencies in Adults overview Head Ensure adequate O2 therapy and support. Re-assess airway, breathing, circulation. Obtain IV access/infusion, if required. Re-assess levels of consciousness (AVPU), pupil size and activity, and record. Apply ECG and pulse oximetry monitoring, as required. Establish GCS (see Appendix 1) and record. Consider patient positioning, e.g. sitting upright for respiratory problems. Chest Re-assess respiratory rate and depth, and record. Re-listen for breath sounds in all lung elds, and record. Assess for pneumothorax in small pneumothorax no clinical signs may be detected. A pneumothorax causes breathlessness, reduced air entry and chest movement on the affected side. If this is a tension pneumothorax, then the patient will have increasing respiratory distress and distended neck veins, and tracheal deviation away from affected side may also be present. Medical Emergencies in Adults Assess skin colour and temperature, and record. Assess heart sounds, assess and conrm heart rate. Obtain a blood pressure reading using a sphygmomanometer. Document and record results. Obtain a pulse oximeter reading and record. Re-assess as needed en-route to hospital. Abdomen Feel for tenderness and guarding in all four quadrants, check for bowel sounds. Provide drug therapy as required, e.g. glucose 10% IV in cases of hypoglycaemia (refer to the glucose 10% drug protocol for dosages and information); hydrocortisone IV (refer to the hydrocortisone drug protocol for dosages and information) in Addisonian Crisis. If the level of consciousness deteriorates or respiratory depression develops in cases where an overdose with opiate-type drugs may be a possibility, consider naloxone (refer to naloxone drug protocol for dosages and information). In patients with xed pinpoint pupils suspect opiate analgesia use. Follow ADDITIONAL MEDICAL guidelines as indicated by the patients condition, e.g. cardiac rhythm disturbance. Correct A and B problems on scene and then commence transport to Nearest Suitable Receiving Hospital. Provide a Hospital Alert Message/Information Call if required. At the hospital, provide a comprehensive verbal handover and a completed Patient Report Form to the Receiving Hospital Staff. Lower and Upper Limbs (see below) Check for MSC in ALL four limbs: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION M MOTOR Test for movement. S SENSATION Apply light touch evaluate sensation. C CIRCULATION Assess pulse and skin temperature. MANAGEMENT Check blood glucose levels in all patients with history of diabetes, impaired consciousness, seizures collapse resulting from heat exhaustion or alcohol consumption. to Remember that the patient history may give you valuable insight into the cause of the current condition. The following may be of great help in your diagnosis: relatives, carers or friends with knowledge of the patients history. packets or containers of medication (including domiciliary oxygen) or evidence of administration devices, e.g. nebuliser machines. medic alert type jewellery (bracelets or necklets) which detail the patients primary health risk (e.g. diabetes, anaphylaxis, Addisons disease etc.) but also list a 24-hour telephone number to obtain a more detailed patient history. Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Medical Emergencies in Adults overview patient-held warning cards denoting previous thrombolysis, at-risk COPD patients, or those taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) medication. Appendix 1 Glasgow Coma Scale GLASGOW COMA SCALE Item Score Eyes Opening: 4 To speech 3 To pain 2 None 1 Obeys commands 6 Localises pain 5 Withdraws from pain 4 Abnormal exion 3 Extensor response 2 No response to pain patients on long-term steroids or who have adrenal insufciency may deteriorate rapidly because of steroid insufciency. If signicantly unwell they should be given hydrocortisone and fluids if required. Spontaneously 1 Motor Response: REMINDER: Any immediately uncorrectable ABCD problem should be considered time critical. The patient should be transported to hospital with a pre-alert message, with treatment continued en-route. Medical Emergencies in Adults warning stickers, often placed by the front door or the telephone, directing the health professional to a source of detailed information (one current scheme involves storing the patient details in a container in the fridge, as this is relatively easy to nd in the house). Verbal Response: Key Points Medical Emergencies Orientated Confused 4 Inappropriate words 3 Incomprehensible sounds Detect time critical problems early. Minimise time on scene. Continuously re-assess ABCD, AVPU. Initiate treatments en-route if deterioration. Provide hospital alert. 5 2 No verbal response 1 REFERENCES 1 Kuisma M, Boyd J, Voipio V, Alasp A, Roine RO, Rosenberg P. Comparison of 30 and the 100% inspired oxygen concentrations during early postresuscitation period: a randomised controlled pilot study. Resuscitation 2006;69(2):199-206. 2 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 3 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Abdominal Pain Abdominal pain is the most common complaint seen in Emergency Departments (ED).1 The elderly account for 15% of these attendances. Mortality rises signicantly in the over 50s as they can have atypical presentations and are more prone to catastrophic events. Ambulance crews attend a variety of acute abdominal conditions e.g. appendicitis, renal colic, peptic ulcer perforation, abdominal ischaemia and peritonitis, plus chronic conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastric and duodenal ulcers and cancer of various abdominal organs.2 Approximately 25% of patients calling 999 with abdominal pain have serious conditions. The specic cause of abdominal pain can rarely be determined in the pre-hospital environment. The history, nature, location and pattern of the pain with associated symptoms may point to the possible cause. The most important diagnoses to consider are those that are life threatening, either as the result of internal haemorrhage or perforation of a viscus, and sepsis. Ruptured aortic aneurysm, ectopic pregnancy and traumatic disruption of the liver or spleen are examples of the former. ABC assessment and resuscitation of such patients may be required. The most common diagnosis of patients presenting to ED departments with abdominal pain is non specic abdominal pain (NSAP). However there are many specic causes which are of a minor nature e.g. constipation, urinary tract infection (UTI). Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. Medical patients may present with significant dehydration resulting in reduced uid in both the vascular and tissue compartments. Often this has taken time to develop and will take time to correct. Rapid fluid replacement into the vascular compartment can compromise the cardiovascular system particularly where there is pre-existing cardiovascular disease and in the elderly. Gradual rehydration over many hours rather than minutes is indicated. If there is visible external blood loss (e.g. vomited blood) greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,3 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, abnormal cardiac rhythm). If the clinical conditions suggest that major uid loss (ruptured aortic aneurysm, anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding) has occurred then commence 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Reassess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid Continue patient management en-route, including: ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). titrated pain relief1 tailored to needs of the patient.6 (refer to pain management guidelines). obtain 12-lead ECG as standard for all elderly patients and all patients with cardiac risks presenting with upper abdominal pain.1 provide a pre-alert to ED. Rapid primary assessment of ABCD in order to evaluate any time critical features. If time critical, initiate resuscitation and rapidly transport to the nearest appropriate hospital.3 Obtain a brief overview of pain history4 and symptoms. Fluid therapy Early cannulation is desirable but should not delay on scene times and a limit of two attempts at cannulation should be made en-route.3 Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult acute blood loss. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.5 Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Medical Emergencies in Adults INTRODUCTION Abdominal Pain HISTORY Early narcotic pain relief has been controversial. No one has conclusively proven that narcotics mask pain and cause problems with subsequent surgical assessment.9 Current common practice is to relieve pain on humane grounds.1 Pain has been shown to cloud the patients ability to concentrate and understand explanations.10,11 The judicial and titrated use of analgesia prior to a surgeons assessment of the abdomen is acceptable practice (refer to pain management guidelines).9 Pain history: the site time of onset duration quality character ameliorating/provoking factors pain scoring guidelines).4 (refer to pain SPECIFIC CONDITIONS management Associated symptoms:1,7 Paediatric patients may present with conditions which are specic to childhood e.g. intussusception (inward telescoping of the bowel), pyloric stenosis and are prone to rapid dehydration from diarrhoea and vomiting. altered bowel habit Medical Emergencies in Adults nausea vomiting blood in vomit or faeces burning on urination menstrual and sexual history in females of child bearing age. Past medical history: current drug treatment presence of similar symptoms in others should be ascertained. EXAMINATION Where time critical features are present there is no value in undertaking a detailed examination. In other circumstances, the presence of tenderness, guarding, rebound tenderness and abnormal or absent bowel sounds may indicate the presence of a serious condition. ANALGESIA Entonox is worth consideration but may not be as effective in abdominal pain (refer to Entonox drug protocol for administration and information). There is the potential that the nitrous oxide may increase the volume of a gas pocket in the abdomen and it should be used with caution in patients with a markedly distended abdomen.8 Page 2 of 3 Elderly and confused patients do suffer pain which may further contribute to confusion.12 They are more at risk of catastrophic events. They also develop conditions such as diverticulitis rarely seen in younger patients. Ectopic Pregnancy accounts for 13% of all pregnancy related deaths (refer to haemorrhage during pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic) guideline). Patients may present atypically but pain is almost always present. Therefore a thorough history of menstrual function, sexual practice, obstetric and gynaecological features cannot be over emphasised in females of child bearing age.7 Pelvic Inammatory Disease (PID) is a common cause of abdominal pain in females but rarely presents as an acute collapse. The severe forms of pelvic infection with the formation of a tuboovarian abscess are rare but can present with features of systemic sepsis and abdominal pain. A history of PID predisposes to ectopic pregnancy. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) were responsible for almost 6,000 deaths in men and 3,500 in women in England and Wales in 1999. Most deaths occur in the elderly. Less than 25% of all AAA patients present with classic signs and symptoms with a consequential risk of misdiagnosis.1 This diagnosis must be considered in anyone over the age of 50 who presents with sudden severe abdominal pain or back ache, hypotension with bilateral lower limb ischaemia or mottling (a late sign) especially if there is a history of smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia.13 Appendicitis is also frequently misdiagnosed1 and up to one third of women of child bearing age with appendicitis are considered as having pelvic inammatory disease or UTI.7 Immunosuppressed patients, for example, human immunodeciency virus (HIV) and alcoholic patients can present atypically.1 October 2006 Medical Emergencies in Adults Abdominal Pain The most important diagnoses to consider are those that are life threatening, either as the result of internal haemorrhage or perforation of a viscus and sepsis. Myocardial infarction is often misdiagnosed as indigestion. Obtain 12-lead ECG for elderly patients and patients with cardiac risks presenting with upper abdominal pain. If a patient is in severe pain, adequate analgesia should be given. A precise diagnosis of the cause of abdominal pain is often impossible without access to tests and investigations in hospital. 10 Gabbay DS, Dickinson ET. Refusal of Base Station Physicians to Authorise Narcotic Analgesia. Pre Hospital Emergency Care 2000;5(3):293-95. 11 Thomas SH, Silen W, Cheema F, Reisner A, Aman S, Goldstein JN, et al. Effects of morphine analgesia on diagnostic accuracy in Emergency Department patients with abdominal pain: a prospective, randomized trial. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2003;196(1):18-31. 12 Zimmerman PG. Cutting-edge Discussions of Management, Policy, and Program Issues in Emergency Care. Emergency Nursing 2004;30(3):259-69. 13 Nissman SA, Kaplan LJ, Mann BD. Critically reappraising the literature-driven practice of analgesia administration for acute abdominal pain in the emergency room prior to surgical evaluation. American journal of surgery 2003;185(4):291-6. Coselli JS, Hekier RJ, Le Maire SA. Abdominal Aortic Disasters: Keys to prompt Recognition Tenets of Therapy. Consultant 1999;June:1809-1821. REFERENCES 1 American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). Clinical Policy: critical issues for the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting with a chief complaint of nontraumatic acute abdominal pain. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2000;36(4):406-15. 2 Blendis L. Abdominal pain. In: PD W, R M, editors. Textbook of Pain. 3rd ed. UK: Churchill Livingstone, 1994. Refer to methodology section; see below for abdominal pain search strategy. Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Abdominal pain search strategy 3 4 5 6 7 8 Institute of Clinical systems improvement & management of acute pain, Bloomington MN. Assessment & management of acute pain. Institute for clinical systems Improvement (ICSI) 2001;74:133. Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. Ricard-Hibon A, Chollet C, Saada S, Loridant B, Marty J. A quality control program for acute pain management in out-of-hospital critical care medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1999;34(6):738-44. Kamin RA, Nowicki TA, Courtney DS, Powers RD. Pearls and Pitfalls in the. Emergency Department Evaluation of Abdominal Pain. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2003; 21:61-72. METHODOLOGY Electronic databases searched: Medline (Ovid) CINAHL. Search strategy: Abdom$ / Stomach. exp /gastric. exp Pain. exp / pain relief. exp / Analgesia. exp / narcotics Prehospital care / Emergency care Additional sources searched: British Medical Journal http://bmj.bmjjournals.com Emergency Medical http://emj.bmjjournals.com British Society of http://www.bsg.org.uk American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) http://www.acep.org/webportal Journal Gastroenterology Donen N, Tweed WA, White D, Guttormson B, Enns J. Pre-hospital analgesia with Entonox. Canadian Anaesthetists Society journal 1982;29(3):275-9. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Medical Emergencies in Adults 9 Key Points Abdominal Pain Decreased Level Of Consciousness INTRODUCTION Medical conditions: Coma is dened as U on the AVPU scale1 or a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)2 (see appendix 1) of 8 or less; however any patient presenting with a decreased level of consciousness (GCS<15) mandates further assessment and, possibly, treatment. stroke sub arachnoid haemorrhage epilepsy meningitis The patient with a decreased level of consciousness provides a major challenge for all levels of emergency care staff. Often very little information is presented, and the causes may range from diabetic collapse to factitious illness. Decreased consciousness may be caused by: hypo/hyperthermia. Head injury: raised intracranial pressure. head injury hypoglycaemia stroke epilepsy It is important to understand, wherever possible, the cause of decreased consciousness; the scene may provide clues to assist in formulating a diagnosis: sub arachnoid haemorrhage overdose etc. any environmental factors, e.g. extreme cold, possible carbon monoxide sources? any evidence of tablets, ampoules, pill boxes, syringes, including domiciliary oxygen (O2), or administration devices, e.g. nebuliser machines? any evidence of alcohol, or medication abuse? (hypoxia) and/or PCO2 inadequate airway inadequate ventilation or depressed respiratory drive persistent hyperventilation. Remember that the patient history may give you valuable insight into the cause of the current condition. The following may be of great help in formulating your diagnosis; ask relatives or bystanders: is there any history of recent illness or pre-existing chronic illness e.g. diabetes, epilepsy? any past history of psychiatric problems? any preceding symptoms such as headache, ts, confusion? any history of trauma? Inadequate perfusion: hypovolaemia cardiac arrhythmias distributive shock neurogenic shock raised intracranial pressure. NOTE: Remember, an acute condition may be an exacerbation of a chronic condition or a new illness superimposed on top of a pre-existing problem. Altered metabolic states: hypoglycaemia/hyperglycaemia. Intoxication or poisoning: ASSESSMENT The primary survey should be used to assess and detect any TIME CRITICAL/POTENTIALLY TIME CRITICAL problems. drug overdose Assess ABCDs. alcohol intoxication carbon monoxide poisoning. NOTE: any patient with a decreased level of consciousness has a compromised airway. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Medical Emergencies in Adults Alterations in pO2 (hyper/hypocapnoea): HISTORY Decreased Level Of Consciousness Assess level of consciousness on AVPU scale (see below). A Alert V MANAGEMENT Follow Medical remembering to: Responds to voice Emergencies Guideline, TAKE A DEFIBRILLATOR TO THE INCIDENT many calls to unconscious patients are in fact cardiac arrests. P Responds to painful stimulus U Unresponsive Start correcting: Assess and note pupil size, equality and response to light. Assess blood glucose level and if hypoglycaemic (<4.0 mmol/l) or hypoglycaemia is clinically suspected, administer glucose 10% or glucagon (refer to glycaemic emergencies guideline). AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). Check for purposeful movement in all four limbs and note sensory function. Obtain IV access en-route. Apply pulse oximetry and ECG monitoring for detection of hidden hypoxia and arrhythmias (refer to oxygen and cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline). Look for any signicant injuries (especially to head). Medical Emergencies in Adults If any of these features are present, correct A and B problems then transport to nearest suitable receiving hospital. Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call. Continually re-assess ABCD: make special note of any trend in GCS or altered neurological function note any trend in blood pressure initiate appropriate treatments en-route. Specically consider: If NON TIME CRITICAL, perform a more thorough assessment and secondary survey. Include observations for: any evidence of trauma evidence of needle tracks/marks in the case of severe respiratory depression/arrest support ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: breath for ketones, alcohol and solvents if any suspicion of trauma, immobilise cervical spine and refer to trauma emergencies guidelines medic alert type jewellery (bracelets or necklets) which detail the patients primary health risk (e.g. diabetes, anaphylaxis, Addisons disease etc.) but also list a 24-hour telephone number to obtain a more detailed patient history warning stickers, often placed by the front door or the telephone, directing the health professional to a source of detailed information (one current scheme involves storing the patient details in a container in the fridge, as this is relatively easy to nd in the house) SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate if the level of consciousness deteriorates or respiratory depression develops in cases where an overdose with opiate-type drugs may be a possibility, consider naloxone (refer to naloxone drug protocol for dosages and information). In a patient with xed pinpoint pupils suspect opiate use/overdose patient-held warning cards, for example, those taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) medication. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 follow ADDITIONAL MEDICAL guidelines as indicated by the patients condition, e.g. cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline Medical Emergencies In Adults Decreased Level Of Consciousness provide a Hospital Alert Message/Information Call as required. Appendix 1 Glasgow Coma Scale GLASGOW COMA SCALE Item Score Eyes Opening: Spontaneously 4 To speech 3 To pain 2 None 1 Obeys commands 6 Localises pain 5 Withdraws from pain 4 Abnormal exion 3 Extensor response 2 No response to pain 1 Key Points Decreased level of Consciousness Maintain patent airway. Support ventilation if required. Address treatable causes. History obtain as much information as possible. Provide pre-alert. Motor Response: REFERENCES 1 Mackay CA, Burke DP, Burke JA, Porter KM, Bowden D, Gorman D. Association between the assessment of conscious level using the AVPU system and the Glasgow coma scale. Pre-Hospital Immediate Care 2000;4(1):17-9. Verbal Response: Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of Coma and Impaired Consciousness: A Practical Scale. The Lancet 1974;304(7872):81-84. Orientated 5 Confused 4 Inappropriate words 3 Incomprehensible sounds 2 No verbal response 2 Medical Emergencies in Adults commence correction of A and B problems on scene, then transport to nearest suitable receiving hospital 1 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Dyspnoea Difculty breathing is one of the most common causes of emergency calls for ambulance assistance and is the most common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits.2 Approximately 25-50% of dyspnoea patients presenting to the ED are admitted to hospital.3 Dyspnoea has many causes involving single and multiple organ systems.4 Asthma, cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, cardiac ischaemia, and interstitial lung disease account for approximately 85% of all ED cases of shortness of breath (treat specic cause as per relevant guideline).3 Less common medical causes of dyspnoea include pulmonary embolus, severe anaemia and hypertensive crisis. In trauma, pneumothorax, flail chest, lung contusion, and severe hypovolaemic shock may also cause severe breathing difculties. Acidosis following salicylate overdose or ketoacidosis also causes physiological hyperventilation (treat specic cause as per relevant guideline). It is important to identify the underlying cause of the breathing difculty. Evaluation and assessment of patients with a chief complaint of dyspnoea must include a detailed history and a thorough physical examination.3 does the patient find certain positions make matters worse? e.g. unable to lie down, must sit upright? Specic respiratory problems: asthma (refer to asthma guideline) COPD consider acute exacerbation (refer to COPD guideline) has there been a recent increase in own medication? history of pulmonary embolism pulmonary embolism guideline) any other diagnosed respiratory disorder? smoking. (refer to Specic cardiovascular problems: any previous cardiac events e.g. AMI? ischaemic heart disease (IHD) known heart failure left ventricular failure right ventricular failure Diagnosis can be difcult, even with the aid of a chest X-ray.3 Even so, pre-hospital carers have excellent diagnostic agreement with emergency physician diagnosis by organ system (USA).5 congestive heart failure cor pulmonale HISTORY A thorough history will help identify possible causes of dyspnoea. In particular ask the patient about: hypertension congenital heart problems some patients with acute myocardial infarction may have breathlessness as their only symptom. how long they have had difculty breathing? sudden onset? gradual onset? Other: other associated symptoms to help reach a diagnosis, e.g. constricting pain suggests angina / or possible myocardial infarction (refer to acute coronary syndrome guideline): hyperventilation syndrome (refer hyperventilation syndrome guideline): any relationship with pattern of breathing? recent surgery or immobilisation pre-disposing traumatic episodes is there any pain associated with breathing? any relationship with depth of respiration? does the patient have a cough? is it productive? what colour is the phlegm? Medical Emergencies in Adults to often accompanied by numbness and tingling in the limbs and around the mouth. ensure other more serious conditions are excluded before considering this diagnosis. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Medical Emergencies in Adults INTRODUCTION Dyspnoea Table 1 Evidence Based Differential Diagnosis for Common Conditions3,6-9 Pneumonia Pulmonary Embolism LVF Asthma Symptoms: Dyspnoea Fever Cough Dyspnoea Pleuritic chest pain Cough Leg pain Leg oedema Dyspnoea especially on exertion Orthopnoea/ nocturnal dyspnoea Dyspnoea Cough Unable to complete sentences Physical signs: Tachycardia Tachycardia Tachypnoea Fever ECG: Nonspecic ST-T wave changes Peripheral oedema Raised JVP Tachycardia Wheeze Tachypnoea Tachycardia Pulsus paradoxus Hyperresonant chest Accessory muscle use PEF<50% normal Auscultation sounds: Medical Emergencies in Adults Most common ndings Rhonchi Focal rales Rales Heart Murmur Rhonchi Decreased or absent breath sounds if severe History of: Smoking IHD Prolonged immobilisation Recent surgery Thrombotic disease IHD Hypertension Previous asthma Recent sharp increase in inhaler use Allergen exposure ASSESSMENT raised Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP) and peripheral oedema: heart failure obtain a 12-lead ECG and assess for acute cardiac events signs of anaphylaxis: Primary Survey Assess ABCDs Baseline Observations itchy rash Specically assess: facial swelling respiratory rate, effort and effectiveness of ventilation degree of dyspnoea1 (see additional Information) circulatory collapse where possible, assess on Vertical Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), or against another locally agreed scale. the adequacy of ventilation can be assessed by considering the ventilatory rate and depth (minute volume) productive cough, sputum or bubbling: auscultate the chest to determine: adequacy of air entry on both sides of the chest chest sounds: - audible wheeze on expiration asthma or LVF (especially in older patients with no history of asthma) - audible stridor upper airway narrowing (e.g. anaphylaxis or foreign body airway obstruction) Infection or heart failure - frothy white / pink sputum acute LVF - productive cough (yellow / green sputum): chest infection - haemoptysis: PE, chest infection, or CA lung - rales (crepitations) ne crackling in lung bases - rhonchi (harsher, rattling sound) collections of uid in larger airways pneumonia. percuss the chest to determine if there are collections of uid in the lungs Page 2 of 5 October 2006 - LVF Medical Emergencies In Adults Dyspnoea Evaluate TIME CRITICAL factors: Specically consider: These may include: anaphylaxis guideline asthma guideline COPD guideline pulmonary oedema guideline pulmonary embolism guideline thrombolysis syndrome Tension pneumothorax: consider needle decompression of the affected side, if suitably trained (refer to thoracic trauma guideline). extreme breathing difficulty, refer to medical emergencies, cyanosis, hypoxia i.e. saturation levels on pulse oximeter (SpO2) <95% or not responding to high concentration oxygen (O2) (see additional information). features of life threatening asthma, acute myocardial infarction (refer to thrombolysis and acute coronary syndrome guidelines), evidence of anaphylaxis, features of tension pneumothorax, or major chest trauma, if any of these features are present, correct A and B problems, give O2, LOAD AND GO to nearest suitable receiving hospital, applying appropriate individual treatment guideline en-route. provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information Call. coronary ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SpO2 level SpO2 levels <95% should be considered as hypoxia in all patients except COPD patients (refer to COPD guideline). Pulse oximetry readings may be affected by motion artefact10, carboxyhaemoglobin, and nail varnish. If problem from nail varnish then remove varnish or mount probe sideways on nger.1 Dyspnoea Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Follow medical emergencies guideline Validated Visual Analogue Scales have been used to assess subjective degree of dyspnoea in patients with asthma, COPD, LVF and dyspnoea on exertion.1,11-14 Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). The vertical scale was developed in response to difculty patients were having using the horizontal scale.1,15,16 consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 acute Reassess degree of dyspnoea after treatment MANAGEMENT and Continuous VAS scales can identify transient changes brought about by acute episodes of breathlessness, which discrete (0,1,2,3..10) scales cannot.17 However the use of the instrument requires that the patient has subjective awareness and cognitive function.1 The dyspnoea VAS is valid in assessing symptomatic changes and may detect small subjective improvements better than peak expiratory ow rate. In asthma, symptomatic improvement was seen in changes >0.5cm and clinically meaningful improvement seen in changes >2.2cm.18 VAS scales have been utilised in the pre-hospital eld to indicate the efcacy of different drug treatments.19,20 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate position for comfort (usually sitting upright). Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Medical Emergencies in Adults guideline Dyspnoea REFERENCES Visual Analogue Scale GREATEST BREATHLESSNESS 1 Medical Emergencies in Adults Parshall MB. Adult emergency visits for chronic cardiorespiratory disease: does dyspnea matter? Nursing Research 1999;48(2):62-70. 3 Michelson E, Hollrah S. Evaluation of the patient with shortness of breath: an evidence based approach. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 1999;17(1):221-37. 4 Mulrow CD, Lucey CR, Farnett LE. Discriminating causes of dyspnea through clinical examination. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1993;8(7):383-92. 5 Schaider JJ, Riccio JC, Rydman RJ, Pons PT. Paramedic diagnostic accuracy for patients complaining of chest pain or shortness of breath. 10(4), pp. 245-250. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 1995;10(4):245-50. British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. The BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. Thorax 2003;58(Supplement I):i1-i94. 7 Anonymous. The British guidelines on asthma management. 1995 review and position statement. British Thoracic Society, National Asthma Campaign, the General Practitioner in Asthma Group, the British Association of Accident and Emergency Medicine, the British Paediatric Respiratory Society and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Thorax 1997;52 (Suppl 1):S1-21. 8 Davies MK, Gibbs CR, Lip GY. ABC of heart failure: Investigation. BMJ 2000;320(7230):297-300. 9 Watson RD, Gibbs CR, Lip GY. ABC of heart failure: Clinical features and complications. BMJ 2000;320(7229):236-39. 10 Gehring H, Hornberger C, Matz H, Konecny E, Schmucker P. The effects of motion artifact and low perfusion on the performance of a new generation of pulse oximeters in volunteers undergoing hypoxemia. Respiratory Care 2002;47(1):48-60. 11 The patient marks a point on the line that corresponds with their perception of the severity of their sensation.1 2 6 A 10cm line with descriptive phrases indicating extremes of breathlessness. Frownfelter D, Ryan J. Dyspnea Measurement and evaluation. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal 2000;11(1):7-15. Grant S, Aitchison T, Henderson E, Christie J, Zare S, McMurray J. A comparison of the reproducibility and the sensitivity to change of visual analogue scales, Borg scales, and Likert scales in normal subjects during submaximal exercise. Chest 1999;116(5):1208-1217. The interval is measured in mm along the line. Changes in perception of dyspnoea are noted as moving towards less or more shortness of breath. NO BREATHLESSNESS Key Points Dyspnoea Is breathlessness of respiratory, cardiac, both or other causes? Saturation levels of oxygen <95% are considered hypoxic. The visual analogue score is a useful indicator as to the level of dyspnoea and response to treatment. Oxygen therapy is essential in dyspnoeic patients; a diagnosis of COPD is not a contraindication to its administration. Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Dyspnoea Wilson RC, Jones PW. A comparison of the visual analogue scale and modied Borg scale for the measurement of dyspnoea during exercise. Clinical Science 1989;76(3):277-282. 12 Mahler DA. The measurement of dyspnea during exercise in patients with lung disease. Chest 1992;101(5 Suppl):242S-247S. 14 Noseda A, Schmerber J, Prigogine T, Yernault JC. Perceived effect on shortness of breath of an acute inhalation of saline or terbutaline: variability and sensitivity of a visual analogue scale in patients with asthma or COPD. European Respiratory Journal 1992;5(9):1043-53. 15 Gift AG, Plaut SM, Jacob A. Psychologic and physiologic factors related to dyspnea in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Heart & Lung: Journal of Critical Care 1986;15(6):595-601. 16 Roberts DK, Thorne SE, Pearson C. The experience of dyspnoea in late stage cancer: patients and nurses perpectives. Cancer Nursing 1993;16(4):310-20. 17 Harty HR, Heywood P, Adams L. Comparison between continuous and discrete measurements of breathlessness during exercise in normal subjects using a visual analogue scale. Clinical Science 1993;85(2):229-36. 18 Karras DJ, Sammon ME, Terregino CA, Lopez BL, Griswold SK, Arnold GK. Clinically meaningful changes in quantitative measures of asthma severity. Acad Emerg Med 2000;7(4):327-34. 19 Campbell IA, Colman SB, Mao JH, Prescott RJ, Weston CF. An open, prospective comparison of beta 2 agonists given via nebuliser, Nebuhaler, or pressurised inhaler by ambulance crew as emergency treatment. Thorax 1995;50(1):79-80. 20 Zehner WJJ, Scott JM, Iannolo PM, Ungaro A, Terndrup TE. Terbutaline vs albuterol for out-ofhospital respiratory distress: randomized, double-blind trial. Acad Emerg Med 1995;2(8):686-91. Medical Emergencies in Adults 13 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Headache HISTORY Take a full history and determine the most probable causes of the headache (see additional information). Exclude history of stroke (refer to stroke/transient ischaemic attack guideline), head injury (refer to head trauma guideline) and glycaemic emergency (refer to glycaemic emergencies guideline). Is the headache severe? Is it the most severe ever experienced by this patient? Is this an unfamiliar type of headache? any evidence of a rash check for loss of function or altered sensation ushed face but cool, pale trunk and extremities Headache is a common presenting problem met by emergency ambulance crews. Its origins may be simple, and require no more than simple painkillers, or be potentially TIME CRITICAL, caused by meningitis or subarachnoid haemorrhage. neck stiffness and photophobia (light sensitivity of eyes) check blood glucose level. Evaluate whether any TIME CRITICAL features are present: These may include: impaired consciousness, and/or tting respiratory depression signs of septic shock tachycardia, hypotension, impaired consciousness, high temperature often >39C purpuric skin rash suspicion of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) suspicion of meningitis. Has the patient had this type of headache before? Is the headache progressive and escalating in severity? Was it a sudden onset? If any of these features are present, correct A and B problems then transport to nearest suitable receiving Hospital. Is there loss of function or sensation? Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call Is there any impairment of consciousness? Any visual symptoms or associated vomiting? En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). Is the headache one-sided, (frontal) or at the back of the head (occipital) and/or associated with neck stiffness? MANAGEMENT Follow medical emergencies guideline, remembering to: ASSESSMENT Start correcting: Assess: ABCDs AIRWAY Specically assess: BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) levels of consciousness AVPU (see below) (remember the only normal GCS is 15) A Alert Oxygen and uid therapy is not usually required, but should be administered if: V oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline and oxygen protocol) if there is evidence of poor tissue perfusion (refer to medical emergencies). Responds to voice P Responds to painful stimulus U Unresponsive temperature respiratory rate/pulse oximetry blood pressure systolic/diastolic) (measure Medical Emergencies in Adults Specically consider: to determine position for comfort. October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Medical Emergencies in Adults INTRODUCTION Headache HOSPITAL ASSESSMENTS It is often difcult to differentiate between a simple headache which requires no treatment and a potentially more serious condition. The following list identifies symptoms that require the patient to undergo hospital assessment: NOTE: this does not mean that any patient presenting without these symptoms is automatically safe to be left at home. Finding: headache of severe, sudden (thunderclap) onset headache localised to the vertex escalating unfamiliar headache changed visual acuity meningeal irritation changed mental state and inappropriate behaviour newly presenting ataxia. Classically, causes sudden onset blinding headache, commonly described as like a blow to the back of the head. This may be associated with vomiting and range in severity from isolated headache to causing unconsciousness. SAH may also present as a gradually worsening crescendo headache associated with so called trickle haemorrhage. SAH may present as a sudden collapse, with or without a headache, sometimes with apparent full recovery. These patients should not be left at home and require full hospital assessment. Neck stiffness may also be a sign of SAH. Cerebral haemorrhage (bleeding into the brain itself) often causes a similar acute picture in older patients. Migraine Medical Emergencies in Adults ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Neck stiffness Can be assessed by gently trying to ex the head forwards in the lying position, resistance and pain suggest neck stiffness, however, the absence of neck stiffness does not exclude meningitis (particularly in children under 1-year of age). Commonly causes recurrent one-sided headache, often accompanied by nausea or vomiting and blurring distortion of vision. There is frequently a previous history of migraine or similar pattern of headaches but this does not exclude the possibility of a serious bleed in someone who has previously suffered migraines. Sinusitis and common virus infections Can all cause quite severe frontal headache. Meningitis and/or septicaemia Meningitis is caused by either viral or bacterial infection. The most severe forms are usually bacterial and the meningococcal type is particularly dangerous, especially in children. Meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia are different illnesses and may occur separately or present together. The infection may start as a sore throat and temperature, but proceeds to headache, temperature, stiff neck, photophobia (light sensitivity) and impaired consciousness. Fitting and coma may also follow, along with a purpuric type of skin rash. Meningococcal disease may present without the classical signs of septicaemia (rash and photophobia). Be alert and remain suspicious. Beware of altered clinical presentations in partially treated infectious conditions. Meningococcal disease in children, especially very young, may present with only drowsiness, high temperature and signs of recent upper respiratory infection (sore throat or even ear infection), and often have no headache or neck stiffness. The key need in children is to recognise, and react to the seriously ill child (refer to recognition of the Sseriously ill child guideline). (SAH) ubarachnoid haemorrhage Page 2 of 2 Glaucoma (acutely raised pressure in the eye) Is a cause of severe one-sided headache, particularly in elderly patients. Key Points Headache Crescendo headaches are signicant. Unfamiliar headaches are signicant. Migraineurs are at risk of serious intracranial events. In headache, blood pressure must be checked. Any persistent headache or any headache associated with altered conscious levels or unusual behavior is signicant. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Mental Disorder Mental disorder is very common at all ages. It affects one person in four at some point during their life. It varies from anxiety and phobic states and mild depression through to serious disorders including severe depression bipolar affective disorders and schizophrenia. Some of the severe disorders may be recurrent, relapsing and remitting, and enduring. Other disorders may be provoked or maintained by or associated with consumption of alcohol and other substances. The presentation may be a rst contact with a patient who has a new disorder or a person with an exacerbation of a chronic problem that the mental health services already know about. Most patients have insight into their problems. Others may have impaired insight or lack it. Some of them may voluntarily agree to accept help whether or not they have insight and / or capacity. However, others may need to be compelled to receive an assessment and treatment, possibly against their will, usually using powers given by the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales). In addition, there may be a physical disease or substance-related (including conditions related to licitly prescribed, and non-prescribed, licit or illicit substances) cause for altered mental states that, usually, resolve with treatment of the underlying problem. DEFINITIONS Often, colloquially, all problems and disorders that affect peoples mental health are referred to as mental health problems. Such broad use of this term gives little indication of the severity of the condition or of the likely course of events in particular patients circumstances. Sometimes, people who have a severe mental disorder are described as having a mental illness. This guideline uses the term mental disorder to distinguish those conditions that are primarily related to peoples mental ill health from the very common and understandable anxieties and emotional reactions of people who are casualties or who require an ambulance service for any other reason. of the clinicians to achieve a conversation and then assessment. Non-verbal indicators such as the patients appearance or level of agitation should be noted as part of the risk assessment. The environment may give important clues, such as the presence of medication or a backdrop of chaotic living conditions. Do not rush. A distressed person may react very badly to rush and hurry. Take time to explain your actions to both the patient and the relatives and always endeavour to be honest about what you are going to do and what is likely to happen. History As with any presentation, a history outlining the nature of the complaint is required. This should be carefully explored, with particular reference to previous mental health service involvement, prescription medication, the level of alcohol use and potential substance misuse. Details of the nature of the problem, the presence of hallucinations or delusions, whether visual or auditory, and the patients thoughts about their experiences and problems are key. Examination Physical illness can present as an apparent mental health problem and clinical examination and testing is needed to exclude causes such as hypoglycaemia, head injury, meningitis/encephalitis and intoxication. As part of the assessment of mental state, note should be taken of the following: ABNORMAL APPEARANCE/BEHAVIOUR: anxiety agitation mood orientation in time, place and person lack of attention/concentration/distraction poor memory unusual form/content of speech ASSESSMENT expressed thoughts Approach beliefs/hallucinations being described. Many patients are upset, distressed, anxious, suspicious, disorientated or agitated when faced by Ambulance Clinicians. While considering their own safety, the approach taken by ambulance crews to patients whose behaviour appears concerning should be calm and gradual, relying on the persuasive powers If possible, a physical examination with primary observations should be undertaken and recorded. The other features are established from the nature of the consultation and by observation. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Medical Emergencies in Adults INTRODUCTION Mental Disorder CAPACITY Each Ambulance Service should have a formal process or protocol for establishing the capacity of patients to consent to assessment and to being transported for further care. When patients are willing to accept the assistance offered, there is little difculty. If they have capacity and decide that they do not wish to accept the treatment offered, then, usually, this must be respected. It is good practice to inform the patients General Practitioner and the identied Social Worker, if there is one, about this decision. The process should be thoroughly documented using the Ambulance Trust process. Application for powers to compulsorily assess and treat mentally disordered patients in the face of their refusal Medical Emergencies in Adults Readers should be aware that, in the current mental health law in England and Wales, application for patients detention, and compulsory assessment and treatment, against their will if necessary, does not turn directly on tests of capacity, but on certain features of the nature and degree of their mental state and any mental disorder thought to be present at initial assessment, and certain circumstances relating to their needs and risks to themselves and others. Most patients who are detained using the Mental Health Act 1983 do have impaired capacity for their mental disorder, at least, but it is possible that some may not. Also, some incapacitous patients may not satisfy the conditions for compulsory detention, assessment or treatment. Therefore, assessment of patients in these circumstances is a specialised matter. Ambulance clinicians should seek the advice of a Doctor and / or an Approved Social Worker (ASW) if they think that a patient is in this situation. In the event of refusal and provided that certain conditions are satised, then legislation allows for compulsory admission of patients to an appropriate facility for assessment under a Section of the Mental Health Act 1983 for England and Wales (Scotland implemented new Mental Capacity legislation and a new Mental Health Act in 2005). Due note should be taken of capacity or its impairment in particular cases as a component of assessments of mental state and the potential requirement for application for compulsory powers. Applications are most often made by an ASW after their own assessment and require recommendations from at least one, but, usually, two medical practitioners. In the vast majority of circumstances, at least one of the medical practitioners has, or is required to have, special experience in assessing and managing mental Page 2 of 4 disorders that is substantiated by their recognition under section 12(2) of the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales). Plainly, conducting this process can take time. Reasonable and proportionate steps can be taken to prevent patients from immediately harming themselves or posing a risk to others while awaiting this assessment, but if physical restraint is required, the Police should be involved. Authority to move patients against their will must come from the ASW who acquires the power to convey patients and to request the support of ambulance staff and / or the police once he or she has made a formal application using the Act. Moving some patients may require the assistance of the Police. MANAGEMENT Risk Assessment A full risk assessment usually involves a thorough assessment. Not all aspects can be carried out by Ambulance Clinicians in emergency circumstances. One of the most concerning aspects of risk assessment relates to a patients potential for selfharm and, possibly, suicide. This guideline includes a brief method for assessing these risks in Appendix 1. Violence Ambulance crews should make an assessment of their personal risk when approaching upset, distressed, disorientated, agitated or threatening patients. If the risk is considered signicant, the Police should be called to assist. Safe restraint can only be provided safely with sufcient trained people. It needs more than two people! Specic Mental Disorders MOOD, STRESS-RELATED AND ANXIETY DISORDERS These are the most common groups of problems and often represent the extremes of normal emotion. Depression, panic disorder, phobias and obsessional conditions fall into this category. There may be considerable distress, but the patient usually has insight into their problem. PSYCHOSIS This is a general term that describes a group of disorders in which the patient tends to be severely distressed and may not appear to be rational. They may interpret events in a manner that does not appear October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Mental Disorder Table 2 Drugs used in mental health Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently used drugs in this category. They can be used to help induce sleep and also to reduce anxiety. In excess they are principally sedative. Antidepressants MANIA / HYPOMANIA Hypnotics /Anxiolytics This category includes a number of different groups of drugs that are used over months rather than days, and some types may take up to three weeks to begin to show an effect. Some of the older drugs, the tricyclic antidepressants, are very dangerous in excess. Agitation followed by sedation and cardiac dysrhythmias are the most signicant effects in poisoning. The newer antidepressants, such as the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used much more often now. They too can cause signicant side-effects too. These patients are often overactive and may have not slept properly for days. They tend to be obsessional and persistent in their behaviour. They have rapid thought processes and tend to tire out their relatives and friends. Patients with mania often suffer from delusions, often delusions of grandeur. SCHIZOPHRENIA This is a common and often severe mental illness. It may present acutely with severe change in behaviour or insidiously as a slow but progressive change over a period of time. A patient may be deluded. This means that he or she may strongly hold beliefs that appear inappropriate to the assessor in the context of the patients life, culture, and circumstances. Auditory hallucinations (false perceptions in which the patient can hear voices, not heard by others, that are talking to them or to another about them) may be a feature, and can cause great distress. Their behaviour may be reported by other people as seriously disordered or irrational, or the patient may show patterns of behaviour and speech that suggest that they might have hallucinations and / or delusions, or they may report such occurrences. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are now little used, except in cases that have been resistant to more recently developed drugs. The group has an important range of severe drug interactions and, in the ambulance context, morphine and nalbuphine must be avoided. As an interaction, they can cause a dangerous increase in blood pressure. Ambulance clinicians should be aware that these features can also occur in the presence of physical disease, intoxication with licitly or illicitly obtained substances, and under the inuence of psychotropic drugs. Antipsychotics PARANOIA Paranoia can be a feature of both depression and schizophrenia and is normally associated with the patient suffering delusions of persecution. They can be extremely suspicious and can react unpredictably, aggressively or violently. Care should be taken to provide reassurance and avoid provocation. Medical Emergencies in Adults October 2006 Also known as neuroleptics, these drugs can be taken orally or given by injection and are powerful tranquillizers. They can be used in acute situations to sedate, but are most frequently used in the medium to longterm management of disorders such as schizophrenia. Page 3 of 4 Medical Emergencies in Adults to be appropriately in touch with reality. They may have strongly-held beliefs that are unusual or unsubstantiated by events. In this situation, they may be described as having delusions. Patients may perceive voices that are not heard by others (called auditory hallucinations). Thus, delusions and hallucinations and impaired insight may appear to assessors to be core symptoms. Mental Disorder COMPULSORY ASSESSMENT, TREATMENT AND DETENTION USING THE MENTAL HEALTH ACT 1983 Key Points Mental disorder In a situation in which there is a distressed patient who appears to be suffering from a mental illness: Ambulance clinicians should consider their personal safety before approaching the patient A history and examination should also include an assessment of the mental state of the patient Capacity to consent must be assessed In certain circumstances in which risk of harm to the patient or to others is thought to relate to a disordered mental state, the patient should be protected from causing further harm to themselves or others; an ASW and a Doctor should be asked to assess the patient and consider application for a Section under the Mental Health Act 1983. The principal series of orders from the Mental Health Act 19831 (England and Wales) that are applicable to the prehospital environment are described here. The legislation allows for patients compulsory admission to hospital. Its use requires a formal application to be made, usually by an ASW (who is specially trained and authorised to do this work), but, occasionally, the patients nearest relative (the nearest relative is also dened by law for this purpose), but applications also require medical recommendation(s). There are extensive safeguards to prevent abuse of these powers, but, in essence, ambulance crews may be lawfully empowered by the ASW to convey a patient against the patients wishes. If there are concerns about the safety of the patient or the clinicians, the Police should be requested to assist. Section 2 Admission for Assessment Medical Emergencies in Adults This allows for admission for a period of up to 28 days primarily for the purposes of assessing a person suffering from a mental disorder of a nature or degree that warrants detention and where it is in their own interests or the interests of public safety. Section 3 Admission for Treatment With similar criteria for application as Section 2, this order allows for admission for up to six months and is used to compel treatment of the patient. The ASW requires the consent of the nearest relative. Section 4 Admission for Assessment in an Emergency Admission for a period of 72 hours can be compelled on the application of an ASW or the nearest relative with the recommendation of one Doctor who has prior knowledge of the patient (often the patients General Practitioner). The applicant should have seen the patient in the previous 24 hours. REFERENCE 1 Bluglass R, Beedie MA. Mental Health Act 1983. British medical journal (Clinical research ed) 1983;287(6388):359-60. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Appendix 1 Suicide and Self-harm Risk Assessment Form Item Sex: female Page 4 of 4 1 Age: greater than 45 years old 1 Depression / Hopelessness 1 Previous attempts at self harm 1 Evidence of excess alcohol / illicit drug use 1 Rational thinking absent 1 Separated / Divorced / Widowed 1 Organised or Serious attempt 1 Section 136 Place of Safety Order (public) Section 136 empowers the Police to remove a person who appears to be suffering from a mental disorder from a public place to a Place of Safety for the purposes of assessment by an ASW and a Doctor. A Place of Safety may be the local Police Station or a hospital but this should be dened and agreed locally and in advance. Local arrangements will apply in respect of where the Doctors who assess the patients subject to Section 136 come from. 1 Age: less than 19 years old Patient Score 0 Sex: male Section 135 Place of Safety Order (private) Section 135 allows magistrates to make an order that empowers the Police to enter a private dwelling for the purpose of removing a person thought to be suffering from a mental illness to a Place of Safety. The ASW who applied for the order must be present during the execution of the warrant. Value No close / reliable family, job or active religious afliation 1 Determined to repeat or ambivalent 1 Total patient score < 3 = Low Risk 3-6 = Medium Risk > 6 = High Risk October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Non-Traumatic Chest Pain/Discomfort INTRODUCTION Associated signs and symptoms Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The following associated signs and symptoms are as important as the pain itself and are all strongly indicative of cardiac origin: It is also a common feature in many other non-cardiac conditions such as chest infection with pleuritic pain, pulmonary embolus, reux oesophagitis, indigestion, and simple musculoskeletal chest pain. There must be a high index of suspicion that any chest pain is cardiac in origin. nausea vomiting sweating radiation of pain to the arm(s). If breathlessness is a predominant symptom/sign with tightness in the chest then causes of breathlessness must be considered. Taking and assessing a history There are a number of specic factors that may help in reaching a reasoned working diagnosis, and applying appropriate management measures to the patient. ACS cannot be excluded on clinical examination (refer to ACS guideline). Is there a previous history of coronary heart disease? Nature and location of the pain Ask about: Pleuritic pain is associated with chest infection and pneumonia producing a stabbing, generally one-sided pain that is worse on breathing in. Patients with pleuritic chest pain, associated with infection, usually have a cough with sputum, and may well have a raised temperature (>37.5C). Most pain associated with indigestion is central, related to food and may be associated with belching and burning in nature. However, some patients with myocardial infarction may also get indigestion type pain and belching. Muscular pain tends to be sharp/stabbing, is worse on movement and often associated with tenderness. time of onset duration characteristics (type of pain including radiation) ASSESSMENT aggravating and alleviating factors. Assess: ABCDs Specically look at the patients general appearance, typical presentations include: Myocardial infarction and angina pain: Myocardial Infarction (MI) pale with cold sweaty extremities chest infection good colour with warm sweaty extremities tends to be central in the chest and constricting in nature. musculoskeletal normal appearance. It may, however, present in: the shoulders upper abdomen referred to the neck, jaws and arms. Assess for accompanying features: breathlessness (including respiratory rate) tends to last minutes in duration, but should it persist for more than 15-20 minutes, or despite usual treatment, myocardial infarction is more likely. pallor Anginal pain: sweating cough. Evaluate if any TIME CRITICAL features are present, these may include: all cardiac related chest pain is time critical respiratory rate <10 or >30 breaths per minute oxygen saturation (SpO2) <95% in air Medical Emergencies in Adults any major ABCD problems. October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Medical Emergencies in Adults HISTORY Non-Traumatic Chest Pain/Discomfort If any of these features are present, CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE THEN COMMENCE TRANSPORT to nearest suitable receiving Hospital. Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call. This should be routine practice for ANY potentially cardiac related chest pain. REFERENCES Refer to individual guidelines. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. En-Route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). MANAGEMENT Management of chest pain (for cardiac chest pain refer to ACS guideline) Follow the medical emergencies guideline: Start correcting: AIRWAY Medical Emergencies in Adults BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) specifically record respiratory rate and blood pressure 12-lead ECG for all chest pains (NOTE: may be normal initially in MI) monitor with ECG for arrhythmias undertake pulse oximetry administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) record pain score and consider analgesia (refer to pain management guidelines). Key Points Non-Traumatic Chest Pain / Discomfort Think cardiac rst. Assess nature of pain and associated symptoms. Assess patients general appearance. 12lead ECG for all chest pains. ECG monitor for all chest pains. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Medical Emergencies In Adults Acute Coronary Syndrome INTRODUCTION Associated symptoms Chest pain is one of the commonest reasons for seeking emergency medical advice. Nausea and vomiting are common and the patient may express feelings of impending doom. Chest pain is a cardinal, but not the only, symptom of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or heart attack. The patient may be pale and the skin clammy and cold to the touch. Time is of the essence in restoring coronary blood flow in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The benefits of reperfusion by thrombolytic treatment or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are timedependent. Patients with STEMI who are ineligible for thrombolysis have a high mortality rate and should be referred for PCI where facilities exist.1-5 Patients with non-STEMI and unstable angina manifestations of ACS are at signicant risk of death and should be treated as medical emergencies. MANAGEMENT In patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome: ensure a debrillator is immediately available and stays with the patient administer aspirin (refer to the aspirin drug protocol for dosages and information)1,5 administer glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) (refer to the GTN drug protocol for dosages and information) for patients with ongoing ischaemic discomfort administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline)6 via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Resuscitation The risk of cardiac arrest from ventricular brillation (VF) or other arrhythmia is highest in the rst few hours from symptom onset. VF can occur without warning. A third to one half of deaths from myocardial infarction (MI) occur before hospitalisation. Survival from VF occurring in the presence of ambulance personnel with a debrillator immediately available is as high as 40%. This falls rapidly to 2% or less if the debrillator is not immediately available. NOTE: the best place for further assessment and treatment is in the ambulance, to where the patient should be moved at the earliest safe opportunity. It is usually safe and feasible to undertake the following actions while en-route to hospital: monitor ECG for arrhythmias obtain intravenous access monitor vital signs repeat dose of GTN if chest discomfort persists A debrillator must always be taken, at the earliest opportunity, to patients with symptoms suggestive of a heart attack and remain with the patient until handover to hospital staff.1,4,5 assess pain score and administer morphine as required IV with anti-emetic cover record 12-lead ECG ASSESSMENT The pain associated with ACS typically comes on over seconds and minutes rather than starting abruptly. The classical presentation is of central chest pain which is constricting in nature and may radiate to the left arm and neck. Many patients do not have classical presentation as described above and some people, especially the elderly, and those with diabetes, may not experience pain as their chief complaint. This group have a high mortality rate. Specic Treatment Options Patients with ECG evidence of STEMI should be assessed for suitability for reperfusion treatment with thrombolysis (refer to the thrombolysis drug protocol for dosages and information) or PCI according to local arrangements. Thrombolytic treatment is increasingly provided by Paramedics in the pre-hospital setting.1,2,5 Patients with STEMI but ineligible for thrombolysis (e.g. advanced age, severe hypertension, recent surgery) or in cardiogenic shock should be transferred as an emergency to a suitably experienced centre for PCI according to local arrangements.1,2,5 October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Specic Treatment Options Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the commonest single cause of death in the UK. Acute Coronary Syndrome PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES SHOULD BE TRANSFERRED TO HOSPITAL AS BLUE LIGHT EMERGENCIES REFERENCES Arntz HR, Bossaert L, Carli P. Recommendations of a task force of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Resuscitation Council on the prehospital management of acute heart attacks. Resuscitation 1998;38(73-98). 2 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 1 Authors/Task Force M, Silber S, Albertsson P, Aviles FF, Camici PG, Colombo A, et al. Guidelines for Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: The Task Force for Percutaneous Coronary Interventions of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2005;26(8):804-847. 3 Morrison LJ, Verbeek PR, McDonald AC. Mortality and pre-hospital thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarctiona meta analysis. JAMA 2000;283:2686-92. 4 Erhardt L, Herlitz J, Bossaert L, Halinen M, Keltai M, Koster R, et al. Task force on the management of chest pain. Eur Heart J 2002;23(15):1153-1176. 5 Van de Werf F, Ardissino D, Betriu A, Cokkinos DV, Falk E, Fox KAA, et al. Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with STsegment elevation. The Task Force on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. European heart journal 2003;24(1):28-66. 6 Nicholson C. A systematic review of the effectiveness of oxygen in reducing acute myocardial ischaemia. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2004;13(8):996-1007. 7 Morrison LJ, Brooks S, Sawadsky B, McDonald A, Verbeek PR. Prehospital 12-lead Electrocardiography Impact on Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment Times and Mortality: A Systematic Review. Acad Emerg Med 2006;13(1):84-89. The treatment of patients with ACS is a rapidly developing area of medicine. National and international standards and guidelines for ACS care consistently emphasise the importance of rapid access to debrillation and reperfusion.7 Pre-alerting the hospital can speed up appropriate treatment of STEMI patients. In high performing urban systems this may be all that is required to achieve very rapid treatment times. The aim of reperfusion treatment, whether by thrombolysis or PCI, is rapid restoration of coronary blood ow to limit heart damage and reduce mortality. Pre-hospital thrombolysis reduces all-cause mortality compared with hospital thrombolysis and reduces treatment delay by 60 minutes on average. Primary PCI is of proven superiority to hospital thrombolysis, especially when PCI is provided in high volume, experienced specialist centres. Primary PCI has not been proven superior to very early thrombolysis (within 3 hours of symptom onset) in reducing mortality, but has the advantage of lower bleeding risk. Key Points Acute Coronary Syndrome Specic Treatment Options Chest pain is a cardinal, but not the only, symptom of ACS. Take drugs, oxygen and a debrillator to the patient. Patients with ECG evidence of STEMI should be assessed for suitability for reperfusion treatment with thrombolysis or PCI according to local arrangements. The best place for further assessment and treatment is in the ambulance, to where the patient should be moved at the earliest safe opportunity. Patients with STEMI but ineligible for thrombolysis (e.g. advanced age, severe hypertension, recent surgery) or in cardiogenic shock should be transferred as an emergency to a suitably experienced centre for PCI. Page 2 of 2 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Anaphylaxis/ Allergic Reactions in Adults INTRODUCTION Allergic reactions exist on a continuum from mild urticaria (hives) and/or angio-oedema (swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and tongue) to major pulmonary and/or cardiovascular compromise. The extreme end of the spectrum is anaphylaxis which can affect the cardiovascular, pulmonary, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal systems. It is an acute, life-threatening response in patients previously sensitised to an allergen. In general, the longer it takes for anaphylactic symptoms to develop, the less severe the overall reaction. If the history is compatible, i.e. exposure to a possible precipitant, consider an acute allergic reaction when the patient presents with: an acute onset of illness (minutes to hours) and cutaneous ndings (e.g. urticaria and/or angiooedema). Suspect an anaphylactic reaction if, in addition to the above, the patients condition has deteriorated to include: airway compromise (e.g. dyspnoea, hoarseness, stridor, wheeze, throat or chest tightness) and/or cardiovascular symptoms (e.g. hypotension, syncope, pronounced tachycardia). Table 1 Common precipitants Food-induced anaphylaxis Food is the most common cause of anaphylaxis, particularly peanuts, tree nuts (e.g. hazel, brazil, walnut), sh and shellsh. Facial oedema, laryngeal oedema and respiratory difculty usually predominate. NOTE: Urticaria and/or angio-oedema are absent in 10%-15% of anaphylactic reactions but consider the diagnosis in an otherwise typical presentation. Gastrointestinal oedema/ hypermotility can result from an anaphylactic event; patients present with colicky abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Patients may report a sense of doom. Insect stinginduced anaphylaxis Insect stings are the second most common cause. Bees may leave a venom sac which should be scraped off (not squeezed). Injected allergens commonly result in cardiovascular compromise, with hypotension and shock predominating. If signs of anaphylaxis are identied, immediately correct A and B problems (administer oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) and adrenaline (refer to adrenaline protocol for administration and information), then prealert and transfer to the nearest suitable hospital as an emergency case. Continue management en-route. Other causes Medications, particularly penicillin, account for a large percentage of anaphylactic reactions. Slow release drugs prolong absorption and exposure to the allergen. Include semen. latex, exercise, ASSESSMENT1-4 Primary Survey Specically assess: airway patency (auscultation, pulse oximetry, and peak expiratory ow (PEF) if possible) cardiovascular status (ECG and BP) a systolic blood pressure <90mmHg indicates hypotension if the patient has a history of allergic/ anaphylactic reactions if the patient has used their own home autoinjector (Epipen) monoamine-oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) or tricyclic antidepressants increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, therefore patients taking MAOIs or tricyclic antidepressants should receive only 50% of the usual dose of adrenaline. and Assess ABCDs Examine skin for: urticaria swelling around or within the mouth. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options Drug-induced anaphylaxis Some patients relapse hours after an apparent recovery (biphasic response), therefore: patients who have experienced an anaphylactic reaction should be transferred to hospital for further evaluation. Anaphylaxis/ Allergic Reactions in Adults If the patient has taken beta-adrenergic blockers, these may mask the signs of anaphylaxis and diminish the effects of adrenaline. obtain IV access if possible but DO NOT delay transfer to hospital consider nebulised salbutamol (refer to salbutamol protocol for dosages and information) for bronchospasm resistant to IM epinephrine Allergic Reaction: if haemodynamically compromised, place the patient in the recumbent position with lower limbs elevated, if tolerated (unhelpful with breathing difculties) MANAGEMENT3-12 administer chlorphenamine IV (refer to chlorphenamine protocol for dosages and information) consider titrating aliquots of 250 millilitres crystalloid solution if hypotension does not respond rapidly to drug treatment monitor and re-assess ABCs including ECG, PEF (if possible), BP and pulse oximetry, en-route. Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION determine whether the history and physical ndings are compatible with an allergic reaction quickly remove the triggering source (if possible) consider chlorphenamine (IV) (refer to chlorphenamine protocol for dosages and information) if the symptoms are causing the patient pain or distress. The balance between relief of symptoms and having to cannulate the patient should be carefully considered. Key Points Anaphylaxis/allergic reactions Anaphylaxis: Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION determine whether the history and physical ndings are compatible with anaphylaxis (early diagnosis and management dramatically improves outcome) quickly remove the triggering source (if possible) Specic Treatment Options administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Anaphylaxis can occur despite a long history of previously safe exposure to a potential trigger. Consider anaphylaxis in the presence of acute cutaneous symptoms and airway or cardiovascular compromise. Anaphylaxis may be rapid, slow or biphasic. Oxygen and adrenaline 1:1,000 are the key drugs for managing anaphylaxis. The benet of using appropriate doses of epinephrine (IM) far exceeds any risk. administer adrenaline (IM) (refer to adrenaline protocol for dosages and information) where call to hospital time is likely to be over 30 minutes consider hydrocortisone (refer to hydrocortisone protocol for dosages and information) Its effect can take 4-6 hours but it may minimise the likelihood and severity of a biphasic response Page 2 of 3 REFERENCES 1 Brown SG. Clinical features and severity grading of anaphylaxis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2004;114(2):371-6. 2 Kane KE, Cone DC. Anaphylaxis in the pre-hospital setting. The Journal of emergency medicine 2004;27(4):371-7. 3 McLean-Tooke AP, Bethune CA, Fay AC, Spickett GP. Adrenaline in the treatment of anaphylaxis: what is the evidence? BMJ 2003;327(7427):1332-5. 4 Chamberlain D, Fisher J, Ward M, Cant A, Dawson P, Ewan P, et al. The Emergency Medical Treatment of Anaphylactic Reactions for First Medical Responders and for Community Nurses Resuscitation Council (UK): Available from http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/reaction.htm, 2005. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Anaphylaxis/ Allergic Reactions in Adults 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Langran M, Laird C. Management of allergy, rashes and itching. Emergency Medical Journal 2004;21:728-741. Lieberman P, Kemp S, Oppenheimer J, Lang D, Bernstein I, Nicklas R. The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis: an updated practice parameter. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005;115:S483-523. Pumphrey RS. Lessons anaphylaxis from a study of and experimental allergy : Society for Allergy and 2000;30(8):1144-50. for management of fatal reactions. Clinical journal of the British Clinical Immunology Electronic databases searched: MEDLINE (Ovid) CINAHL (Ovid) COCHRANE (Ovid) EMBASE (Ovid) BRITISH NURSING INDEX (Ovid) The dates were limited to 2000 onwards. Only articles relevant to pre-hospital care were reviewed. Search strategy: 1. Sampson HA. Anaphylaxis and emergency treatment. Pediatrics 2003;111(6) Pt 3:1601-8. Sampson HA, Muoz-Furlong A, Bock SA, Schmitt C, Bass R, Chowdhury BA, et al. Symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2005;115(3):584-91. Thompson K, Chandra R. The management and prevention of food anaphylaxis. Nutrition Research 2002;22:89-110. Afliation: Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health UKCAPToTRC. Update on the emergency medical treatment of anaphylactic reactions for rst medical responders and for community nurses. Resuscitation 2001;48(3):241-3. Project Team of The Resuscitation Council (UK). Update on the emergency medical treatment of anaphylactic reactions for rst medical responders and for community nurses. Resuscitation 2001;48(3):241-3. exp EMERGENCY CARE/ 3. exp EMERGENCY TREATMENT/ 4. exp EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES/ 5. or/1-4 6. exp HYPERSENSITIVITY/ 7. exp ANAPHYLAXIS/ 8. (anaphyla$ or allerg$).tw. 9. 6 and 8 10. (5 and 7) or (5 and 9) 11. limit 10 to yr=2000-2005 12. limit 11 to English 13. remove duplicates from 12 Brown AF, McKinnon D, Chu K. Emergency department anaphylaxis: A review of 142 patients in a single year. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2001;108(5):861-6. 14 2. Sheikh A, Alves B. Age, sex, geographical and socio-economic variations in admissions for anaphylaxis: analysis of four years of English hospital data. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2001;31(10):1571-1576. Specic Treatment Options 13 first aid/ or emergency health service/ or emergency service/ METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section; see below for anaphylaxis/allergic reactions search strategy. Anaphylaxis/allergic reactions search strategy. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Asthma in Adults INTRODUCTION Assess for any LIFE-THREATENING features Asthma is one of the commonest of all medical conditions. It is caused by a chronic inammation of the bronchi, making them narrower. The muscles around the bronchi become irritated and contract, causing sudden worsening of the symptoms. The inammation can also cause the mucus glands to produce excessive sputum which further blocks the air passages. These guidelines are concerned with the acute asthma attack. If any of these features are present, start correcting A and B problems then transfer to nearest suitable receiving hospital commencing oxygen (O2) immediately at the patient side. HISTORY The patient may well have a history of increased wheezy breathlessness, often worse at night or in the early morning, associated either with infection, allergy or exertion as a trigger. They are usually a known asthmatic and may well be on regular inhaler therapy for this. They may well have used their own treatment inhalers and in some cases will have used a home based nebuliser. Provide a hospital alert message / information call. Those with life threatening asthma may need paralysing and ventilating if they fail to respond to treatment. Rapid transfer to hospital on blue lights is therefore extremely important. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT, (see below) providing any other necessary interventions, including nebulisation, steroids etc. If no TIME CRITICAL features are present: assess for features of acute severe asthma consider the benets of treatment en-route to hospital unless the patient has a history of full recovery and subsequent refusal of transfer to further care any patient who is transferred to hospital requires at least O2 and nebuliser treatment en-route If a patient is suffering a rst episode of asthma always consider an inhaled foreign body as a differential diagnosis. remember that the risk of death in the group of asthmatics previously admitted to hospital with an acute attack is signicant. ASSESSMENT1 Assess ABCDs: Asthma usually presents to the ambulance service in one of two forms (see Table 1). MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA2-4 Table 1 Two forms of asthma presentation Start correcting: exhaustion confusion coma silent chest cyanosis feeble respiratory effort bradycardia hypotension peak ow <33% of predicted best value SpO2 <92% unable to complete sentences in one breath respiratory rate >25 (adult) pulse >110 beats per minute peak ow 33%-50% of predicted best value AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) administer high concentration oxygen (O2)5 (refer to oxygen guideline for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Acute Severe commence transfer to further care. Specically: check peak ow if practicable note the best of three readings. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Specic Treatment Options Life Threatening Follow medical emergencies guideline, remembering to: Asthma in Adults administer salbutamol6-9 via O2 driven nebuliser, running at 6-8 litres per minutes (refer to salbutamol drug protocol for dosages and information). In acute severe or life-threatening cases ipratropium bromide (refer to ipratropium bromide drug protocol for dosages and information) should be added to the salbutamol. Continue high concentration O2 after nebulisation in cases of hypoventilation in-line nebulisation with a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device, where appropriate using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients and suitable nebuliser attachment should be considered monitor using ECG and pulse oximeter obtain IV access if possible (DO NOT delay transfer to further care) if no clinical improvement after 5-10 minutes, administer further salbutamol via nebuliser and consider continuous nebulised salbutamol. Ipratropium bromide should be administered if not given earlier repeat or continuous nebulised salbutamol may be given until arrival at hospital or side effects become clinically significant (extreme tachycardia >140 beat per minute in adults, tremors etc.) assess chest pneumothorax to exclude evidence of NOTE: remember the very rare complication in severe asthma of bilateral pneumothoraces re-assess to evaluate any improvement in peak ow or improvement in air entry on chest assessment Specic Treatment Options administer hydrocortisone (refer to hydrocortisone drug protocol for dosages and information) IV where there is a delay getting to hospital of 30 minutes or more. Although steroids take some time to take effect, the sooner they are administered the better. LIFE-THREATENING ASTHMA A small minority of cases may not respond to O2 and nebuliser therapy. In these cases the use of subcutaneous or intramuscular epinephrine should be considered where: the patient is suffering from life threatening asthma ventilation is failing deterioration continues despite O2 and continuous nebulised salbutamol. Page 2 of 4 This treatment should be reserved for the most serious cases and is NOT intended to be used as a matter of routine due to its arrhythmogenic properties. Drug Therapy: administer adrenaline6-8 (refer to epinephrine drug protocol for dosage and administration) consider salbutamol (refer to salbutamol drug protocol for dosage and administration) consider ipratropium bromide (refer to ipratropium bromide drug protocol for dosage and administration). Asthmatic patients do not have hypoxic drive and need high concentration O2 therapy and nebulisation as described earlier. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The obstruction and subsequent wheezing are caused by three factors within the bronchial tree: 1. increased production of bronchial mucus 2. swelling of the bronchial tube mucosal lining cells 3. spasm and constriction of bronchial muscles. These three factors conspire to cause blockage and narrowing of the small airways in the lung. Because inspiration is an active process involving the muscles of respiration, the obstruction of the airways is overcome on breathing in. Expiration occurs with muscle relaxation, and is severely delayed by the narrowing of the airways in asthma. This generates the wheezing on expiration that is characteristic of this condition. Medical Emergencies The obstruction in its most severe form can be TIME CRITICAL and some 2,000 people a year die as a result of asthma. In adults, asthma may often be complicated and mixed in with a degree of bronchitis, especially in smokers. This can make the condition much more difcult to treat, both routinely and in emergencies. The majority of asthmatic patients take regular preventer and reliever inhalers. Asthma is managed with a variety of inhaled and tablet medications. Inhalers are divided into two broad categories (preventer and reliever). The preventer inhalers are normally anti-inammatory drugs and these include steroids and other milder antiinammatory such as Tilade. The common steroid inhalers are beclomethasone (Becotide), budesonide (Pulmicort) and luticasone (Flixotide). October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Asthma in Adults These drugs act over a period of time on the lung to reduce the inammatory reaction that causes the asthma. Regular use of these inhalers often eradicates all symptoms of asthma and allows for a normal lifestyle. Treatment (reliever) inhalers include salbutamol (Ventolin), terbutaline (Bricanyl) and ipratropium bromide (Atrovent). These inhalers work rapidly on the lung to relax the smooth muscle spasm when the patient feels wheezy or tight chested. They are used in conjunction with preventer inhalers. Inhalers are often used now through large plastic spacer devices, such as the Volumatic. This allows the drug to spread into a larger volume and allows the patient to inhale it more effectively. colour blue text printed on a yellow background. Apart from the scale, the new Mini-Wright behaves and handles as reliably as the old meter. It is important to recognise that if a patient knows their normal peak ow using one scale, that this may not be comparable to readings taken using a meter that has a different scale. PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE - NORMAL VALUES For use with EU/EN13826 scale PEF meters only 680 660 640 620 600 580 560 540 PEF (l/min) EU Scale In mild and moderate asthma attacks some patients may be treated with high doses of relievers through a spacer device. This has been shown to be as effective as giving a salbutamol nebuliser. 520 500 480 Height Men 190 cm (75 in) 183 cm (72 in) 175 cm (69 in) 167 cm (66 in) 160 cm (63 in) 460 440 420 Peak Flow Metering 400 380 360 340 320 300 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Age (years) Adapted by Clement Clarke for use with EN13826 / EU scale peak flow meters from Nunn AJ Gregg I, Br Med J 1989:298;1068-70 For use with Wright scale peak flow meters A value of up to 80 litres/min below the mean can be regarded as normal (i.e. falliing within the lower 95% confidence limit) Patients using a peak ow meter for the rst time since 2004 will be given a new EU-scale meter. Existing asthmatic patients who require a replacement meter may notice that their readings have changed. 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 PEF (l/min) Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) readings obtained on an EU-scale meter will be more accurate than those from a Wright scale meter, because changes in airow will result in PEF readings changing uniformly for the whole range of the meter. The Wright scale has been previously noted to over-represent changes in airow in the mid-range, and under represent changes in the low and high ranges. 20 Height Women 183 cm (72 in) 175 cm (69 in) 167 cm (66 in) 160 cm (63 in) 85 152 cm (60 in) 500 480 460 190 cm (75 in) 183 cm (72 in) 175 cm (69 in) 167 cm (66 in) 160 cm (63 in) 440 420 400 Correcting these small inaccuracies results in PEF readings that are different until the new EN 13826 standard meters are used for all PEF measurements, it will be important to note which scale has been used with the patient. The new peak ow meters have a similar appearance to the old meters, but the scale (the part of the meter that you read the PEF value from) will have changed. If you use a Mini-Wright, the EU-scale will be a different Specic Treatment Options 380 360 340 175 cm (69 in) 167 cm (66 in) 160 cm (63 in) 152 cm (60 in) 320 300 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 AGE (years) From Nunn AJ Gregg I, Br Med J 1989:298;1068-70 Figure 1 peak ow charts October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Specic Treatment Options Peak ow is a rapid measurement of the degree of obstruction in the patients lungs. It measures the maximum ow on breathing out, or expiring and therefore can reect the amount of airway obstruction. Many patients now have their own meter at home and know what their normal peak ow is. Clearly, when control is good, their peak ow will be equivalent to a normal patients measurement, but during an attack it may drop markedly. Asthma in Adults Steroid therapy.10-17 7 8 Crompton GH. Nebulized or intravenous beta 2 adrenoceptor agonist therapy in acute asthma? European Respiratory Journal 1990(3):125-6. 9 Fergusson RJ, Stewart CM, Wathen CG. Effectiveness of nebulised salbutamol administered in ambulances to patients with severe acute asthma. Thorax 1995;50:81-2. 10 Rowe BH, Spooner C, Ducharme FM. Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (Cochrane review). The Cochrane Library 2001;3. 11 Steroids need to be given early in an acute asthma attack and can be given intravenously as hydrocortisone. Lawford P, Jones BM, Milledge JS. Comparison of intravenous and nebulised salbutamol in initial treatment of severe asthma. BMJ 1978(1):84. Rowe BH, Spooner C, Ducharme FM. Corticosteroids for preventing relapse following acute exacerbations of asthma (Cochrane review). The Cochrane Library 2001;3. Key Points Asthma Asthma is a common life threatening condition. Its severity is often not recognised. Accurate documentation is essential. Peak ow can be measured on more than one scale. A silent chest is a pre-terminal sign. REFERENCES 1 Rebuck AS, Read J. Assessment and management of severe asthma. Am J Med 1971; 51: 788-98. American Journal of Medicine 1971;51:788-98. 2 British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. The BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. Thorax 2003;58(Supplement I):i1-i94. 12 Fanta CH, Rossing TH, McFadden ER. Glucocorticoids in acute asthma. A critical controlled trial. Am J Med 1983; 74: 845-51. American Journal of Medicine 1983;74:845-51. 3 British Thoracic Society, National Asthma Campaign, Royal College of Physicians of London in association with the General Practitioner in Asthma Group, The British Association of Accident and Emergency Medicine, The British Paediatric Respiratory Society, Health RCoPaC. The British guidelines on asthma management 1995 review and position statement. Thorax 1997;52(Suppl 1):S1S21. 13 Fiel SB, Swartz MA, Glanz K, Francis ME. Efcacy of short term corticosteroid therapy in outpatient treatment of acute bronchial asthma. American Journal of Medicine 1983;75:259-62. 14 Chapman KR, Verbeek PR, White JG, Rebuck AS. Effect of a short course of prednisone in the prevention of early relapse after the emergency room treatment of acute asthma. N Engl J Med 1991;324:788-94. 15 Ratto D, Alfaro C, Sipsey J. Are intravenous corticosteroids required in status asthmaticus? JAMA 1988;260:527-29. 16 Stein LM, Cole RP. Early administration of corticosteroids in emergency room treatment of acute asthma. Annals of Internal Medicine 1990;112:822-27. 17 MRC Sub-Committee on Clinical Trials. Controlled trial of the effects of cortisone acetate in status asthmaticus. Report to the Medical Research Council by the sub committee on clinical trials. Lancet 1956;271(6947):803-6. 4 Specic Treatment Options British Thoracic Society. Guidelines on the management of asthma: statement by the British Thoracic Society, British Paediatric Association, the Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Kings Fund Centre, the National Asthma Campaign, the Royal College of General Practitioners, the General Practitioners in Asthma Group, the British Association of Accident and Emergency Medicine, and the British Paediatric Respiratory Group following a meeting at the Royal College of Physicians of London on 4 and 5 June 1992. Thorax 1993;48(Supplement):S1-S24. 5 Cochrane GM. Acute severe asthma: oxygen and high dose beta agonist during transfer for all? Thorax 1995;50:1-2. 6 Salmeron S, Brochard L, Mal H. Nebulized versus intravenous albuterol in hypercapnic acute asthma: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized study. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 1994;149:1466-70. Page 4 of 4 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents INTRODUCTION Close all vehicle windows and vents. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents (CBRN) materials are all very different and each present unique difculties for ambulance crews. However chemical, biological and radioactive agents present four main types of hazard, depending on the physical properties and characteristics of the agent released: Switch off air conditioning in vehicle. 1. contact hazard 2. inhalation hazard 3. injection hazard 4. ingestion hazard. 1. Contact Hazards are created by chemical, biological or radioactive agents which can be absorbed into the skin. These agents can be in solid, liquid or vapour form. Most biological agents do not pose contact hazards, unless the skin is cut or abraded. Obey all cordons and safety advice. Where possible, avoid contact with contaminated casualties. If you come into contact with affected or contaminated casualties, you must consider yourself contaminated and a casualty! Remain at scene, commence selfdecontamination (see additional information) and isolate yourself until given further instructions (see Appendix 1). Conscious casualties (contact only if protected with appropriate PPE): re-assure them constantly minimise handling if necessary provide modesty blankets. 2. Inhalation Hazards are created by vapour, aerosols or contaminated dust that can be inhaled into the lungs. Encourage them to: 3. Injection Hazards result from chemical, biological or radiological agents being injected either by the agent moving from the injection site into the blood stream or being injected directly into a vein or artery. not to leave the site 4. Ingestion Hazards result from chemical, biological or radiological agents being ingested. assist other casualties In addition to these four types of hazards, radioactive agents present a signicant additional hazard that result from the radiation they emit. Nuclear Hazards will be those resulting from a nuclear explosion. These will include extensive blast and fire damage, direct radiation effects and widespread radiological contamination. face into the wind at a point where the wind is unlikely to cause further contamination. remove their contaminated clothing control any haemorrhage with direct pressure commence self decontamination. Unconscious casualties (treat only if protected with appropriate NHS Standard PPE): check ABC If breathing present: Place in recovery position facing the wind PERSONAL SAFETY On identication of a CBRN incident advise Ambulance Control immediately. Do not put yourself at risk. Park uphill and upwind. Do not put yourself at risk; do not enter the site or deal with casualties unless appropriately trained and protected in NHS standard chemical protective personal protective equipment. Put on a high visibility jacket and safety helmet, or personal protective equipment (PPE) only if trained in its use. Specic Treatment Options DO NOT attempt mouth to mouth use bagvalve-mask. TO BE USED WHEN CAUSE IS UNKNOWN AND SYMPTOMS ARE CONSISTENT WITH A CBRN INCIDENT Approach to collapsed casualties: STEP 1-2-3 (Safety Triggers for Emergency Personnel) Step 1 One collapsed casualty: approach using normal procedures CBRN contamination unlikely. October 2006 Page 1 of 7 Specic Treatment Options If not breathing: Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents Step 2 Two collapsed casualties at one location CBRN contamination possible: approach with caution. Consider all options Step 3 Three or more collapsed casualties at one location: the scene C Casualties approximate number and type, call sign H Hazards present or potential if CBRN possible or suspected follow the advice for STEP 3. DO NOT approach contamination likely CHALETS CBRN IF POSSIBLE: A Access safest route L Location E Emergency Services on scene or required T Type of Incident radiological, blast etc. chemical, biological, S Safety PPEs withdraw contain CHEMICAL INCIDENTS report Managing the Consequences of a Deliberate Chemical Release: if contaminated, isolate yourself and commence self-decontamination Characteristics of a Chemical Incident: send for specialist help Rapid action producing mass casualties. (M)ETHANE / CHALETS assessment to be provided as soon as possible (see below). Persistent liquid contact and downwind vapour hazards. NOTE: Do not compromise your safety or that of your colleagues or the public. Casualties can contaminate rst responders. MNEMONICS FOR RAPID INCIDENT ASSESSMENT Most effective in conned spaces where there are lots of people. Decontamination will probably be necessary and needs to start quickly. METHANE M My call sign, or name and appointment. Major incident, STANDBY or DECLARED. E Exact location where possible, map reference. Casualties from a Chemical Incident Lots of casualties (hundreds) probably at scene. Injury occurs very rapidly (minutes). T Type of incident e.g. chemical, explosion, road trafc collision (RTC). Must be treated rapidly if they are to survive. H Hazards present and potential. Very few casualties will occur more than two or three days later. Specic Treatment Options A Access best routes for access and egress to scene and rendezvous point(s) (RVP). N Number of casualties approximate numbers and types of casualties (P1, P2, P3, DEAD and whether contaminated.) E Emergency services report on emergency services already on site and if further services required. Page 2 of 7 Decontamination issues: Most contamination will be on clothing which should be removed early. Skin must be decontaminated rapidly wet decontamination is advised. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents BIOLOGICAL INCIDENTS Casualties from a Radiological Incident Managing the Consequences of a Deliberate Biological Release: Few casualties at scene. Characteristics of a Biological Incident Casualties will become ill over a period of days to weeks. Slow action producing mass casualties over time. Damage is dosage related and cumulative. Could go undetected until people become ill and attend their GP or Emergency Departments. Casualties will need reassurance. Potential for epidemic with some diseases. Most contamination on clothing. Need for decontamination will depend on agent used. Skin must be decontaminated rapidly. Most effective in conned spaces where there are lots of people. Need to provide shielding from radiation. Decontamination Issues (see Appendix 2) ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Casualties from a Biological Incident Decontamination Unlikely to be any casualties at the scene. Equipment: Window for treatment in rst 12 to 24 hours. ID tags Cannot tell who has been exposed. First casualties will start to appear two to three days later. It may be very difcult to be sure the incident is over. scissors large plastic bags (for clothing) small clear bags (for personal belongings) buckets Decontamination Issues sponges/soft brushes/wash cloths Washing skin and clothing should be effective. warm water source Surgical masks, gowns, eye protection and gloves should be worn when dealing with any infectious patient. disposable towels. Decontamination technique: RINSE Managing the Consequences of a Deliberate Radiological Release: Characteristics of a Radiological Incident RINSE CBRN Detection There are a wide range of products available to aid with the detection of Chemical and Radiological incidents. Emergency departments have been supplied with Toxi-Boxes (Toxicological Analytical Sampling Kits). These are to be used for toxicological sampling.1 Few immediate casualties. Some may have blast injuries. Need to monitor those present for contamination. Persistent radiation hazard. Persistent contact and downwind hazards. Casualties can contaminate rst responders. Decontamination will be necessary and needs to start quickly with removal of clothing and wet decontamination. Specic Treatment Options WIPE Other products available include electronic personal dosimeters for detection of radiation exposure; toxic vapour analyser for detection of organic/non-organic vapours.2 Also available are pre-lled syringes for use as antidotes in the release of chemicals, particularly organophosphorus agents.3 Each local service should be consistent with regards to equipment, including PPE, in case of a CBRN incident. October 2006 Page 3 of 7 Specic Treatment Options RADIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR INCIDENTS: Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents Key Points Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear incidents Steps 1,2 and 3 Early METHANE / CHALETS call once a chemical incident is identied Stay away from the scene unless protected in appropriate PPE Encourage walking casualties to disrobe and self-decontaminate where possible Once contaminated, you become a casualty. REFERENCES 1 Heptonstall J, Gent N. CBRN incidents: Clinical management and Health protection: Health Protection Agency, 2005. 2 Department of Health. Pre-Hospital Guidelines for the Emergency Treatment of Deliberate Realease of Organophosphorus (OP) Nerve Agents. London: HMSO, 2004. 3 Thermo Electron Corporation. http://www.thermo.com. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Department of Health; Emergency Preparedness Division. NHS emergency planning guidance London: HMSO, 2005. Group ALS. Major Incident Medical Management and Support (MIMMS): The Structured Approach to Major Incident http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/civil/prote/pdf docs/disaster_med_nal_2002/d16.pdf. METHODOLOGY Specic Treatment Options Refer to methodology section. Page 4 of 7 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents Appendix 1 CBRN (SPECIAL AGENT) TRIAGE SIEVE: For use before and during decontamination NOTE: Triage may be modied on specialist medical advice after receipt of information about the contaminating agent. Where the nature of the contaminating agent is unknown (e.g. white powder), treat initially as for chemical contamination until advised otherwise. YES T3 DELAYED Signs of toxicity? NO BREATHING? T2 URGENT NO After airway manoeuvres TOXIC SIGNS YES Chemical Cyanosis Excessive secretions Unresponsive Seizures Fasciculation Non-thermal burns (>3%) Radiation/Nuclear Dose>2 SV(Gy) HX of vomiting and diarrhoea Erythema Biological Purpuric rash RESPIRATORY RATE? <10 >30 10 30 <40 >120 or CRT >2 secs PULSE OR CRT? >40 <120 or CRT <2 secs Specic Treatment Options October 2006 DEAD1 Where resources permit, resuscitation may be attempted on cases of respiratory arrest with early use of antidote (e.g. atropine for nerve agent toxicity). 1 T1 IMMEDIATE Signs of toxicity? T2 URGENT Page 5 of 7 Specic Treatment Options WALKING? Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents Appendix 2 CBRN SORT: For use after decontamination at a casualty clearing station or in hospital CBRN SORT (for use after decontamination) PLEASE CIRCLE 10-29 per minute >30 per minute +2 >30 per minute + cyanosis <9 per minute _ RESPIRATION +4 +0 RESPIRATORY ARREST +0 Immediate OR Expectant 60-100 per minute 41-59 OR 100-120 per minute +2 <40 per minute +0 >120 per minute HEART RATE +4 +0 CARDIAC ARREST DEAD >90mmHg SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE +4 70-89 mmHg +3 50-69 mmHg +2 1-49 mmHg CARDIAC ARREST 13-15 +1 DEAD +4 9-12 +3 6-8 +2 4-5 +1 3 OR CONVULSIONS +0 None +4 GLASGOW COMA SCORE Specic Treatment Options BIOLOGICAL RAD OR NUC Local/intermittent +2 General/continuous +0 Flaccidity FASCICULATION +0 if purpuric rash -2 if vomiting, diarrhoea, erythema or dose >2Sv -2 TOTAL SCORE OUT OF 20 EVACUATION SCORE 20 18-19 0-17 Page 6 of 7 EVACUATION PRIORITY DELAYED T3 URGENT T2 IMMEDIATE T1 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents Appendix 3 GLOSSARY OF TERMS: COUNTER-TERRORISM POLSA PPE Ammunition Technical Ofcer ATSAC ACPO(TAM) Strategic Advice Centre (normally established at Scotland Yard) Atomic Weapons Aldermaston (CB)IED (Chemical or Biological) Improvised Explosive Device CCC Civil Contingencies Committee CCCG Chief Constables Co-ordinating Group (Strategic Group) CMLO COBR Joint Health Advisory Cell JIG Joint Intelligence Group JMC Joint Military Commander MACA Military Aid to the Civil Authorities MACC Military Aid to the Civil Community MACP Military Aid to Civil Power MAGD Military Aid to Govt Departments NARO Nuclear Accident Response Organisation (MoD) PIC Police Incident Commander PMBS Technical Response Force (specialist military/scientic team) Individual Protective Equipment JHAC TRF Hazardous Material IPE Technical Assessment Group, Dstl Chemical and Biological Science Government Liaison Team HazMat Senior Scientic Authority Government Liaison Ofcer GLT SSA Forward Medical Controller GLO Met Police Anti-terrorist Squad Forward Control Point FMC Senior Military Commander Forward Scientic Controller FCP SMC Explosives Ordnance Disposal FSC Senior Investigating Ofcer Environmental Health Ofcer EOD SIO Defence, Science & Technology Laboratory, Porton Down part of the Ministry of Defence EHO Special Forces Cabinet Office Briefing Room(s) (Central Govt co-ordinating group) Dstl SF Consequence Management Liaison Ofcer Police Main Base Station Specic Treatment Options Establishment, Special Boat Squadron October 2006 Specic Treatment Options AWE Special Air Squadron TAG ATO SAS SO13 Association of Chief Police Officers (Terrorism and Allied Matters) Personal Protective Equipment SBS ACPO(TAM) Police Search Adviser Page 7 of 7 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease INTRODUCTION Specically assess: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a general term that covers a variety of previously used labels which are now recognised as different aspects of the same underlying problem. The term COPD encompasses: respiratory rate and effort, and any noises (e.g. bubbling or wheeze) associated with breathing indicating respiratory distress whether the event is an exacerbation of COPD or something new e.g. pulmonary oedema, acute asthma the status of current treatment, domiciliary oxygen therapy. chronic bronchitis emphysema chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) chronic airow limitation disease (CALD) some cases of chronic asthma. including Differential diagnoses include pneumonia, pneumothorax, left ventricular failure, pulmonary embolism, lung cancer, upper airway obstruction and allergic reaction/anaphylaxis. COPD is a chronic progressive disorder characterised by airway obstruction that does not change markedly over several months. Whilst the impairment is considered permanent it may be partially reversible (at least transiently) by bronchodilator and/or other therapies. Patients with COPD usually present to the ambulance service with an acute exacerbation of the underlying illness. COPD is a concomitant/secondary illness in many incidents with other chief complaints. Establish whether any TIME CRITICAL features are present. These may include: extreme breathing difficulty (by reference to patients usual condition) cyanosis (although peripheral cyanosis may be normal in some patients) exhaustion hypoxia (oxygen saturation) <85%, unresponsive to oxygen (O2) COPD patients will normally have a lower than normal oxygen saturation (SpO2). Some patients with severe COPD may carry information (e.g. a card) to assist in their care. This can be used to guide therapy. MANAGEMENT 1-7 ASSESSMENT Always check to determine if the patient has a personalised treatment plan available. Assess ABCDs See dyspnoea guideline If condent of diagnosis of an exacerbation of COPD, follow information on patients information card, if available. Specic presenting features of an acute exacerbation of COPD include: Follow medical emergencies guideline, start correcting: HISTORY worsening of a previously stable condition increased wheeze increased dyspnoea, particularly on expiration increased sputum volume chest tightness uid retention. Specic Treatment Options airway maintain patency breathing nebulise with salbutamol (refer to salbutamol drug protocol for dosages and information). If inadequate response after ve minutes, a further nebulised salbutamol combined with ipratropium bromide (refer to ipratropium bromide drug protocol for dosages and information) should be considered. Ipratropium is given once only; salbutamol may be repeated at regular intervals unless the side effects of the drug become signicant. October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Specic Treatment Options If any TIME CRITICAL features are present, provide immediate care for airway and breathing problems then transfer to the nearest suitable receiving hospital. Provide a hospital alert message/information call. Primary Survey Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease circulation cannulate a suitable vein if transferring to hospital REFERENCES 1 The British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. Guidelines on the Management of COPD. Thorax 1997;52(Suppl V):S1-S28. 2 Moayyedi P, Congleton J, Page RL. Comparison of nebulised salbutamol and ipratropium bromide with salbutamol alone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1995;50:837-4. 3 ODriscoll BR, Taylor RJ, Horsley MG. Nebulised salbutamol with and without ipratropium bromide in acute airow obstruction. Lancet 1989(1):1418-20. 4 Rebuck AS, Chapman KR, Abboud R. Nebulized anticholinergic and sympathomimetic treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease in the emergency room. American Journal of Medicine 1987;82:59-64. 5 Shrestha M, OBrien T, Haddox R. Decreased duration of emergency department treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations with the addition of ipratropium bromide to beta-agonist therapy. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1991;20:1206-09. 6 Koutsogiannis Z, Kelly A-M. Does high dose ipratropium bromide added to salbutamol improve pulmonary function for patients with chronic obstructive airways disease in the emergency department? Aust N Z J Med 2000;30(1):38-40. 7 Harrison M. Multiple different bronchodilators unnecessary in acute COPD, 2004. 8 Murphy R, Mackway-Jones K, Sammy I, Driscoll P, Gray A, ODriscoll R, et al. Emergency oxygen therapy for the breathless patient: guidelines prepared by North West Oxygen Group. Emergency Medicine 2001;18(421-23). position for comfort and ease of respiration; often sitting forwards helps. Specically monitor ECG and SpO2. If, after nebulisation, there are no features of lifethreatening or severe COPD (e.g. low respiratory rate), controlled oxygen therapy (refer to oxygen protocol) should be maintained to achieve an oxygen saturation of 90-92%. Be prepared for respiratory arrest. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION A small proportion of COPD sufferers are chronically hypoxic and when given oxygen may develop increasing drowsiness and loss of respiratory drive. If this occurs, reduce oxygen concentration and support ventilation if required. Pulse oximetry, whilst important in COPD patients, will not indicate carbon dioxide (CO2) levels which are assessed by capnography or more commonly, blood gas analysis in hospital. If the primary illness in a patient with COPD requires high concentration oxygen (such as anterior myocardial infarction, major trauma etc) then this should NOT BE WITHHELD. The patient should be continually monitored closely for changes in respiratory rate and depth and the inspired concentration adjusted accordingly. In the short time that a patient is in ambulance care hypoxia presents a much greater risk than hypercapnia in most cases. Whilst blood gas levels are important to continuing long term care of the patient, a lack of oxygen will prove fatal far more rapidly in the acute setting than changes in CO2 levels which alter more slowly. Specic Treatment Options Use of systemic corticosteroids as advocated in asthma is of no proven benet in acute exacerbations of COPD. A course of oral steroids and/or antibiotics may be appropriate based on the judgement of the assessing hospital Doctor or General Practitioner. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Key Points Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Early respiratory assessment (including oxygen saturation) is vital. If in doubt, provide oxygen therapy, titrating en-route, aiming for oxygen saturation of 9092%. Provide nebulisation with salbutamol and assess response. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Convulsions in Adults INTRODUCTION Hypoxia: Any patient suffering from hypoxia, regardless of cause, may convulse. The cause may be very simple which is why good A and B maintenance is important prior to drug therapy. Hypotension: Severe hypotension can trigger a convulsion. This may be seen with syncope or a vasovagal attack where the patient remains propped up. In these instances there will usually be a clear precipitating event and no prior history of epilepsy. Once the patient lies flat and the blood pressure is restored the convulsion may stop. A convulsion or seizure is a period of involuntary muscular contraction, often followed by a period of lethargy and confusion and sometimes profound sleep. The commonest presentation to ambulance services is the tonic/clonic seizure, previously known as grand mal. Eclamptic convulsions are specic to pregnancy and often associated with pre-eclampsia (raised blood pressure with proteinuria). One third of cases occur for the rst time in the rst 48 hours after delivery (refer to pregnancy induced hypertension (including eclampsia) guideline). Convulsions can occur for various reasons, including: Epilepsy: In pre-hospital care, the majority of episodes attended are convulsions occurring in patients known to have epilepsy. These patients are usually on anti-epileptic medication, (e.g. phenytoin, sodium valproate (Epilim), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and lamotrigine (Lamictal). Urinary incontinence and tongue biting often accompany a full epileptic convulsion (tonic/clonic). Febrile The other most common Convulsions: ambulance emergency involving convulsions is febrile convulsions. These tend to occur in children. There are a signicant number of other causes of convulsions and these include: infection cerebral tumour electrolyte imbalance drug overdose. It is important not to label a patient as epileptic unless there is a known diagnosis. HISTORY Is the patient known to be epileptic? Hypoglycaemia: REMEMBER, as a convulsion occurs, the brain is acutely starved of oxygen (O2). A convulsion may be the presenting sign of circulatory arrest at the onset of sudden CARDIAC ARREST. Always take a debrillator to patients who are convulsing. Convulsions may be a presenting sign of HYPOGLYCAEMIA and should be considered in ALL patients, especially known diabetics. An early blood glucose level reading is essential in all actively convulsing patients (including known epileptics). Specic Treatment Options If so, are they on medication, and are they taking it? Have they had convulsions recently? Has the adult patient been unwell at present? Have they had a high temperature? Is the patient DIABETIC (could this be secondary to hypoglycaemia)? Is the patient pregnant or delivered in the last 48hours? could this be due to eclampsia? (refer to pregnancy induced hypertension (including eclampsia) guideline). Is there any history of head injury? Is there any evidence of alcoholism or drug usage? Convulsions are more common in alcoholics, and associated with hypoglycaemia and can be triggered by a number of prescription or illegal drugs (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants). October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options Cardiac Arrest: Convulsions in Adults ASSESSMENT administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). All patients who are convulsing, post ictal or have a convulsion secondary to a head injury (refer to head trauma guideline) (even if they appear fully recovered) should receive high concentration O2 establish if any treatment e.g. rectal diazepam has already been administered obtain IV access if convulsion persists or recurs. Assess ABCDs Check blood glucose level. Evaluate whether there are any TIME CRITICAL features present: These may include: any major ABCD problems serious head injury status epilepticus (see below) underlying infection, e.g. meningococcal septicaemia (refer to benzylpenicillin drug protocol). If any of these features are present, CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE THEN COMMENCE TRANSFER to nearest suitable receiving hospital in these cases the ease and safety with which the patient can be moved whilst still convulsing should be considered and treatment may need to begin in situ. Specically consider: position for airway security, comfort and protection from dangers, especially the head DO NOT attempt to force an oropharyngeal airway into a convulsing patient. A nasopharyngeal airway is a useful adjunct in such patients apply ECG and pulse oximetry and monitor especially in the elderly check BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL to exclude hypoglycaemia. If blood glucose <4.0mmol/l or hypoglycaemia is clinically suspected, give oral glucose, glucose 10% IV titrated to response or glucagon IM (refer to glucose 10% and glucagon protocols for dosage and administration) most tonic/clonic convulsions are self-limiting and do not require drug treatment. However, if a patient convulses repeatedly in close succession or has one convulsion lasting >5 minutes then administer diazemuls IV titrated to response. Stesolid may be given when IV access cannot be obtained (refer to diazepam protocol for dosage and administration) if the patient can be moved, despite the convulsing, it is important to reach hospital for denitive care as rapidly as possible CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE THEN COMMENCE TRANSFER IMMEDIATELY TO NEAREST SUITABLE HOSPITAL provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information Call. Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). If no TIME CRITICAL problems are present, perform a more thorough assessment and a brief secondary survey. Is there any sign of ARRHYTHMIA in an elderly patient (refer to cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline)? (e.g. a burst of rapid ventricular tachycardia may drop the blood pressure, and cause transient cerebral HYPOXIA, giving rise to a convulsion). Assess type of convulsion, if still convulsing; is this a generalised convulsion, or a focal t? Assess for raised temperature (patient may feel hot after a convulsion) and any sign of a rash i.e. possible meningococcal septicaemia (refer to meningococcal septicaemia guideline). Specic Treatment Options Assess for mouth/tongue injury, incontinence. MANAGEMENT Follow medical remembering to: emergencies guideline, Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Convulsions in Adults ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Key Points Convulsions in adults Post ictal This is the term given to patients who have had a convulsion but who are now in the recovery phase. Convulsions are extremely disorientating, even for epileptics who may suffer them regularly. It is not uncommon for patients to act out of character when in the post ictal state. This may include verbal or physical aggression. Oxygen therapy and a calm approach are important. Remember, when the patient recovers they may be a completely different person. Most tonic/clonic convulsions are self-limiting and do not require drug treatment. Convulsions may be secondary to other medical conditions e.g. hypoxia, hypoglycaemia. Administer drugs if convulsion lasts longer than 5 minutes. Consider eclampsia as a cause of the convulsion. Only patients with known epilepsy who make a full recovery and can be supervised adequately can be considered to be left at home. Status Epilepticus Patients with persistent and continual convulsions are in STATUS EPILEPTICUS, and need aggressive ABC care and rapid transfer to hospital. Intravenous diazemuls, 10mg should be given by slow IV injection. Stesolid may be given where appropriate (refer to diazepam protocol for dosage and administration). This is a medical emergency and patients must be removed to hospital as rapidly as possible. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Epilepsy A number of patients with diagnosed epilepsy, who have repeated convulsions and a well documented history of this, may present regularly to the Ambulance Service. Specic Treatment Options If they are fully recovered and not at risk, and in the care of a responsible adult, consideration may be given to not transferring patients routinely to hospital unless they wish to travel. These cases must have vital signs recorded along with the explanation given to the patient. Patients and the responsible adult should be advised to contact either the General Practitioner (GP) if the patient feels generally unwell or 999 if there are repeated convulsions. The reasons for the decision not to transfer to further care must be documented, and must be signed by the patient and/or carer. Ensure contact is made with the patients GP particularly in cases where the patient has made repeated calls. There are many causes of convulsions as outlined above and you should remember to consider them in other settings, such as in a road trafc collision (RTC) with a driver who has blacked out, consider whether the accident may be related to a convulsion. It is important, wherever possible, to obtain contact details of any witnesses to a convulsion in the above circumstances and pass this to the receiving hospital. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Gastrointestinal Bleeding INTRODUCTION Oesophageal varices Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. It is diagnosed by the presence of haematemesis vomiting of fresh/ dark red/ brown/ black or coffee ground blood (depending on how long it has been in the stomach), melaena (malodorous, liquid, black stool) or bright red/ dark blood with clots per rectum (PR). Patients can present with a wide range of clinical severity from mild anaemia to massive, life-threatening haemorrhage. Variceal bleeding is also the cause of approximately ten percent of cases. These patients can bleed severely with up to 8% dying within 48 hours from uncontrolled haemorrhaging. It is commonly associated with alcoholic cirrhosis and increased portal pressure (causing progressive dilation of the veins and protrusion of the formed varices into the lumen of the oesophagus). Patients may become haemodynamically unstable with little warning. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage is commonly divided into acute upper and lower GI bleeding: ACUTE LOWER GI BLEEDING Accounting for around 5,000 deaths each year in the UK, upper GI bleeding has a higher prevalence in socioeconomically deprived areas. Constituting 80% of all GI bleeds, they frequently present with a history of aspirin or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Only 50% of patients present with haematemesis alone, 30% with melaena and 20% with haematemesis and melaena; those with haematemesis tend to have greater blood loss than melaena alone. Patients older than 60 years account for up to 45% of all cases (60% of these women). Death is uncommon in those less than 40 years but the mortality rate, around 10%, increases steeply thereafter; almost all deaths occur in the elderly, particularly those with comorbid conditions. Whilst upper GI bleeding may cause hypovolaemic shock, it is not ordinarily associated with pain. Common causes include: Peptic ulcers More than 50% of cases are due to peptic ulcers which, together with oesophagitis and gastritis, account for up to 90% of all upper GI bleeding in the elderly. Eighty ve percent of deaths occur in persons older than 65 years. Mallory-Weiss tears Around ten percent are caused by oesophageal tears, which are more common in the young. Predisposing factors include hiatal hernia and alcoholism. Initiating factors are persistent coughing or severe retching and vomiting, often after an alcoholic binge; haematemesis presents after several episodes of non-bloody emesis. Bleeding can be mild to moderate. Specic Treatment Options Diverticulosis Diverticular bleeding accounts for up to 55% of cases. Patients commonly present with an abrupt but painless PR bleed. The incidence of diverticular bleeding increases with age. Inammatory bowel disease Major bleeding from ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease is rare. Inammatory bowel disease accounts for less than 10% of cases. Haemorrhoids Haemorrhoids also account for less than 10% of cases. Bleeding is bright red and usually noticed on wiping or in the toilet bowl. The incidence is high in pregnancy, a result of straining associated with constipation and hormonal changes. Further evaluation may be needed if the patient complains of an alteration of bowel habit and blood mixed with the stool. October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options ACUTE UPPER GI BLEEDING Patients with a lower GI haemorrhage commonly present with bright red blood/ dark blood with clots PR; haematemesis or melaena usually indicating an upper GI source. Bright red blood PR, in isolation, precludes upper GI bleeding in over 98% of cases (unless the patient appears hypovolaemic). Lower GI bleeds are less likely to present with signs of haemodynamic compromise, are more prevalent in men and also have a common history of aspirin or NSAID use. The mean age is 63 to 77 years with mortality around 4% (even serious cases have rarely resulted in death). Common causes include: Gastrointestinal Bleeding Early IV access should be established with two large-bore cannulae placed in the anticubital fossae. A crystalloid solution should be warmed and infused slowly; judicious aliquots of 250mls should be titrated to maintain the presence of a radial pulse, which equates approximately to a systolic BP of >90mmHg. Rapid infusion should be avoided. Overtransfusion may encourage rebleeding or cause pulmonary/ cerebral oedema. A baseline ECG should be considered. Patients may present with chest pain due to decreased myocardial perfusion and increased myocardial demand. Comfort should be maintained by assessing the need for analgesia. Ensure a systolic BP of >90-100mmHg before administering IV morphine or nalbuphine, tailoring doses to suit individual patient requirements. HISTORY Is there unexplained syncope (should raise suspicion of concealed GI bleed)? Does the visible bleed originate from the upper or lower GI tract? When did the bleeding begin? Is there a history of GI disease? Is there a history of aspirin or NSAID use? Does the patient take beta blockers or calciumchannel blockers (would mask tachycardia in the shocked patient)? Does the patient take Iron tablets or have they consumed beetroot/ drinks containing red dye (may alter colour of stool)? Is there a history of anticoagulatory or antiplatelet therapy? Is there a history of bleeding disorders? Is there a history of liver disease/ abdominal surgery or alcohol abuse? Did haematemesis present after an increase in intra-abdominal pressure (from retching or coughing) and several episodes of non-bloody emesis? What is the character and quantity of blood loss? If not visible ask the patient or relatives to estimate colour/ volume (PR blood loss is difficult to estimate. The blood acts as a laxative, but repeated blood-liquid stool, or just blood, is associated with more severe blood loss than maroon/ black solid stool). Key Points ASSESSMENT & MANAGEMENT Haematemesis or melaena indicates an upper GI source. Bright red or dark blood with clots PR indicates a lower GI source. Almost all deaths from GI bleeds occur in the elderly. Around 80% of all GI bleeds stop spontaneously or respond to conservative management. Crystalloids should be used judiciously (250ml aliquots). Initial priorities focus on the principles of Airway, Breathing, and Circulation; identifying the source of the bleed is secondary. Patients may benet from early endoscopy, the results from which will determine the best course of treatment, so do not delay. Prehospital management is limited but similar regardless of cause. The priority is to promote haemodynamic stability. Specic Treatment Options Haematemesis may compromise the airway. Patients with an altered level of consciousness should be positioned at and on their side (not supine) to prevent aspiration. Suctioning may be required. High ow, high concentration oxygen should be administered. Shocked patients may be weak, dizzy, confused, agitated, hyperglycaemic, hypotensive, tachycardic, tachypnoeic, and have pallid/ cool/ sweaty skin. Tachycardia (pulse greater than 100bpm) and hypotension (manual systolic BP less than 100mmHg) indicate haemodynamic instability. These patients should be placed in a head-down recovery position to maintain cerebral perfusion. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Gastrointestinal Bleeding REFERENCES 2 Bosch, J. and Abraldes, J. (2004). Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Seminars in haematology. 42,1: 8-12. 3 Bounds, B. and Friedman, L. (2003). Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 32: 1107-1125. Derry, S. and Loke, Y. (2000). Risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage with long term use of aspirin: mataanalysis. BMJ. 321: 1183-1187. 8 Fallah, M. Prakash, C. and Edmundowicz, S. (2000). Acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Advances in gastroenterology. 84: 1183-1208. 9 Soreide, E. and Deakin, C. (2005). Prehospital uid therapy in the critically injured patient a clinical update. International journal of the care of the injured. Article in press. 19 Zuckerman, G. (2000). Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: clinical essentials for the initial evaluation and risk assessment by the primary care physician. Journal of the American osteopathic association. 100, 12: S4-7. Hawkey, G. Cole, A. McIntyre, A, Long, R. and Hawkey, C. (2001). Drug treatment in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: value of endoscopic ndings as surrogate end points. Gut. 49: 372-379. 12 Smith, G. (2004). The management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Nursing Times. 100, 26: 40-43. Ghosh, S. Watts, D. and Kinnear, M. (2001). Management of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Postgraduate medical journal. 78: 4-14. 11 Rupp, T., Singh, S., and Waggenspack, W. (2004). Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: The pre-hospital recognition, assessment & management of patients with a GI bleed. Journal of Emergency Medical Services. 29,8: 80-95. Farrell, J. and Friedman, L. (2000). Gastrointestinal bleeding in older people. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 29, 1:1-36. 10 16 Dallal, H. and Palmer, K. (2001). ABC of the upper gastrointestinal tract: upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. BMJ. 323: 1115-1117. 7 Ricard-Hibbon, A. Chollet, C. Saada, S. Loridant, B. and Marty, J. (1999). A quality control programme for acute pain management in out-of-hospital critical care medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 34:6. Coppola, M. (2001). Life-threatening upper GI emergencies, part 2: upper GI bleeding and perforation. Journal of critical illness. 16, 8: 367-373. 6 15 British society of gastroenterology endoscopy committee. (2002). Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Gut. 51(Suppl iv): iv1-iv6. 5 Revell, M. Porter, K. and Greaves, I. (2002). Fluid resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal. 19: 494-498. Lingenfelser, T. (2001). Lower intestinal bleeding. Best practice and research clinical gastroenterology. 15, 1:135- 153. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Specic Treatment Options 4 14 18 Baradarian, R. Ramdhaney, S. Chapalamadugu, R. Skoczylas, L. Wang, K. Rivilis, S. Remus, K. Mayer, I. and Iswara, K. Tenner, S. (2004). Early intensive resuscitation of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding decreases mortality. American journal of gastroenterology. 99, 4: 619-622. Nisar, P. and Scholefield, J. (2003). Managing haemorrhoids. BMJ. 327: 847-851. Palmer, K. (2004). Management of haematemesis and melaena. Postgraduate medical journal. 80: 399-404. 17 1 13 Page 3 of 3 Glycaemic Emergencies in Adults INTRODUCTION A non-diabetic individual maintains their blood glucose level within a narrow range from 3.0 to 5.6mmol per litre. This is achieved by a balance between glucose entering the blood stream (from the GI tract or from the breakdown of stored energy sources) and glucose leaving the circulation through the action of insulin. abnormal neurological features may occur. These can include a one-sided weakness, identical to a stroke. Symptoms may be masked due to medication or other injuries, for example, with beta-blocking agents. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA Follow medical emergencies guideline, remembering to: HYPOGLYCAEMIA A low blood glucose level is dened as <4.0mmol/L, but it must be remembered that the clinical features of hypoglycaemia may be present at higher levels. Clinical judgement is as important as a blood glucose reading. The reversal of hypoglycaemia is an important pre-hospital intervention. Hypoglycaemia if left untreated may lead to the patient suffering permanent brain damage and may even prove fatal. Assess and start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Consider and look for patient history signs (medical alert bracelets, chains and cards) HISTORY Obtain and record blood glucose levels pre and post treatment. Hypoglycaemia will occur when glucose metabolism is disturbed through: Specically consider: where the patient has impaired consciousness, is uncooperative or there is a risk of aspiration or choking, administer IV glucose 10% (refer to glucose 10% protocol for dosage and information) by slow IV infusion. In all cases, administration of IV glucose should be titrated against effect. Re-check blood glucose after 10 minutes to ensure that it has improved to a level of at least 5.0mmol/L, in conjunction with an improvement in level of consciousness. An improvement in the patients condition should be seen almost immediately, as the effects of glucose IV are very rapid. A further dose of glucose IV may be required if IV glucose cannot be administered, glucagon (refer to glucagon protocol for dosage and information) may be given via the IM route. It may take 5-10 minutes for glucagon to begin to work and it requires the patient to have adequate glycogen stores. Thus, it may be ineffective in intoxicated, alcoholic, anorexic patients or nondiabetic patients regardless of age. excessive physical activity where the patient is conscious, oral glucose (sugary drink, chocolate bar/biscuit or glucose gel) may be given until the glucose level has improved to at least 5.0mmol/L inadequate carbohydrate intake insulin or other hypoglycaemic drug treatments. Other factors, which should be considered, are: excessive or chronic alcohol intake may also precipitate hypoglycaemia. Any person whose level of consciousness is reduced or who is having a seizure should have hypoglycaemia excluded. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS These can vary from patient to patient. Some patients are able to detect the early symptoms for themselves, but others may deteriorate rapidly and without apparent warning. Common symptoms include: confusion headache drowsiness aggression sweating tting unconsciousness Specic Treatment Options Once patients are alert and able to swallow, they should be given a drink containing glucose and a carbohydrate food. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Specic Treatment Options Glycaemic Emergencies in Adults If no improvement is seen after a further 5-10 minutes, immediately transfer to the nearest suitable receiving hospital. Provide a hospital alert message/ information call. Continue patient management en-route. It may be appropriate to leave certain categories of patients at home with advice to take further food by mouth. This includes diabetic patients who are fully recovered after being treated with 10% glucose IV and have a blood glucose of > 5.0mmol/L, and are in the care of a responsible adult. They must also be advised to call for help if any symptoms of hypoglycaemia recur. Ambulance Services may arrange locally for a message to be forwarded to the local diabetic nurse/ primary health care team. All other patients who have been hypoglycaemic and have received treatment should be encouraged to attend hospital, especially if they: are taking oral hypoglycaemic agents, as hypoglycaemia may recur have no history of previous diabetes and have suffered their rst hypoglycaemic episode History The history, particularly the presence of polydipsia (thirst) and polyuria should alert the pre-hospital provider to the possibility of hyperglycaemia and DKA. New onset diabetes may present with DKA. More frequently it complicates intercurrent illness in a known diabetic. Infections, myocardial infarction (which may be silent) or a CVA may precipitate the condition. Omissions or inadequate dosage of insulin or other hypoglycaemic therapy may also contribute or be responsible. Some medications, particularly steroids may greatly exacerbate the situation. are elderly This produces acidosis and ketones. The body tries to combat this metabolic acidosis by hyperventilation to blow off carbon dioxide. High blood glucose level means glucose spills over into the urine dragging water and electrolytes with it causing dehydration and glycosuria. have a blood glucose level <5.0mmol/L after treatment have not returned to normal mental status within 10 minutes of IV glucose have any additional disorders or other complicating factors, e.g. renal dialysis, chest pain, cardiac arrhythmias, alcohol consumption, dyspnoea, seizures or focal neurological signs / symptoms One or more of the following may be present: Symptoms: have been treated with glucagon Signs and symptoms: increased urinary output increased thirst increased appetite. Signs: Specic Treatment Options HYPERGLYCAEMIA Hyperglycaemia is the term used to describe high blood glucose levels. Symptoms include thirst, urinary frequency and tiredness. Symptoms are usually of slow onset. lethargy, confusion and ultimately unconsciousness dehydration, dry mouth and possibly circulatory failure due to hypovolaemia hyperventilation signs of infection (urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infections) and/or unwell (u-like symptoms). fruity odour of ketones on the breath (a smell resembling nail varnish remover). Not everyone can detect this odour deep sighing respirations (Kussmaul breathing) weight loss. ASSESSMENT Assess ABCDs Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Assess blood glucose level. A relative lack of circulating insulin means that cells cannot take up glucose from the blood and use it to provide energy. This forces the cells to provide energy for metabolism from other sources such as fatty acids. Page 2 of 5 Assess dehydration; if the skin of the forearm is raised in a gentle pinch it remains tented, only returning to its normal position slowly. The patients mouth will be dry. In severe cases this may lead to hypovolaemic shock. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Glycaemic Emergencies in Adults Follow medical emergencies guideline, remembering to: administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) measure blood glucose level undertake ECG. If time critical, correct life threatening conditions (airway and breathing) on scene then commence transfer to nearest suitable receiving hospital. These patients have a potentially life-threatening condition and they require urgent hospital treatment including insulin and uid/ electrolyte therapy. If the patient is shocked, with poor capillary rell, tachycardia, reduced Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and hypotension, then consider IV access and commence uid therapy en-route if time permits. Diabetic patients may present with significant dehydration resulting in reduced uid in both the vascular and tissue compartments. Often this has taken time to develop and will take time to correct. Rapid fluid replacement into the vascular compartment can compromise the cardiovascular system particularly where there is pre-existing cardiovascular disease and in the elderly. Gradual rehydration over hours rather than minutes is indicated. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement2 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, disturbed cardiac rhythm). If the clinical conditions suggest that signicant dehydration has occurred then commence 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Do not give more than one litre of fluid in the first hour, because of specific hazards in hyperglycaemia when electrolyte levels are not yet known. signs prior to further fluid DO NOT delay at scene for fluid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid ENROUTE TO HOSPITAL. Provide a hospital pre-alert message/ information call according to local protocols. Diabetic monitoring: Diabetic patients may monitor their blood or urine glucose levels to assess control of their condition. These records provide a valuable source of information. The records should accompany the patient to hospital and should be handed to receiving staff. It is not unusual however, to attend a patient in whom diabetic monitoring is haphazard or omitted altogether. Key Points Glycaemic Emergencies Fluid therapy Specic Treatment Options Re-assess vital administration. Clean skin prior to obtaining blood glucose reading (using either soapy solution or an alcohol wipe, allowing the nger to dry). If blood glucose reading of <4.0mmol/l treat with oral solids (glucose drinks, chocolate or hypostop solutions) if GCS >13. If GCS 13 or less consider IM glucagon or 10% IV glucose 100ml bolus and review patients condition, titrate to effect. Administer high concentration O2 therapy. Consider uid therapy to counteract the effects of dehydration. REFERENCES Adler, P.M. (1986) Serum glucose changes after administration of 50% dextrose solution: pre- and inhospital calculations. American Journal of Emergency Medicine; 4 (6): p.504-506 Anderson, S. Hogskilde, P.D. Wetterslav, J. Bredgaard, M. Moller, J.T. Dahl, J.B. (2002) Appropriateness of leaving emergency medical service treated hypoglycaemic patients at home: a retrospective study. Acta Anaesthesioligogica Scandinavica; 46 (4): p.464-468 Boyd, R. Foex, B. (2000) Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Glucose or glucagon for hypoglycaemia. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine; 17 (4): p.287 October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Specic Treatment Options MANAGEMENT OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA Glycaemic Emergencies in Adults Cain, E. Ackroyd-Stolarz, S. Alexiadis, P. Murray, D. (2003) Prehospital hypoglycaemia. The safety of not transporting treated patients. Prehospital Emergency Care Journal; 7 (4): p.458-65. Matilla, E.M. Kuisma, M.J. Sund, K.P. Voipio-Pulkki, LM. (2004) Out-of hospital hypoglycaemia is safely and cost-effectively treated by Paramedics. European Journal of Emergency Medicine; 11 (2): p.70-74 Carstens, S. Sprehn, M. (1998) Prehospital treatment of severe hypoglycaemia: a comparison of intramuscular glucagon and intravenous glucose. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine; 13 (2-4): p.44-50 http://gateway.uk.ovid.com/gw2/ovidweb.cgi [Accessed 01/03/2005] Carter, A.J. Keane, P.S. Dreyer, J.F. (2002) Transport refusal by hypoglycaemic patients after on-scene intravenous dextrose. Academy of Emergency Medicine; 9 (8): p.855-7 Chiasson, J-L. Avis-Jilwan, N. Belanger, R. Bertrand, S. Beauregard, H. Ekoe, J-M. Fournier, H. Harrankova, J. (2003) Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Canadian Medical Association Journal; 168 (7): p.859-866 Department of Health, National Service Framework for Diabetes. Standards 2: management of diabetic emergencies. London. Dunger, D.B. Sperling, M.A. Acerini, C.L. Bohn, D.J. Daneman, D. Danne, T.P.A. Glaser, N.S. Hanas, R. Hintz, R.L. Levitsky, L.L. Savage, M.O. Tasker, R.C. Wolfsdorf, J.I. (2004) European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology/ Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society Consensus Statement on Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics, 113; e113-140. English, P. Williams, G. (2004) Hyperglycaemic crisis and lactic acidosis in diabetes mellitus. Postgraduate Medical Journal; 80: p.253-61 Holstein, A. Plaschke, A. Vogel, M.Y. Egberts, E.H. (2003) Prehospital management of diabetic emergencies- a population-based intervention study. Acta Anaesthesioligogica Scandinavica; 47: p.610-615 Specic Treatment Options Kamalakannan, D. Baskar, V. Barton, D.M. Abdu, T.A.M (2003) Diabetic Ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Postgraduate Medical Journal; 79: p.454-457 Leese, G.P. Wang, J. Broomhall, J. Kelly, P. Marsden, A. Morrison, W. Frier, B.M. Morris, A.D. (2003) Frequency of Severe Hypoglycaemia Requiring Emergency Treatment in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. A population-based study of health service resource use. Diabetes Care; 26 (4): p.1176-1180 Lerner, E.B. Billittier, A.J 4th. Lance, D.R. Janicke, D.M. Teuscher, J.A (2003) can Paramedics safely treat and discharge hypoglycaemic patients in the eld? American Journal Emergency Medicine; 21 (2): p.115-120 Page 4 of 5 National Collaborating Centre for Womens and Childrens Health. (2004) Type 1 Diabetes: diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in children and young people. RCOG press. London. Roberts, K. Smith, A. (2003) Outcome of diabetic patients treated in the pre-hospital arena after a hypoglycaemic episode, and an exploration of treat and release protocols; a review of the literature. Emergency Medical Journal; 20: p.274-276 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section; see below for glycaemic emergencies search strategy. Glycaemic emergencies search strategy Electronic databases searched: National library of medicine (Pubmed) (20032005) Cochrane (2003-2005) Prodigy (2003-2005) CINAHL (Ovid) (2003-2005) Search strategy: Pubmed: limits- English, (undertaken Feb 2005) Humans, 2003-2005 #1 hypoglycaemia #2 pre-hospital OR pre-hospital #3 emergency AND treatment #4 refusal AND treatment #6 treatment refusal #7 glucagon #8 dextrose 10%. #2 AND #8, #1 AND #8, #1 AND #8 AND #2, #1 AND #3 AND #8, #1 AND #2 AND #3 AND #6 AND #7, #1 AND #2 AND #3 AND #6, #2 AND #7, #1 AND #3, #1 AND #2 AND #3, #1 AND #6, #1 AND #2. Total= 41 articles, 8 articles considered relevant. Pubmed: limits- English, (undertaken Feb 2005) Humans, 2003-2005 #1 hyperglycaemia #2 pre-hospital OR pre-hospital #3 emergency AND treatment #4 treatment AND therapy #5 diabetic ketoacidosis #6 hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Glycaemic Emergencies in Adults #1 AND #2, #1 AND #3, #1 AND #3 AND #4, #2 AND #5, #3 AND #5, #3 AND #6, #2 AND #6, #4 AND #6. Total= 35 articles, 8 articles considered relevant. Cochrane: all sections, terms, words= 22 articles, non-relevant or duplicate. CINAHL: Diabetic Ketoacidosis/ di, dt, ep, ss, th [diagnosis, drug therapy, epidemiology, symptoms, therapy] exp. Limit to 2003-2005. Total= 32 articles, 5 considered relevant. Books Greenstein, B (2004).Trounces clinical pharmacology for nurses 17th edition. Churchill Livingstone. London. p.196 Lissauer, T. Clayden, G (2001). Illustrated textbook of Paediatrics 2nd edition. Mosby. Tortora, G.J. Grabowski, S.R. (2000). Principles of anatomy and physiology 9th edition. John Wiley & sons, inc. New York Hypoglycaemia (limits as above)/dt, rf, th [dryg therapy, risk factors, therapy]. Total= 39 articles. BMJ- 3 articles considered relevant. New England Journal of Medicine- 1 article relevant. NICE/ NeLH- 2 articles considered relevant. Prodigy- Chlorpropamide, Glibenclamide- risk of hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetics. Taking into account duplication across the journals and databases, and duplication of articles already included in Version 3 JRCALC guidelines; a total of 8 articles covering hypo/hyperglycaemia were considered relevant to pre-hospital care. Electronic journal search New England Journal of Medicine (all available years) BMJ (EMJ) (all available years) Pediatrics Hand journal search New England Journal of Medicine (2003-2005) Specic Treatment Options Hand search reference lists Additional sources searched: Department of Health http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAnd SocialCareTopics/Diabetes/fs/en (date accessed 14/02/2005) Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke INTRODUCTION ataxia Minor heat-related problems include: convulsions. calf cramps In addition the temperature will always be elevated, typically more than 41oC. Sweating may be absent. ankle swelling heat rash (prickly heat). Heat stroke is potentially fatal and the patient needs to be cooled as an emergency. Major problems are heat exhaustion and heat stroke. These tend to occur in three circumstances: 1. classic heat stroke is due to very high external temperatures. It tends to be more common in older patients in very hot climates MANAGEMENT1-4 Start correcting: reghters CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) manual workers BREATHING athletes administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) apply pulse oximetry AIRWAY 2. exertional heat stroke is due to excess heat production. This tends to occur in: measure blood glucose. military recruits 3. A variety of drugs may predispose to heat illness as above. In addition, people who take drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamines) and then do a lot of dancing, e.g. at a rave, may also get heat illness. ASSESSMENT If major ABC problems: It is important to suspect heat exhaustion/heat stroke from the history, circumstances and abnormalities on physical examination as above. However it may be dangerous to assume that collapse in an athlete is due to heat. Check for other potential causes e.g. diabetes or cardiac problems (refer to relevant guidelines). correct A and B on site then commence transfer to nearest suitable receiving hospital provide a hospital alert message / information call continue treatment en route to hospital. In heat exhaustion the patient may have u-like symptoms, such as: nausea dizziness vomiting Circulation: headache cramps. On examination the temperature may or may not be elevated (usually less than 41oC) but they will have a raised heart rate, a lowered blood pressure and will be sweating. The difference between heat stroke and heat exhaustion is that in heat stroke the patient will have neurological symptoms such as: decreased level of consciousness Specic Treatment Options if the patient is fully conscious with no central nervous system disturbance (i.e. heat exhaustion), they can be treated with oral uid replacement.5 If possible use a dextrose and saline re-hydration uid. In more severe illness: ECG monitoring obtain IV access In t individuals with heat exhaustion, initial uid replacement should be undertaken before vital signs become abnormal. If the patient has symptoms suggestive of heat exhaustion then give a uid bolus of 250mls saline. However high volumes should be avoided as they may induce cerebral oedema. October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Specic Treatment Options Specically assess: Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke If either central or peripheral pulses are absent then 250mls boluses of saline are required up to one litre total. Early transfer to hospital is required. REFERENCES Yaqub B, Al-Deeb S. Heat stroke: aetiopathogenesis, neurological characteristics, treatment and outcome. Journal of Neurological Science 1998;156(2):144-51. Waters TA. Heat illness: tips for recognition and treatment. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 2001;68(8):685-7. 4 DO NOT delay at scene for uid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give uid ENROUTE TO HOSPITAL. 2 Barrow MW, Clark KA. Heat-related illnesses. American Family Physician 1998;58(3):149-59. 5 Maresh CM, Herrera-Soto JA, Armstrong LE. Perceptual responses in the heat after brief intravenous versus oral rehydration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2001;33(6):1039-45. 6 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. Re-assess vital signs after each bolus. Eichner ER. Treatment of suspected heat illness. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1998;19(Suppl 2):S150-3. 3 1 Disability: check Glasgow Coma Score8 Exposure / environment: remove the patient from the hot environment or remove cause if possible remove to an air conditioned vehicle if available measure the patients temperature (and if possible the ambient temperature) remove outer clothing commence cooling with fanning, tepid sponging, water mist or a wet sheet loosely over the patients body (NOT cold water as this may cause vasoconstriction and reduce heat loss). 7 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Transfer the patient with air conditioning turned on or with windows open. 8 Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of Coma and Impaired Consciousness: A Practical Scale. The Lancet 1974;304(7872):81-84. Key Points Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke Specic Treatment Options METHODOLOGY Heat exhaustion/heat stroke occurs in high external temperatures, as a result of excess heat production and with certain drugs. The higher the level of activity the lower the temperature required to produce heat stroke. Do not assume that collapse in an athlete is due to heat check for other causes. In heat exhaustion the patient may suffer ulike symptoms, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, and cramps, but the temperature may not be elevated. In heat exhaustion (heat stroke) the patient will have neurological symptoms such as decreased level of consciousness, ataxia, and convulsions and the temperature will be elevated, typically >41oC. Remove the patient from the hot environment or remove cause, if possible, remove outer clothing and cool. Page 2 of 2 Refer to methodology section. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Hyperventilation Syndrome INTRODUCTION Hyperventilation syndrome is dened as a rate of ventilation exceeding metabolic needs and higher than that required to maintain a normal level of plasma CO2. Physiological hyperventilation can occur in a number of situations, including life-threatening conditions such as: hyperventilation in the presence of the following should immediately confirm an alternative diagnosis: cyanosis reduced level of consciousness reduction in SpO2. pulmonary embolism diabetic ketoacidosis MANAGEMENT 1,2 asthma hypovolaemia. If ABCD need correction then treat as per medical guidelines as it is unlikely to be due to hyperventilation syndrome but is more likely to be physiological hyperventilation secondary to an underlying pathological process. As a rule, hyperventilation due to emotional stress is rare in children, and physical causes are much more likely to be responsible for hyperventilation. Maintain a calm approach at all times. Specic presenting features can include: tetany due to calcium imbalance numbness and tingling of the mouth and lips carpopedal spasm aching of the muscles of the chest Reassure the patient and try to remove the source of the patients anxiety, this is particularly important in children. acute anxiety feeling of light headedness or dizziness. Coach the patients respirations whilst maintaining a calm environment. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The cause of hyperventilation cannot always be determined with sufcient accuracy (especially in the early stages) in the pre hospital environment. HISTORY Always presume hyperventilation is secondary to hypoxia or other underlying respiratory disorder until proven otherwise. Refer to dyspnoea guide 1,2 The resulting hypocapnia will result in respiratory alkalosis bringing about a decreased level of serum ionised calcium. This electrolyte imbalance will result in tetany, paresthesia and carpopedal spasm. Assess ABCDs: Specically consider: history of onset of hyperventilation previous history and cause of hyperventilation episodes previous medical history differential diagnosis such as pulmonary oedema, acute asthma, chest infection, pulmonary embolism, diabetic ketoacidosis or other causes of metabolic acidosis, pneumothorax, drug overdose or acute myocardial infarction (refer to specic guidelines) The practice of encouraging the patient to rebreathe their own air (via a paper bag) can be potentially harmful if the cause of the hyperventilation is due to an increased oxygen demand from a medical cause.3 This practice should therefore be abandoned in prehospital care. The aim of treatment is to restore a normal level of pCO2 over a period of time by reassuring the patient and coaching then regarding their respirations. auscultation of breath sounds during assessment of breathing Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Specic Treatment Options ASSESSMENT Hyperventilation Syndrome Key Points Hyperventilation Medical conditions can cause hyperventilation. In children a medical cause is more likely than stress. Administer oxygen until otherwise indicated. Paper bag treatment is no longer considered appropriate. Tetany, paresthesia and carpopedal spasm may occur. REFERENCES 1 Ball R. Waiting to Exhale: the assessment and management of hyperventilation. Journal of Emergency Medical Services 1998;23(1):62-75. 2 Caroline NL. Emergency Care in the Streets. Boston, Mass: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. 3 Callaham M. Hypoxic hazards of traditional paper bag rebreathing in hyperventilating patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1989;18(6):622-28. SELECT BIBILOGRAPHY Seeley R, Stephens T, Tate P. Anatomy and Physiology. 6th ed. Toronto: McGraw Hill, 2003. Wilson KJ, Waugh A, Ross JS. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999. Tortora GJ, Grabowski SR. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, 1996. METHODOLOGY Specic Treatment Options Refer to methodology section. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Hypothermia HYPOTHERMIA ASSESSMENT Hypothermia is dened as a core body temperature below 35oC Assess ABCDs The severity of hypothermia can be dened as: Type Core temperature mild hypothermia 32-35oC moderate hypothermia 30-32oC severe hypothermia <30oC Measurement of the core temperature usually relies on determining the rectal or oesophageal temperature which is usually not practical in the pre-hospital situation. The accuracy of tympanic thermometry in the pre-hospital arena is unproven. As temperature measurement in the eld is difcult, it is important to suspect and treat hypothermia from the history and the circumstances of the situation. Shivering occurs early but will cease when the temperature falls further. The patient will feel cold to the touch. Early symptoms are non-specic including: 1. Acute hypothermia (immersion hypothermia). This occurs when a person loses heat very rapidly e.g. by falling into cold water. It is often associated with near-drowning. Inquiry should be made as to why the person is in the water as an injury or illness may have caused them to fall. Acute hypothermia may also occur in a snow avalanche when it may be associated with asphyxia. 2. Subacute hypothermia (exhaustion hypothermia). This typically occurs in a hill walker who is exercising in moderate cold who becomes exhausted and is unable to generate any heat. Heat loss will occur more rapidly in windy conditions or if the patient is wet or inadequately clothed. It may be associated with injury or frostbite. Do not forget that if one person in a group of walkers is hypothermic, others in the party who are similarly dressed and who have been exposed to identical conditions may also be hypothermic. 3. Chronic hypothermia. In chronic hypothermia heat loss occurs slowly, often over days or longer. It most commonly occurs in the elderly person living in an inadequately heated house or the person who is sleeping rough. It can be associated with injury or illness e.g. the patient who falls or has a stroke and who is on the oor overnight. It is important to make an assessment of the reasons why the patient has become hypothermic, and be aware of concurrent injuries or illness which may have precipitated the hypothermia. ataxia slurred speech apathy irrational behaviour. As the temperature falls, there may be: a progressive decrease in the level of consciousness (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline) a slowing of the heart a slowing of respiratory rates cardiac arrhythmias (atrial brillation, ventricular brillation) may occur and can be provoked by rough handling (refer to cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline) with profound hypothermia the patient may be asystolic hypothermia may mimic death (very slow and weak or undetectable pulse, very slow and shallow respiration, xed dilated pupils). Even if cardiac arrest does occur, the hypothermia is protective and good outcomes have resulted from prolonged resuscitation of hypothermic patients. DO NOT STOP CARDIAC RESUSCITATION IN THE FIELD (refer to cardiac arrest guidelines). Hypothermia is more common in the very old and the very young where thermoregulation may be impaired. It is associated with some medical conditions (e.g. hypothyroidism) and also with alcohol. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options There are three main classications of hypothermia depending on the speed at which a person loses heat: Hypothermia MANAGEMENT1-5 Cardiac arrest in hypothermia Ensure careful patient handling to minimise the risk of cardiac arrhythmias due to the hypothermia. Cardiac arrest in hypothermia is treated with the same principles as in the normothermic patient except: Airway: (with cervical spine protection if indicated) defibrillation is unlikely to be effective if the patients body temperature is below 30oC drugs are less likely to be effective at low temperatures. In addition they will not be metabolised at low temperature and so if repeated doses are given they will build up and will suddenly have an effect when the patient is re-warmed. be gentle, intubate only if necessary as airway manoeuvres may induce ventricular brillation. Breathing: respiratory rate may be very slow, so check respiration for 10 seconds administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). So: measure blood sugar, and treat for hypoglycaemia if required IV uids are only needed in cases of trauma and uid loss (see below). If IV uids are given, warm the uids, if possible.6 hypothermia causes stiffness of the chest wall so more resistance will be felt with ventilation and chest compression hypothermia is protective and good outcomes have resulted from prolonged resuscitation of hypothermic patients. DO NOT STOP CARDIAC RESUSCITATION IN THE FIELD when cardiac arrest occurs in remote locations (e.g. in the mountains), it is recommended that chest compressions should not be started unless it is possible to continue it throughout the rescue period. It is better to wait to commence initial chest compressions rather than to have to stop and then start again. IV cannulation attempt one loop of defibrillation/drugs and continue ventilations/compressions but no further defibrillation/drugs. Defibrillation can be attempted again when the core temperature has risen Circulation: For management of cardiac arrest (see below and refer to cardiac arrest guidelines). Disability Exposure/environment: obtain shelter from the wind, protect from the elements Specic Treatment Options prevent further heat loss. DO NOT remove wet clothing; wrap the patient appropriately (in the mildly hypothermic patient, if one prevents further heat loss, they will be able to warm up spontaneously by their own metabolism) if the patient is conscious, give them a hot drink and food if available and appropriate when in ambulance or in shelter, gently remove wet clothes and dry the patient before covering them with blankets DO NOT rub the patients skin as this causes vasodilatation and may increase heat loss Key Points Hypothermia DO NOT give the patient alcohol as this causes vasodilatation and may increase heat loss. Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35oC. There are three main classications depending on the speed at which a person loses heat: acute, subacute, and chronic hypothermia. Prevent further heat loss; wrap the patient appropriately but DO NOT remove wet clothing, rub the skin or give alcohol. Rough handling can invoke cardiac arrhythmias so handle patients carefully. Cardiac arrest is treated in the usual way, bearing in mind that drugs/ debrillation are less likely to be effective at low temperatures. Manage co-existing trauma or medical condition as per relevant guidelines. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Hypothermia REFERENCES 1 Giesbrecht GG. Prehospital hypothermia. Wilderness and medicine 2001;12(1):24-31. treatment of environmental 2 Bernardo LM, Gardner MJ, Lucke J. The effects of core and peripheral warming methods on temperature and physiologic variables in injured children. Pediatric Emergency Care 2001;17(2): 138-42. 3 Grief R, Rajek A, Laciny S. Resistive heating is more effective than metallic-foil insulation in an experimental model of accidental hypothermia: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2000;35(4):337-45. 4 Snadden D. The eld management of hypothermic casualties arising from Scottish mountain accidents. Scott med J 1993;38:99-103. 5 Handley AJ, Goldern FS, Keatinge WR. Report of the Working Party on Out of hospital management of hypothermia. J Br Assoc Immed Care 1993;16(2): 34-35. 6 Cassidy ES, Adkins CR, Rayl RH. Evaluation of warmed intravenous fluids in the pre-hospital setting. Air Medical Journal 2001;20(5):25-6. 7 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 8 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY hypothermia. Lancet Specic Treatment Options Larach MG. Accidental 1995;345(8948):493-8. Keatinge WR. Hypothermia: dead or alive? BMJ 1991;302(6767):3-4. Lloyd EL. ABC of Sports Medicine: Temperature and Performance I: Cold. BMJ 1994;309(6953):531-534. Lloyd EL. Accidental hypothermia. J Br Assoc Immed Care 1995;18(2):26-8. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Meningococcal Septicaemia INTRODUCTION1 THE RASH Meningococcal disease is the leading infectious cause of death in children and young adults and can kill a healthy person of any age within hours of their rst symptoms. There are two main clinical presentations that often co-occur: Presentation classically haemorrhagic type (purpuric). In pigmented skin it may be helpful look at conjunctivae under lower eyelid. 1. meningitis 2. septicaemia Meningococcal septicaemia occurs when meningococcal bacteria invade the bloodstream and release their toxic products. This can progress rapidly to shock and circulatory collapse. Deterioration is often rapid and irreversible, with treatment becoming less effective by the minute. Clinical outcome is largely dependent upon early recognition and early intervention. If a glass tumbler is pressed rmly against a purpuric rash the rash will NOT fade, rash remains visible through the glass. If there is a non blanching rash in an unwell person, meningococcal septicaemia must be assumed. A non-blanching rash is indicative of meningococcal septicaemia but is not a foolproof technique, there may be NO rash. Any patient in whom meningococcal disease is suspected should be re-assessed regularly for the appearance of a non blanching rash. CLINICAL FINDINGS ASSESSMENT The patient will present as unwell and the clinical condition may rapidly deteriorate to include: Breathing: raised respiratory rate & effort raised heart rate (relative bradycardia is a very late sign) capillary rell >2 seconds, skin cold to touch (especially in extremities) skin may appear mottled (early in illness, skin may be warm) SpO2 reduced or may be unrecordable (poor perfusion) raised temperature (peripheral shutdown or any antipyretics given may mask this) rigors vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea rash develops into a petechial, bruise like purpuric rash or blood blisters may be no rash pain in joints, muscles and limbs seizures. breathing rate breathing effort measure oxygen saturation (SpO2) Circulation: pulse capillary rell time Disability: A Alert V Responds to voice P Responds to painful stimulus U Unresponsive Expose: look for rash (see below) take temperature if appropriate. The patient have may been previously unwell with nonspecic symptoms, for example: Level of consciousness: irritability early in shock alert / able to speak pyrexia as shock advances:- u-like symptoms. babies: limp, oppy and drowsy older children and adults: difculty in walking, standing, drowsy, and confused. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options Airway: Meningococcal Septicaemia MANAGEMENT2-6 Check blood glucose level and treat if necessary. Open airway. Provide hospital alert message including age of patient. Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonre-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate Correct A and B problems at scene then DO NOT DELAY TRANSFER to nearest receiving hospital. Administer benzylpenicillin7,8 (refer to benzylpenicillin protocol for dosages and information) IN TRANSIT. NOTE: The illness may progress rapidly the sooner benzylpenicillin is administered the better the outcome. Repeat assessment and further management of ABCs as necessary en route. RISK OF INFECTION TO AMBULANCE PERSONNEL Meningococcal bacteria are very fragile and do not survive outside the nose and throat. Public health guidelines recommend preventative antibiotics only for health workers whose mouth or nose is directly exposed to large particle droplets / secretions from the respiratory tract of a patient with meningococcal disease. This type of exposure is unlikely to occur unless Ambulance Clinicians are in close proximity to patients, for example, when undertaking airway management or inhaling droplets when patients cough or sneeze. When a case of meningococcal disease is conrmed, the public health Doctor will ensure that antibiotics are offered to any contacts of the case whose exposure puts them at increased risk of infection. Fluid therapy Patients with septicaemia develop a relative hypovolaemia as they are vasodilated (increasing the vascular volume) and also lose uid into many tissues (oedema). Increasing the circulating volume can help counteract this effect. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an indication for urgent fluid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Specic Treatment Options Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement10 UNLESS there are other signs of circulatory failure (cold peripheries, delayed capillary rell time, mottled skin, weak thready pulse) then commence: ADULTS 250ml bolus of crystalloid Key Points Meningococcal septicaemia CHILDREN 20ml/kg bolus of crystalloid. Re-assess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid Meningococcal disease is the leading infectious cause of death in children and young adults and can kill a healthy person of any age within hours of their rst symptoms. There are two main clinical presentations, meningitis and septicaemia, that often cooccur. The patient may have non-specic symptoms, such as irritability, pyrexia, and flu-like symptoms. Look for rash; a non-blanching rash is indicative of meningococcal septicaemia but is not conclusive. Re-assess patients regularly for the appearance of a non blanching rash. Administer benzylpenicillin; the illness may progress rapidly, the sooner benzylpenicillin is administered the better the outcome. DO NOT delay at scene for uid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give uid EN-ROUTE TO HOSPITAL. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Meningococcal Septicaemia REFERENCES 1 13 PHLS Meningococcal Infections Working Party. The Epidemiology and Control of Meningococcal Disease. Communicable Disease Report 1989; 8:3-6. 2 Begg N. Reducing mortality from meningococcal disease. BMJ 1992;305:133-134. 3 Wylie PAL, Stevens D, Drake IW, Stuart J, Cartwright K. Epidemiology and clinical management of meningococcal disease in West Gloucestershire: retrospective, population based study. BMJ 1997;315:774-779. Cartwright K, Reilly S, White D, Stuart J. Early treatment with parenteral penicillin in meningococcal disease. BMJ 1992;305:143-147. 8 Strang RJ, Pugh EJ. Meningococcal infections: reducing the case fatality by giving penicillin before admission to hospital. BMJ 1992;305:141-142. 9 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 10 Refer to methodology section. Department of Health and Social Security. Meningococcal infection: meningitis and septicaemia. London: HMSO, 1988. 7 METHODOLOGY PHLS Meningococcal Infections Working Party. Control of Meningococcal Disease: Guidance for consultants in communicable disease control. Communicable Disease Report 1995;5(13):R189R195. 6 Office for national statistics. Notifications of infectious diseases and deaths from infectious diseases, 1998-1996. Association of British Pharmaceutical Industry. Compendium of Data Sheets and Summaries of Product Characteristics with the Code of Practice for the Pharmaceutical Industry: London: Datapharm Publications Ltd, 1998-9. 5 14 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Specic Treatment Options 4 Surtees SJ, Stockton MG, Gietzen TW. Allergy to penicillin: fable or fact? BMJ 1991;302:1051-1052. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 11. Granier S, Owen P, Pill R, Jacobson L. Recognising meningococcal disease in primary care: qualiative study of how General Practitioners process clinical and contextual information. BMJ 1998;316:276-279. 12 Riordan FAI, Thomson APJ, Sills SA, Hart CA. Who spots the spots? Diagnosis and treatment of early meningococcal disease in children. BMJ 1996;313:1255-1256. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Overdose and Poisoning in Adults INTRODUCTION Accidental and deliberate drug overdose is a common problem met by Ambulance Clinicians. Accidental poisoning with ingestion, inhalation and skin contact with noxious chemicals is a more rarely encountered emergency. The majority of these episodes of poisoning are dealt with along similar lines with general supportive care, but some require more specic action. Intentional overdose/self harm urgently establish the likely physical risk, the persons emotional and physical state, and any requirement for further support services e.g. police, in an atmosphere of respect and understanding. A rapid mental health assessment should be undertaken including assessment of suicide risk (e.g. The SAD PERSONS scale).1 (refer to mental disorder guideline) Evaluate if there are any TIME CRITICAL features present. These may include: impaired ABCDs impairment of consciousness and respiration are often combined in overdose (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline) extreme hypotension (BP <70 mmHg) is common in sedative and anti-depressant overdose arrhythmias (refer to cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline) convulsions (refer to tting guideline) hypothermia especially if patient has been unconscious for a time (refer to hypothermia guideline) hyperthermia. Overdose with a number of drugs is potentially TIME CRITICAL see ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. Principles of treatment identication of poisons If any of these features are present, CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE THEN COMMENCE TRANSPORT to Nearest Suitable Receiving Hospital specic treatment for specic poisons Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call rapid access to hospital. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). In all cases of overdose, management is based upon: HISTORY MANAGEMENT Take a history of: Follow Medical remembering to: the event e.g. when did it happen? the drug/substance ingested the quantity of the drug/substance ingested collect all suspected drugs/substances mode of poisoning e.g. ingestion, inhalation any other factors that may be relevant, e.g. paracetamol taken with alcohol is more toxic to the liver than if taken alone Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING has any treatment occurred yet, either by the patient, carers, or health professionals. CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Specically consider: provide effective AIRWAY management administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). Oxygen should not be given in paraquat poisoning ensure adequate ventilation. If respiration and levels of consciousness are decreased, and drugs such as morphine, heroin or other related drugs are ASSESSMENT Assess ABCDs Assess the nature of the drug or substance involved. Expert advice should be available to all ambulance crews from the National Poisons Information Service. Individual ambulance services will have different arrangements for accessing this information. Specic Treatment Options Guidelines, October 2006 Page 1 of 7 Specic Treatment Options Emergencies Overdose and Poisoning in Adults suspected, provide respiratory support to relieve respiratory depression. Consider the use of naloxone (IV/IM) to reduce respiratory depression (refer to naloxone protocol for dosages and administration). Be aware that naloxone can induce sudden recovery with severe agitation and acute withdrawal symptoms establish IV access as appropriate en-route to hospital if patient is exposed to chemicals, remove patient from the source of chemical at once. In the case of SKIN CONTAMINATION with chemicals, remove clothing with care NOT to contaminate rescuers, and IRRIGATE with generous amounts of water activated charcoal may be of benet if given within one hour of ingestion. However, at present, it is not routinely recommended for use in pre-hospital care because of the difculty of administration and the risks of aspiration (which are exacerbated by the risk of motion sickness). OTHER SUBSTANCES MAY ALSO CAUSE MAJOR PROBLEMS Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning Organophosphate insecticides: if patient has impaired consciousness (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline) ALWAYS check blood glucose level and correct if low (blood glucose <4.0mmol/l) with glucose 10% IV (refer to glucose 10% protocol for dosages and information). Glucagon is often not effective in overdoses collect any MEDICINE CONTAINERS or ACTUAL MEDICINES for inspection at hospital if patient vomits, retain a sample, if possible, for inspection at hospital in the case of swallowed caustics and petroleum products dilute by giving a glass of milk at the scene wherever possible ts wheezing and sweating atropine may be needed (refer to atropine protocol for dosages and administration). Paraquat: pulmonary renal liver damage which is progressive and irreversible O2 THERAPY IS CONTRA-INDICATED IN THESE PATIENTS. NEVER induce vomiting respiratory depression ADDITIONAL INFORMATION2 Overdose with a number of drugs is potentially TIME CRITICAL, some of which are dealt with in more detail in the table below: Table 1 Potentially Time Critical Drugs Specic Treatment Options Tricyclic antidepressants: amitriptyline (Tryptizol) clomipramine (Anafranil) dothiepin (Prothiaden) imipramine (Tofranil) Serious effects: cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension. Immediate care: symptomatic treatment, avoid anti-arrhythmic drugs. Opiate and opioid drugs: morphine, diamorphine (heroin) compound drugs containing an opioid drug (co-proxomol) Serious effects: respiratory and cardiac depression. Immediate care: naloxone. Beta-blockers: Atenolol Sotalol Propranolol Serious effects: bradycardia. Pre-hospital care: atropine, external pacing. Digoxin Serious effects: cardiac arrhythmias. Pre-hospital care: dependent on arrhythmia. Page 2 of 7 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Overdose and Poisoning in Adults Table 2 Specic Common Poisons Alcohol Alcohol intoxication is a common emergency, and is usually a transient problem. However, when combined with drugs in overdose, it may pose a major problem. When combined with opiate drugs or sedatives, it will further decrease the level of consciousness and increase the risk of ASPIRATION OF VOMIT. In combination with paracetamol it increases the risk to the liver. Remember to check the blood glucose levels especially in children and young adults who are drunk, as hypoglycaemia (blood glucose <4.0mmol/l) is common and requires treatment with oral glucose, glucose 10% IV (refer to glucose 10% protocol for dosages and information). NOTE: Glucagon is not effective in alcohol induced hypoglycaemia. Carbon monoxide poisoning The essential requirement with carbon monoxide poisoning is to be alert to the possibilities of the diagnosis. Any patient found unconscious or disorientated in an enclosed space, for example, a patient involved in a re in a conned space, where ventilation is impaired, or a heating boiler may be defective, should be considered at risk. The supposed cherry red skin colouration in carbon monoxide poisoning, is rarely seen in practice. The immediate requirement is to remove the patient from the source (and administer 100% oxygen) as carbon monoxide is displaced from haemoglobin more rapidly the higher the concentration of oxygen. This must be given continuously. CS gas CS gas is now carried by police forces for defensive purposes. CS spray irritates the eyes (tear gas) and respiratory tract. AVOID contact with the gas which is given off from patients clothing. Where possible keep two metres from the patient and give them self-care instructions. Symptoms normally resolve in 15 minutes but may however potentiate or exacerbate existing respiratory conditions. If symptoms are present: remove patient to a well ventilated area remove contaminated clothes and place in a sealed bag remove contact lenses do not routinely irrigate the eyes as CS gas particles may dissolve and exacerbate irritation. If irrigation is required use copious amounts of saline. Patients with severe respiratory problems should be immediately transported to hospital. Ensure good ventilation of the vehicle during transfer to further care. Cyanide Cyanide poisoning is fortunately exceedingly rare and requires specic treatment outside the remit of ambulance Paramedics and technicians. However full supportive therapy should be given to these patients who should be transported immediately to hospital. Iron Iron pills are regularly used by large numbers of the population including pregnant mothers. In overdose, especially in children, they are exceedingly dangerous. They may cause extensive damage to the liver and gut and these patients will require hospital assessment and treatment. Charcoal is contra-indicated as it may interfere with subsequent treatment. Paracetamol and Paracetamolcontaining compound drugs Remember that many analgesic drugs contain paracetamol and a combination of codeine or dextropropoxyphene. This, in overdose, creates two serious dangers for the patient. The codeine and dextropropoxyphene are both derived from opioid drugs, and may well produce profound respiratory depression, especially if alcohol is involved. This can be reversed with naloxone (refer to naloxone protocol for dosages and administration). Tricyclic Antidepressants The second problem is the paracetamol that, even in modest doses (20 30 tablets), may induce severe liver and kidney damage in susceptible patients. There is no evidence of this initially and this may lull the patient and ambulance clinician into a false sense of security. It frequently takes 24 to 48 hours for the effects of paracetamol damage to become apparent and urgent blood levels are required to assess the patients level of risk. Poisoning with these drugs may cause impaired consciousness, profound hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. They are a common treatment for patients who are already depressed. Newer anti-depressants such as uoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Seroxat) have different effects. ECG monitoring and IV access should be established early in the treatment of tricyclic overdose. Arrhythmias with a pulse should be treated with oxygen initially and anti-arrhythmic only given if there is circulatory collapse. The likelihood of tting is high, this should be treated as per convulsions guidelines. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 7 Specic Treatment Options Poisoning may occur in certain industrial settings. Cyanide kits should be available and the kit should be taken to hospital with the patient. The patient requires injection with Dicobalt edetate 300ml IV over 1 minute followed by 250 ml of glucose 10% IV or administration of the currently unlicensed drug hydroxycobalamin. Description Cocaine is an alkaloid found in the leaves of the South American shrub Erythroxylon Coca. It is a powerfully reinforcing psycho stimulant. Crack is made from cocaine in a process called freebasing. Drug Cocaine Page 4 of 7 Dilated pupils. Sweating Hyperexcitability; agitated, irritable and sometimes violent behaviour Outward signs Specic Treatment Options Table 3 Illegal Drugs NOTE: Since crack is purer and therefore more potent than street cocaine, it enters the bloodstream more quickly and in higher concentrations. Because it is smoked, crack cocaines effects are felt more quickly and they are more intense than those of powder cocaine. However, the effects of smoked crack are shorter lived than the effects of snorted powder cocaine. Induces a sense of exhilaration, euphoria, excitement, reduced hunger in the user primarily by blocking the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the mid-brain, blocks noradrenaline uptake causing vasoconstriction and hypertension. Effects Crack comes in the form of solid rocks, chips, or chunks that are smoked. injected. smoked rubbed into the gums snorted through the nose Cocaine comes in the form of a powder that is almost always cut or mixed with other substances. It can be: Administration October 2006 kidney failure. stroke seizures including status epilepticus cardiac arrest myocardial infarction delirium dangerous or fatal rise in body temperature tremors The unwanted effects of cocaine or crack overdose may include some or all of the following: hallucinations. depression insomnia anxiety movement problems headache dizziness Various doses of cocaine can also produce other neurological and behavioural effects such as: The symptoms of a cocaine overdose are intense and generally short lived. Although fairly uncommon, people do die from cocaine or crack overdose, particularly following ingestion (often associated with swallowing evidence). All forms of cocaine/crack use can cause coronary artery spasm, myocardial infarction and accelerated ischaemic heart disease, even in young people. Side effects NOTE: swallowed crack cocaine represents a severe medical emergency and needs URGENT transportation to hospital EVEN IF ASYMPTOMATIC. administration of paracetamol and cooling if the body temperature is elevated (refer to paracetamol protocol for dosage and administration). administration of diazemuls, or stesolid if the patient has severe hypertension, chest pain or is tting (refer to diazepam protocol for dosage and administration) administer aspirin and GTN if the patient complains of chest pain (refer to GTN protocol for dosage and administration). If the patient has a 12-lead ECG suggestive of myocardial infarction and a history of recent cocaine use then administer nitrates but do not administer thrombolytics. monitoring ECG assisted ventilation consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2, respiratory rate is <10 or >30, expansion is inadequate O2 therapy administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Cocaine toxicity must be treated as a medical emergency and the patient transferred rapidly to hospital. In addition to the usual management of overdose/poisoning, the specic treatment of acute cocaine poisoning in the pre-hospital environment should take into account the likely necessity for: Treatment Overdose and Poisoning in Adults Specic Treatment Options Specic Treatment Options LSD October 2006 Page 5 of 7 Effects DO NOT interfere unduly as the trip will self limit, and communication is easier then. Keep patient safe, and remember other drugs and alcohol will aggravate the effects of LSD. The alterations in perception may be pleasant or nightmarish, or a mix of both, and last for some 12 hours. Mood swings, extreme hunger, sleeplessness, and hyperactivity. Agitated, unusual behaviour, clear mental disturbance. The patient may appear distant and display anxious behaviour. Increases energy levels, condence and sociability. Outward signs Specic Treatment Options Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) or acid is a mind altering drug that works on the brain to alter the brains perception of things. It was discovered in 1943, and was used in the 1960s as a recreational drug. Amphetamines have been around since the 1930s and have been medically prescribed in the past for diet control and as a stimulant. Amphetamines Bennies, Billy Whiz, Black Beauties, Bumblebees, Clear Rocks, Co-pilots, Crank, Croke, Glass, LA Turnarounds, Mollies, Oranges, Pep Pills, Pink Champagne, Pink Speed, Bombs, Rippers, Rocks, Speed, Splash, Sulph, Sulphate, Wake Ups, Whizz Description Drug Table 4 Illegal Drugs (continued) Produced on patches of blotting paper, called tabs or trips, often with printed motifs including cartoon characters. Once swallowed they take 30-60 minutes to work. The trip will last up to 12 hours and cannot be stopped. LSD is not addictive but is illegal. Swallowed, sniffed or rarely injected. Onset about 30 minutes. Lasts for several hours. Used with other drugs or alcohol, the effects are magnied. Administration permanent eye damage can occur. can trigger hidden mental illness in individuals delusions false sensations or visions may affect taste, hearing and vision nightmarish ashbacks that can last for years after drug use stops personality changes and psychiatric illness nausea and vomiting nightmarish perceptions bad trips may last for 12 hours. visual hallucinations (distortion and delusions), which can cause dangerous behaviour Central Nervous System: Gastrointestinal: liver failure. Central Nervous System: High feelings panic paranoia can produce mental illness picture in long term use poor sleep hyperpyrexia. Cardiovascular: tachycardia can lead to heart failure even in healthy individuals (refer to cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline) hypertension can produce pinpoint haemorrhages in skin, especially on the face and even lead to stroke. Side effects Usually self limiting but sedate if necessary with intravenous diazepam (10 milligrams starting dose for an adult). Hyperthermia requires rapid transport to hospital, cooling measures may be undertaken in transit ( refer to heat stroke guideline). Correct hypotension by raising the foot of the bed and/or by giving uids as per medical emergencies. If systolic BP> 220 and diastolic BP > 140 mm Hg in the absence of longstanding hypertension give diazepam (0.1-0.3 mg/kg body weight in adults and children). Narrow-complex tachycardia with cardiac output is best left untreated. Control agitation and treat seizures with diazepam (0.1-0.3 mg/kg body weight for adults or children) or lorazepam (4 mg in an adult and 0.05 mg/kg in a child). Monitor pulse, blood pressure, cardiac rhythm. Treatment Overdose and Poisoning in Adults Specic Treatment Options Outward signs Sweating, dilated pupils and elevated mood. Description Commonly known as doves, apples, strawberries, diamonds Drug 3-4 methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Ecstacy E Table 4 Illegal Drugs (continued) Page 6 of 7 Feeling warm, energetic, and friendly, rising to a state of euphoria. Effects E tablets may be white embossed headache sized pills, or coloured capsules. Take 40 minutes to work, lasting for 2 6 hours. E may not be addictive but is illegal. Administration October 2006 liver failure and severe kidney damage may occur. Cystitis and heavy periods may occur in females who use E. Liver and Kidney damage: depression, panic and anxiety may also occur. a few people develop hyperpyrexia which can be life-threatening. These patients need urgent transfer to hospital for specialist care. Cooling measures (refer to heat exhaustion/heatstroke guideline) may be helpful but should not delay transfer to further care Central Nervous System: capillary rupture, causing red marking on the face in particular. tachycardia (refer to cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline) Cardiovascular System: Side effects depression, panic and anxiety may also occur. cooling measures (refer to heat exhaustion/heat stroke guideline) may be helpful but should not delay transfer to further care Correct hypotension by raising the foot of the bed and/or by giving uids as per medical emergencies If the systolic BP > 220 and diastolic > 140 mm Hg in the absence of longstanding hypertension give diazepam (0.1-0.3 mg/kg body weight in adults and children). Control convulsions with diazepam 0.1-0.3 mg/kg body weight or lorazepam (4mg in an adult and 0.05 mg/kg in a child). Give diazepam 0.1-0.3 mg/kg body weight orally or iv to control anxiety and agitation. Treatment Overdose and Poisoning in Adults Specic Treatment Options Overdose and Poisoning in Adults Duty of Care It is not uncommon to nd patients who have or claim to have taken an overdose and subsequently refuse treatment or admission to hospital. An assessment of their mental health state and suicide risk should be made. If, despite reasonable persuasion, the patient refuses treatment, it is not acceptable to leave them in a potentially dangerous situation without any access to care. Assistance may be obtained from the medical/clinical director or a member of the clinical team and a judgement must be made to seek appropriate advice. Attendance of the Police or local mental health team may be required, particularly if the patient is at risk. Key Points Overdose and Poisoning Establish: the event, drug or substance involved, the quantity, mode of poisoning, any alcohol consumed. NEVER induce vomiting. If caustics and petroleum products have been swallowed dilute by giving milk at the scene wherever possible. If the patient vomits, retain a sample, if possible, for inspection at hospital. Bring the substance or substances and any containers for inspection at hospital. SELECT BIBILOGRAPHY 1 Patterson WM, Dohn HH, Bird J, Patterson GA. Evaluation of suicidal patients: The Sad Persons scale. Psychosomatics 1983;24(4):343-349. 2 (NPIS) TNPIS. TOXBASE http://www.spib.axl.co.uk/. 3 National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Self-harm: The short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care: NICE: London, 2004. from: Specic Treatment Options Available METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 7 of 7 Pulmonary Embolism A function of the pulmonary capillary bed is to lter the circulation of the minute blood clots that are a daily occurrence in health. Pathological obstruction of the pulmonary vessels usually presents as one of four types: 1. multiple small pulmonary emboli characterised by progressive breathlessness more commonly identified at outpatients appointments than through emergency presentation due to the long standing nature of the problem Any patient presenting with any symptom suggestive of PE, but in particular shortness of breath and/or chest pain, who also has a pre-disposing factor should be considered at risk of PE. Wells criteria can be used to assess the risk of DVT (Table 1). Table 1 Wells Criteria6 Item Clinical signs and symptoms of DVT (leg swelling and pain with palpation of the deep veins). 3. major pulmonary emboli obstruction of the larger branches of the pulmonary tree may present with sudden onset of shortness of breath with transient rise in pulse and / or fall in blood pressure. Often a precursor to a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) 3 Heart rate >100 beats/minute. 1.5 Immobilization or surgery in the previous 4 weeks. 1.5 Previous DVT/pulmonary embolism. 4. massive pulmonary emboli often presenting with loss of consciousness, tachypnoea and intense jugular vein distension, and may prove immediately or rapidly (within 1 hour) fatal or unresponsive to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation Evidence has shown that PE was not diagnosed in as many as 70% of people in whom it was subsequently found to be a main cause of death. 3 An alternative diagnosis is less likely than pulmonary embolism. 2. segmental emboli with pulmonary infarction may present with pleuritic pain and / or haemoptysis but with little or no cardiovascular compromise Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can be considered as two manifestations of a single entity; venous thromboembolism (VTE). 1.5 Hemoptysis. 1 Maglinancy (treatment ongoing or within previous 6 months or palliative). 1 Total Points Probability of PE: >6 points high 2 to 6 points moderate <2 points: low Table 2 Pre-disposing factors for PE (at least one present in 80-90% cases) Surgery especially recent: abdominal pelvic hip or knee surgery post operative intensive care. Obstetrics pregnancy Cardiac recent acute myocardial infarction HISTORY1-5 See dyspnoea guideline The most common symptoms of PE are (in order of frequency, most common rst): dyspnoea tachypnoea pleuritic pain apprehension tachycardia cough haemoptysis leg pain / clinical DVT. Limb problems recent lower limb fractures varicose veins lower limb problems secondary to stroke or spinal cord injury Malignancy PE can present with a wide range of symptoms and is often atypical, however 80-90% of all conrmed PE patients exhibit one or more predisposing factors. Specic Treatment Options Score abdominal and/or pelvic in particular advanced metastatic disease concurrent chemotherapy Miscellaneous age >40 (and risk continues to increase with age) previous proven PE/DVT immobility thrombotic disorder other recent trauma October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options INTRODUCTION Pulmonary Embolism Lesser risk factors include air, coach or other travel leading to periods of immobility, especially whilst sitting, oral oestrogen (some contraceptive pills) and central venous catheterisation. Over 70% of patients who suffer PE have peripheral vein thrombosis and vigilance is therefore of great importance it may not initially appear logical to check the legs of a patient with chest pain but can be of great diagnostic value in such cases. Position for comfort and ease of respiration often sitting forwards but be aware of potential hypotension Be prepared for cardio-respiratory arrest Specically consider: monitor using ECG and pulse oximeter be aware that the classic S1Q3T3 12 lead ECG presentation is often NOT present, even during massive PE. The commonest nding is a sinus tachycardia. administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen guideline) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: ASSESSMENT Assess ABCDs: Specically consider: respiratory rate and effort any signs and symptoms predisposing factors lower limb assessment may reveal unequal/swollen limbs that are occasionally hot and red. Calf tenderness/pain may be present. Extensive leg clots may also lead to femoral tenderness combined with SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 evidence of right heart strain (jugular vein distension) differential diagnoses include pneumothorax or cardiac chest pain pleurisy, expansion is inadequate rapid transfer IV access en-route where appropriate. evaluate whether any TIME CRITICAL features are present. These may include: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION extreme breathing difculty cyanosis severe hypoxia (SaO2 < 90%, unresponsive to O2). If any of these features are present correct A and B problems then transfer to the nearest suitable receiving hospital. Specic Treatment Options Provide a Hospital Alert Message/Information Call. Whilst there is no specic pre-hospital treatment available, there may be a window of opportunity to deal with massive PE before the patient progresses to cardiac arrest. Thrombolytic therapy has been proved of benet to many of these patients but, because of the difculty in accurate diagnosis, this should only be performed in the hospital setting. Surgical intervention (embolectomy) may also be required. High index of suspicion and rapid transfer are the keys to saving these patients. MANAGEMENT 5,7 Follow medical emergencies guideline remembering to: Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Pulmonary Embolism Key Points Pulmonary Embolism Common symptoms of PE are dyspnoea, tachypnoea, pleuritic pain, apprehension, tachycardia, cough, haemoptysis, leg pain / clinical DVT Risk factors may be identifiable from the history Ensure ABCD assessment and apply a saturation monitor early Lower limb may be unequal/swollen, occasionally hot and red, tenderness/pain may be present Apply oxygen and if in respiratory distress, transfer to further care as a medical emergency. REFERENCES Donnamaria V, Palla A, Petruzzelli S. A way to select on clinical grounds patients with high risk for pulmonary embolism: a retrospective analysis in a nested case-control study. Respiration 1995;62(4):201-04. 2 Hoellerich VL, Wigton RS. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism using clinical ndings. Archives of Internal Medicine 146;9(1699-1704). 3 Stein PD, Hull RD, Saltzman HA. Strategy for diagnosis of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Chest 1993;103(5):1553-59. 4 The British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism a practical approach. Thorax 1997;52(Suppl 4):S2-S24. 5 American College of Chest Physicians: Consensus Committee on Pulmonary Embolism. Opinions regarding the diagnosis and management of venous thromboembolic disease [review]. Chest 1998;113(2):499-504. 6 Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, Ginsberg JS, Kearon C, Gent M, et al. Derivation of a simple clinical model to categorize patients probability of pulmonary embolism: increasing the models utility with the SimpliRED D-dimer. Thromb Haemost 2000; 83:4165-20. 7 Guidelines on diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J 2000;21(16): 1301-1336. Specic Treatment Options 1 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Pulmonary Oedema INTRODUCTION Pulmonary oedema is a condition that results from the accumulation of uid in the lungs. Fluid congestion decreases gas exchange across the alveoli, resulting in decreased oxygenation of the blood and, in some cases, accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2). The pathophysiology of pulmonary oedema can be thought of in terms of three factors: The signs and symptoms of pulmonary oedema can be difficult to differentiate from other causes of breathlessness, such as exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. Therefore, a thorough history and physical examination are needed. Accuracy of Paramedic assessment of acute left ventricular failure (LVF) varies between 77% and 89%3-5 when compared to physician in-hospital diagnosis. 1. ow 2. uid HISTORY 3. lter. See dyspnoea guidelines for evidence-based differential diagnoses. Symptoms of MI may be associated with: ankle oedema chest pain worsening of angina. Previous history: admissions for heart failure, uid on legs/lungs previous MI / angina / angioplasty /coronary artery bypass grafting diabetes hypertension. Current medication: home oxygen ACE inhibitors beta-blockers diuretics anti-arrhythmic drugs. Other risk factors for heart disease: smoking family history high cholesterol diabetes. The ability of the heart to eject the blood delivered to it depends on three factors: 1. the amount of blood returning to the heart (preload) 2. the co-ordinated contraction of the myocardium 3. the resistance against which it pumps (afterload). Pre-load may be increased by over-infusion of IV uid or uid retention associated with renal failure. Coordinated contraction fails following heart muscle damage (myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure) or due to arrhythmias. After-load increases with hypertension, atherosclerosis, aortic valve stenosis or peripheral vasoconstriction. Fluid The blood passing through the lungs must have enough oncotic pressure to hold on to the uid portion as it passes through the pulmonary capillaries. As albumin is a key determinant of oncotic pressure, low albumin states lead to pulmonary oedema, e.g. burns, liver failure, nephrotic syndrome. Filter The capillaries through which the uid passes may increase in permeability, e.g., acute lung injury (as in smoke inhalation), pneumonia or drowning. The commonest cause of pulmonary oedema presenting to UK Ambulance Services is secondary to acute heart failure.1 The overall prevalence of heart failure varies between 1-2%, varying with age. 80% of these people will be diagnosed following acute admission to hospital.1 Approximately 30% will be re-admitted to hospital each year.2 Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Specic Treatment Options Symptoms: dyspnoea worsening cough (productive of white sputum) pink frothy sputum waking at night gasping for breath breathlessness on lying down (sleeping on more pillows recently?) anxious / restless. Flow Pulmonary Oedema ASSESSMENT If any of these features are present, start correcting A and B problems, give high concentration O2, LOAD and GO to nearest suitable receiving hospital and treat en route. Provide the hospital with an alert message / Information call. Primary Survey: Assess ABCD Monitoring and baseline observations: respiratory rate pulse blood pressure (BP) Initial 3-lead ECG followed by 12-lead ECG. MANAGEMENT Specically assess: NOTE: Remember that in a signicant proportion of patients, the underlying cause will be acute MI. If suspicious, follow the acute coronary syndrome guideline. Follow medical remembering to: excessive sweatiness or clamminess carotid pulse (rate, rhythm) tachycardia common BP may be high (>170/100), or low in extremis guidelines raised jugular venous pressure emergencies central cyanosis. start correcting: ne inspiratory crackling heard over the bases wheeze may indicate either asthma or pulmonary oedema pitting oedema to the ankles often associated. ECG changes CIRCULATION respiratory rate and effort BREATHING AIRWAY Chest DISABILITY (mini neurological examination). Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonre-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). Consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate. ECG may show signs of: acute MI arrhythmia heart strain Sit the patient upright / prop the trolley up. hypertrophy. Prepare equipment for respiratory or cardiac arrest. Specic Treatment Options Administer glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) (refer to the GTN drug protocol for dosages and information), assess for response. Evaluate TIME CRITICAL factors: extreme breathing difculty Gain IV access where possible en-route to hospital. central cyanosis hypoxia i.e. oxygen (O2) saturation levels (SpO2) <95% or not responding to high concentration O2 (refer to dyspnoea guideline) Administer furosemide (refer to the furosemide drug protocol for dosages and information). exhaustion Apply continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) if equipment and training allow, if respiratory distress continues after 10 minutes, as evidenced by: decreased level of consciousness persisting tachypnoea (>24 breaths per minute) systolic blood pressure (BP) <90mmHg, or tachycardia in beats per minute numerically exceeds systolic BP mmHg measure. persisting hypoxia (central cyanosis or saturations <90%). Page 2 of 4 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Pulmonary Oedema Reassess the patient and reconsider the diagnosis. Furosemide If wheeze is a predominant feature, administer salbutamol by nebuliser (refer to the salbutamol drug protocol for dosages and information). There is little high-level evidence for or against the use of furosemide (refer to furosemide protocol for dosage and information) in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema, but it has been standard treatment for many years. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) CPAP is a single level of positive pressure applied throughout the whole respiratory cycle. Its use requires specialist equipment and training.6 By providing constant pressure, the alveoli are splinted open and gas exchange is promoted throughout the lungs Three prospective randomised controlled trials have looked into the use of CPAP in emergency department patients.7-9 These and others conclude that it is a feasible intervention, which improved survival to hospital discharge, decreased intubation rates and resulted in fewer complications. Importantly, the average age of trial participants was comparable to the population likely to be encountered by Paramedics Three pre-hospital studies exist suggesting CPAP is feasible in this setting, and may reduce severity of acute LVF and increase SpO2 levels.10-12 Expert opinion has recommended CPAP for use in the prehospital environment.13-15 Exclude contra-indications: high likelihood of alternative diagnosis hypotensive (systolic <90mmHg) patients <V on AVPU scale suspected MI renal patients requiring dialysis vomiting The acute vasodilator effect of furosemide is inhibited by aspirin. Pre-hospital trials comparing repeated furosemide vs. repeated nitrates favour the use of nitrates.21 Furosemide should only be given after nitrates (which act on both pre-load and after-load). Other Treatments The effectiveness of salbutamol in the treatment of pulmonary oedema presenting in the acute setting is unclear. However, owing to the diagnostic uncertainty and possibility for misdiagnosis,5 it forms part of the management algorithm; this may avoid depriving COPD/asthma patients of vital bronchodilators. Morphine and diamorphine are commonly used in the inhospital emergency management of pulmonary oedema. The drugs act by reducing pre-load (venodilation) and also serve to decrease anxiety. Despite their widespread use, there is no conclusive trial evidence showing symptomatic improvement or mortality benet. There is some concern over their safety for the pre-hospital management of pulmonary oedema5 and Paramedics currently only have legal authority to administer morphine in order to provide analgesia (refer to morphine drug protocol for dosage and information). Key Points Pulmonary oedema unable to tolerate the tight-tting face mask use an initial starting pressure of 10cmH2O Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN) The use of nitrates in pulmonary oedema is associated with improved survival to hospital discharge in retrospective cohort studies.16 Buccal nitrates produce an immediate reduction in pre-load, comparable with IV GTN. Nitrates have some benet as the rst line treatment in acute pulmonary oedema.17 Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Pulmonary oedema can be difcult to differentiate from other causes of breathlessness, such as exacerbation of COPD, pulmonary embolism or pneumonia; therefore, a thorough history and physical examination are needed Symptoms include dyspnoea, worsening cough, pink frothy sputum, waking at night gasping for breath, breathlessness on lying down (sleeping on more pillows recently?), and anxiousness/restlessness Prepare equipment for respiratory or cardiac arrest Early oxygen and nitrate administration are the key to early treatment Sit the patient upright. Page 3 of 4 Specic Treatment Options There is some evidence that furosemide can have a transient adverse vasoconstrictor effect; it is unclear whether this is benecial or harmful.18-20 Pulmonary Oedema pressure treatment in presumed acute severe pulmonary edema. Prehospital Emergency Care 2003;7(2):209-213. REFERENCES 1 Gibbs C, Davies M, Lip G, editors. ABC of heart failure. London: BMJ Books, 2002. 2 Anonymous. ACE Inhibitors in the treatment of chronic heart failure: effective and cost-effective. Bandolier 1994;1(8):59-61. 3 Tresch DD, Dabrowski RC, Fioretti GP, Darin JC, Brooks HL. Out-of-hospital pulmonary edema: diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1983;12(9):533-537. 13 Julian DG, Boissel JP, De Bono DP, Fox KAA, Heikkila J, Lopez-Bescos L. Acute myocardial infarction: prehospital and in-hospital management. The Task Force on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. European Heart Journal 1996;17(1):43-63. 14 Arntz HR, Bossaert L, Carli P, Chamberlain D, Davies M, Dellborg M. The pre-hospital management of acute heart attacks. Recommendations of a Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Resuscitation Council. European Heart Journal 1998;19(8):1140-1164. 4 Hoffman JR, Reynolds S. Comparison of nitroglycerin, morphine and furosemide in treatment of presumed pre-hospital pulmonary edema. Chest 1987;92(4):586-593. 5 Bruns BM, Dieckmann R, Shagoury C, Dingerson A, Swartzell C. Safety of pre-hospital therapy with morphine sulfate. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1992;10(1):53-57. 15 British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure: BTS guideline. Thorax 2002;57(3):192-211. 6 Tan IKS, Oh TE. Intensive care manual. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997. 16 7 Crane SD, Elliott MW, Gilligan P, Richards K, Gray AJ. Randomised controlled comparison of continuous positive airways pressure, bilevel noninvasive ventilation, and standard treatment in emergency department patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Emerg Med J 2004;21(2):155-161. Crane SD. Epidemiology, treatment and outcome of acidotic, acute, cardiogenic pulmonary oedema presenting to an emergency department. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2002;9(4):320-324. 17 Johnson A, Mackway-Jones K. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Inrmary. Furosemide or nitrates in acute left ventricular failure. Emergency Medicine Journal 2001;18:59-60. 18 Anonymous. Part 6: advanced cardiovascular life support. Section 6: pharmacology II: agents to optimize cardiac output and blood pressure. Resuscitation 2000;46(1-3):155-162. 19 Francis CS, Siegel RM, Goldsmith SR, Olivari MT, Levine B, Cohn JN. Acute vasoconstrictor response to intravenous furosemide in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: activation of the neurohumoral axis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1985;103(1):1-6. 20 Kraus PE, Lipman J, Becker PJ. Acute preload effects of furosemide. Chest 1990;98(1):124-128. 21 Cotter G, Metzkor E, Kaluski E, Faigenberg Z, Miller R, Simovitz A. Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high-dose furosemide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema. Lancet 1998;351(9100):389-393. 8 8 Specic Treatment Options 10 11 12 Park M, Sangean MC, Volpe MdS, Feltrim MIZ, Nozawa E, Leite PF, et al. Randomized, prospective trial of oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure, and bilevel positive airway pressure by face mask in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema Critical Care Medicine 2004;32(12):2407-2415. LHer E, Duquesne F, Girou E, Rosiere XD, Conte PL, Renault S, et al. Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure in elderly cardiogenic pulmonary edema patients. Intensive Care Medicine 2004;30(5):882-888. Gardtman M, Waagstein L, Karlsson T, Herlitz J. Has an intensied treatment in the ambulance of patients with acute severe left heart failure improved the outcome? European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2000;7(1):15-24. Kosowsky JM, Stephanides SL, Branson RD, Sayre MR. Prehospital use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for presumed pulmonary edema: a preliminary case series. Prehospital Emergency Care 2001;5(2):190-196. Kallio T, Kuisma M, Alaspaa A, Rosenberg PH. The use of pre-hospital continuous positive airway Page 4 of 4 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Sickle Cell Crisis INTRODUCTION MANAGEMENT3,4 Sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary condition affecting the haemoglobin contained within red blood cells. It predominantly affects people of African or AfroCaribbean origin, but can also affect people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Asian origin. the patient will often be able to guide their care from the usual practice for them and they may have an individualised treatment plan available. Follow medical emergencies guideline. In addition: administer high concentration O2 (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline), as this helps to counter tissue hypoxia and reduce cell clumping check 12-lead ECG. This may be the only indication of the presence of ACS (refer to ACS guideline) patients with a sickle cell crisis will not have acute fluid loss, but may present with dehydration resulting in reduced uid in both the vascular and tissue compartments, if they have been ill for an extended period of time. Often this has taken time to develop and will take time to correct. Gradual rehydration over many hours rather than minutes is indicated. Consider obtaining IV access. all sickle cell patients should be offered pain relief5 (refer to pain management guidelines), and this should initially be through administration of Entonox (refer to Entonox protocol for administration and dosage) (NOTE: Entonox should not be used for extended periods for sickle cell patients). Consider use of IV analgesia (refer to pain management guidelines) position the patient so as to minimise pain patients should not walk to the ambulance, as this will exacerbate the effects of hypoxia in the tissues unless there is a life-threatening condition present, patients in sickle cell crisis should be transferred to the specialist centre where they are normally treated. HISTORY A previous history of sickle cell anaemia and sickle cell crisis will be present in most cases, with the patient almost always being aware of their condition. The crisis may follow as a result of an infection, during pregnancy, or after the patient has been anaesthetised. These painful crises can result in damage to the patients lungs, kidneys, liver, bones and other organs and tissues. The recurrent nature of these acute episodes is the most disabling feature of sickle cell anaemia, and many chronic problems can result, including leg ulcers, blindness and stroke. Acute coronary chest syndrome (ACS)1,2 is the leading cause of death amongst sickle cell patients. Signs & symptoms: severe pain, most commonly in the joints of the arms and legs, but also in the back and abdomen difculty in breathing high temperature, reduced oxygen (O2) saturation, cough and chest pain may indicate ACS swelling of the joints pallor tiredness/weakness dehydration. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Specic Treatment Options When an acute sickle cell crisis occurs, the red blood cells change shape from the usual bi-concave discs to an irregular or crescent shape. These cells become unable to carry oxygen effectively, and begin to clump together. This leads to reduced blood ow in the capillaries causing tissue hypoxia and a marked reduction in the life of the cells involved. Sickle Cell Crisis Key Points sickle cell crisis Sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary condition affecting the haemoglobin contained within red blood cells; the cells are irregular in shape and become unable to carry oxygen effectively Sickle cell crises can result in damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, bones and other organs and tissues Sickle cell crises can painful and patients should be offered pain relief Administer high concentration oxygen therapy Acute coronary chest syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of death amongst sickle cell patients, therefore, check 12-lead ECG. REFERENCES Yale SH, Nagib N, Guthrie T. Acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Crucial considerations in adolescents and adults. Postgraduate medicine 2000;107(1):215-8, 221-2. 2 Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN, Williams R, Lennette ET, Dean D, et al. Causes and Outcomes of the Acute Chest Syndrome in Sickle Cell Disease. N Engl J Med 2000;342(25):1855-1865. 3 Gurkamal V, Harold B, Donohoe R. A Snapshot clinical audit examining the management of Sickle Cell Crisis: London Ambulance Service NHS Trust: Available from: http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/aboutus/trust board/media/Trust%20Board_28Sept04.pdf, 2004. 4 Department of Health. Report of a working party of the Standing Medical Advisory Committee on Sickle Cell, Thalassaemia and other Haemoglobinopathies. London: HMSO, 1993. 5 Specic Treatment Options 1 Maxwell K, Streetly A, Bevan D. Experiences of hospital care and treatment seeking for pain from sickle cell disease: qualitative study. BMJ 1999;318(7198):1585-1590. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Stroke/Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) INTRODUCTION Stroke is common and may be due to either intracranial haemorrhage or infarction. En-route continue patient management (see below) Over 130,000 people a year in England and Wales have their rst stroke, and some 60,000 deaths are associated with stroke annually. Stroke is the third most common cause of death after heart disease and cancer. Assess blood glucose level. Always check if the patient is diabetic, as hypoglycaemia may present as one sided weakness. If there are no TIME CRITICAL features present, perform a more thorough assessment as a brief secondary survey: 85% of strokes are caused by cerebral infarction and 15% by intracranial haemorrhage. assess blood pressure because often in the early stages the blood pressure is markedly raised Thrombolytic1 treatment for cerebral infarction needs to be undertaken early to be successful. In order to determine suitability for treatment patients must undergo a scan, therefore, patients need to be transferred to an appropriate hospital. For the benets of thrombolysis to be most effective it needs to be administered within 3 hours of onset of symptoms. assess Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)2 on unaffected side eye and motor assessments may be more readily assessed if speech is badly affected assess for presence of speech abnormality, either slurred speech (dysarthria) or problems speaking or with the understanding of speech (dysphasia) assess limb power and sensation. May have mainly sensory impairment with numbness or pins and needles down affected side assess for sudden onset of weakness of the face and arm, as when combined with speech abnormality, stroke is the most likely diagnosis (refer to Table 1). The most sensitive features associated with diagnosing stroke and TIA are facial weakness, arm and leg weakness, and speech disturbance. A TIA occurs when blood supply to part of the brain is briey interrupted. TIA symptoms, which usually occur suddenly, are the same as those of stroke but are usually short lasting. The risk of a patient with TIA developing a stroke is high and symptoms should always be taken seriously. Table 1 FAST Test3,4 Facial Weakness Assess ABCDs May have airway and breathing problems (refer to dyspnoea guideline). Level of consciousness may vary (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline). Arm Weakness Evaluate if the patient has any TIME CRITICAL features these may include: any major ABC problem altered level of consciousness. If any of these features are present, start correcting A and B problems then transport to the nearest suitable receiving hospital. Local arrangements should be in place to ensure that optimal use is made of specialist in-hospital resources (e.g. stroke unit). Speech ask the patient to smile or show teeth. Look for NEW lack of symmetry (motor) Ask the patient to lift their arms together and hold for 5 seconds. Does one arm drift or fall down? The arm with motor weakness will drift downwards compared to the unaffected limb ask the patient to repeat a phrase. Assess for slurring or difculty with the words or sentence These components make up the FAST (face, arms, and speech test) assessment that should be carried out on ALL patients with suspected stroke/TIA. Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information Call Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Specic Treatment Options ASSESSMENT Stroke/Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) MANAGEMENT5-9 Follow medical remembering to: emergencies Key Points STROKE/Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) guideline, Start correcting: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) correct hypoxia,10,11 administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Stroke is common and may be due to either intracranial haemorrhage or infarction The most sensitive features associated with diagnosing stroke and TIA are facial weakness, arm and leg weakness, and speech disturbance FAST test FAST test should be carried out on ALL patients with suspected stroke/TIA DO NOT administer aspirin if a stroke/TIA is suspected. REFERENCES 2 Teasdale G, Jennett B. ASSESSMENT OF COMA AND IMPAIRED CONSCIOUSNESS: A Practical Scale. The Lancet 1974;304(7872):81-84. Harbison J, Hossain O, Jenkinson D, Davis J, Louw SJ, Ford GA. Diagnostic Accuracy of Stroke Referrals From Primary Care, Emergency Room Physicians, and Ambulance Staff Using the Face Arm Speech Test. Stroke 2003;34(1):71-76. 4 Nor AM, McAllister C, Louw SJ, Dyker AG, Davis M, Jenkinson D, et al. Agreement Between Ambulance Paramedic- and Physician-Recorded Neurological Signs With Face Arm Speech Test (FAST) in Acute Stroke Patients. Stroke 2004;35(6):1355-1359. 5 ACT NOW Expert Panel. Improving patient management and outcomes in acute stroke: a coordinated approach: Available from: http://www.boehringeringelheim.com/corporate/asp/news/ndetail.asp?ID= 1955, 2004. 6 Adams HP, Adams RJ, Brott TG, Zoppo GJ, Furlan A, Goldstein LB, et al. ASA Scientic Statement: Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Stroke 2003;34(4):1056. 7 Evenson KR, Rosamond WD, Morris DL. Prehospital and in-hospital delays in acute stroke care. Neuroepidemiology 2001;20(2):65-76. 8 consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 breaths per minute if: Kwan J, Hand P, Sandercock P. Improving the efciency of delivery of thrombolysis for acute stroke: a systematic review. QJM 2004;97(5):273-279. 3 1 European Stroke Initiative Executive Committee and the EUSI Writing Committee. European Stroke Initiative Recommendations for Stroke Management Update 2003. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2003;16:311-337 oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate if not time critical, consider IV access. Patients are often dehydrated: consider IV saline. Fluid Therapy Specic Treatment Options Patients having suffered a stroke will not have acute uid loss, but may present with dehydration resulting in reduced uid in both the vascular and tissue compartments, if they have been ill for an extended period of time. Often this has taken time to develop and will take time to correct. Rapid uid replacement into the vascular compartment can compromise the cardiovascular system particularly where there is preexisting cardiovascular disease and in the elderly. Gradual rehydration over many hours rather than minutes is indicated. Consider recording 12-lead ECG Specically: check blood glucose level (refer to glycaemic emergencies guideline) conscious patients should be conveyed in the semi recumbent position patients should be nil by mouth DO NOT administer aspirin if a stroke/TIA is suspected. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Specic Treatment Options Stroke/Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) 9 Party ISW. National clinical guidelines for stroke, 2nd edition. London: Royal College of Physicians, 2004. 10 Pancioli AM, Bullard MJ, Grulee ME, Jauch EC, Perkis DF. Supplemental oxygen use in ischaemic stroke patients: does utilisation correspond to need for oxygen therapy? Archives of Internal Medicine 2002;162:49-53. 11 Ronning OM, Guldvog B. Should stroke victims routinely receive supplemental oxygen therapy? A quasi randomised controlled trial. Stroke 1999;30:2033-37. 12 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 13 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). METHODOLOGY Specic Treatment Options Refer to methodology section. Specic Treatment Options October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Trauma Emergencies in Adults overview All trauma patients should be assessed and managed in a systematic way, using the primary survey to identify patients with actual or potentially life threatening injuries. Remember to check the scene for other casualties e.g. the ejected casualty from an RTC. Always consider the mechanism of injury and the possible injury patterns that may result, but mechanism of injury alone cannot exclude injury. If any abnormality is detected during the assessment, the need for senior clinical support should be considered. PATIENT ASSESSMENT This guideline uses mechanism of injury and primary survey as the basis of care for all trauma patients. The primary survey should be used to assess and detect any TIME CRITICAL/POTENTIALLY TIME CRITICAL problems All these guidelines reect the principles of the PreHospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS RCS Ed)1, and Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training courses. Primary Survey (60 90 seconds for assessment) 1. SELF personal mandatory equipment BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) protective Safety: AIRWAY with spine control BASIC TRAUMA INCIDENT PROCEDURE EXPOSURE and ENVIRONMENT is Stepwise Patient Assessment and Management 2. SCENE 3. CASUALTY. Remember, safety is dynamic and needs to be continually re-assessed throughout. In ABCDE management, problems should be dealt with as they are encountered, i.e. do not move onto breathing and circulation until airway is secured. Every time an intervention has been carried out, re-assess the patient. At each stage consider: Scene Assessment: consider resources required consider possibility of major incident/chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) (refer to CBRN guideline) need for rapid evacuation to hospital need for early senior clinical support. Airway Assessment early situation report: Look for obvious obstructions e.g. teeth, foreign bodies, vomit, blood or soot/burns/oedema in burn victims Listen for noisy airow e.g. snoring, gurgling or no airow Feel operational for air movement clinical. Deliver situation report using METHANE format2 M Major incident standby or declared E Exact location of incident T Type of incident H Hazards (present and potential) A Access and egress routes N Number, severity and type of casualties E Emergency services present on scene and further resources required Trauma Emergencies AT ALL TIMES immobilise the whole spine until it has been cleared, this will usually be with manual immobilisation initially (see neck and back injury guideline). October 2006 Page 1 of 6 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Trauma Emergencies in Adults overview Examine the neck and chest for the signs of: Stepwise Airway Management Correct any airway problems immediately by: T Tracheal deviation Trauma Emergencies positioning W Wounds, bruising, swelling suction (if available and appropriate) E Emphysema (surgical) jaw thrust (no neck extension) L Laryngeal crepitus oropharyngeal airway V Venous engorgement (jugular) nasopharyngeal airway laryngeal mask airway (if appropriate) endotracheal intubation surgical airway (needle cricothyroidotomy). To exclude life-threatening injuries: Remember: ALL trauma concentration oxygen. patients need open pneumothorax massive haemothorax All steps should be considered but may be omitted if not considered appropriate. tension pneumothorax ail chest. high Stepwise Breathing Management Correct any breathing problems immediately: Breathing Assessment administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonrebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) For sucking chest wounds (refer to thoracic trauma guideline) decompress tension pneumothorax if present, trained and authorised to do so (refer to thoracic trauma guideline) ail segment may be splinted with a hand. Expose the chest: Look for cyanosis, respiratory rate, depth and equality of breathing and assess effort. Look for obvious chest injury e.g. open wounds, flail segment. Remember to look in the axillae Listen for altered breathing patterns, auscultate to assess air entry and compare sides, percuss for hyporesonance or hyperresonance Feel for depth and equality of chest movement, crepitus of rib fractures or abnormal movement ail segments Note remember sides and back Consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if any of the following are present: equality of air entry pulse oximetry should be undertaken oxygen saturation (SpO2) <95% except in patients with COPD (refer to COPD guideline). <90% on high inadequate chest expansion. respiratory rate and depth (<10 or >30 breaths per minute (bpm)) respiratory rate <10 or >30bpm Assess adequacy of breathing oxygen saturation (SpO2) concentration oxygen Restraint (POSITIONAL) Asphyxia If the assessment elicits any suggestion of abnormal breathing then immediately assess for signs of lifethreatening injury utilising TWELVe Page 2 of 6 If the patients condition requires that they are physically restrained (e.g. by Police Ofcers) in order to prevent them injuring themselves or others or for the purpose of being detained under the Mental Health Act, then it is paramount that the method of restraint allows both for a patent airway and adequate respiratory volume. Under these circumstances it is essential to ensure that the patients airway and breathing are adequate at all times. October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Trauma Emergencies in Adults overview Stepwise Circulatory Management Look for and control external haemorrhage. Correct any circulatory problems immediately by: Remain alert to the possibility of internal bleeding which requires immediate evacuation to hospital: 1. Arresting external haemorrhage with the use of: palpate for a radial pulse if present, implies a systolic BP of 80-90mmHg and adequate perfusion of vital organs, but this is highly variable.3 If absent, feel for a carotid pulse which, if present, implies a systolic BP of about 60mmHg - direct pressure assess skin colour and temperature - pressure on proximal artery assess pulse rate and volume check capillary rell time centrally i.e. forehead or sternum. Consider hypovolaemic shock and beware of its early signs: pallor cool peripheries anxiety, abnormal behaviour increased respiratory rate 2. Consider splinting: tachycardia. major long bone fractures with various devices - tourniquet if exsanguinating. pelvic fractures e.g. triangular bandages, inverted Kendrick Extrication Device or pelvic straps. NOTE: Internal or uncontrolled haemorrhage requires rapid evacuation to hospital with alert message. Fluid Therapy Obtain IV access. (large bore cannula) Look for signs of blood loss in ve places (see below): 1. external 2. chest during B assessment 3. abdomen by palpation (limited value) and observation of external marks and bruises 4. pelvis gently spring once only 5. long bones open or closed fractures Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.4 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. If the patient has a carotid pulse but no radial pulse then other clinical factors should also be considered before decision on uid administration. Recognition of Shock Shock is difcult to diagnose. Certain groups of patients hide the signs of shock, notably, children, pregnant women, those on medication such as beta blockers, and the physically t; for these groups of patients the signs of shock appear late: in adults, blood loss of 750-1000ml will produce little evidence of shock; blood loss of 100015000ml is required before more classical signs of shock appear REMEMBER this loss is from the circulation NOT necessarily from the body. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent fluid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and visible/expected blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,5 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, cardiac rhythm disturbance). Re-assess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid DO NOT delay at scene for uid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid EN-ROUTE TO HOSPITAL. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 3 of 6 Trauma Emergencies Circulatory Assessment Trauma Emergencies in Adults overview Neck Note initial level of responsiveness on AVPU scale, and time of assessment (see below). Trauma Emergencies Disability Assessment: the collar will need to be loosened for proper examination of the neck re-assess for signs of life-threatening injury: A Alert V Responds to voice T P Responds to painful stimulus W Wounds, bruising, swelling U Unresponsive E Emphysema (surgical) L Laryngeal crepitus V Venous engorgement (jugular) Assess and note pupil size, equality and response to light. Tracheal deviation Any patient with altered mental status should have their blood glucose checked to rule out hypo or hyperglycaemia as the cause. Exposure/Evaluation Chest At this stage further monitoring may be applied. re-assess rate and depth of breathing Care must be taken to ensure patient does not suffer from exposure to cold/wet conditions. re-assess for contusions, seatbelt marks and ail segments Evaluate whether the patient is time critical or nontime critical on the basis of the primary survey. feel for rib fractures, instability and surgical emphysema Non-trapped time critical patients need to be appropriately packaged and transported IMMEDIATELY to the nearest appropriate hospital. auscultate for breath sounds in all lung elds and assess/re-assess the chest for signs of: pneumothorax If the patient remains absolutely trapped, consider early senior clinical support. haemothorax pulmonary contusion En-route, provide a HOSPITAL ALERT MESSAGE and continue PATIENT RE-ASSESSMENT/MANAGEMENT. Consider the need for analgesia (refer to pain management guidelines). Secondary survey will usually be undertaken during transit to hospital. In critical trauma it may not be possible to undertake the secondary survey before arrival at hospital. assess and palpate for spinal tenderness, particularly note any bony tenderness. ail segment cardiac tamponade. For further information refer to the thoracic trauma guideline. Abdomen examine for open wounds, contusions, seatbelt marks feel for tenderness and guarding, examining the whole abdomen remember to examine the back and the front. Head re-assess airway check skin colour and temperature palpate for bruising / fractures check pupil size and activity examine for loss of cerebrospinal uid check Glasgow Coma Scale (see Appendix 1) assess for signs of basal skull fracture. Pelvis only spring the pelvis once; this avoids the risk of starting catastrophic bleeding assume a pelvic injury based on the mechanism blood may be visible from urethra / vagina. 6,7 Page 4 of 6 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Trauma Emergencies in Adults overview Lower and Upper Limbs examine lower limbs then upper limbs look for wounds and evidence of fractures check for MSC in ALL four limbs: M MOTOR Test for movement S SENSATION Apply light touch to evaluate sensation C CIRCULATION Assess pulse temperature and skin Overall assessment of safety: self, scene, casualties is of prime importance. The primary survey forms the basis of patient assessment, with due consideration for cervical spine control. Early application of oxygen and arrest of external haemorrhage can be life saving. Consider mobilising senior clinical support at the earliest opportunity. REFERENCES assess pulse and skin temperature. 1 Pre-hospital Trauma Course. In: Thurgood A, Hall J, editors: http://www.marsbasics.co.uk/pdf/87256trauma_co urse_nal.pdf, 2005. 2 Hodgetts TJ, Porter C. Major incident management system London: BMJ Books, 2002. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES IN TRAUMA The Trapped Patient Entrapment can be: Relative: trapped by difculty in access/egress from the wreckage, including the physical injury stopping normal exit 3 Deakin CD, Hicks IR. AB or ABC: pre-hospital uid management in major trauma. Emerg Med J 1994;11(3):154-157. Absolute: rmly trapped by the vehicle and its deformity necessitating specialised cutting techniques to free the patient8 4 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 5 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). 6 Norwood SH, McAuley CE, Berne JD, Vallina VL, Creath RG, McLarty J. A Prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale Score <= 14 Accurately Predicts the Need for Full Trauma Team Activation and Patient Hospitalization after Motor Vehicle Collisions. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2002;53(3):503-507. 7 Teasdale G, Jennett B. ASSESSMENT OF COMA AND IMPAIRED CONSCIOUSNESS: A Practical Scale. The Lancet 1974;304(7872):81-84. 8 Mackenzie R, Sutcliffe R. Pre-hospital care: the trapped patient. J R Army Med Corps 2000;146(1):39-46. All absolutely trapped patients are at high risk of having suffered signicant transfer of energy and therefore are at increased risk of severe injury. Senior Clinical help should be mobilised at the earliest opportunity. Actions: perform assessment as per trauma guideline liaise / mobilise other services as necessary give situation report to control form a rescue plan provide analgesia (refer to pain management guidelines). METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 5 of 6 Trauma Emergencies Key Points Trauma Emergencies Trauma Emergencies in Adults overview Appendix 1 Glasgow Coma Scale GLASGOW COMA SCALE Trauma Emergencies Item Score Eyes Opening: Spontaneously 4 To speech 3 To pain 2 None 1 Obeys commands 6 Localises pain 5 Withdraws from pain 4 Abnormal Flexion 3 Extensor response 2 No response to pain 1 Motor Response: Verbal Response: Orientated Confused 4 Inappropriate words 3 Incomprehensible sounds 2 NO verbal response Page 6 of 6 5 1 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Abdominal Trauma Specically assess: Trauma to the abdomen can be extremely difcult to assess even in a hospital setting. In the field, identifying which abdominal structure/s has been injured is less important than identifying that abdominal trauma itself has occurred. assess both chest and abdomen as many abdominal organs are covered by the lower ribs, and the lower chest margins extend over abdominal structures (e.g. liver and spleen). examine abdomen for external wounds, contusions, seat belt abrasions, evisceration (protruding organs). assess for tenderness, guarding and rigidity by GENTLE palpation of all four areas (quadrants) of the abdomen. consider the potential for pelvic injuries and gently assess lower ribs for evidence of fractures. shoulder tip pain may indicate pathology in the abdomen which is irritating the diaphragm and should increase suspicion of injury. It is therefore, of major importance to note abnormal signs associated with blood loss, and establish that abdominal injury is the probable cause, rather than being concerned with, for example, whether the source of that abdominal bleeding originates from the spleen or liver. There may be signicant intra-abdominal injury with very few, if any, initial indications of this at the time the abdomen is examined by the Paramedic at the scene. HISTORY Observe the mechanism of injury. In the road trafc collision (RTC) situation, look for impact speed and severity of deceleration. Was a seat belt worn? Lap belts are particularly associated with torn or perforated abdominal structures. In cases of stabbing and gunshot wound, what was the length of the weapon or the type of gun and the range? NOTE: Many patients found later to have signicant INTRA-ABDOMINAL TRAUMA show little or no evidence of this in the early stage, so do NOT rule out injury if initial examination is normal. MANAGEMENT Follow Trauma Emergencies Guideline, remembering to: ensure ABCDs and immobilise cervical spine (refer to neck and back guideline). ASSESSMENT Assess and correct decits with: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION Respiration DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, in patients sustaining major trauma and long bone fracture, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if any of the following are present: Evaluate whether a patient is TIME CRITICAL/ POTENTIALLY TIME CRITICAL or NON-TIME CRITICAL following criteria as per trauma emergencies guideline. If patient is TIME CRITICAL/POTENTIALLY TIME CRITICAL, immobilise cervical spine if indicated (refer to neck and back guideline) and go to nearest suitable receiving hospital with a Hospital Alert Message. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). In NON-TIME CRITICAL patients, perform a more thorough patient assessment with a brief secondary survey. Trauma Emergencies oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30bpm inadequate chest expansion. October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Abdominal Trauma Fluid Therapy Obtain IV access. Trauma Emergencies Trauma Emergencies Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.1 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. If the patient has a carotid pulse but no radial pulse then other clinical factors should also be considered before decision on uid administration. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,2 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, cardiac rhythm disturbance). Re-assess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid DO NOT delay at scene for uid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid EN-ROUTE TO HOSPITAL. Specically consider: cover exposed bowel with warmed dressings soaked in crystalloid solution. DO NOT attempt to push organs back into the abdomen. impaling objects, e.g. a knife must be LEFT IN-SITU for removal under direct vision in the operating theatre. Any impaling objects should be adequately secured prior to transfer to further care. If the impaling object is pulsating, then it should not be completely immobilised, but allowed to pulsate. in cases of more severe pain use appropriate analgesia (refer to pain management guidelines) as this has been shown to improve subsequent management. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The abdomen is divided within into three anatomical areas: 1. abdominal cavity 2. pelvis 3. retro-peritoneal area. 1. Abdominal Cavity The abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis. It contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder and spleen. Remember the upper abdominal organs are partly in the lower thorax and lie under the lower ribs. Fractures of lower ribs will endanger upper abdominal structures such as the LIVER and SPLEEN. 2. Pelvis The pelvis contains the bladder, the lower part of the large intestine and, in the female, the uterus and ovaries. The iliac artery and vein lie over the posterior part of the pelvic ring and may be torn in pelvic fractures, adding to already major bleeding. 3. Retro-peritoneal Area The retroperitoneal area lies against the posterior abdominal wall, and contains the kidneys and ureters, pancreas, abdominal aorta, vena cava, and part of the duodenum. These structures are attached to the posterior abdominal wall, and are often injured by the shearing forces involved in rapid deceleration. ABDOMINAL INJURIES Blunt consider the mechanism of injury and immobilise as per the neck and back trauma guideline. This is the most common pattern of injury seen and is related to direct blows to the abdomen or rapid deceleration. if pain is severe, patient may self-administer Entonox (refer to entonox drug protocol for administration and information) but be cautious if the injury could also affect the thoracic cavity. The spleen, liver and tethered structures such as duodenum, small bowel and aorta are the most commonly injured. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Abdominal Trauma METHODOLOGY Stab wounds, gunshot wounds and other penetrating injuries. Refer to methodology section; see below for abdominal trauma search strategy. Stab Wounds Abdominal trauma search strategy Stab injures MUST be assumed to have done serious damage until proved otherwise. Damage to liver, spleen or major blood vessels may cause massive haemorrhage. Mortality from isolated abdominal stab wounds is about 1-2%. Electronic databases searched: Remember that upper abdominal stab wounds may have caused major intra-thoracic damage, if the weapon was directed upwards (refer to thoracic trauma guideline). Similarly, chest stabbing injuries may also cause intraabdominal injury. Ovid AMED British Nursing Index Medline Trauma Emergencies Penetrating CINAHL. Search strategy: (Assessment OR Examination) AND (Abdomen OR Abdominal) Gunshot Wounds (Trauma OR Injury) AND (Abdomen OR Abdominal). Gunshot wounds (GSW) tend to cause more direct than indirect injury, due to the forces involved and the chaotic paths that bullets may take. The same rules apply to associated intra-thoracic injuries. Prehospital Trauma Life Support http://www.naemt.org/PHTLS The American Trauma http://www.amtrauma.org Key Points Abdominal Trauma Additional sources searched: Abdominal trauma can be difcult to assess. Identifying that abdominal trauma has occurred is more important than identifying which structure/s have been injured, therefore note signs associated with blood loss. Observe mechanism of injury. Ensure ABCs and immobilise cervical spine. Transport to the nearest appropriate facility, providing an alert message en-route. (PHTLS) Society Trauma.org http://www.trauma.org Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca The National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) http://www.guideline.gov Bickley LS. Bates Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003 Caroline NL. Emergency Care in the Streets. Boston, Mass: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. REFERENCES 1 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 2 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Burns and Scalds in Adults INTRODUCTION difculty with breathing and swallowing Burns arise in a number of accident situations, and may have a variety of accompanying injuries or preexisting medical problems associated with the burn injury. Scalds, ame or thermal burns, chemical and electrical burns will all produce a different burn pattern, and inhalation of smoke or toxic chemicals from the fire may cause serious accompanying complications. blistering around the mouth and tongue assess breathing for rate, depth and any breathing difculty. evaluate whether patient has any TIME CRITICAL features. These may include: any major ABCD problems A number of burn cases will also be seriously injured following falls from a height in fires, or injuries sustained as a result of road trafc collision where a vehicle ignites after an accident. any signs of airway burns, soot or oedema around the mouth and nose history of hot air or gas inhalation; these patients may initially appear well but can deteriorate very rapidly Explosions will often induce ash burns, and other serious injuries due to the effect of the blast wave or ying debris. any evidence of circumferential (completely encircling) burns of the chest, neck, limb Inhalation of superheated smoke, steam or gases in a re, will induce major airway swelling and respiratory obstruction. This is especially important in children, where inhalation of steam, even from a kettle has been known to cause rapid fatal airway obstruction. Preceding long term illness, especially chronic bronchitis and emphysema, will seriously worsen the outcome from airway burns. Remember that a burn injury may be preceded by a medical condition causing a collapse (e.g. elderly patient with a stroke collapsing against a radiator). any signicant facial burns burns >25% body surface area (BSA) in adults presence of other major injuries. if any of these features are present, IF POSSIBLE CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS then initiate TRANSFER to nearest suitable receiving hospital with a Hospital Alert Message. any patient who has a high risk history or is starting to develop respiratory problems should be immediately transported to hospital as they can deteriorate very rapidly and need complex airway intervention. Burns can be very painful and treatment of pain is important (refer to pain management guideline). ASSESSMENT Ensure safety of yourself the patient and the scene. Stop the burning process Assessment of burn severity using a method with which you are familiar.1 Wallaces Rule of Nines or the Lund and Browder chart Half burnt/half not burnt approach to give burn area of: Assess and correct decits with: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) >50% 25-50% 12.5-25% <12.5%. Specically assess: assess airway for signs of burns which include: soot in the nasal and mouth cavities cough and hoarseness coughing up blackened sputum Trauma Emergencies Use all of the burn area, including reddening, do not try to differentiate between levels of burn (first, second, third degree etc). Only a rough estimate is required, an accurate measure is not possible in the early stages. October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Trauma Emergencies scorched hair, eyebrows or facial hair. Burns and Scalds in Adults En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). If patient is non-time critical, perform a more thorough patient assessment with a brief secondary survey. Trauma Emergencies It is IMPORTANT to document the TIME the burn occurred, as is the time and volume of ALL infusions, as all subsequent uid therapy is calculated from the time of the burn onwards. In ELECTRICAL burns it is important to search for entry and exit sites. Assess ECG rhythm. The extent of burn damage in electrical burns is often impossible to assess fully at the time of injury. In SCALDS, the skin contact time and temperature of the burning uid determines the depth of the burn. Scalds with boiling water are frequently of extremely short duration as the water ows off the skin rapidly. Record the type of clothing, e.g. wool retains the hot water. Those resulting from hot fat and other liquids that remain on the skin may cause signicantly deeper and more serious burns. Also the time to cold water and removal of clothing is of signicant impact and should be included in pre-arrival advice from Control. MANAGEMENT Follow Trauma remembering to: Emergencies Guideline, ensure ABCs and immobilise C-spine if any potential for neck trauma. intubate/assist ventilation if airway obstructed or ventilation is impaired. administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, whatever the SpO2, as readings may be false due to carboxyhaemoglobin. Specically consider: if the patient is wheezing as a result of smoke inhalation, nebulisation with salbutamol and an O2 ow of at least 6-8 litres per minute will frequently improve symptoms (refer to the drug protocols for dosages and information). It is important, wherever possible, to obtain a peak ow reading both before and after nebulisation, to assess and record its effect. after initial irrigation with water, cut off burning, or smouldering clothing, providing it is not adhering to the skin. cover the burn area with cling lm, wrapping may have a constricting effect so smaller pieces are better than a circumferential sheet. Cling lm provides a good dressing through which a burn can be reviewed. Infection is directly related to the number of times a burn is dressed and then uncovered to be assessed by another person. continue to irrigate over the cling lm or gel based dressing whilst ensuring the rest of the patient is warmly wrapped. Be aware of the potential for hypothermia induced by continual irrigation. It is rare to need more than 10 minutes irrigation except for chemicals that adhere to the skin (e.g. phosphorus). gel based dressings should be considered only in minor (<12.5% BSA) burns due to the potential for hypothermia. in alkali burns, irrigate with water en-route to hospital, as it may take hours of irrigation to neutralise the alkali. This also applies to eyes that require copious and continual irrigation with water or saline. In CHEMICAL burns, it is vital to note the nature of the chemical. Alkalis in particular may cause deep, penetrating burns, sometimes with little initial discomfort. Certain chemicals such as phenol or hydrouoric acid can cause poisoning by absorption through the skin and therefore must be irrigated with COPIOUS2 amounts of water. chemical burns should NOT be wrapped in clinglm but covered with wet dressings (refer to CBRN guideline). CIRCUMFERENTIAL (Encircling completely a limb or digit) full thickness burns, may be limb threatening, and require early in hospital incision/release of the burn area along the length of the burnt area of the limb (escharotomy). HISTORY What happened? When did it happen? What temperature (e.g. boiling water, hot fat etc.) were they exposed to and for how long? What rst aid was undertaken? Were any other injuries sustained? Are any circumstances present that increase the risk of airway burns (conned space, prolonged exposure)? Any evidence of co-existing or precipitating medical conditions. Page 2 of 4 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Burns and Scalds in Adults if either the burn area is >25% BSA, or the circulation is compromised by accompanying injuries, or IV analgesia may be required, then obtain IV access and commence slow infusion of crystalloid IV EN-ROUTE TO HOSPITAL. (see additional information). provide analgesia as required e.g. morphine if the pain is severe (refer to the morphine drug protocol for dosages and information). Cooling and application of dressings frequently eases pain, but care must be taken not to over-cool the patient as hypothermia is a risk. This is a particular risk in children. Entonox (refer to the entonox drug protocol for administration and information) is not appropriate in burns if > 50% O2 is required. paracetamol suspension may be useful in small children with scalds (refer to the paracetamol drug protocol for dosages and information). With burn cases, in addition to the usual clinical report details transmitted via radio, the following information should be transmitted: Crystalloid should be used in the following initial doses over the rst 30 minutes from time of injury: Age Volume Adult 1000 ml 5-11 years 500 ml <5 years 10 ml/kg If the burn is complicated by other traumatic injury then standard uid therapy should take precedence. Non-Accidental Injury You must always be mindful of the possibility of nonaccidental injury. Ensure all documentation is comprehensive and, where possible, retain samples of clothing etc for the hospital. The role of the Ambulance Service is to report the possibility of non-accidental injury to the appropriate agencies, not to conrm that it has taken place (refer to child protection guideline). extent of burn area time of burn Key Points Burns burning agent any indication of airway burns any evidence of burns involving the entire or majority of the circumference of the chest, neck or a limb. Airway status can deteriorate rapidly and may need complex interventions available at the emergency departments. Stopping the burning process is essential. The time from burning is an essential piece of information. Consider transport to regional burns centres as local policy / protocol dictates. Pain relief is important. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION In some areas with specialist burns units direct admission guidelines may be in place. REFERENCES 1 Collis N, Smith G, Fenton OM. Accuracy of burn size estimation and subsequent uid resuscitation prior to arrival at the Yorkshire Regional Burns Unit: a three year retrospective study. Burns 1999;25(4):345-51. 2 Fluid Therapy Cooke MW, Ferner RE. Chemical burns causing systemic toxicity. Arch Emerg Med 1993;10(4):368-71. If an area of greater than 25% of the body is affected and the time from injury to hospital is likely to be in excess of an hour then fluid therapy should commence as below. Secure IV access in an un-burnt limb en-route to hospital, with largest bore IV cannula possible. Avoid areas where a burned area lies above the IV site, as when the burnt tissue swells, the veins will be compressed and the IV will cease to function. Where IV access is particularly difcult, leave this until the patient reaches hospital DO NOT delay to obtain IV access. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Trauma Emergencies Burns and Scalds in Adults SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Trauma Emergencies Gordon M, Goodwin CW. Burn management: initial assessment, management, and stabilization. Nursing Clinics of North America 1997;32(2):237-49. Ashworth HL, Cubison TCS, Gilbert PM. Treatment before transfer: the patient with burns. Emergency Medicine Journal 2001;18:349-351. Allison K, Porter K. Consensus on the pre-hospital approach to burns patient management. Emergency Medical Journal 2004;21:112-114. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 4 of 4 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Electrocution Electrocution may result in burn injury to the skin and deeper tissues including muscles and nerves. As a result of being thrown, patients may also sustain mechanical injury such as joint dislocation. Electrocution may result in cardiac arrhythmias and cardio-respiratory arrest. Sustained muscle contraction from the electrical current may produce respiratory arrest or other mechanical damage. Arrhythmias are unlikely to develop with domestic voltage once the patient is isolated from the current; with high voltage sources arrhythmias may develop later. HISTORY Do not approach the patient until any local electrical supply is cut off and you are certain it is safe to approach. Establish how the patient was electrocuted and the voltage of the supply involved. The important information is whether it is domestic (240 volts) low voltage (less than 240 volts) or high voltage (greater than 480 volts). ASSESSMENT AIRWAY BREATHING Take the debrillator to the patient. Manage ABCDs. Immobilise the cervical spine when there is risk of injury (refer to neck and back trauma guideline). Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonre-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Monitor patient with ECG and pulse oximetry. Manage burns and mechanical injuries (refer to burns and trauma emergencies guidelines). FURTHER CARE Patients exposed to a high voltage electrical source should always be transferred to the emergency department. CIRCULATION MANAGEMENT1,2 Following exposure to a domestic or low voltage electrical source, if the patient is asymptomatic with no injuries and has normal initial 12-lead ECG, then transportation to hospital is not routinely required.3,4 Assess and correct decits with: If no time critical features, complete primary and secondary assessment for burn and mechanical injuries prior to transport. DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Key Points Electrocution If the patient is in cardiorespiratory arrest refer to adult or child advanced life support guidelines. Assess for time critical features: major ABCD problem facial or airway burn cardiac arrhythmia compromising circulation extensive burns cardiorespiratory arrest Scene safety. Manage cardiac arrest according to usual guidance. Severe tissue damage may be present despite apparently minor injury. Exposure to domestic voltage may not require hospitalisation. evidence of signicant mechanical injury. IF PRESENT CORRECT AIRWAY AND BREATHING PROBLEMS AND TRANSPORT RAPIDLY TO NEAREST SUITABLE RECEIVING HOSPITAL WITH A PRE-ALERT MESSAGE. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Electrocution REFERENCES Trauma Emergencies 1 Dollery W. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal inrmary. Management of household electrical injury. Emergency Medicine Journal 1998;15(4):228. 2 Blackwell N, Hayllar J. A three year prospective audit of 212 presentations to the emergency department after electrical injury with a management protocol. Postgrad Med J 2002;78(919):283-285. 3 Wilson CM, Fatovich DM. Do children need to be monitored after electric shocks? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1998;34(5):474-6. 4 Garcia CT, Smith GA, Cohen DM. Electrical injuries in a pediatric emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1995;26(5):604-608. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Head injury is estimated to be the cause of 1,000,000 hospital presentations each year in the UK, with an incidence of severe brain injury of between 10 and 15 per 100,000 population.1 It may be an isolated injury or be part of multi-system traumatic injury. There is a signicant association with cervical spinal injury in those with a depressed level of consciousness.2 Little can be done for primary brain injury, i.e. damage that occurs to the brain at the time of injury. Injury prevention strategies such as the wearing of motorcycle helmets or use of vehicle restraint systems (e.g. seatbelts and airbags) are the only viable means of reducing these injuries.3,4 Secondary brain injury is that which occurs following the primary event as a result of hypoxia, hypercarbia and hypoperfusion. The reduced level of consciousness may lead to airway obstruction or inadequate ventilation with consequent decreased oxygenation and increased levels of carbon dioxide and a metabolic acidosis. Blood loss from other sources in a multi-system trauma may lead to hypovolaemia and a fall in the cerebral perfusion pressure. NEVER presume decreased conscious level is solely due to alcohol. Intoxicated patients commonly sustain head injuries as well. HISTORY Mechanism of injury In a person with altered level of consciousness, at risk of intracranial head injury, an appreciation of the forces that were involved in causing the injury is helpful. With scene indicators such as a bulls-eye of the windscreen or blood staining of the dashboard or steering wheel in a motor vehicle collision, or signicant scratch or fracture damage to a protective helmet, there should be suspicion of signicant injury. The identication of a weapon that might have been used in an assault, or blood staining on objects immediately adjacent to the casualty with a bleeding head wound following a fall may be extremely helpful. A history of a period of loss of consciousness raises the risk of signicant injury.5 The duration and depth of unconsciousness are of great value, as are changes over time. For example, a period of lucidity followed by decreasing consciousness would suggest the development of an extra-dural haematoma. Trauma Emergencies Amnesia is difcult to quantify. National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines state that retrograde amnesia (amnesia for the events before injury) of greater than 30 minutes indicates major injury. Posttraumatic amnesia is less predictive, but also suggests signicant injury. The association of head injury with cervical spine trauma is signicant and movement of the limbs should be noted, together with other symptoms suggesting spinal cord injury (refer to neck and back guideline). In the presence of a decreased level of consciousness, other medical causes should be sought. A history of epilepsy might suggest a convulsion or a history of diabetes might suggest hypoglycaemia as a cause for the reduced level of consciousness. Consideration should also be given to the role of alcohol or recreational and other drugs as a cause. ASSESSMENT Assessment of the neurological state takes place after the ABCs have been adequately addressed. A patient with a depressed level of consciousness is less capable of protecting their airway. Loss of a gag reex increases the risk of aspiration. The airway should be cleared and maintained, with an airway adjunct if necessary. Manual in-line immobilisation of the cervical spine, with due regard to potential injury during airway manoeuvres must be maintained. Assessment of the adequacy of breathing, particularly the respiratory rate and the depth of breathing is needed. A respiratory rate of between 10 and 30 breaths per minute with visible and palpable good chest excursion is ideal. Formal measurement of breathing is impractical in the pre-hospital environment during the assessment and resuscitation phase. Maintenance of the circulation has relevance for maintaining cerebral perfusion. External haemorrhage control and uid replacement to raise and maintain the blood pressure are important. A simple AVPU score, together with pupillary size and reactivity and the noting of spontaneous movements in particular limbs is sufcient for the primary survey neurological assessment. A formal Glasgow Coma Scale6 (GCS) assessment can be done but needs to be thoroughly reliable and reproducible. If done hurriedly or incompletely, it can produce a misleading clinical picture and result in inappropriate on-going care following arrival at the Emergency Department (ED). October 2006 Page 1 of 6 Trauma Emergencies Head Trauma Head Trauma Trauma Emergencies Other clear indicators of head injury such as a boggy swelling or laceration of the scalp should be noted and reported, together with the leakage of cerebrospinal uid (CSF) from the ears and/or nose or blood from the ears. Brain matter coming from a wound should be covered with a light dressing. A nger should not be inserted to feel for a fracture or check the origin of injury. MANAGEMENT The aim of pre-hospital treatment is to deliver adequate oxygen to the brain by: optimising oxygenation of the blood maintenance of the cerebral perfusion pressure. Administer high concentration oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). Cervical spinal injury should be assumed to be present and managed appropriately (refer to neck and back trauma guideline). The patient needs to be delivered to the most appropriate facility for management of the injury. Ideally this would be a centre with neurosurgery, but in many cases a rapidly accessible ED capable of supplementing the pre-hospital management and identifying the extent of injury before promptly referring on is optimal. Management of problems identied by the primary survey should occur as they are identied and are considered in more detail. Airway management with cervical immobilisation Hypoxia is the major danger for head injury care and there is clear evidence that it worsens the prognosis7. An obstructed airway may occur through loss of muscle tone of the oropharyngeal structures and physical obstruction by the tongue falling backwards or by the accumulation of secretions or blood in the pharynx. The airway should be inspected for foreign bodies, being aware that with the patient lying supine, any object is likely to have fallen to the back of the mouth. Simple airway manoeuvres to draw the tongue forward should be applied, but because of the need to protect the cervical spine, only jaw thrust and chin lift are acceptable. Head tilting should be a last resort for the airway that cannot be adequately opened and the risk/benet balance should be considered. Page 2 of 6 Suction should be used to clear any uid obstruction but only under direct vision. Stimulation of the pharynx by the suction catheter can raise the intracranial pressure (ICP). In a patient with some tongue obstruction of the airway, an oropharyngeal airway should be considered. If the patient retains a gag reex or there is retching then vomiting may be induced and the airway should be removed. Any of these physical responses to insertion will raise the ICP. If the patient will not tolerate an oral airway, or in some head injured patients where there is jaw clenching, or trismus, it may be necessary to use a nasopharyngeal airway. If the airway is obstructed and the jaw is clenched then the risks of inserting a nasopharyngeal airway are less than the theoretical risk of the airway passing through a basal skull fracture. Unless carefully inserted, this device may exacerbate an airway problem by inducing an epistaxis. The airway should be inserted across the oor of the nose below the inferior turbinate and, unless this is clearly identied by lifting the nostril and advancing posteriorly, there is potential for misplacement and a risk that the airway will cross the cribriform plate and enter the brain. This is particularly a risk if there are facial fractures. Endotracheal intubation will secure an airway against the risk of aspiration and allow optimal ventilation. Insertion, however, is technically more difcult than simple airway insertion and requires the patient to have lost oropharyngeal reexes. If a patients conscious level is sufciently depressed that an endotracheal tube can be inserted without the use of sedating and paralysing drugs then the outcome is bleak. UK Paramedics are currently not authorised to administer anaesthetic drugs. It may be possible to intubate if the patient has taken a large amount of alcohol or illegal drugs before injury. Any instrumentation of the upper airway will raise the ICP and exacerbate the secondary brain injury.8 The use of force to overcome the resistance is likely to be deleterious to the patient outcome and should not be used. A balance is required between the clear benets of airway manoeuvres and the danger of raising ICP and increasing the level of injury. An airway escalator is illustrated in Figure 1. October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Head Trauma Jaw thrust & direct view pharyngeal. Trauma Emergencies Oropharyngeal airway. Nasopharyngeal airway. Tolerate an ETT? Can skilled medical help be obtained faster than transport to ED? Endotracheal intubation. NO YES Summon medical help Full basic airway care & transport Figure 1- Management of an obstructed airway in head injury. Drug assisted intubation is possible in the pre-hospital environment but the research evidence for Paramedics having this skill is currently lacking. A mobile medical team resource may be able to provide this option, however the delay in their arrival on scene and the delays that will then follow while the airway is secured need to be balanced against the benet of denitive airway control over optimal airway control with simple manoeuvres and rapid transfer. There are a number of intermediate rescue airways available such as the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and combitube. The insertion of these large devices into the pharynx will raise ICP and they do not secure the airway. While they may allow an airway to be obtained, the case for their use in UK trauma practice is currently not established. Surgical airways, needle cricothyroidotomy and surgical cricothyroidotomy, are possible in the eld but have signicant complication rates and are profoundly stimulating to the patient and may increase the ICP. There is a clear association between head injury and concurrent cervical spine injury. In the presence of an altered level of consciousness or while under the inuence of alcohol, a reliable clinical assessment of the cervical spine cannot be made. Cervical spine immobilisation is mandatory. There is some evidence that a rmly tting cervical collar may raise the ICP 9,10 but immobilisation is required to prevent exacerbation of any spinal cord injury. It is being suggested that a collar should be used during extrication but that once the patient is fully immobilised on a long board with blocks and tape to the head the collar could be loosened. This could not yet be considered the standard of care in the pre-hospital eld (refer to neck and back trauma protocol). Trauma Emergencies Breathing The importance of treating hypoxia and preventing hypercarbia has been described. In the presence of a depressed level of consciousness, there may be inadequate respiratory effort. consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if: oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate. A combative patient is unlikely to have inadequate ventilation but could certainly be hypoxic. The less conscious patient group may require support both in terms of rate and chest excursion. Circulation Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) needs to be maintained for optimal patient benefit. This is determined by the balance between mean arterial pressure (MAP) (mathematically the mean pressure during the cardiac pumping cycle) pushing blood into the brain and the ICP resisting this. CPP = MAP ICP MAP = diastolic pressure + (systolic pressure diastolic pressure) 3 October 2006 Page 3 of 6 Head Trauma The ICP is increased by the presence of anything that occupies space (haematoma, oedema/swelling) or causes vasodilatation (hypoxia, hypercarbia). Trauma Emergencies In UK practice, it is currently accepted that best care is achieved by maintaining an MAP of >90 mmHg and a systolic of the order of 120mmHg. Pressures below this are related to a poorer neurological outcome. That hypotension worsens outcome is clearly established, but the true minimum pressure is not fully dened.11,12 Hypotension is unlikely to be caused by isolated head injury and so would usually indicate the presence of other signicant injury causing blood loss. Disability A rapid and mini-neurological assessment is required at the point of rst assessment to give a baseline against which improvement or deterioration can be measured. It should consist of: Conscious level This is a good indicator of severity of injury and progression over time. The AVPU (alert, voice responsive, pain responsive, unresponsive) scale is quick and reproducible. It is generally acceptable during the early stages of resuscitation. AVPU scale Fluid Therapy A Alert Obtain IV access. Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.13 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. If the patient has a carotid pulse but no radial pulse then other clinical factors should also be considered before decision on uid administration. V Voice responsive P Pain responsive U Unresponsive The GCS is more sensitive to change but requires careful formal assessment; it should not be approximated. The headline gure falls between 3 and 15 but should be broken down into its three components. Table 1 Glasgow Coma Scale6 GLASGOW COMA SCALE Item Score Eyes Opening: Spontaneously To speech To pain None 4 3 2 1 Obeys commands Localises pain Withdraws from pain Abnormal Flexion Extensor response No response to pain 6 5 4 3 2 1 Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,14 (unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, cardiac rhythm disturbance). Motor Response: DO NOT delay at scene for fluid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid ENROUTE TO HOSPITAL. The use of mannitol to reduce brain swelling and size can be used in the presence of focal neurological signs to prevent herniation but is currently limited to use under medical direction. Hypertonic saline is also being investigated, but is not currently usual standard of care in the UK. Verbal Response: October 2006 5 Confused 4 Inappropriate words 3 Incomprehensible sounds 2 NO verbal response Page 4 of 6 Orientated 1 Trauma Emergencies Head Trauma in the absence of eyelid muscle tone in a deeply unconscious person, the eyes may be open. If there is no response to stimulation, then this is recorded as none. if there is severe facial swelling that would prevent eye opening, then this is recorded as such. verbal response in small children does not t with the scale and so a modication is applied: Management is the same as for any convulsion. Protection from further harm, protection of the airway and oxygenation are the key interventions. 5 4 persistently irritable 2 restless and agitated 1 cries but consolable 3 appropriate words, social smile, xes and follows with eyes none deaf patients or those who cannot give a verbal response, such as those with a tracheostomy are recorded as found, but a caveat is included in the assessment. during motor assessment, if there is a difference between the two sides of the body, then the better response is recorded. Pupil response These should be round and equal in size. They should respond promptly by constriction when a light is shone into them. When light is shone in one, the other pupil should respond appropriately to this too. Any abnormalities should be noted. Causes for abnormality include local trauma and loss of sight through other eye disease. Many more elderly patients may be taking medication to dilate or constrict the pupil and these can have a long duration of action. Even opiate analgesia may be the cause. The cause cannot be assumed in the presence of head injury and it may be an indicator of signicant brain injury/swelling. Convulsions A t can occur immediately after the blow to the head and have little prognostic signicance but may also occur a little later with major signicance, indicating significant intracranial pathology. Post-traumatic epilepsy can develop, but could certainly not be determined in the early stages of care. Trauma Emergencies Assess blood glucose en-route to hospital Secondary Survey A thorough assessment of an injured patient requires full exposure and a careful stepwise assessment of all areas, both front and back. This is not appropriate in the pre-hospital environment, but it is reasonable to note any other injuries that have been found or are suspected during the pre-hospital phase. It is important to gather any scene information about the mechanism and potential confounding factors, since the ED will be blind to these. Witness accounts are very valuable. The time course of the patient following injury is very valuable; has there been any consciousness, has the patient walked, or even moved limbs, since the injury? Information on patient identity or clues as to the next of kin will also be invaluable. Transfer to further care Victims of significant head injury require optimal oxygenation and tissue perfusion as quickly as possible and then evaluation and appropriate management of any lesion within the cranial vault and optimal management of the pressures, both blood and intracranial. Early optimisation is probably best achieved by transporting to the nearest ED capable of securing a denitive airway and performing this assessment. More extensive monitoring and evaluation requires a neurosurgical facility at the earliest opportunity. There is no doubt that early evacuation of an intracranial haematoma is in the patients best interests and has a signicantly improved outcome. Systems need to design a patient care process that ensures that the patient gets to denitive care as soon as possible i.e. directly to an ED with neurosurgery on site, but balances this with the hazard of delay in optimisation through longer pre-hospital transport times. The process should be predetermined rather than done on the y. The solution may be to take to the nearest ED and do a secondary transfer, or bypass facilities and travel directly to the neurosurgical centre. This will vary with the geography and the capacity of the system. October 2006 Page 5 of 6 Trauma Emergencies There are a number of pitfalls in the assessment: Head Trauma 8 Trauma Emergencies NEVER presume decreased conscious level is solely due to alcohol; intoxicated patients commonly sustain head injuries as well. Ascertain duration and depth of unconsciousness, as a period of unconsciousness raises the risk of signicant injury. Unconscious patients are less capable of protecting their airway; obstruction may occur through loss of muscle tone, physical obstruction, the tongue falling backwards, or by the accumulation of secretions or blood in the pharynx. Simple airway manoeuvres to draw the tongue forward should be applied, but because of the need to protect the cervical spine, only jaw thrust and chin lift are acceptable. The aim of pre-hospital treatment is to deliver adequate oxygen to the brain. REFERENCES 1 Iida H, Tachibana S, Kitahara T, Horiike S, Ohwada T, Fujii K. Association of head trauma with cervical spine injury, spinal cord injury, or both. Journal of Trauma 1999;46(3):450-2. 9 Kolb JC, Summers RL, Galli RL. Cervical collar induced changes in intracranial pressure. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1999;17:135-7. 10 Davies G, Deakin C, Wilson A. The effect of a rigid collar on intracranial pressure. Injury 1996;27:647649. 11 Chambers IR, Treadwell L, Mendelow AD. Determination of threshold levels of cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure in severe head injury by using receiver-operating characteristic curves: an observational study in 291 patients. Journal of Neurosurgery 2001;94(3):412-6. 12 The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Resuscitation of blood pressure and oxygenation. J Neurotrauma 2000;17(6-7):471-8. Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 14 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Headway: The brain injury association. Head injury a silent epidemic. 2 Ampel L, Hott KA, Sielaff GW, Sloan TB. An approach to airway management in the acutely head-injured patient. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1988;6(1):1-7. 13 Key Points Head Trauma 3 Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. Journal of Trauma 1995;39(1):29-33. 4 Bradbury A, Robertson C. Prospective audit of the pattern, severity and circumstances of injury sustained by vehicle occupants as a result of road trafc accidents. Archives of Emergency Medicine 1993;10(1):15-23. 5 Teasdale G, Jennett B. ASSESSMENT OF COMA AND IMPAIRED CONSCIOUSNESS: A Practical Scale. The Lancet 1974;304(7872):81-84. 7 Refer to methodology section. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Head injury: Triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2003. 6 METHODOLOGY Meixensberger J, Renner C, Simanowski R, Schmidtke A, Dings J, Roosen K. Inuence of cerebral oxygenation following severe head injury on neuropsychological testing. Neurological Research 2004;26(4):414-7. Page 6 of 6 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies The Immersion Incident There are about 700 deaths by drowning a year in the UK, and many more times that number of neardrowning. A high percentage of these deaths involve children. In the majority of drowning, water enters the lungs, but 1015% of cases involve intense laryngeal spasm with death resulting from asphyxia (so called dry-drowning). NOTE: NEVER PUT YOURSELF AT RISK Preserve your own safety and that of other rescuers. Changes in haemodynamics after water immersion (the hydrostatic squeeze effect) make positional hypotension likely and the blood pressure will fall if the patient is raised vertically from the water. Rescuers must always attempt to maintain the victim at and avoid vertical removal from water. The term near drowning applies to survivors of drowning including those resuscitated from cardiac or respiratory arrest resulting from an immersion incident. If the history suggests a neck injury take special care of cervical spine immobilisation during rescue and resuscitation. It is customary to refer to incidents of near drowning as IMMERSION or SUBMERSION. In submersion incidents the head is below water and the main problems are asphyxia and hypoxia. With immersion the head usually remains above the water and the main problems will be hypothermia and cardiovascular instability from the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding water on the lower limbs. Aspiration of water during drowning is common (around 80%). Tilting to drain aspirated water simply empties water from the stomach into the pharynx, risking further airway contamination. Mechanical drainage of water from the lungs should not be carried out. The lungs can be ventilated even with large volumes of water inside them. Trauma is often a major accompanying factor in the immersion incident. In particular, dives into shallow pools are often associated with neck and/or head injury. ASSESSMENT In addition, intoxication from alcohol or drugs may often accompany immersion incidents. Occasionally an immersion incident may be precipitated by a medical cause such as seizure. NOTE: as survival has been recorded after prolonged submersion, resuscitation and transport to hospital should be undertaken in all recent cases of near drowning. Only if the victim is discovered in cardiac arrest 1.5 hours or more after having entered the water should the fact of death be presumed. HISTORY History is often incomplete at the incident scene, both relating to the incident and the casualty. Establish the number of patients involved. Note the environment: swimming pools, hot tubs, fresh or sea water. Increasingly, immersion may occur because long hair becomes entangled in a drain or lter outlet, for example in a hot tub.1 Try to obtain the time of accident, time of rescue, time of rst effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Primary Survey and Resuscitation Assess and manage ABCDs as per resuscitation guidelines. Airway clearance and ventilation are the rst priorities. Adequate ventilation and oxygenation may restore cardiac activity in drowning, so are worthy of major effort.2 The recovered patient is in great danger of vomiting. Alcohol/drugs are particularly likely to induce vomiting. Suction equipment and/or postural draining may be necessary if appropriate. Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonre-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if: SpO2 is >90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30 expansion is inadequate Note the duration of any SUBMERSION and the water temperature and type (salt, fresh, contaminated). Ventilation in a near drowned casualty may be difcult as lung compliance is reduced if water has been inhaled. RESCUE Endotracheal intubation may be required and is Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION The Immersion Incident desirable in order to secure an impaired airway and provide adequate ventilation. Trauma Emergencies The pulse may be extremely slow if hypothermia is present, and external cardiac compression may be required. Bradycardia often responds to improved ventilation and oxygenation. Drugs such as adrenaline and atropine are less effective in HYPOTHERMIA, and must not be repeatedly used. These drugs may pool in the static circulation of the drowned casualty, and then, after re-warming and circulation has been restored, act as a dangerous bolus of drug as they are circulated. In hypothermic cardiac arrest, debrillation will be unsuccessful where the core temperature remains low. At 28oC the ventricle may spontaneously brillate. Defibrillation may not succeed until the core temperature rises above 30-32oC. Secondary Drowning Secondary drowning occurs usually within 4 hours of near-drowning and can also prove fatal. These cases can present up to 24 hours following immersion. Hence, anyone who is remotely suspected of having nearly drowned, or been rescued from water MUST BE TRANSFERRED TO HOSPITAL, however well they appear. The common problems of secondary drowning are: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) cerebral oedema renal failure infection disturbance of electrolytes, acid-base balance, and lung function, along with hypothermia, are the main problems, and there is little to separate sea from fresh water exposure as a particular issue. Therefore: in ventricular brillation give three DC shocks according to current resuscitation guidelines if unsuccessful check the core temperature. If o below 30 C, commence active re-warming and consider urgent transport to a facility where active re-warming can be provided (ideally an extracorporeal circulation). Meanwhile continue with CPR, postponing further DC shocks until the patient is warmed. Treatment is aimed at preventing cardiac arrest. If this occurs, survival rate decreases from approximately 70-90% to approximately 15%. Key Points submersion/immersion attach ECG and pulse oximeter. Secondary survey and transfer to further care In the presence of time-critical conditions e.g. cardiac arrest, difculties in airway and ventilation maintenance, and/or major life-threatening trauma, do not waste further time in resuscitation at the scene but transport rapidly to hospital. If non-time-critical features are present perform a more thorough patient assessment and a brief secondary survey. If C-spine injury is not an issue, immersion victims should be transported in the recovery position with suction at hand. If C-spine injury cannot be excluded, immobilise on a long board and prepare for side-tilt and suction as required (refer to neck and back trauma guideline). Cover to prevent further heat loss. Establish IV access en route to hospital where possible. Ensure own personal safety. Successful resuscitations have occurred after prolonged submersion/immersion. Near drowning is often associated with hypothermia. Special considerations in cardiac arrest treatment in the presence of hypothermia. Severe complications may develop several hours after submersion/immersion. REFERENCES 1 Press E. The health hazards of saunas and spas and how to minimise them. American Journal of Public Health 1991;8:1034-7. 2 Goh SH, Low BY. Drowning and Near Drowningsome lessons learnt. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 1999;28(2):183-8. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Provide a Hospital Alert Message/Information call. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Limb Trauma There is one fundamental rule to apply to these cases and that is NOT to let limb injuries, however dramatic in appearance, distract the clinician from less visible but life-threatening problems such as airway obstruction, compromised breathing, poor perfusion and spinal injury. expose suspected fracture sites in order to assess for swelling and deformity. Where possible avoid unnecessary pain stimulus. for intact circulation and nerve function (MSC x 4 motor, sensation and circulation), distal to the fracture site. age of patient; consider greenstick fractures in children, and fractures of wrist and hip in the elderly for accompanying illnesses; some cancers can involve bones (e.g. breast, lung and prostate) and result in fractures from minor injuries. Osteoporosis (bone thinning) in elderly females in particular makes fractures more common. for pattern of fractures; fractures of the heel in a fall from a height may be accompanied by pelvic and spinal crush fractures. Dashboard injury to the knee may be accompanied by a fracture or dislocation of the hip. Humeral fractures from a side impact are associated with chest injuries. HISTORY Obtain a history of how the injury was sustained, in particular factors indicating the forces involved. ASSESSMENT However dramatic limb injuries appear, ALWAYS exclude the presence of other TIME CRITICAL injuries by using the PRIMARY SURVEY. Assess and correct decits with: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Dislocations Evaluate whether the patient is TIME CRITICAL or NON-TIME CRITICAL following criteria as per trauma emergencies guideline. In TIME CRITICAL patients, evidence suggests that haemorrhage control, spinal immobilisation if indicated (refer to neck and back trauma guideline) and rigid splinting are sufcient treatment of fractures for rapid evacuation to hospital. If a traction splint can be applied very quickly to a femoral shaft fracture, it will contribute to circulation care by considerably reducing further blood loss and pain en-route to hospital. However, if application of a traction splint will incur an unacceptable delay, use manual traction where sufcient personnel are available; remember that once traction is applied it should not be released. LOAD AND GO to the nearest suitable receiving Hospital with a Hospital Alert Message / Information call. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below) In NON-TIME CRITICAL patients, perform a more thorough patient assessment and secondary survey. Specically asses: sites of suspected fracture all four limbs for injury to long bones and joints as part of secondary survey Trauma Emergencies These are very painful and are commonly found affecting the digits, elbow, shoulder and patella. Occasionally the hip may be dislocated where forces of injury are very high. Any dislocation that threatens the neurovascular status of a limb must be treated with some urgency. Such dislocations require prompt reduction. Amputations Most frequently involve digits, but can involve part of or whole limbs. Remember the first priority in managing amputated parts is to manage the patient who has sustained the amputation (start with ABCD). They are likely to be in considerable pain and distress so administer IV analgesia as early as possible (refer to pain management guidelines). Dressings moistened with water for injection or saline should be applied to the stump paying particular attention to haemorrhage control. Management of the amputated part should include the removal of any gross contamination, then covering the part with a damp gauze or dressing, securing in a sealed plastic bag and placing the bag on ice. Re-implantation surgery may be possible so it is important that amputated parts are maintained and transported in the best condition possible. Body parts should not be placed in direct contact with ice as this can cause tissue damage; the aim is to keep the temperature low but not freezing. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Limb Trauma Partial amputations Trauma Emergencies These may still result in a viable limb, providing there is minimal crushing damage and survival of some vascular and nerve structures. It is important to arrest any obvious haemorrhage and to immobilise the partially amputated limb in a position of normal anatomical alignment. Where possible dress the injured limb to prevent further contamination. Pressure alone should be used to arrest haemorrhage if possible. It is essential that these patients be removed to an appropriate receiving Hospital, ideally with both ORTHOPAEDIC and PLASTIC surgery facilities. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,6 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, cardiac rhythm disturbance). Reassess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid DO NOT delay at scene for uid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid EN-ROUTE TO HOSPITAL. Specically consider: analgesia if the patient is in pain (refer to pain management guideline).7,8 There appears to be a general reluctance to administer IV analgesia for limb fractures (including neck of femur fractures) in the pre-hospital environment. Pain relief is an important intervention and should be considered as soon as ABCDs have been assessed and potentially life-threatening problems corrected. (refer to pain management guidelines). in NON-TIME CRITICAL patients, immobilise long bone fractures by appropriate splinting. (see SPLINTAGE below). MANAGEMENT 1-4 Follow Trauma Emergencies Guideline, remembering to: ensure ABCs. arrest external haemorrhage through direct or indirect pressure and/or by raising the limb above heart level where appropriate administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline). Splintage The principles of splintage involve: arrest of external haemorrhage Fluid Therapy support of the injured area Obtain IV access. immobilisation of the joint above and below the fracture re-evaluation and recording of the circulatory and neurological (motor and sensory) function below the fracture BEFORE and AFTER splintage.9,10 Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.5 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. If the patient has a carotid pulse but no radial pulse then other clinical factors should also be considered before decision on uid administration. Page 2 of 5 Always Consider realignment of grossly deformed fractures into a position that is as close to normal anatomic alignment as possible. Where deformity is minor and both distal sensation and circulation are intact, then realignment may not be necessary. Recognise the benets of vacuum splints, especially if limbs need to be immobilised in an abnormal alignment. Pad rigid splints to conform to anatomy. October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Remove all jewellery from the affected limbs before swelling of the limb occurs. Check for presence or absence of pulses and muscle function distal to injury after splintage. Re-assess circulation by checking pulses pre- and post-application of splints. If pulse disappears during splintage then realign limb until pulse returns. Splinting of Upper Limb11 Patient self-splintage is often adequate and can be less painful than attempting to put the limb in a sling. Fractures of the clavicle and upper limb may be supported in a triangular sling, if this alleviates pain. Vacuum splints may be well suited to immobilising forearm fractures. Splints such as short box splints may also be useful. Splinting of Lower Limb Ankle and tibial fractures, as well as those fractures around the knee, can be immobilised with either box splints or vacuum splints. Box splints may need padding to be effective in providing adequate immobilisation. Femoral shaft fractures are best managed by traction splintage (see below). Isolated fractures of the tibia and bula should NOT be immobilised using a traction splint. Modern devices such as the Sager, Trac 3 and Donway splints are easy to apply and some now have quantiable traction, measured on a scale in pounds. The correct amount of traction is best judged by the injured leg being the same length as the un-injured limb. Ankle, lower leg, knee or pelvic fractures on the same side as the femoral fracture limit the use of a traction splint. It has been suggested that a fracture of the tibia in the same limb as a femoral shaft fracture may be immobilised using a traction splint, with the traction reduced to about 10lbs so as not to over-displace the tibial fracture. However there is little evidence to support this treatment. Open fractures Where fractures are open, bone ends should be irrigated with normal saline and a sterile dressing applied as soon as practicable. Infection following an open fracture can have serious consequences for the future viability and long-term function of the limb. Any gross displacement from normal alignment must, where possible, be corrected, and splints applied. It is important to point out any wounds that were the result of an open fracture to the receiving emergency department staff, especially if bony fragments have now receded. Neck of Femur fractures Traction Splintage 12,13 A traction splint is a device for applying longitudinal traction to the femur, using the pelvis and the ankle as static points. Blood loss from femoral shaft fractures can be considerable, involving loss of 500 2000 millilitres in volume. If the fracture is open (compound), blood loss is increased. Correct splintage technique using a traction splint will ease pain, reduce haemorrhage and damage to blood vessels and nerves, and also reduce the risk of embolisation to the brain and lungs of fat globules (fat embolus). It also minimises the risk of a closed fracture being converted to an open one. By using traction to pull the thigh back from the spherical shape caused by muscle spasm to a cylindrical shape. There is compression of bleeding sites and this reduces blood loss considerably. It also reduces bone fragment movement, and reduces the other complications noted above. Trauma Emergencies These occur most commonly in the elderly population and are one of the most common limb injuries encountered in the pre-hospital environment. Typical presentation includes shortening and external rotation of the leg on the injured side with pain in the hip and referred pain in the knee. The circumstances of the injury must be taken into account often the elderly person has been on the oor for some time, which increases the possibility of hypothermia, dehydration, pressure sores and chest infection, so careful monitoring of vital signs is essential. Immobilisation is best achieved by strapping the injured leg to the normal one with foam padding between the limbs. Extra padding with blankets and strapping around the hips and pelvis can be used to provide additional support whilst moving the patient. Appropriate analgesia should be given (refer to pain management guidelines). October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Trauma Emergencies Limb Trauma Limb Trauma Additional Information Key Points Limb Trauma Trauma Emergencies Fractures may be closed or open. Comminuted fractures involve shattering of the fracture site into multiple fragments. Nerves and blood vessels are placed at risk from sharp bony fragments, especially in very displaced fractures, hence the need to return fractured limbs to normal alignment as rapidly as possible. Fractures around the elbow and knee are especially likely to injure arteries and nerves. Another potential complication of limb fractures is compartment syndrome. Increased pressure within muscular compartments of the fractured limb compromise the circulation causing ischaemia with potentially catastrophic consequences for the limb. The ve Ps of ischaemia are: 1. Pain (loss of peripheral pulses) grave late sign as swelling increases causing complete occlusion of circulation 5. Perishing cold changes in sensation and loss of movement 4. Pulselessness due to compromised blood ow to limb 3. Paresthesia DO NOT become distracted, by the appearance of limb trauma, from assessing less visible but life-threatening problems, such as airway obstruction, compromised breathing, poor perfusion and spinal injury. Limb trauma can cause life-threatening haemorrhage. Assess for intact circulation and nerve function distal to the fracture site. Any dislocation that threatens the neurovascular status of a limb must be treated with urgency. Splintage is fundamental to prevention of further blood loss. Limb injuries can be painful and good analgesia should be initiated early. out of proportion to the apparent injury, often in the muscle and may not ease with splinting/analgesia 2. Pallor the limb is cold to the touch If compartment syndrome is suspected management is as previously described but with increased urgency and a hospital alert as the patient may require immediate surgery. In the eld, it is frequently impossible to differentiate between ligament sprain and a fracture. Immobilisation should be performed, and ASSUME a fracture is present until x-ray or expert medical opinion advises otherwise. In non-time critical patients, full splinting with suitable analgesia (see Pain Management Guideline) is essential. In TIME CRITICAL patients, however, splintage is often restricted to securing fractured limbs to a longboard or scoop, to allow for rapid evacuation from the scene and immediate hospital transportation. Always ensure hospital staff are shown any skin wound relating to a fracture and that they appreciate that the underlying fracture was initially an open one. Remember that by applying traction visible bone ends (open fracture) may disappear. Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Limb Trauma 13 1 Caroline NL. Emergency Care in the Streets. Boston, Mass: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. 2 Greaves I, Porter K, Ryan J. Trauma Care Manual. London: Arnold, 2001. 3 Greaves I, Hodgetts T, Porter K, editors. Emergency Care A textbook for Paramedics. London: WB Saunders 1997. 4 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). 7 McEachin CC, McDermott JT, Swor R. Few emergency medical services patients with lower extremity fractures receive pre-hospital analgesia. Pre-Hospital Emergency Care 2002;6(4):406-10. 8 Vassiliadis J, Hitos K, Hill CT. Factors inuencing pre-hospital and emergency department analgesia administration to patients with femoral neck fractures. Emergency Medicine (Freemantle) 2002;14(3):261-66. 9 Mihalko WM, Rohrbacher B, McGrath B. Transient peroneal nerve palsies from injuries placed in traction splints. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1999;17(2):160-62. 10 Herren K. Towards evidence based medicine: bestBETs from Manchester Royal Infirmary. No evidence for collar and cuff or sling in uncomplicated shaft of humerus fractures: Available from: http://www.bestbets.org/cgibin/bets.pl?record=00031, 2000. 11 Carley S. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: bestBETs from Manchester Royal Inrmary. No evidence for either collar and cuff or sling after fracture of the clavicle: Available from: http://www.bestbets.org/cgibin/bets.pl?record=00013, 2000. 12 Refer to methodology section. Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 6 METHODOLOGY Grant HD, Murray RHJ, Bergeron JD. Emergency Care. 7th ed. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs, 1995. 5 Abarbanell NR. Prehospital midthigh trauma and traction splint use: recommendations for treatment protocols. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2001;19(2):137-40. Trauma Emergencies REFERENCES Wood SP, Vrahas M, Wedel SK. Femur fracture immobilization with traction splints in multisystem trauma patients. Pre-Hospital Emergency Care 2003;7(2):241-3. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Neck and Back Trauma Spinal cord injury (SCI) most commonly affects young and t people and will continue to affect them to a varying degree for the rest of their lives. patients should spend no longer than 45 minutes on a rigid extrication board9,10 but padding can extend this11,12 vacuum mattress is more comfortable, and gives better immobilisation13 vacuum mattresses cannot be used for extrication and are vulnerable to damage log rolling is not without risk14 and use of the scoop stretcher may be safer for lifting patients. In the extreme, SCI may prove immediately fatal where the upper cervical cord is damaged, paralysing the diaphragm and respiratory muscles. Partial cord damage, however, may solely affect individual sensory or motor nerve tracts producing varying long-term disability. It is important to note that there are an increasing percentage of cases where the cord damage is only partial and some considerable recovery is possible, providing the condition is recognised and managed appropriately. The spinal cord runs in the spinal canal down to the level of the second lumbar vertebra in adults. The amount of space in the spinal canal in the upper neck is relatively large, and injury in this area can be ameliorated if adequate immobilisation is applied. In the thoracic area, the cord is wide, and the spinal canal relatively narrow and injury in this area is likely to completely disrupt and damage the spinal cord. Spinal shock is a state of complete loss of motor function and often sensory function found sometimes after SCI. This immediate reaction may go on for some considerable time, and some recovery may well be possible. Neurogenic shock is the state of poor tissue perfusion caused by sympathetic tone loss after spinal cord injury. Immobilisation evidence for how to immobilise A recent Cochrane review found no randomised controlled trials comparing out of hospital spinal immobilisation techniques1: soft collars do not limit movement2,3 there is variable difference between the various types of semi-rigid collars2-4 addition of side supports and tapes increases immobilisation2,3 combining collar with extrication board improves immobilisation5 the application of devices is more important than the variation of devices6 neutral position needs slight exion of the neck and the occiput should be raised by two centimetres.6 Extrication devices are better than extrication boards at reducing rotational movement 7,8 Trauma Emergencies Immobilisation evidence for not immobilising Penetrating injury to the head has not been shown to be an indication for spinal immobilisation15,16 and even penetrating injuries of the neck only rarely need selective immobilisation.17 A small prospective pre-hospital study18 indicated that the presence of ALL the following criteria can exclude signicant spinal injury: normal mental status no neurological decit no spinal pain or tenderness no evidence of intoxication no evidence of extremity fracture. The few missed are often at the extremes of age.19 Such criteria can be reproducibly undertaken in the out of hospital environment.20 Mechanism of injury was not shown to be an independent predictor of injury.21 Criteria were similar for thoraco-lumbar injuries but less specific.22 Larger trials based in emergency departments (EDs) designed to determine the need for x-rays have drawn similar conclusions.23,24 Use of such guidelines can signicantly reduce the use of unnecessary immobilisation.25 Immobilisation hazards The value of routine out of hospital spinal immobilisation remains uncertain and any benets may be outweighed by the risks of rigid collar immobilisation, including: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. airway difculties increased intra-cranial pressure26-31 increased risk of aspiration32 restricted respiration33,34 dysphagia35 skin ulceration36-38 can induce pain, even in those with no injury10,39 October 2006 Page 1 of 8 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Neck and Back Trauma Examination Assess ABCD whilst controlling the spine. Trauma Emergencies PRIMARY SURVEY Specic signs of SCI Evaluate whether the patient is TIME CRITICAL, POTENTIALLY TIME CRITICAL, or NON-TIME CRITICAL following criteria as per trauma emergencies guideline. The patient may complain of: If patient is TIME CRITICAL/POTENTIALLY TIME CRITICAL: neck or back pain loss of sensation in the limbs loss of movement in the limbs sensation of burning in the trunk or limbs sensation of electric shock in the trunk or limbs. control the airway immobilise the spine go to the nearest suitable receiving hospital If patient is a non-time critical patient, perform a more thorough assessment with a brief secondary survey. provide a hospital alert message. Specically assess: En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, in patients sustaining major trauma and long bone fracture, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if any of the following are present: ASSESSMENT All patients with the possibility of spinal injury should have manual immobilisation commenced at the earliest time, whilst initial assessment is undertaken. HISTORY It is vital to determine the mechanism of injury in order to understand the forces involved in causing the injury including: hyperexion, hyperextension, rotation and compression and combinations of all the above. Injury most frequently occurs at junctions of mobile and xed sections of the spine. Hence fractures are more commonly seen in the lower cervical vertebrae where the cervical and thoracic spine meets (C5, 6,7/T1 area) and the thoraco-lumbar junction (T12/L1). 10-15% of patients with one identied spinal fracture will be found to have another. oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <10 or >30bpm inadequate chest expansion. Road trafc collisions, falls and sporting injuries are the most common causes of SCI. As a group, motorcyclists occupy more spinal injury unit beds than any other group involved in road trafc collisions. Roll over road trafc collisions and the non-wearing of seat belts, causing head to vehicle body contact, and pedestrians struck by vehicles are likely to suffer SCI. Ejection from a vehicle increases the risk of injury signicantly. Certain sporting accidents, especially diving shallow water, horse riding, rugby, gymnastics trampolining have a higher than average risk of Rapid deceleration injury such as gliding and aircraft accidents also increases the risk of SCI. rapidly assess in the conscious patient sensory and motor function to estimate the level of the cord injury (see Figure 1). C2 C4 T4 T10 T12 C8 into and SCI. light C6 S3 L3 L3 S1 Figure 1 Spinal Nerves Page 2 of 8 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Neck and Back Trauma SENSORY EXAMINATIONS Examine by a. light touch b. response to pain Use the forehead as the guide to what is normal sensation Examine a. upper limbs and hands b. lower limbs and feet Examine both sides T4 Examination must be carried out in the MID-AXILLARY line, NOT the MID-CLAVICULAR line, as C2, C3 and C4 all supply sensation to the nipple line Abdominal and chest signs During the secondary survey, remember that abdominal and chest signs may be unreliable in the presence of SCI. Assessment in the unconscious patient It is not possible to fully assess the integrity of the spinal cord in the unconscious patient. The following signs may help: diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing hypotension (BP often <80-90 mmHg) with bradycardia warm peripheries or vasodilatation in presence of low blood pressure accid (oppy) muscles with absent reexes priapism partial or full erection of the penis. NOTE: Spinal injury must always be presumed in the unconscious trauma victim MANAGEMENT All patients with a mechanism of injury that suggest the possibility of spinal injury should have manual immobilisation commenced at the earliest time, whilst initial assessment is undertaken. Management of established spinal cord injury Evidence is conicting on the use of early high dose steroids in acute spinal cord injury.40-42 If benet exists then steroids need to be given within 8 hours of injury and therefore can be delayed until arrival at hospital. Trauma Emergencies This is a difcult diagnosis in the out of hospital environment. The aim of shock treatment should be to maintain a blood pressure of approximately 90mmHg systolic. Fluid Therapy Obtain IV access. Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.43 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. If the patient has a carotid pulse but no radial pulse then other clinical factors should also be considered before decision on uid administration. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,44 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, cardiac rhythm disturbance). Reassess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid DO NOT delay at scene for uid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid EN-ROUTE TO HOSPITAL. In neurogenic shock, a few degrees of head down tilt may improve the circulation, but remember that in cases of abdominal breathing, this manoeuvre may further worsen respiration and ventilation. This position is also unsuitable for a patient who has, or may have, a head injury. Atropine may be required if bradycardia is also present but it is important to rule out other causes, e.g. hypoxia, severe hypovolaemia. October 2006 Page 3 of 8 Trauma Emergencies Neurogenic shock Neck and Back Trauma When not to immobilise Methods Blunt trauma If immobilisation is indicated then the whole spine must be immobilised. Trauma Emergencies All patients should be initially immobilised if the mechanism of injury suggests the possibility of SCI. Following assessment it is possible to remove the immobilisation if ALL the following criteria are present (Appendix 1): Only two methods are acceptable: 1. manual immobilisation whilst the back is supported 2. collar, head blocks and back support. no alteration in consciousness or mental state and patient is able to fully co-operate with examination no evidence of intoxication There are several acceptable means of back support and the optimal method will vary according to circumstances. The following techniques may be used: no complaint of spinal pain 1. Patient lying supine no vertebral tenderness no neurological decit or complaint no signicant distracting injury. Spinal pain does not include tenderness isolated to the muscles of the side of the neck. log roll patient with manual immobilisation of the neck to enable long extrication board to be used directly lift patient or use a scoop stretcher then insert a vacuum mattress underneath patient. 2. Patient lying prone log roll patient with manual immobilisation of the neck to enable long extrication board to be used 2-stage log roll on to a vacuum mattress. Children None of the studies have been validated in children. It is recommended that these guidelines are interpreted with caution in children although there is some evidence to support similar principles.45,46 3. Patient requiring extrication Those with isolated penetrating injuries to limbs or the head do not require immobilisation. Those with truncal or neck trauma should be immobilised if the trajectory of the penetrating wound could pass near or through the spinal column. IMMOBILISATION head down tilt of the board The techniques for use of devices are described in Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) and other manuals. The restless patient Vomiting and consequent aspiration are serious consequences of immobilisation. Ambulance clinicians must always have a plan of action in case vomiting should occur. The collar will usually need to be removed and manual immobilisation instituted. This may include: suction slide extrication invariably involves some rotational component and therefore has higher risks in many circumstances. Precautions Cautions rearward extrication on an extrication board Penetrating trauma extrication devices should be used if there is any risk of rotational movement8,47 There are many reasons for the patient to be restless and it is important to rule out reversible causes e.g. hypoxia, pain, fear. If, despite appropriate measures the patient remains restless, then immobilisation techniques may need to be modied. The use of restraint can increase forces on the injured spine and therefore a best possible approach should be adopted. rolling on to side on the board. Page 4 of 8 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Neck and Back Trauma AT HOSPITAL If there is an immediate threat to life, for example, re or airway obstruction that cannot be resolved in-situ, then the Ambulance Clinicians must decide on the relative risks of spinal immobilisation and the other factors. As well as the usual information at the time of handover it is important to give the duration of immobilisation. Assist in early removal from the extrication board. Rapid extrication techniques with manual immobilisation of the cervical spine are appropriate in these circumstances; this includes side extrication. Key Points Spinal Trauma Children In children it is difcult to assess the neutral position but a padded board, straps and collar appear to be the optimal method. 3,48 Transportation of spinal cases Driving should balance the advantages of smooth driving and time to arrival at hospital. No immobilisation techniques eliminate movement from vehicle swaying and jarring.49 The technique of loosening the collar is not supported by evidence. There is no evidence to show advantage of direct transport to a spinal injury centre.50 Patients can tolerate a 30 minute journey on a long extrication board.10 The receiving ED staff should be told how long the patient has already been on the board so they can make an appropriate judgment on the timing of its removal. The duration of time on the extrication board should be recorded on the clinical record. The extrication board should be removed as soon as possible on arrival in hospital.51 If a journey time of greater than 30 minutes is anticipated, the patient should be transferred from the extrication board using an orthopaedic (scoop) stretcher to a vacuum mattress.11 It may be appropriate to use a mattress on a board in nonextrication situations. If a journey time greater than 30 minutes occurs unexpectedly it is not appropriate to add further delay by transferring the patient to a vacuum mattress. The journey should proceed but the ED should be advised of the length of time the patient has spent on the board. If there is a clear paralysing injury to the spinal cord then the benets of the back board may be limited, while the risk of pressure sores may be very high. In these circumstances, the use of a vacuum mattress is often preferred. However, as half of cases of spinal injuries have other serious injuries, an unnecessary delay at scene or in transit should be avoided. Trauma Emergencies Immobilise the spine until it is positively cleared. Immobilise the spine of all unconscious trauma victims. If the neck is immobilised the thoracic and lumbar spine also need immobilisation. Standard immobilisation is by means of collar, headblocks, tapes and spinal board. Aspiration of vomit, pressure sores and raised intracranial pressure are major complications of immobilisation. REFERENCES 1 Kwan I, Bunn F, Roberts I, on behalf of the WHO PreHospital Trauma Care Steering Committee. Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2001:CD002803. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. 2 Podolsky S, Baraff LJ, Simon RR, Hoffman JR, Larmon B, Ablon W. Efcacy of cervical spine immobilization methods. J Trauma 1983;23(6):461-5. 3 Huerta C, Grifth R, Joyce SM. Cervical spine stabilization in pediatric patients: Evaluation of current techniques. 1987;16(10):1121-1126. 4 McCabe JB, Nolan DJ. Comparison of the effectiveness of different cervical immobilization collars. Ann Emerg Med 1986;15:93-96. 5 Chandler DR, Nemejc C, Adkins RH, Waters RL. Emergency cervical-spine immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1992;21(10):1185-1188. 6 De Lorenzo RA. A review of spinal immobilization techniques. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1996;14(5):603-613. 7 Howell JM, Burrow R, Dumontier C, Hillyard A. A practical radiographic comparison of short board technique and Kendrick extrication device. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1989;18(9):943-946. 8 Graziano AF, Scheidel EA, Cline JR, Baer LJ. A radiographic comparison of pre-hospital cervical immobilization methods. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1987;16(10):1127-1131. October 2006 Page 5 of 8 Trauma Emergencies Emergency Extrication Neck And Back Trauma Trauma Emergencies 9 Cordell WH, Hollingsworth JC, Olinger ML, Stroman SJ, Nelson DR. Pain and Tissue-Interface Pressures During Spine-Board Immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1995;26(1):31-36. 22 Holmes JF, Panacek EA, Miller PQ, Lapidis AD, Mower WR. Prospective evaluation of criteria for obtaining thoracolumbar radiographs in trauma patients. Journal of Emergency Medicine 2003;24(1):1-7. 10 Chan D, Goldberg R, Tascone A, Harmon S, Chan L. The effect of spinal immobilization on healthy volunteers. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1994;23(1):48-51. 23 11 Walton R, DeSalvo JF, Ernst AA, Shahane A. Padded vs unpadded spine board for cervical spine immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1995;2(8):725-8. Hendey GW, Wolfson AB, Mower WR, Hoffman JR, for the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality: Results of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study in Blunt Cervical Trauma. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2002;53(1):1-4. 24 Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, Clement CM, Lesiuk H, De Maio VJ, et al. The Canadian C-Spine Rule for Radiography in Alert and Stable Trauma Patients. JAMA 2001;286(15):1841-1848. 25 Muhr MD, Seabrook DL, Wittwer LK. Paramedic use of a spinal injury clearance algorithm reduces spinal immobilization in the out-of-hospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care 1999;3(1):1-6. 26 Craig GR, Nielsen MS. Rigid cervical collars and intracranial pressure. Intensive Care Medicine 1991;17:504-5. 27 Ferguson J, Mardel SN, Beattie TF, Wytch R. Cervical Collars a Potential Risk to the HeadInjured Patient. Injury-International Journal of the Care of the Injured 1993;24(7):454-456. 28 Raphael JH, Chotai R. Effects of the cervical collar on cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Anaesthesia 1994;49(437-9). 29 Kolb JC, Summers RL, Galli RL. Cervical collar induced changes in intracranial pressure. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1999;17:135-7. 30 Hunt K, Hallworth S, Smith M. The effects of rigid collar placement on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Anaesthesia 2001;56:511-513. 31 Davies G, Deakin C, Wilson A. The effect of a rigid collar on intracranial pressure. Injury-International Journal of the Care of the Injured 1996;27(9):647-649. 32 Butman AM, Schelble DT, Vomacka RW. The relevance of the occult cervical spine controversy and mechanism of injury to pre-hospital protocols: a review of the issues and literature. Prehospital Disaster Med 1996;11(3):228-33. 33 Totten VY, Sugarman DB. Respiratory effects of spinal immobilization. Prehosp Emerg Care 1999 3(4):347-52. 34 Dodd FM, Simon E, McKeown D, Patrick MR. The effect of a cervical collar on the tidal volume of anaesthetised adult patients. Anaesthesia 1995;50(11):961-3. 12 Lovell ME, Evans JH. A comparison of the spinal board and the vacuum stretcher, spinal stability and interface pressure. Injury 1994;25(3):179-180. 13 Hamilton RS, Pons PT. The efcacy and comfort of full-body vacuum splints for cervical-spine immobilization. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1996;14(5):553-559. 14 McGuire RA, Neville S, Green BA, Watts C. Spinal instability and the log-rolling maneuver. J Trauma 1987;27(5):525-31. 15 Kennedy F, Gonzalez P, Dang C, Fleming A, SterlingScott R. The Glasgow Coma Scale and prognosis in gunshot wounds to the brain. J Trauma 1993;35(1):75-7. 16 Kaups KL, Davis JW. Patients with Gunshot Wounds to the Head Do Not Require Cervical Spine Immobilization and Evaluation Journal of TraumaInjury Infection & Critical Care 1998;44(5):865-867. 17 18 Barkana Y, Stein M, Scope A, Maor R, Abramovich Y, Friedman Z, et al. Prehospital stabilization of the cervical spine for penetrating injuries of the neck is it necessary? Injury 2000;31(5):305-309. Domeier RM, Swor RA, Evans RW, Hancock JB, Fales W, Krohmer J, et al. Multicenter prospective validation of pre-hospital clinical spinal clearance criteria. J Trauma 2002 53(4):744-50. 19 Stroh G, Braude D. Can an out-of-hospital cervical spine clearance protocol identify all patients with injuries? An argument for selective immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2001;37(6):609-615. 20 Sahni R, Menegazzi JJ, Mosesso VNJ. Paramedic evaluation of clinical indicators of cervical spinal injury. Prehosp Emerg Care 1997;1(1):16-8. 21 Domeier RM, Evans RW, Swor RA, Hancock JB, Fales W, Krohmer J, et al. The reliability of prehospital clinical evaluation for potential spinal injury is not affected by the mechanism of injury. Prehosp Emerg Care 1999;3(4):332-7. Page 6 of 8 October 2006 Trauma Emergencies 35 Houghton DJ. Dysphagia caused by a hard cervical collar. British Journal of Neurosurgery 1996 10(5):501-502 36 Hewitt S. Skin necrosis caused by a semi-rigid cervical collar in a ventilated patient with multiple injuries. Injury 1994;25(5):323-4. 37 38 Black CA, Buderer NMF, Blaylock B, Hogan BJ. Comparative study of risk factors for skin breakdown with cervical orthotic devices. J Trauma Nurs;5(3):62-66. Liew SC, Hill DA. Complication of hard cervical collars in multi-trauma patients. Aust N Z J Surg 1994;64(2):139-40. 39 Chan D, Goldberg RM, Mason J, Chan L. Backboard versus mattress splint immobilization: a comparison of symptoms generated Journal of Emergency Medicine 1996;14(3):293-298. 40 Short DJ, El Masry WS, Jones PW. High dose methylprednisolone in the management of acute spinal cord injury a systematic review from a clinical perspective. Spinal Cord 2000 38(5):273-86. 41 51 Cooke MW. Use of the spinal board within the accident and emergency department. Emerg Med J 1998;15(2):108-109. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Slack SE, Clancy MJ. Clearing the cervical spine of paediatric trauma patients. Emerg Med J 2004;21(2):189-193. 47 Jones L, Bagnall A. Spinal injuries centres (SICs) for acute traumatic spinal cord injury.: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2004:CD004442.pub2. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. Browne GJ, Lam LT, Barker RA. The usefulness of a modified adult protocol for the clearance of paediatric cervical spine injury in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Australasia 2003;15(2):133-142. 46 50 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). 45 Manix T. The tying game. How effective are body-toboard strapping techniques? JEMS 1995;20(6):44-50. Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 44 49 Bracken MB. Steroids for acute spinal cord injury: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2002:CD001046. 43 Curran C, Dietrich AM, Bowman MJ, Ginn-Pease ME, King DR, Kosnik E. Pediatric Cervical-Spine Immobilization: Achieving Neutral Position? Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 1995; 39(4):729-732. Bracken MB. Methylprednisolone and acute spinal cord injury: an update of the randomized evidence. Spine 2001;15(26 24 Suppl):S47-54. 42 48 Howell MA, Guly HR. A comparison of glucagon and glucose in pre-hospital hypoglycaemia. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 1997;14:30-2. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 7 of 8 Trauma Emergencies Neck and Back Trauma Neck and Back Trauma APPENDIX 1 Immobilisation Algorithm Trauma Emergencies In an adult patient with potential spinal injury can you conrm the following: Patient is conscious, alert and able to fully co-operate with examination? Including but not limted to: Blunt trauma Axial loading Fall from height Road Trafc Collision NO YES Patient is not under the inuence of alcohol or drugs illicit or prescribed (including analgesia)? NO YES Patient has no complaint of spinal pain? (note: tenderness isolated to the muscles of the side of the neck is not spinal pain) NO YES Patient has no vertebral tenderness nor deformity on palpation? NO YES Patient has no neurologic decit? NO YES Patient has no painful or distracting injuries? YES IMMOBILISATION NOT REQUIRED Page 8 of 8 October 2006 I M M O B I L I S E NO Distracting pain is any pain that is sufcient to cause the patient to focus upon that pain or that which interferes with patient assessment including both medical and traumatic aetiologies. Trauma Emergencies Thoracic Trauma Thoracic injuries are one of the most common causes of death from trauma, accounting for approximately 25% of such deaths. Despite the very high percentage of serious thoracic injuries, the vast majority of these patients can be managed in hospital by chest drainage and resuscitation and only 1015% require surgical intervention. In the eld, the most common problem associated with thoracic injury is hypoxia, either from impaired ventilation or secondary to hypovolaemia from massive bleeding into the chest (haemothorax), or major vessel disruption (e.g.: ruptured thoracic aorta). Rapid deceleration injury may induce shearing forces sufcient to rupture great vessels such as the aorta. The major thoracic injuries likely to present as serious problems in the eld will involve either a developing tension pneumothorax, uncontrolled haemorrhage into the chest cavity causing a massive haemothorax, open chest wounds, major ail chest or cardiac tamponade. ASSESSMENT Assess: If the force is sufcient, the deformity and damage to the chest wall structures may induce tearing and contusion to the underlying lung and other structures. This may produce a combination of severe pain on breathing (pleuritic pain) and a damaged lung, both of which will signicantly reduce the ability to ventilate adequately. This combination is a common cause of hypoxia. Blunt trauma to the sternum may induce myocardial contusion, which may result in ECG rhythm disturbances. Penetrating trauma may well damage the heart, lungs and great vessels, both in isolation or combination. It must be remembered that penetrating wounds to the upper abdomen and the neck may well have caused injuries within the chest, remote from the entry wound. Conversely, penetrating wounds to the chest may well involve injury to the liver, kidneys and spleen. The lung may be damaged with bleeding causing a haemothoraxa or an air leak causing a pneumothorax. Penetrating or occasionally blunt chest injuries may cause a cardiac wound. Blood can leak into the nonelastic surrounding pericardial sack and build up pressure to an extent that the heart is incapable of relling to pump blood into the circulation. This is known as cardiac tamponade and can be rapidly fatal if not relieved at hospital (see additional information). Trauma Emergencies BREATHING CIRCULATION The mechanism of injury is an important guide to the likelihood of signicant thoracic injury. Injuries to the chest wall usually arise from direct contact, for example, intrusion of wreckage in a road trafc collision or blunt trauma to the chest wall arising from a direct blow. Seat belt injuries come into this category and may cause fractures of the clavicle, sternum and ribs. AIRWAY HISTORY DISABILITY (mini neurological examination). Evaluate whether patient is TIME CRITICAL or NONTIME CRITICAL following criteria as per trauma emergencies guideline. If patient is TIME CRITICAL, correct A and B problems, and rapidly transport to nearest suitable receiving hospital. Send a Hospital Alert Message. En-route continue patient management of thoracic trauma (see below). In NON-TIME CRITICAL patients perform a more thorough patient assessment with a brief secondary survey. Patients should normally be transported in the semirecumbent or upright position, however this may often not be appropriate due to other injuries present or suspected. MANAGEMENT Follow trauma emergencies guideline, remembering to: ensure ABCs and consider immobilisation of cervical spine if indicated (refer to neck and back trauma guideline) pulse oximetry and ECG monitoring MUST BE used as this will assist in recognising hypoxia, but normal readings do not exclude relative hypoxia ECG monitoring. Respiration: Assess breathing adequacy: respiratory rate and volume equality of air entry October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Thoracic Trauma Trauma Emergencies administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, in patients sustaining major trauma and long bone fracture, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) Specically consider: cover open chest wounds with an Asherman chest seal or adherent non-permeable dressing taped down on three out of four sides to allow some air to escape. consider (refer to Appendix 1 for assessment and treatment of these conditions): tension pneumothorax ail segments consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if any of the following are present: oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 surgical emphysema cardiac tamponade. impaling objects, e.g. a knife must be LEFT IN-SITU for removal under direct vision in the operating theatre. Any impaling objects should be adequately secured prior to transfer to further care. If the impaling object is pulsating, then it should not be completely immobilised, but allowed to pulsate. respiratory rate is <10 or >30bpm inadequate chest expansion. NOTE: exercise caution as any positive pressure ventilation may increase the size of a pneumothorax. Fluid Therapy Analgesia 1-6 Obtain IV access. Current research shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients. In circumstances such as penetrating chest and abdominal trauma, survival worsens with the routine use of IV uids.1 Fluids may raise the blood pressure, cool the blood and dilute clotting factors, worsening haemorrhage. Therefore, current thinking is that uids should only be given when major organ perfusion is impaired. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid (maximum of 2 litres). Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. If the patient has a carotid pulse but no radial pulse then other clinical factors should also be considered before decision on uid administration. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is a relative indication for urgent uid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,2 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, cardiac rhythm disturbance). Reassess vital signs prior to further uid administration. DO NOT delay at scene for fluid replacement; wherever possible cannulate and give fluid ENROUTE TO HOSPITAL. Page 2 of 5 Patients pain should be managed appropriately (refer to pain management guidelines); analgesia in the form of Entonox (refer to Entonox drug protocol for administration and information) should be used with caution in chest-injured patients as there is signicant risk of enlarging a pneumothorax. Adequate morphine analgesia (refer to morphine drug protocol for dosages and information) may improve ventilation by allowing better chest wall movement, but high doses may induce respiratory depression. Careful titration of dosage is therefore required. Key Points Thoracic Trauma October 2006 Thoracic injury is commonly associated with hypoxia, either from impaired ventilation or secondary to hypovolaemia from massive bleeding into the chest (haemothorax) or major vessel disruption. Pulse oximetry MUST BE used as this will assist in recognising hypoxia. The mechanism of injury is an important guide to the likelihood of signicant thoracic injury. Blunt trauma to the sternum may induce myocardial contusion, which may result in ECG rhythm disturbances. Impaling objects should be adequately secured; if the object is pulsating, do not completely immobilise, but allow the object to pulsate. ECG monitoring Trauma Emergencies Thoracic Trauma REFERENCES Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 2 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). 3 Bickell WH, Wall MJJ, Pepe PE, Martin RR, Ginger VF, Allen MK, et al. Immediate versus delayed uid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 1994;331(17):1105-9. 4 de Guzman E, Shankar MN, Mattox KL. Limited volume resuscitation in penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma. AACN Clinical Issues 1999;10(1):61-68. 5 Pepe PE, Mosesso VNJ, Falk JL. Prehospital uid resuscitation of the patient with major trauma. Prehospital Emergency Care 2002;6(1):81-91. 6 Stern SA. Low-volume fluid resuscitation for presumed hemorrhagic shock: helpful or harmful? Current Opinions in Critical Care 2001;7(6):422-30. Trauma Emergencies 1 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Thoracic Trauma auscultated to ensure air entry is present on both sides. The ndings of the chest signs described above will conrm the diagnosis. APPENDIX 1 TENSION PNEUMOTHORAX Trauma Emergencies This is a rare respiratory emergency which may well require immediate action at the scene or en-route to hospital. A tension pneumothorax occurs when a damaged area of lung leaks air out into the plural space on each inspiration but does not permit the air to exit from the chest via the lung on expiration. This progressively builds up air under tension on the affected side, collapsing that lung and putting increasing pressure on the heart and great vessels and opposite lung. Coughing and shouting can make the situation worse. If this air is not released externally, the heart will be unable to ll and the other lung will no longer be able to ventilate, inducing cardiac arrest. Assessment of Tension Pneumothorax Tension pneumothorax is mostly related to penetrating trauma but can arise spontaneously from blunt or crushing injury to the chest. This will present rapidly with increasing breathlessness and extreme respiratory distress (respiratory rate often > 30 breaths per minute). The chest on the affected side may appear to be moving poorly or not at all. The chest wall on the affected side may appear over expanded. Air entry will be greatly reduced or absent on the affected side and in the absence of shock, the neck veins may become distended. Later on, the trachea and apex beat of the heart may become displaced away from the side of the pneumothorax and cyanosis may appear. Occasionally the patient will present with just rapidly deteriorating respiratory distress. The patient may appear shocked as a result of decreased cardiac output. They are usually tachycardic and hypotensive. Tension pneumothorax, however, is more commonly seen in the pre-hospital setting in chestinjured patients who are ventilated. Forcing oxygenated air down into the lungs under positive pressure will progressively expand a small, probably undetected, simple pneumothorax into a tension pneumothorax. This will take some minutes and it may well be several minutes after ventilation has commenced before increasing back pressure is noticed, either by the bag becoming harder to squeeze or the ventilator alarm sounding. Once the airway has been checked, the chest must be viewed to see if both sides are moving and Page 4 of 5 Management of Tension Pneumothorax Tension pneumothorax must be decompressed rapidly by needle thoracocentesis. Treatment must be closely assessed as the procedure may fail. In such an event a further procedure should be carried out. OTHER TYPES OF CHEST TRAUMA Flail Chest Small ail segments may not be detectable. Large ail segments however, may impair ventilation considerably as a result of pain. Splinting with a large pad or a hand supporting and immobilising the ail segment helps reduce pain, and improves ventilatory function. Traditionally, the patient has been turned onto the affected side for transportation, but this CANNOT be achieved on a long board. The segment can be immobilised in the boarded patient by manual splinting as described above. Surgical Emphysema This produces swelling of the chest wall, neck and face, with a crackling feeling under the ngers when the skin is pressed. This indicates an air leak from within the chest, either from a pneumothorax, ruptured large airway or ruptured larynx. It requires no specific treatment, but indicates potentially SERIOUS underlying chest trauma. It may be gross causing the patient to swell up. If a patient with gross surgical emphysema is continuing to deteriorate, look for a possible underlying tension pneumothorax. Cardiac Tamponade The heart is enclosed in a tough, non-elastic membrane, the pericardium. A potential space exists between the pericardium and the heart itself. If a penetrating wound injures the heart, blood may ow under pressure into the pericardial space. As the pericardium cannot expand, a leak of only 20-30ml of blood can cause compression of the heart, reducing cardiac output and causing tachycardia and hypotension. Further compression reduces cardiac output and cardiac arrest may occur. Signs of hypovolaemic shock, tachycardia and October 2006 Trauma Emergencies Thoracic Trauma Other signs include distended neck veins and mufed heart sounds when listened to with a stethoscope (sounds are diminished by the layer of blood between the heart and chest wall). The heart cannot ll because of the pressure in the pericardium, hence the neck veins become distended. In cardiac tamponade, the compressing blood requires rapid evacuation, initially by a long needle attached to a syringe, and then surgically, with an open chest operation, as rapidly as possible. extremely breathless when lying down. In this instance a decision will have to be made as to whether a patient is best managed sitting upright or whether immobilisation on a longboard should be continued. In the rare incident of gunshot injury to Police personnel using ballistic protection vests, the vest may indeed protect from penetrating injury, but serious underlying blunt trauma, (e.g. pulmonary contusion) may be caused to the thorax. NEVER UNDER ESTIMATE THESE INJURIES. There is a strong link between serious chest wall injury and thoracic spine injury maintain a high index of suspicion. Patients will die in the eld if any unnecessary delay occurs in reaching hospital. If cardiac tamponade is suspected, remove at once to the nearest suitable receiving hospital with ongoing ABC care. DO NOT waste time at the scene commencing IV lines or infusions with these patients as ANY DELAY will threaten their survival. Pericardiocentesis is not recommended as it is rarely successful, has signicant complications and delays denitive care. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Chest trauma is treated with difculty in the eld and prolonged treatment before transportation is NOT indicated if signicant chest injury is suspected. Penetrating trauma, in particular where lung or cardiac wounds are suspected, must be transported immediately to a suitable hospital, with resuscitation en-route. Airway management, oxygenation, assistance with ventilation as required and external haemorrhage control only should be applied in critical chest trauma cases particularly with penetrating injuries. LOAD AND GO TO NEAREST suitable receiving Hospital. Specically consider the need for thoracic surgery intervention. Remember, any stab or bullet wound to the chest, abdomen or back may penetrate the heart. Massive haemothorax frequently presents as profound shock with breathing difculty and reduced air entry in the lower chest on the affected side. The breathlessness is seldom extreme and shock is the overwhelming finding. These patients must be managed as TIME CRITICAL, transported rapidly and IV access secured en-route. Patients with signicant chest trauma may often insist on sitting upright and this is especially common in patients with diaphragmatic injury who may get Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Trauma Emergencies hypotension, accompanied by either blunt or, more commonly, penetrating chest trauma, may be only the initial evidence of cardiac tamponade. Remember, upper abdominal and posterior chest stab wounds may well have penetrated the heart. Trauma in Pregnancy HISTORY Coping with pregnant women with major injuries is a rare problem, but demands a special approach. Pregnancy produces physiological changes, particularly in the cardiovascular system: Refer to trauma emergencies guideline. cardiac output increases by 2030% in rst 10 weeks of pregnancy average heart rate increases by 10 to 15 beats per minute both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) fall on average by 1015mmHg in the supine position the enlarged uterus compresses the inferior vena cava. This reduces venous return to the heart, causing a further drop in BP as the pregnancy develops, the diaphragm becomes splinted and breathing effort, rate and tidal volume are increased. both blood volume (45% increase) and numbers of red cells increase, but not in proportion, so the patient becomes relatively anaemic gastric emptying is delayed and the lower oesophageal sphincter is relaxed, therefore both vomiting and passive regurgitation are more common and the airway is at increased risk. Enquire about stage of the pregnancy, and any problems so far with the pregnancy. Ask the mother if she has her pregnancy record card with her. Enquire about the movement of the baby felt by the mother (fetal movements) (refer to obstetric and gynaecology guidelines). ASSESSMENT Assess and correct decits with: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Specically assess: assess for fetal movement or abdominal pain in the mother evaluate whether the patient is TIME CRITICAL or NON-TIME CRITICAL following criteria on trauma emergencies guideline if patient is TIME CRITICAL, correct A and B problems, LOAD ON TO LONGBOARD and TRANSPORT to NEAREST SUITABLE RECEIVING HOSPITAL with a Hospital Alert Message / Information call There are three fundamental rules which must be followed at all times when dealing with the pregnant patient: 1. the maternal well-being is essential to the survival of the fetus and thus resuscitation of the mother must always be the priority. Also, remember that resuscitating the mother will resuscitate the fetus 2. compression of the inferior vena cava by the pregnant uterus (beyond 20 weeks) is a serious potential complication and suitable positioning or manual displacement must be employed (see manual displacement below) 3. signs of shock appear very late during pregnancy and hypotension is an extremely late sign. Any signs of hypovolaemia during pregnancy are likely to indicate a 35% (class III) blood loss and must be treated aggressively. ESTABLISH LARGE BORE IV CANNULATION EARLY. DO NOT MANAGE A PREGNANT FEMALE (>20 weeks) ON HER BACK ON THE LONGBOARD AIM FOR 30 degree TILT (preferably to left side) it is vital, therefore, to tilt the longboard by propping it up under the right side so tilting the mother to her left if this is impossible, the uterus should be manually displaced to the left side provide a Hospital Alert Message en-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below) CAUTION: The usual increase in plasma volume, tachycardia, and lowered BP can mask initial signs of hypovolaemic shock until quite signicant bleeding has occurred Trauma Emergencies reduced blood volume caused by haemorrhage will induce maternal hypoxia as well as hypovolaemia. This will cause fetal hypoxia due to reduced placental blood ow October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Trauma Emergencies INTRODUCTION Trauma in Pregnancy Trauma Emergencies if the mother is dead or develops cardiac/respiratory arrest en-route to hospital, commence adult basic life support (BLS)/advanced life support (ALS) (refer to BLS/ALS guidelines) and transport immediately to nearest suitable receiving hospital with Hospital Alert Message to have an OBSTETRICIAN ON STANDBY IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) for emergency caesarean section. Caesarean section should ideally be carried out if there is no response within 5 minutes of instituting BLS/ALS. Remember that the prime aim of perimortem caesarean section is to facilitate MATERNAL resuscitation (also, with effective BLS/ALS the infant may have a chance of survival) in non-time critical patients, perform a more thorough patient assessment with brief secondary survey. MANAGEMENT Follow Trauma Emergencies Guideline Specically consider: do not transport supine on a long board. Tilt the mother to her left side. uterus, and thus the fetus, will often become underperfused PRIOR to the women becoming tachycardic or hypotensive. Hypovolaemia is manifested late in pregnant women, thus the fetus may be compromised if adequate uid replacement is NOT given; therefore uid replacement should be given earlier. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT will normally need fluid replacement in the pregnant patient. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,2 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, abnormal cardiac rhythm or in the pregnant patient a high index of suspicion of signicant blood loss. Re-assess vital signs prior to further uid administration. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Respiration administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, in patients sustaining major trauma and long bone fracture, except for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (refer to COPD guideline) consider assisted ventilation at a rate of 1220 respirations per minute if any of the following are present: oxygen saturation (SpO2) is <90% on high concentration O2 All pregnant women involved in a traumatic situation, however trivial, require to be assessed in an ED with an obstetric unit. Abdominal pain after trauma should be presumed to be signicant and may be associated with internal blood loss. Key Points Trauma in Pregnancy respiratory rate is <10 or >30bpm inadequate chest expansion. Fluid Therapy Obtain IV access (large bore cannula). Although, current research in non-pregnant women shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients,1 IN PREGNANCY, the Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Maternal well-being is essential to the survival of the fetus. Compression of the inferior vena cava by the pregnant uterus (>20 weeks) is a serious potential complication; tilt the patient 30 degrees to the left side or manually displace the uterus. Signs of shock appear very late and hypotension is an extremely late sign. Any signs of hypovolaemia during pregnancy are likely to indicate a 35% (class III) blood loss and must be treated aggressively. All trauma is signicant. If the mother is dead or develops cardiac/respiratory arrest en-route, commence life support and alert the hospital so that an obstetrician can be on standby in the ED for emergency caesarean section. Trauma Emergencies Trauma in Pregnancy REFERENCES Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 2 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Trauma Emergencies 1 METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Trauma Emergencies October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) The best clinical management for a mother who is experiencing an abnormal labour or delivery is for her to be transferred to further care without delay. When there is a Midwife on scene it is their responsibility to manage the delivery, and crews should work under their direction. If the Midwife is not present, the decision on whether to move the mother should be based on the principle that any situation which deviates from a normal uncomplicated delivery should result in the mother being transported immediately to hospital. In this situation the crew must alert the hospital via Control en-route. Crews should make an early assessment of the need for additional assistance from a second crew and ensure that the vehicle is requested as soon as possible. The most important feature of managing an obstetric incident is a rapid and accurate assessment of the mother to ascertain whether there is anything abnormal taking place. The following maternal assessment process MUST be followed in order to allow you to decide whether to STAY ON SCENE AND REQUEST A MIDWIFE (if not already present) or TRANSFER TO FURTHER CARE IMMEDIATELY. In maternity cases where delivery is not imminent and there are no complications (refer to maternal assessment owchart) the mother may be transported to the unit into which she is booked. The assessment should be repeated en-route and if any complications occur, the condition should be treated appropriately, and the womans destination revised if necessary. If the mother is booked into a unit that is not within a reasonable distance or travelling time, crews should base their judgments on the maternal assessment, and take the mother to the most appropriate unit. If NONE of the above indications are present and there are no other medical or traumatic conditions, the management should be discussed with the BOOKED OBSTETRIC UNIT. It is useful to obtain the following information: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. mothers name mothers date of birth age hospital registration number name of consultant history of this pregnancy estimated date of delivery (EDD) previous obstetric history. Ask to see the mothers own hospital notes which most women keep with them. Is the mother unwell or injured? This stage of the assessment is concerned with medical and traumatic conditions that may not be directly associated with pregnancy or labour, and may be due to a pre-existing medical condition or accident. However, it should be remembered that unless the cause is obvious, specific pregnancy related conditions should always be considered. If the mother presents with an obvious medical or traumatic condition that puts her life in imminent danger, or is having a trauma/epilepsy related seizure, the APPROPRIATE TREATMENT for that condition must be initiated. She must be transported to the NEAREST EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) UNIT preceded by a Hospital Alert Call remembering to inform the hospital that the patient is pregnant. If the mother is having a seizure that is unrelated to either trauma or epilepsy (refer to Managing Complications: note 2-maternal seizures). MATERNAL ASSESSMENT (refer to appendix 1) Are the following indications present? show a bloodstained mucous discharge from the cervix which is passed from the vagina. waters broken rupture of the membranes surrounding the baby. contractions usually noticed at 10 minute intervals becoming more frequent. There is usually intermittent pain that accompanies contraction of the uterus. bleeding there is a possibility of vaginal bleeding before, during and after labour. Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies If ANY of the above indications are present move on to the next stage of assessment. If there are no medical or traumatic conditions present move on to the next stage of assessment. What is the period of gestation? The period of gestation is important in determining your course of action. A pregnancy is divided into three trimesters each of 13 weeks. It is important to establish the stage in the pregnancy (measured in weeks of duration of the pregnancy). For example, 14/40 on a maternity plan means the mother is 14 weeks into the 40 week duration of pregnancy. The appropriate action for differing lengths of gestation would be: October 2006 Page 1 of 9 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies INTRODUCTION Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Less than 20 weeks1 Transport to the nearest ED Dept. 20-34 weeks1 Transport Immediately To Booked Obstetric Unit (Refer To Delivery Algorithm, Appendix 2). 35-40 weeks Move On To Next Stage Of Assessment. known breech presentation significant previous history of obstetric complications (e.g. eclampsia, rapid labour, born before arrival). In cases of known multiple births/malpresentation where delivery is actually in progress, or occurs en-route, you should initiate the DELIVERY PROCEDURE, i.e.: remain on scene 1 request a Midwife and second vehicle with Paramedic if none present (unless delivery occurs en-route) prepare for delivery in cases of multiple birth/breech presentation refer to the managing complications section of this guideline. Some hospitals use 18 weeks. Check with Control who will nd out about local arrangements If the mother is unable to tell you her length of gestation she will usually be able to tell you when the baby is due. Count the number of weeks remaining before that date and subtract this number from 40. This will give you the period of gestation. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies If there are none of these complications move on to the next stage of the assessment. Are there any potential complications? There are a number of potential complications that warrant IMMEDIATE transfer to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT, these complications are: severe vaginal bleeding prolapsed cord continuous severe abdominal/epigastric pain* presentation of part of the baby other than the head (e.g. an arm or leg). Continuous severe abdominal or epigastric pain is not the same as labour pain and may be indicative of signicant bleeding behind the placenta, without the presence of external blood loss (a condition known as concealed placental abruption). This can lead to an unstable cardiovascular state and fetal death. Severe epigastric or right upper quadrant pain may be a presenting symptom of severe pre-eclampsia (Refer to pregnancy induced hypertension guideline). Potential complications that warrant immediate removal to the BOOKED OBSTETRIC UNIT (unless delivery is actually in progress) are: known multiple births Page 2 of 9 Delivery will be deemed to be imminent if either of the following are present: The specic appropriate treatment for the above is given in the section of this protocol headed Managing Complications. The mother must be removed to the nearest obstetric unit WITHOUT DELAY having rst put in a Hospital Alert Call. Commence the appropriate treatment regime as soon as possible. Is delivery imminent? regular contractions at 1-2 minute intervals and an urge to push or bear down crowning or the top of the babys head/breech presentation visible at the vulva. If either of the rst two indications are present, a visual inspection must be made to observe if crowning is taking place. Remember that if the mother is from a community that is predominantly Buddhist, Hindu or Muslim it may be important to them that they are only examined by a female crew member. YOU SHOULD RESPECT THE WISHES OF THE MOTHER who may refuse a visual inspection. However, the safety of the mother and baby must always come rst. If there is any difculty in this respect, inform Control and ensure details are documented thoroughly. Once you have used the above criteria to establish that delivery is imminent you should: remain on scene request a Midwife and second vehicle with Paramedic if none present prepare for delivery (refer to Delivery Procedure). If you are dealing with an uncomplicated imminent birth and no Midwife is available or central Ambulance Control (CAC) experience any difculty in locating a Midwife, the best course of action is to take the mother to the ambulance and go to the nearest October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Re-assessment In all of the above scenarios it is very important to reassess the mother at regular intervals. Should the situation change, or if complications occur, then appropriate action should be taken immediately and the treatment/ED regime revised accordingly. DELIVERY PROCEDURE (refer to Appendix 2) First Stage of Labour (the cervix is dilating during this stage) Encourage the mother to lie on her side or sit when in transit, whichever position is the more comfortable for her. Entonox may give relief from pain. Inhalation should be started as soon as the mother feels the contraction, before the pain is fully established. REMEMBER the risk of supine hypotension and always discourage a pregnant woman from lying at on her back. Second Stage of Labour (starts when the cervix is fully dilated (10cm) and ends with delivery of the baby) If you have not moved from the home address because birth is imminent, request Control to arrange for a Midwife and second vehicle/Paramedic to attend. If you are en-route to hospital and delivery appears imminent, pull in and park safely. Inform Control. Prepare the trolley bed or delivery area with incontinence pads. Re-assure the mother and tell her what you are doing. Remember to include the womans partner if present. Have towels ready, enough to dry the baby and use another to wrap the baby. Support the mother in a semi-recumbent (or other comfortable) position with padding under her buttocks. Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies The mother should be discouraged from lying at on her back because of the risk of supine hypotension. Encourage her to continue taking entonox as needed to relieve pain and discomfort. Open and lay out a maternity pack. Cover mother with a blanket for warmth and modesty. Some women may be from ethnic communities in which modesty is highly valued for religious reasons. Childbirth may be viewed as an exclusively female area and it will therefore be extremely distressing for them to be attended by men. Every effort should be made to minimise distress. Where possible, female staff should be in attendance. As the babys head is delivering, help the mother to avoid pushing by telling her to concentrate on panting or breathing out in little puffs. Entonox may help Instruct the mother to pant or puff, allowing the head to advance slowly with the contraction. You may consider applying gentle pressure to the top of the babys head as it advances through the vaginal entrance this is to prevent very rapid delivery of the babys head. Check to see if the umbilical cord is around the babys neck. If it is, you may gently attempt to loop it over the head. If it is too tight, it is better to deliver the rest of the baby with the cord left in place. A tight cord will not prevent the baby delivering. Wipe any obvious large collections of mucous from round the babys mouth and nose. Quickly and thoroughly dry the baby using a warm towel while you make your initial assessment. Include the head, trunk, axilla and groin. Remove the now wet towel and wrap the baby in dry towelling. Hold the baby as it is born and lift it towards the mothers abdomen. Assess the babys airway. A crying baby has a clear airway. If the baby is not breathing, conrm that the airway is open. Remember the head is ideally placed in the neutral position (snifng the morning air i.e. not as extended as in the adult position). SUCTION IS NOT USUALLY NECESSARY. If required, use the suction unit on half speed with a CH8 catheter and then only within the oral cavity. If the baby is not breathing, apply resuscitative measures as per neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Once the baby is breathing adequately, cyanosis will gradually improve over several minutes. If the cyanosis is not clearing, enrich the atmosphere near the babys October 2006 Page 3 of 9 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies obstetric unit, preceded by a hospital alert call. If the labour is so far advanced that delivery occurs on scene, transport both mother and baby to the nearest obstetric unit once the baby has been born and alert Ambulance Control to cancel the second vehicle. If the baby needs resuscitation await the arrival of the second crew who should transport the baby immediately to nearest emergency department. Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) face with a light ow of oxygen. To divide the cord, apply two cord clamps securely 3cm apart and about 15cm from the umbilicus. Cut the cord between the two clamps. Ensure the baby remains wrapped and place the baby with its mother in a position where the mother can feed if she wants to and help keep the baby warm (breast feeding will also encourage delivery of the placenta). Reassure the mother and cover her adequately. Await the Midwife and third stage (delivery of the placenta and membranes). Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies If delivery has occurred en-route to hospital, you should proceed to the nearest obstetric unit once the baby has been delivered, requesting Control to inform the hospital. In this situation it is not necessary to await delivery of the placenta before continuing with your journey. If complications occur put in a Hospital Alert Call via Control. Third Stage (delivery of the placenta and membranes) The expulsion of the placenta and membranes may take 15-20 minutes. It will be accompanied by a gush of blood but this should not exceed 200-300mls. Do not pull the cord during delivery of the placenta as this could rupture the cord, making delivery of the placenta difcult and cause excessive bleeding or inversion of uterus. Assist the mother in expelling the placenta naturally. The mother may be encouraged to adopt a squatting, upright position to facilitate delivery of the placenta, but only if there has been no delay in delivery of the placenta and NOT IF THERE IS ANY SIGNIFICANT BLEEDING. Deliver the placenta straight into a bowl or plastic bag and keep it, together with any blood and membranes, for inspection by a Doctor or Midwife. If bleeding continues after delivery of the placenta, palpate the abdomen and feel for the top of the uterus. Massage the top (or fundus) of the uterus with a cupped hand, using a circular motion. The fundus will usually be at the level of the umbilicus and should become rm as gentle massage is applied. This may be quite uncomfortable and entonox (refer to the entonox drug protocol for administration and information) can be offered. Consider the need for uid replacement (see below) and/or Paramedic back-up. Page 4 of 9 Administer syntometrine if bleeding is severe (refer to the syntometrine drug protocol for dosages and information). MANAGING COMPLICATIONS There are several complications that may arise during pregnancy and/or labour. Should you be presented with any of the conditions outlined below you should adopt the following treatment procedures and transport to hospital. 1. Pre-term Delivery (delivery before 37 weeks) If the delivery occurs at less than 20 weeks gestation the mother and baby should be transported to the NEAREST ED DEPARTMENT. In the case of a mother who is giving birth at 20-37 weeks every effort should be made to transport the mother to the BOOKED OBSTETRIC UNIT (refer to Appendix 2) without delay as the baby will need specialist care once delivered. The mother should be constantly re-assessed en-route and the appropriate action taken should the circumstances change. In the event that birth is so far advanced that transfer to further care is not possible, request a Midwife plus a second vehicle and inform Control of the situation. Once the baby is born, utilise the second vehicle to transport the infant IMMEDIATELY to the NEAREST ED or OBSTETRIC UNIT2 depending on local arrangements. The infant should be transported even if the Midwife has not yet arrived. Ensure that Control alerts the hospital, giving an ETA and description of the babys condition. The mother should then be transferred to the OBSTETRIC UNIT of the same hospital as the baby. Should delivery take place en-route assess the baby and take appropriate action. Convey mother and baby to the NEAREST ED or NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT2 depending on local arrangements. Ensure that Control alert the receiving hospital. 2 When placing the Alert Call Control will advise you of the local arrangements for units receiving distressed neonates where this is not the Obstetric Unit. 2. Maternal Seizures Refer to Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (including pre-eclampsia) October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) This is an EXTREME EMERGENCY that requires immediate intervention, rapid removal and transport. In a mother who presents with a prolapsed cord use two ngers to replace the cord gently in the vagina, handling the cord as little as possible. Use dry padding to prevent further prolapse. This will keep the cord warm and moist within the vagina and prevent cord spasm. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT will normally need uid replacement in the pregnant patient. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,2 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, abnormal cardiac rhythm or in the pregnant patient a high index of suspicion of signicant blood loss. Occasionally it may not prove possible to replace the cord in the vagina, particularly if a large loop has prolapsed. In these instances keep the cord warm and moist with physiological saline sterile dressings. Crews should use their professional judgment to determine the best means of removal, ensuring that the safety of the mother is maintained. Ideally the trolley bed should be used, but where necessary and expedient the mother may be helped to walk to the nearest point of access for the trolley bed. Use of the service carrying chair should be avoided if at all possible and if used should be utilised only to convey the mother to the nearest point of access for the trolley bed. Following replacement of the cord or application of the sterile dressings the mother should be positioned on her side with padding placed under her hips to raise the pelvis and reduce pressure on the cord. Entonox should be administered to help prevent the urge to push, which also increases pressure on the cord. The mother should be transported to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT preceded by a Hospital Alert Call ensuring that Control alert the hospital giving an ETA and clear advice that the mother has a prolapsed cord. 4. Post Partum Haemorrhage The commonest cause of severe haemorrhage immediately after delivery is uterine atony (i.e. poor uterine contraction). If severe haemorrhage occurs following delivery (post-partum) the following treatment regimen should be followed en-route if possible: Uterine massage palpate the abdomen and feel for the top (fundus) of the uterus it is usually at the level of the umbilicus. Massage with a cupped hand using a circular motion. Re-assess vital signs prior to further fluid administration. If bleeding continues check for bleeding from tears at the vaginal entrance. Bleeding can be controlled by direct pressure using a gauze or maternity pad. The mother and baby should be transported to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT immediately. Transfer to further care must be preceded by a Hospital Alert Call via Control. The information passed should include details as to whether the placenta has been delivered or is still in-situ. This information will be valuable to the hospital in determining their treatment. 5. Continuous severe abdominal pain / placental abruption Major placental abruption is when a large part of the placenta detaches from the uterine wall. Bleeding occurs under the placenta causing signicant abdominal and/or epigastric pain. There may be no visible vaginal bleeding (concealed abruption). Alternatively there may be a variable amount of vaginal bleeding (revealed abruption). Despite little or no visible bleeding, there may be signs of hypovolaemic shock. It is important that you make a thorough assessment for signs of shock. The mother must be removed to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT WITHOUT DELAY having rst put in a Hospital Alert Call. Commence the appropriate resuscitation regimen as soon as possible. Paramedics should initiate the procedure for syntometrine (refer to syntometrine drug protocol). Non-Paramedic crews should not delay transfer to further care by waiting for a Paramedic crew to attend. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Establish IV access using large bore cannulae. Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies October 2006 Page 5 of 9 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies 3. Prolapsed Umbilical Cord Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) 6. Multiple Births delayed delivery of second or subsequent baby It is now very unusual for a mother expecting a multiple birth to deliver outside hospital. However, twin pregnancies are at much higher risk of delivering preterm (i.e. before 37 weeks) the babies may therefore need resuscitation. Unless delivery is actually in progress, mothers expecting multiple births should be transported to the BOOKED OBSTETRIC UNIT without delay. The mother should be constantly reassessed en-route and the appropriate action taken should the circumstances change. If delivery is in progress, or occurs en-route, proceed according to the delivery procedure. In most instances the normal pattern of delivery will apply for each baby. The procedure for normal delivery and management of the new-born will apply for the rst and all subsequent babies. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Once the rst baby has been born and assessed you should make arrangements to transport both mother and baby to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT IMMEDIATELY having put in a Hospital Alert Call. In this situation it is not necessary to await the arrival of the Midwife prior to transfer to further care. If delivery of the second baby occurs en-route, park the ambulance and make a request via Control for a SECOND VEHICLE. Once the second baby has been delivered, utilise both vehicles to transport mother and babies to the nearest obstetric unit. If any/either baby requires resuscitation, follow the appropriate neonatal resuscitation guideline. REMEMBER with a twin delivery, the mother is at increased risk of immediate post-partum haemorrhage due to poor uterine tone (refer to section 4 above). 7. Malpresentation Breech birth; this is a birth where the feet or buttocks present rst during delivery rather than the babys head. Cord prolapse is more common with a breech presentation (refer to note 3 prolapsed umbilical cord). In the case of a known breech presentation the mother should be transported to the BOOKED OBSTETRIC UNIT unless birth is in progress. The mother should be constantly re-assessed en-route and the appropriate action taken should the circumstances change. If birth is in progress treat as for a normal delivery except for the following points: Do not touch the baby or the umbilical cord until the body is free of the birth canal and the nape of the neck is visible. The only exception is when the babys back rotates to face the floor. Gently hold the baby by its pelvis and rotate the baby back towards the front (take care NOT to squeeze the infants abdomen which could damage internal organs). Do not clamp or cut the cord until the HEAD is free of the birth canal. Once the baby is born, gently lift the baby by its feet to facilitate delivery of the head. This should be undertaken as the head is delivering and so as not to over-extend the babys neck. Care should be taken not to pull the baby. Once the baby is born treat as for a normal delivery. Breech babies are more likely to be covered in meconium and may require resuscitation. If the baby requires resuscitation, follow the appropriate neonatal resuscitation guideline. Any other body part presenting; if, upon inspection, a part of the baby is presenting other than the head, buttocks or feet (e.g. one foot or a hand/arm) transport the mother immediately to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT. Transfer to further care must be preceded by a Hospital Alert Call via Control. 8. Shoulder Dystocia This is when delivery of the babys shoulders is delayed. The babys anterior shoulder is stuck behind the symphysis pubis. DO NOT pull, twist or bend the babys head. If the shoulders are not delivered within two contractions following the birth of the head, then, place a pillow under the mothers head and bring her knees up towards her chest and slightly outwards (McRoberts position). Alternatively, the mother should be positioned in an all-fours position on her hands and knees. A further attempt can be made to deliver the shoulders in either of these positions. If the shoulders are not delivered following a further two contractions the mother should be transferred immediately to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT. In this situation it is not necessary to await arrival of the Midwife. If the mother is on the bed or sofa etc., encourage her to move to the edge. This will enable gravity to help deliver the baby. The mothers legs should be supported (this may look like the McRoberts Position). Page 6 of 9 October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Ideally, the mother should be removed from scene using the trolley bed. However, if necessary, the mother may be helped to walk a SHORT distance to the nearest point of access for the trolley bed, but crews should be prepared to deliver the baby as this may precipitate birth. Once on the trolley bed and during transportation the mother should be placed on her side with padding placed under her hips to raise the pelvis. REFERENCES 1 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Transfer to further care must be preceded by a Hospital Alert Call via Control. Key Points Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) For a patient experiencing an abnormal labour or delivery, transfer to further care without delay. Undertake a rapid assessment of the patient to ascertain whether there is anything abnormal taking place. If the mother presents with an obvious medical or traumatic condition that puts her life in imminent danger treat appropriately. The period of gestation is important in informing the appropriate course of action. Severe vaginal bleeding, prolapsed cord, continuous severe abdominal/epigastric pain and presentation of part of the baby other than the head (e.g. an arm or leg) warrant IMMEDIATE transfer to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT. Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies October 2006 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Page 7 of 9 Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Appendix 1 Maternal Assessment NO Is the period of gestation below 20 weeks? Is the mother presenting with an obvious nonpregnancy related emergency (e.g. trauma)? YES YES Nearest emergency department. YES Nearest obstetric unit. YES Nearest obstetric unit. NO YES Known multiples? Known breech? Previous history of complications. Is birth imminent? NO Is birth imminent? NO Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Is the mother presenting with one of the following: eclampsia severe vaginal bleeding prolapsed cord continuous severe abdominal pain. presentation of part other than head or buttocks/feet. NO Is the period of gestation 20-37 weeks? NO Booked obstetric unit. YES Page 8 of 9 Request Midwife and second vehicle/Paramedic. October 2006 YES Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Birth Imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) Appendix 2 Delivery Flowchart Is birth imminent? NO Are you still on scene? YES Transport to booked obstetric unit. NO Remain on scene and request Midwife and second vehicle/Paramedic. Park vehicle safely. Prepare for delivery. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies YES Manage delivery as per delivery procedure. NO Are there any complications? YES Transport to nearest Obstetric unit appropriate treatment and alert call. If on scene await arrival of Midwife. If en-route, transport to nearest obstetric unit once baby is born. Request Control to inform obstetric unit. Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies October 2006 Page 9 of 9 Effects of Pregnancy on Maternal Resuscitation Any female of childbearing age, unless hysterectomised, MAY be pregnant, and even the slightest doubt must make one consider if any abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding may be pregnancy related. Pregnancy is timed from the FIRST day of the last period, and from that date lasts up to 42 weeks. The pregnancy is divided into rst, second and third trimesters. Each trimester is 13 weeks. Terms used on shared care ante-natal records i.e. the patients personal maternity plan (see table 1). Table 1 Terms used on shared care ante-natal records LMP Last menstrual period. EDD Estimated date of delivery The timing of the pregnancy is written in the notes as 12/40, i.e. 12 weeks has elapsed out of the 40 weeks pregnancy. T Term or expected end of pregnancy, therefore T+3 in the notes is 3 days over the EDD. CEPH Cephalic (Head). BR Breech G Gravida, the number of times a woman has been pregnant P Parity, the number of times a woman has given birth ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PREGNANCY There are a multitude of physiological and anatomical changes during pregnancy that may inuence the management of the pregnant patient. These changes include: cardiac output increases by 20-30% in the rst 10 weeks of pregnancy the average maternal heart rate increases by 10-15 beats per minute both systolic and diastolic blood pressure fall, on average by 10-15mmHg as the fetus enlarges the diaphragm becomes splinted. Breathing effort and rate increase and vital capacity is decreased due to the increase in blood volume the pregnant patient is able to tolerate greater blood or plasma loss before showing signs of hypovolaemia. This compensation is at the expense of shunting blood away from the uterus and placenta and therefore fetus. AFTER BIRTH IMMINENT Resuscitation of the Pregnant Female special problems Gastric emptying is delayed in pregnancy due to the progesterone-like effects of the placental hormones. The acidity of the stomach contents increases. Relaxation of the cardiac sphincter makes regurgitation of the stomach contents more likely. These three factors combined increase both the possibility and severity of aspiration and vomiting. Oedema of the larynx and enlargement of the breasts make intubation of the pregnant patient more difcult. Thus, the risks to the airway are markedly increased. In supine pregnant patients, uterine pressure may cause compression of the inferior vena cava, reducing venous return and lowering cardiac output by up to 40%. This in turn will reduce blood pressure. To improve venous return and cardiac output, the patient should be tilted to the left by about 30 degrees. This can be achieved by placing padding below their right side and hip or manually displacing the uterus to the left. REMEMBER that effective resuscitation of the mother will provide effective resuscitation of the fetus. Life support techniques should be concentrated on the mother in order to optimise fetal prognosis. Arrhythmias should be treated according to standard guidelines. Cardio-respiratory arrest in pregnancy is very rarely due to a primary cardiac cause. Common causes of sudden maternal death include pulmonary or amniotic uid embolus. Early ET intubation and large bore IV cannulae (16G) are recommended If the mother is in cardio-pulmonary arrest follow adult BLS/ALS guidelines and transport immediately to nearest suitable receiving hospital with Hospital Alert Message to have an OBSTETRICIAN ON STANDBY IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT for emergency Caesarean section (in this situation emptying the uterus MAY facilitate maternal resuscitation). both blood volume (45% increase) and numbers of red cells increase, but not in proportion, so the patient becomes relatively anaemic Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies INTRODUCTION Effects of Pregnancy on Maternal Resuscitation Key Points Effects Of Pregnancy On Maternal Resuscitation Any female of childbearing age, unless hysterectomised, MAY be pregnant. Pregnant women beyond 20 weeks should ALWAYS be nursed with 30 degrees lateral tilt (to their left side). Gastric regurgitation is more likely and early intubation is preferred. Large bore IV cannulae (16G). Cardiopulmonary arrest may be caused by pulmonary arrest or amniotic uid embolism. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Haemorrhage During Pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) This section covers: bleeding during early and late pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) For POST PARTUM HAEMORRHAGE refer to birth imminent (normal delivery and delivery complications) guideline. HISTORY The following should assist with assessing the most common causes of haemorrhage in pregnancy: Miscarriage Haemorrhage occurring in early pregnancy: Ectopic 1. miscarriage (previously known as spontaneous abortion) Pregnancy usually presents earlier, at around 6-8 weeks gestation, so usually only one period has been missed. Ectopic pregnancy is more likely if a woman has a history of: For complications associated with ABORTION refer to vaginal bleeding: gynaecological causes (including abortion). INTRODUCTION ectopic pregnancy / ruptured ectopic pregnancy. a. having a coil in the uterus 2. Haemorrhage occurring in (Antepartum Haemorrhage): late pregnancy b. having an ectopic pregnancy before placenta praevia c. is sterilised placental abruption d. has had a previous pelvic infection. Haemorrhage may be: REVEALED With evident vaginal loss of blood (e.g. miscarriage and placenta praevia). CONCEALED Where bleeding occurs within the abdomen or uterus. This presents with little or no external loss, but pain and signs of hypovolaemic shock (e.g. ruptured ectopic pregnancy and placental abruption). REMEMBER, pregnant women may appear well even with a large amount of concealed blood loss. Tachycardia may not appear until 30% or more of the circulating volume has been depleted. Acute lower abdominal pain, slight bleeding or brownish vaginal discharge and signs of blood loss within the abdomen with tachycardia and skin coolness characterise a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Other suspicious symptoms include: unexplained fainting, shoulder-tip pain or unusual bowel symptoms. Antepartum haemorrhage Bleeding in later pregnancy before delivery is described as antepartum haemorrhage and is of two main types: 1. Placenta praevia This is where the placenta develops low down in the uterus and completely or partially covers the cervical canal. When labour begins, this can cause severe haemorrhage. It occurs in 1 in 200 pregnancies and usually presents at 24-32 weeks with small episodes of painless bleeding. You may be able to check the patient-carried notes for scan results which may conrm a low-lying placenta. 2. Placental abruption NOTE: placental abruption may be a combination of revealed and concealed bleeding Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Any vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy or during labour which is accompanied by severe continuous abdominal pain and signs of shock may be due to placental abruption. This is where bleeding occurs between the placenta and the wall of the uterus, October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Haemorrhage during pregnancy is broadly divided into two types. Can sometimes give rise to signicant haemorrhage, and is most commonly seen at between 6-14 weeks of gestation, i.e. 6-14 weeks after the rst day of the last menstrual period. However, although less usual, it can also occur after 14 weeks. Crampy, suprapubic pain, backache and blood loss, often with clots, characterises miscarriage. Significant symptoms (including hypotension) without obvious external blood loss may indicate cervical shock due to retained miscarriage tissue stuck in the cervix. Haemorrhage During Pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) detaching an area of the placenta from the uterine wall. It can be associated with severe pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Placental abruption causes continuous severe abdominal pain, tightening of the uterus, signs of hypovolaemic shock and puts the baby at immediate risk. There may be some external blood loss, but more commonly the haemorrhage is concealed behind the placenta. Where there is a combination of revealed (external) blood loss and concealed haemorrhage, this can be particularly dangerous, as it can lead to an under-estimation of the amount of total blood lost. The womans abdomen will be tender when felt and the uterus will feel rigid or woody with no signs of relaxation Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies OVERALL, ABRUPTION IS USUALLY MORE OMINOUS THAN BLEEDING FROM PLACENTA PRAEVIA (because the true amount of bleeding is concealed). It is also associated with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) which can worsen the tendency to bleed. Transfer of patients with haemorrhage during pregnancy: 1 At >20weeks gestation Ensure ABCs. Assess ABCDs Evaluate whether the mother has any TIME CRITICAL features The mother should be transferred immediately to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT. Transfer to further care must be preceded by a Hospital Alert Call via Control. Follow Medical Emergencies Guideline, remembering to: ASSESSMENT Specically assess: The mother should be transported immediately to the NEAREST EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT OR GYNAECOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT AS APPROPRIATE. At<20 weeks1 gestation administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95% obtain IV access (large bore cannulae 16G). Some hospitals use other cut offs. Check with Control who will nd out about local arrangements. 1 volume of blood loss is important to assess. Remember a large sanitary towel can absorb about 50ml of blood, and blood loss will appear greater if mixed with amniotic uid. Take any blood soaked pads to hospital check for signs of shock If the mother is tachycardic (pulse >100 beats per minute), hypotensive (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg), with cool sweaty skin, she is clearly shocked and in need of volume replacement (see below). Remember the value of a capillary rell test (CRT). In otherwise t young women, symptoms of hypovolaemic shock occur very late, by which stage they are very unwell. It is important to ask, When did you last feel the baby move? Be particularly tactful, so as not to cause alarm, as anxiety in the mother will only exacerbate the situation. En-route continue mother MANAGEMENT (see below) Specically consider: Fluid therapy Obtain IV access (large bore cannula). Although current research in non-pregnant women shows little evidence to support the routine use of IV uids in adult trauma patients,1 IN PREGNANCY, the uterus, and thus the fetus, will often become underperfused PRIOR to the women becoming tachycardic or hypotensive. Hypovolaemia is manifested late in pregnant women, thus the fetus may be compromised if adequate uid replacement is NOT given; therefore uid replacement should be given earlier. If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT will normally need fluid replacement in the pregnant patient. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Haemorrhage During Pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,2 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, abnormal cardiac rhythm) or in the pregnant patient a high index of suspicion of signicant blood loss. Reassess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid In later pregnancy, if the mother is transported on her back, the uterus will compress the abdominal vena cava, causing extreme hypotension and worsening shock. Either manually displace the uterus to the left side of the abdomen, or turn the mother into the left lateral position to avoid this problem. REFERENCES 1 Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital intravenous uid replacement therapy in serious trauma: The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme 4(31), 2000. 2 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Provide suitable analgesia in the form of Entonox if required (refer to Entonox protocol for administration and information). Opioids may be administered as indicated by the patients condition (refer to specic drug protocols). Key Points Haemorrhage During Pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) Haemorrhage during pregnancy is broadly divided into two categories, occurring in early and late pregnancy. Haemorrhage may be revealed (evident vaginal blood loss) or concealed (little or no loss). Pregnant women may appear well even when a large amount of blood has been lost. Obtain venous access with large bore cannulae (16G). Tachycardia may not appear until 30% of circulating volume has been lost. In otherwise t young women, symptoms of hypovolaemic shock occur very late, by which stage the patient is very unwell. Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (including eclampsia) Eclampsia Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) Presents with generalised tonic/clonic convulsions and is one of the most dangerous complications of pregnancy. It occurs in about 1:1500 deliveries, usually beyond 24 weeks and is a significant cause of maternal mortality in the UK. Many patients will have had pre-existing pre-eclampsia (of mild, moderate or severe degree), but cases of eclampsia can present acutely with no prior warning. ONE THIRD of cases present for the FIRST TIME post-delivery (usually in the rst 48 hours). Is a generic term used to dene a signicant rise in blood pressure during pregnancy, occurring after 20 weeks. Pre-eclampsia Is PIH associated with proteinuria. It can occur as early as 20 weeks but more commonly occurs beyond 2428 weeks. It is more common in rst pregnancies, multiple pregnancies, with pre-existing hypertension, diabetes or renal disease. In the UK the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia includes an increase in blood pressure (BP) (above 140/90mmHg), oedema and detection of protein in the patients urine. Pre-eclampsia is usually diagnosed at routine antenatal visits and may require admission to hospital and early delivery. The disease may be of mild, moderate or severe degree. The underlying pathophysiology is not fully understood, but pre-eclampsia is primarily a placental disorder associated with poor placental perfusion. This often results in a fetus which is growth-restricted (i.e. smaller than expected because of the poor placental blood ow). Severe pre-eclampsia May present in a patient with known mild preeclampsia or may present with little prior warning. The BP is signicantly raised (i.e. 160/110mmHg) with proteinuria and often one or more of the following symptoms: REMEMBER although eclampsia is often preceded by severe pre-eclampsia, IN MANY CASES THE BP WILL ONLY BE MILDLY ELEVATED AT PRESENTATION (i.e. 140/80-90mmHg). The hypoxia caused during a tonic/clonic convulsion may lead to significant fetal compromise and even death. Convulsions are usually self-limiting, but may be severe and repeated. MANAGEMENT Management of mild/moderate pre-eclampsia In a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks, if blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or above: discuss management directly with the BOOKED OBSTETRIC UNIT or MIDWIFE consider transfer to obstetric unit for formal assessment. 1. headache severe and frontal Management of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia 2. visual disturbances 3. epigastric pain often mistaken for heartburn 4. right-sided upper abdominal pain due to stretching of the liver capsule Follow Medical Emergencies Guideline, remembering to: ensure ABCDs administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an O2 saturation (SpO2) of >95% remember that treating and resuscitating the mother is also assisting the baby 5. muscle twitching or tremor check blood glucose level. 6. other symptoms nausea, vomiting, confusion. Severe pre-eclampsia is a multi-organ disease, although hypertension is a cardinal feature, other complications include: intracranial haemorrhage and stroke renal failure liver failure abnormal blood clotting (e.g. disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)). Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies INTRODUCTION Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (including eclampsia) Evaluate whether the patient has any TIME CRITICAL features: Other considerations: headache severe and frontal epigastric pain often mistaken for heartburn right-sided upper abdominal pain due to stretching of the liver capsule muscle twitching or tremor ALWAYS REMEMBER TO USE LEFT LATERAL TILT PRIOR TO DELIVERY use a wedge or pillow under the RIGHT buttock and turn her towards her left side. visual disturbances caution with lights and sirens strobe lights and noise may precipitate convulsions convulsions confusion. Key Points Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (including pre-eclampsia) Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are TIME CRITICAL EMERGENCIES for both mother and unborn child. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies If delivery is NOT in progress transfer the mother immediately to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT preceded by a Hospital Alert Call. If delivery is in progress call for assistance from a second ambulance and/or Paramedic and prepare for delivery, ensuring that the convulsion is monitored and managed at all times. Remember to position with LEFT LATERAL TILT. Immediately following delivery the mother should be transferred to the NEAREST OBSTETRIC UNIT preceded by a Hospital Alert Call. Pregnancy induced hypertension commonly occurs beyond 24-28 weeks but can occur as early as 20 weeks. Diagnosis includes an increase in blood pressure above 140/90mmHg, oedema and detection of protein in the patients urine. Eclampsia is one of the most dangerous complications of pregnancy. Eclampsia patients present with generalised tonic/clonic convulsions which are usually selflimiting. Only administer diazepam if the convulsions are prolonged or recurrent. Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are TIME CRITICAL EMERGENCIES for both mother and unborn child. IV access: DO NOT delay removal to hospital to obtain IV access cannulate (large bore 16G) en-route wherever possible. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Management of eclamptic convulsions: convulsions are usually generalised and identical to epileptic convulsions unless the patient is known to suffer from epileptic or tonic/clonic convulsions, then convulsions in pregnancy must be managed as ECLAMPSIA. a convulsion is usually self-limiting and will end after 2-3 minutes manage with standard ABCs, administer high concentration O2 and position with LEFT LATERAL TILT. consider administration of diazepam IV/PR (refer to diazepam protocol for dosages and information) titrated against effect ONLY IF the patient convulses for longer than 2-3 minutes or has a second or subsequent convulsion (in hospital, IV magnesium sulphate will be given and it is better to avoid multiple drugs if possible). Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Vaginal Bleeding Gynaecological Causes (including abortion) INTRODUCTION Vaginal bleeding is likely to result in a call for emergency assistance in a number of specific circumstances: if the woman is anticipating a normal menstrual period, and bleeds excessively if normal or excessive menstrual bleeding is associated with severe abdominal pain if excessive vaginal bleeding is associated with therapeutic abortion if vaginal bleeding follows gynaecological surgery or colposcopy if vaginal bleeding occurs away from a normal period especially if this is excessive if there is excessive vaginal bleeding associated with gynaecological cancers, either before diagnosis or after treatment (i.e. cervix, uterus or vagina). This guideline includes bleeding related to therapeutic abortion (i.e. pregnancies being terminated). For causes of bleeding in early or late pregnancy, refer to haemorrhage during early/late pregnancy (including miscarriage & ectopic pregnancy) guideline. The majority of these episodes do not compromise the circulation, but blood loss can be alarming to the woman. HISTORY Colposcopy ASSESSMENT Assess ABCDs Evaluate whether the woman has any TIME CRITICAL features. These may include: any major ABCD problem any signs of hypovolaemic shock. If any of these features are present, correct A and B problems on scene then transport to Nearest Suitable Receiving Hospital. Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information Call. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). If the womans condition is non-time critical, perform a more thorough patient assessment and a brief secondary survey. Specically assess: Check the patients age (this is important, as younger women may be pregnant, and women over 50 years are more at risk of cancers of the uterus and cervix). lower abdominal tenderness or guarding evidence of blood loss or clots (may be difcult to assess). Ask about number of soaked tampons, towels etc to pass information on to hospital. Look for evidence of blood under the feet or between toes, this implies signicant bleeding (the woman may well have wiped her legs prior to your arrival) assess temperature is it raised (pyrexia > 37.5C)? Might this be a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy? If so, what is the period of gestation (refer to haemorrhage during pregnancy (including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy) guideline)? Is the woman undergoing a pregnancy termination (i.e. having an abortion)? Abortion can now be undertaken medically with tablets as well as surgically. In rare cases the initial tablet given to prepare the uterus for abortion can lead to haemorrhage. After surgical abortion, bleeding can be heavy if infection develops (usually 7-10 days after the procedure). MANAGEMENT Follow Medical Emergencies Procedure, remembering to: Start correcting: Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies AIRWAY BREATHING Are there any ongoing or previous gynaecological problems (including recent surgery or colposcopy (see below). CIRCULATION October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Is an outpatient test where the cervix is inspected when a smear has been abnormal. Treatment such as cone biopsy for the abnormal smear may have been undertaken. Heavy bleeding affects very few women in this situation, but classically occurs 7-10 days later. This is also the time for women to develop secondary vaginal bleeding after gynaecological surgery (e.g. hysterectomy). Vaginal Bleeding Gynaecological Causes (including abortion) DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%. Key Points Vaginal Bleeding Gynaecological causes (including abortion) Fluid therapy Obtain IV access (large bore cannulae) If there is visible external blood loss greater than 500mls, uid replacement should be commenced with a 250ml bolus of crystalloid. Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Obstetrics & Gynaecological Emergencies Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT will normally need fluid replacement in the pregnant patient. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement,1 unless there are other signs of poor central tissue perfusion (e.g. altered mental state, disturbed cardiac rhythm or in the pregnant patient a high index at suspicion of signicant blood loss). Reassess vital administration. signs prior to further The majority of vaginal bleeding episodes do not compromise circulation, but blood loss can be alarming to the woman. If you suspect a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy nd out what the gestation period is. Assess blood loss; ask about number of soaked tampons, towels etc and evidence of blood under patients feet and between toes. Provide analgesia with entonox. Take any tissue(s)/clots to the hospital. REFERENCES 1 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. fluid Specically consider: ensure position of comfort provide analgesia with Entonox (refer to Entonox protocol for administration and information). In severe pain not relieved by Entonox, morphine (refer to morphine protocols for administration and information) may be used except in the presence of hypotension take any tissues/clots passed with the bleeding to hospital for assessment if the woman may be pregnant/aborting. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Obstetrics and Gynaecological Emergencies Safeguarding Children INTRODUCTION All children have the right to be protected from harm, and their safety and welfare is paramount. A child is anyone under the age of 18. Children therefore means children and young people. Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is the process of protecting children from abuse or neglect, preventing impairment of their health and development, and ensuring they are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care which is undertaken so as to enable children to have optimum life chances and enter adulthood effectively. The Every Child Matters1 programme, underpinned by the Children Act 20042 aims to improve the outcome for all children in ve key areas: described as at immediate risk, cases should be referred to the Police. Children with signicant injury should be taken to hospital without delay. To help clinicians recognise where children are at risk, a set of recognition of abuse notes are attached (refer to Appendix 1). OBJECTIVES 1. To ensure all staff are aware of, and can recognise, cases of suspected child abuse, or children at risk of signicant harm. 2. To provide guidance enabling operational and Control staff to assess and report cases of suspected child abuse. 3. To ensure that all staff involved in a case of suspected abuse are aware of the possible outcome and of any subsequent actions. being healthy staying safe enjoying and achieving PROCEDURE making a positive contribution Principles of safeguarding children achieving economic well being. All health professionals may seek advice from a Designated Nurse or Doctor for Child Protection in their area during normal working hours. Ambulance clinicians may obtain contact information from a Senior Ofcer in Ambulance Control. Other core documents include the National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services5, which sets out a ten year plan to stimulate long-term and sustained improvement in childrens health and well-being. There are many other documents which are important to inform strategy and delivery of services. These are referenced on the Governments website Every Child Matters: Change for Children.1 Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children, and in particular protecting them from signicant harm, depends upon effective joint working between agencies and professionals that have different roles and expertise. Child Protection is a subset of safeguarding and promoting welfare. This refers to the activity which is undertaken to protect specific children who are suffering, or at risk of suffering, signicant harm. Social Services and the Police have statutory authority and responsibility to investigate allegations or suspicions about child abuse. The Ambulance Service must refer all such concerns to social services. However, in circumstances where the child could be Treatment and Management of Assault In the reporting of a suspected case of abuse, the emphasis must be on shared professional responsibility and immediate communication. Attempts must be made to work in partnership with the child and family, taking into consideration their race, culture, gender, language and experience of disability. Although parents/carers should generally be kept informed of the actions required in the interest of safeguarding children, this may not always be practicable for Ambulance Clinicians. It is particularly important that parents should not be informed of an ambulance crews concerns in circumstances when this may result in a refusal to attend hospital or in any situation where a child may be placed at further risk. Action when abuse or risk of harm is suspected There are a number of ways in which Ambulance Clinicians may receive information or make observations which suggest that a child has been abused or is at risk of harm. For example, the nature of an injury to a child might suggest that the child has been abused (e.g. the story given for an injury may be inconsistent with what is observed). October 2006 Page 1 of 14 Treatment & Management of Assault The Every Child Matters: Change for Children1 Green paper was published in 2003 alongside the Victoria Climbi Inquiry Report3 and led to review and publication of the Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 document.4 Safeguarding Children Observations about the condition of other children or adults in the household might suggest risk (e.g. a child living in an environment where domestic violence has taken place). Ambulance clinicians may observe hazards in the home, or nd that children have been locked in a room. Signs of distress shown by other children in the home should be recorded. An ambulance crew will often be the rst professionals on scene and their actions and recording of information may be crucial to subsequent enquiries. When attending a domestic dispute between adults, the presence of children in the household creates a need to notify under child protection. This applies even if the child was not injured in the violent episode on that occasion. PATIENT ASSESSMENT Ambulance clinicians should follow the normal historytaking routine, taking particular note of any inconsistency in history and any delay in calling for assistance. They should limit any questions to those of routine history-taking, asking questions only in relation to the injury or for clarication of what is being said. It is important to stop questioning when their suspicions are claried. They should not question the child, but should listen and react appropriately to instil confidence. They should avoid unnecessary questioning or probing, as this may affect the credibility of subsequent evidence. They should write down exactly what they have been told. Ambulance clinicians should accept the explanations given, and not make any suggestions to the child as to how an injury or incident may have happened. Similarly, if they are told of abuse, they should not question the child, but should accept what they are being told and act appropriately. Treatment & Management of Assault Remember the Ambulance Service is not there to investigate suspicions. The task for Ambulance Clinicians is to be aware of the issues of child abuse (see Appendix 1), but not to be experts in this area. Ambulance clinicians should ensure that any suspicion is passed to the appropriate agency, i.e. staff in the Emergency Department (ED), social services or the Police. This should be achieved by following the guidelines in Appendix 2. ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY AMBULANCE CLINICIANS If an ambulance crew attend a child and are concerned that the child may have been either physically, sexually, emotionally abused, or neglected, they should take the following actions: Page 2 of 14 1. If the child is the patient, and the parents/carers agree that he/she is to be conveyed to hospital, they should not let the parents/carers know they are suspicious if this may result in refusal to go to hospital. They should speak to the most senior member of nursing staff on duty and ensure that a copy of their documentation is handed over and a safeguarding children report form completed, with a copy provided to the hospital. This should be done away from a public area and in private if possible. Full details of their concerns or suspicions should be relayed to the receiving nurse, with a recommendation that the Child Protection Register should be consulted. Although individual EDs have access to the Child Protection Register for their area, they may need to ask for assistance if the central register needs to be consulted. Ambulance clinicians should complete a copy of the safeguarding children report form and provide a copy to the ward/clinic staff. They should also inform their site manager. 2. The crew should inform Ambulance Control about the situation so that they can report it. As soon as reasonably possible the crew should fax a copy of the safeguarding children report form (see Appendix 3) to Ambulance Control. 3. If the child is the patient and the parents/carers refuse to allow them to be conveyed to hospital, the crew should inform Ambulance Control and complete a safeguarding children report form. Ambulance Control will call the police and contact social services on the 24-hour emergency number, and will also arrange for an Ambulance Ofcer to attend the scene. Ambulance clinicians should follow the same procedure, also informing their site manager of the circumstances. 4. If the child is not the patient but the circumstances are suspicious, the crew should consider the implications of leaving the child. If the child is accompanying another person (e.g. a parent) who is being conveyed, the crew should inform ED staff of their concerns. If no-one is conveyed to hospital, and the crew leave the scene, they should contact Ambulance Control and inform them of the incident. At the earliest opportunity they should complete the safeguarding children report form and fax it to Ambulance Control. 5. In all cases where abuse of a child is suspected, a safeguarding children report form must be completed and, where the child is conveyed to hospital, a copy provided to the ED or other relevant hospital department. In all cases a copy must be faxed to Ambulance Control. The original form should be retained with the patient report form for recording and archiving. October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Safeguarding Children ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY AMBULANCE CONTROL STAFF ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY THE DESIGNATED SENIOR OFFICER 1. On receiving details about a potential case of child abuse from an ambulance crew the senior Control Room Ofcer should consult the records in the control At Risk register, and contact the 24-hour social services number in that area to start the referral process. The designated Senior Ofcer, or her/his deputy, will ensure that all safeguarding children report forms are collected from control daily and a check made to see if the child has come to the attention of the service before. In all cases, a follow-up will be made to the relevant Social Services/Police/PCT department to ensure that information has reached the appropriate persons and to establish what action is planned. 3. When the Control Ofcer receives the completed form from the crew, she/he should forward a copy to the relevant social services department, and send the original fax to the designated senior manager at Ambulance Headquarters. In addition, patient anonymised copies must be sent to the crews Station Ofcer and Training Ofcer (or Site Manager for Ambulance Clinicians) so that any need for support of the crew by managers can be identied and provided. Ambulance Control must enable clinicians to complete and fax the safeguarding children report form as soon as practicable, utilising Ofcers to facilitate access to fax machines where that is difcult out of hours. POLICE ASSISTANCE The Police have a number of legal powers to protect children. These include the power to gain entry to a building in some circumstances, and the power to remove a child into police protection for up to 72 hours. Any Police Constable may effect this if he/she considers that a child is at risk of signicant harm. The child should have a clinical assessment before being taken into Police protection. In urgent circumstances, where an ambulance crew think that a child is at immediate risk of signicant harm, they should inform Ambulance Control, who will request Police attendance. There may be circumstances where there are concerns for an unborn child, e.g. when a pregnant woman has been physically assaulted. In a situation of this type, advice should be sought initially from Social Services, although the advice given may include reporting the incident to the Police. Subsequent Action Safeguarding children concerns notified by the ambulance service will be subject to enquiries by Social Services departments and will be investigated by Social Services and/or the Police. Ambulance clinicians may be required to assist by giving a statement to clarify their observations. Ambulance clinicians may be requested to attend a case conference, accompanied by a manager and supported by other designated professionals for safeguarding children. Senior Management Responsibilities Senior Managers will ensure that any request from a statutory agency for a statement or other information will be communicated through the crews line manager. They will also ensure that any member of Ambulance Service staff instructed to attend court to give evidence will receive appropriate support and advice from the Trust. This will include ensuring that the documentation is available in good time, allowing time for brief / debrief before and after a Court appearance or case conference, and that the member of staff will be accompanied by an ofcer. Key Points Suspected Cases of Child Abuse Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 The safety and welfare of the child is paramount. There is a duty to report concerns. Staff should not investigate suspicions themselves. Police should be involved where there may be an immediate risk to the child. Staff should document the circumstances giving rise to their concern as soon as possible. Page 3 of 14 Treatment & Management of Assault 2. The Social Services staff may ask for details of the incident and what the crew consider to be the level of risk. This will include whether the child is at risk of signicant harm. Safeguarding Children REFERENCES HM Goverment. Every Child Matters: Change for Children: London: The Stationery Ofce. Available from: http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/, 2003. 2 HM Government. Children Act 2004 London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2004/20040031.htm, 2004. 3 Lord Laming. The Victoria Climbi Inquiry: Report Of An Inquiry: London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.victoria-climbieinquiry.org.uk/nreport/nreport.htm, 2003. 4 HM Government. Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children: London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/_les/CCE39E 361D6AD840F7EAC9DA47A3D2C8.pdf, 2006. 5 Department of Health. National Service Framework for children, young people and maternity services: London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAn dSocialCareTopics/ChildrenServices/ChildrenServic esInformation/fs/en, 2004. 6 Department of Health. No Secrets: guidance on developing and implementing multi-agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. 2000. 7 Treatment & Management of Assault 1 Department of Health. Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children: London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/07/58/24/0407 5824.pdf, 1999. 8 Children Act 1989 (c.41) Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1989/Ukpga_1989 0041_en_1.htm, 1989. 9 Data Protection Act (1998) London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts1998/19980029.htm. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 4 of 14 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Safeguarding Children Table 1 Examples of abuse Physical abuse Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer feigns the symptoms of, or deliberately causes ill-health to, a child they are looking after. This situation is commonly described using terms such as factitious illness. Emotional abuse Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child so as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the childs emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. It may involve causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Sexual abuse Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts. They may include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, pornographic material or watching sexual activities, or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways. RECOGNITION OF ABUSE Introduction For the purposes of safeguarding children procedures, a child is anyone under the age of 18. All children deserve the opportunity to achieve their full potential. They should be enabled to be as physically and mentally healthy as possible, receive maximum benet from educational opportunities, live in a safe environment, experience emotional well-being, feel loved and valued, become competent in looking after themselves, have a positive image of themselves and have opportunities to develop good interpersonal skills and condence. If they are denied the opportunity to achieve their potential in this way they are at risk, not only of an impoverished childhood, but of experiencing disadvantage and social exclusion in adulthood. SIGNIFICANT HARM The Children Act (1989)8, now Children Act (2004)2, introduced the concept of signicant harm as the threshold that justies compulsory intervention in family life in the best interests of the children (see Table 1). The Local Authority is under a duty to make enquiries, or cause enquiries to be made, where it has reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering, or likely to suffer, signicant harm. There are no absolute criteria on which to rely when judging what constitutes significant harm. Consideration of the severity of ill-treatment may include the degree and the extent of physical harm, the duration and frequency of abuse and neglect, the extent of premeditation and the degree of threat and/or coercion. Some children may be suffering, or at risk of suffering, signicant harm, either as a result of a deliberate act, of a failure on the part of a parent or carer to act or to provide proper care, of the child being beyond parental control, or all of these factors. These children need to be made safe from harm, as well as their other needs being met. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger. Treatment and Management of Assault Neglect October 2006 Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a childs basic physical and / or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the childs health or development. It may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing, failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger, or the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a childs basic emotional needs. Page 5 of 14 Treatment & Management of Assault APPENDIX 1 SAFEGUARDING CHILDREN Safeguarding Children WHO IS VULNERABLE TO ABUSE? Examples of abuse indicators may be: Although any child can potentially be a victim of abuse, there are some groups of children who may be particularly vulnerable. These include children with learning disabilities, severe physical illnesses or sensory impairments. Sources of stress within families may have a negative impact on a childs health, development or well-being, either directly or because they affect the capacity of parents to respond to their childs needs. Sources of stress may include social exclusion, domestic violence, the unstable mental illness of a parent or carer, or drug and alcohol misuse. Parents who appear overanxious about their child when there is no sign of illness or injury may be a sign of their inability to cope. any injury in a non-mobile baby accidents / injuries in unusual places, e.g. the buttocks, trunk, inner thighs bruises of varying ages small deep burns in unusual places or repeated burns and scalds, or glove and stocking burns poor state of clothing, cleanliness and/or nutrition delayed reporting of the injury. Children with special needs This group of children have particular needs because of a psychological or medical difculty. For example, deaf or autistic children may demonstrate challenging behaviour, which may or may not be as a result of abuse. Children with special needs are more likely to be abused than children in the general population. Children in need Treatment & Management of Assault Children who are dened as being in need are those whose vulnerability is such that they are unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development, or their health and development will be signicantly impaired, without the provision of services (section 17 (10) of the Children Act 19898), plus those who are disabled. The critical factors to be taken into account in deciding whether a child is in need under the Children Act 19898 are what will happen to a childs health or development without services being provided. Local Authorities have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children in need. NON-MOBILE BABIES Any injury in a non-mobile baby must be considered carefully and have a credible explanation if it is to be considered accidental. Healthy babies do not bruise or break their bones easily. They do not bruise themselves with their sts or toys, bruise themselves by lying against the bars of a cot, or acquire bruises on the feet when they are held for a nappy change. Bruising on the ears, face, neck, trunk and buttocks is particularly suspect. Petechial spots (tiny blood spots under the skin) which disappear very rapidly, may indicate attempted smothering. A torn frenulum (behind the upper lip) is rarely accidental in babies, and bleeding from the mouth of a baby should always be regarded as suspicious. Fractures RECOGNITION OF CHILD ABUSE Non-accidental injury For an injury to be accidental it should have a clear, credible and acceptable history and the ndings should be consistent with the history and with the development and abilities of the child. When looking at injuries in children you should be aware of the possibility of the injury being non-accidental and consider it in every case, even if you promptly dismiss the idea. Page 6 of 14 When assessing an injured child, you should use your clinical knowledge regarding what level of accidental injury would be appropriate for their stage of development. Although stages of development vary (e.g. children may crawl or walk at different ages), injuries can broadly be divided between mobile and non-mobile children. Fractures may not be obvious on observation and the baby may present only with crying on handling. Often a fracture will not be diagnosed until an x-ray is performed. Fractures in babies are seldom caused by rough handling or putting their legs through the bars of the cot. Babies rarely fracture their skull after a fall from a bed or a chair. Fractures in non-mobile infants should be assessed by an experienced paediatrician to exclude non-accidental injury. October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Safeguarding Children Shaking injuries When small babies are shaken violently their head and limb movements cannot be controlled, and this results in severe brain damage from haemorrhage inside the skull. Finger bruising on the chest may indicate that a baby has been held tightly and shaken. These babies usually present with collapse or respiratory problems and the diagnosis is only made on further detailed assessment. is dunked in hot water (although splash marks may also feature in a non-accidental burn, indicating that the child had tried to escape hot water). The head, face, neck, shoulders and front of the chest are the areas affected when a child pulls over a kettle. If the child turns on the hot water in the bath, the soles of the feet are in contact with the bath and will be less affected than the tops. Fractures Burns and scalds Accidental burns and scalds are fairly common in older babies (over six months). Burns from grabbing hot objects (e.g. hair tongs, irons etc.) are found on the palms of the hands, and not the back of the hands. Scalds caused by pulling over hot liquids are usually on the front of the face, neck, chest and legs, with multiple splash marks. Childrens bones bend rather than break, and require considerable force to damage them. There are various kinds of fractures (see Table 2), depending on the direction and strength of the force which caused them. The diagnosis will usually be radiological unless there is deformity of the bone, and may not be known initially to Ambulance Clinicians. Documentation of the history given is therefore an important part of the initial assessment. MOBILE BABIES AND TODDLERS Bruising Table 2 Types of fractures in children Burns and Scalds Burns are caused by the application to the skin of dry heat and the depth of the burn will depend on the temperature of the object and the length of time it is in contact with the skin. Abusive burns are frequently small and deep, and may show the outline of the object, whereas accidental burns rarely do so because the child will pull away. For example, a burn reecting the shape of the soleplate of an iron should be treated with suspicion. The bones bend rather than break. This is a very common accidental injury in children. Transverse The break goes across the bone and occurs when there is a direct blow or a direct force on the end of the bone, e.g. a fall on the hand will break the forearm bones or the lower end of the humerus. Spiral or oblique Bruising caused by a hand slap leaves a characteristic pattern of stripes representing the imprint of ngers. Forceful gripping leaves small round bruises corresponding to the position of the ngertips. Tramline bruising is caused by a belt or stick and shows as lines of bruising with a white patch in between. Bites result in small bruises forming part or all of a circle. Greenstick A fracture line which goes right around the bone or obliquely across it is due to a twisting force, which may be a feature in non-accidental injuries. Metaphyseal Occur at the extreme ends of the bone and are only seen radiologically. These are caused by a strong twisting force. Skull fractures These must be consistent with the history and explanation given. Complex (branched), depressed or fractures at the back of the skull are suspect. Rib fractures These do not occur accidentally, except in a severe crushing injury. Any other cause is highly suspicious of non-accidental injury. Cigarette burns are not common. They are round, deep and have a red are round a at brown crust. The burns usually leave a scar. Scalds are caused by steam or hot liquids. Accidental scalds may be extensive but show splash marks, unlike the sharp edges of damage done when the child Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 7 of 14 Treatment & Management of Assault It is normal for toddlers to have accidental bruises on the shins, elbows and forehead. Bruises in unusual areas such as the back, upper arms, and abdomen do not tend to occur accidentally. Safeguarding Children Deliberate poisoning and attempted suffocation EMOTIONAL ABUSE These are very difcult to assess and may need a period of close observation in hospital. Deliberate poisoning, such as might be found in a case of a child in whom illness is fabricated or induced by carers with parenting responsibilities (factitious illness), may be suspected when a child has repeated puzzling illnesses, usually of sudden onset. The signs include unusual drowsiness, apnoeic attacks, vomiting, diarrhoea and ts. Emotional damage occurs as a result of all forms of abuse, but emotional abuse alone can be difcult to recognise as the child may be physically well cared-for and the home in good condition. Some factors which may indicate emotional abuse are: if the child is constantly denigrated before others if the child is constantly given the impression that the parents are disappointed in them if the child is blamed for things that go wrong or is told they may be unloved / sent away if the parent does not offer any love or attention, e.g. leaves them alone for a long time if the parent is obsessive about cleanliness, tidiness etc. Overdosing and other self-harm injuries must be taken seriously in this age-group, as they may indicate sexual or other abuse (such as exploitation). if the parent has unrealistic expectations of the child, e.g. educational achievement / toilet training if the child is either bullying others or being bullied him / herself. NEGLECT Children can be at risk of emotional abuse because of the circumstances of adults in their immediate surroundings, e.g. if there is an atmosphere of domestic violence, adults with mental health problems or a history of drug or alcohol abuse. It cannot be assumed that a child is safe in a care setting, as children in this environment can be subject to exploitation, e.g. for prostitution. OLDER CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS If the injury is accidental, older children will give a very clear and detailed account of how it happened. The detail will be missing if they have been told what to say. Neglect is more difcult to recognise and dene than physical abuse, but its effects can be life-long. When a child is neglected this means his or her basic needs are not met. Neglect comprises both lack of physical care and supervision and a failure to encourage the child in terms of their emotional, physical and educational development. Impairment of growth, intelligence, physical ability and life-expectancy are only a few of the effects of neglect in childhood. Treatment & Management of Assault A neglected or abused infant may show signs of poor attachment. They may lack the sense of security to explore, and appear unhappy and whining. There may be little sign of attachment behaviour, and the child may move aimlessly round a room or creep quietly into corners. In pre-school and school-age children, indicators of neglect may include poor attention span, aggressive behaviour and poor co-operative play. Indiscriminate friendly behaviour to unknown adults is often a feature of children who are deprived of emotional affection. Other signs include repetitive rocking or other selfstimulating behaviour. Personal hygiene may be poor because of physical neglect, and this may lead to rejection by peers. Page 8 of 14 SEXUAL ABUSE (refer to sexual abuse guideline) Although some children are abused by strangers, most are abused by someone known to them. Some are abused by other children, including siblings, who may also be at risk of abuse. The majority of abusers are male, although occasionally women abuse children sexually or co-operate with men in the abusing behaviour. Both girls and boys of all age groups are at risk. The sexual abuse of a child is often planned and chronic. A large proportion of sexually abused children have no physical signs, and it is therefore necessary to be alert to behavioural and emotional factors that may indicate abuse. October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Safeguarding Children Allegation of abuse by the child Any allegation of abuse by a child is an important indicator and should always be taken seriously. It is important to note that children may only tell a small part of their experience initially. Adult responses can inuence how able a child feels to reveal the full extent of the abuse. If abuse is alleged, the adult being told about the abuse must be careful not to ask probing questions (see Guidelines and Operational Procedures). Physical signs and symptoms The following symptoms should give cause for concern and further assessment: soreness, discharge or unexplained bleeding in the genital area chronic vaginal infections bruising, grazes or bites to the genital or breast area sexually transmitted diseases pregnancy, especially when the identity of the father is vague. Behavioural and emotional indicators inappropriate sexual knowledge for the childs age overt sexual approaches to other children or adults fear of particular people or situations, e.g. bath time or bedtime drug and alcohol abuse (older children) suicide attempts and self-injury running away and re-setting environmental factors and situation of parents (e.g. domestic violence, drug or alcohol abuse, learning disabilities). Treatment & Management of Assault These notes have been developed for training purposes and should be read in conjunction with the ambulance services operational procedure Suspected Cases of Child Abuse and Report Forms for the Protection of Children and Vulnerable Adults. Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 9 of 14 Safeguarding Children APPENDIX 2 Protection of Children and Vulnerable Adults GUIDELINES FOR STAFF These guidelines summarise what you need to be aware of if someone tells you they have been abused, or if you suspect that someone has been abused. The guidelines should be used in conjunction with the Protection of Children and Vulnerable Adults Operational Procedures, Recognition of Abuse notes and Report Forms. Reporting Any allegation or suspicion of abuse must be taken seriously and reported immediately. Complete the report form in as much detail as possible and follow the Operational Procedure for reporting the abuse. Remember: As a health care worker who may come into contact with children and vulnerable adults, you have a duty to report concerns about abuse. If you do not report the abuse you may be putting the victim at greater risk. You may also discourage them from disclosing again, as they may feel they were not believed. This may put other people at risk. It is your role and responsibility: to listen to the person telling you about the abuse to ensure their safety and your own safety to report the abuse via the appropriate channels to keep a detailed record of your observations and / or what you have been told. If someone tells you they have been abused If the person is an adult, move to a private place if possible. Let them tell you what happened in their own words. Reassure them that they have done the right thing in telling you about the abuse. Do not ask leading questions as this might affect a subsequent Police enquiry. Treatment & Management of Assault Never promise to keep a secret. Tell them as soon as possible that you will have to report to at least one other person, as it is your duty to do this. (This will give them the chance to stop talking if they are not happy for this to happen). Do not talk to anyone who does not need to know about the allegation or suspicion of abuse, not even the witnesses, if there were any. By inadvertently telling the alleged abuser, for example, you may later be accused of corrupting evidence or alerting. Page 10 of 14 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Safeguarding Children APPENDIX 2 Child Protection Algorithm4 What happens next?1 Practitioner has concerns about childs welfare Practitioner discusses with manager and / or other senior colleagues as they think appropriate Still has concerns No longer has concerns No further child protection action, although may need to act to ensure services provided Practitioner refers to LA childrens social care, following up in writing within 48 hours Social Worker and manager acknowledge receipt of referral and decide on next course of action within one working day No further LA childrens social care involvement at this stage, although other action may be necessary e.g. onward referral Initial assessment required Concerns about childs immediate safety 1 This is included to inform Ambulance Clinicians of the normal procedure for following up a report of suspected abuse. Senior managers should make every effort to provide feedback to Ambulance Clinicians as to what has occurred as a result of them reporting their suspicions. Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 11 of 14 Treatment & Management of Assault Feedback to referrer on next course of action Safeguarding Children APPENDIX 3 Safeguarding children Report Form Childs name(s) Address Age / DOB Next of kin School / Nursery Date Crew Time 1. 2. CAD no. Call sign Concerns (please tick): Reason for concern (please tick): Physical abuse Physical signs Sexual abuse Inconsistent story Emotional abuse Behavioural / developmental signs Neglect Environment Parental incapacity Disclosure by victim/other person Please give a written description of your concerns, including the general appearance, state of health, demeanour and behaviour of the child: Treatment & Management of Assault Version of events given by the child: Child too young to speak Not possible to speak to child alone Child does not speak English If child able to speak, what he / she says happened: Page 12 of 14 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Safeguarding Children Please give a description of your ndings. If the child has a physical injury, please mark it below using the front and back gure : Injury = X ?Fracture = # Burns = O Pain = Details of signicant family members, members of staff, friends or other people who are with the child, e.g. childminder: Home circumstances is the child: Fostered Yes No With a childminder Yes No Living with parents Yes No Living with other relatives Yes No Yes No Treatment & Management of Assault Is the child a resident of a residential care home / hostel? If Yes, please state name and address of the home / hostel Do you have concerns about the standard of care received by the child at home or in a residential home / hostel? Yes No Do you have concerns about the welfare of other people there? Yes No If Yes, please include in Details of the Environment below. Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 13 of 14 Safeguarding Children List your concerns about the environment or home (including residential care homes / hostels): General level of care Safety Other (please give details) Has an adult on scene been aggressive towards the child (or the crew)? Yes No Is there evidence of family / domestic violence? Yes No Do you think the child has suffered / is likely to suffer signicant harm if he / she remains in this environment? Yes No Are the parents aware of your concerns? Yes No Child conveyed to hospital Parent / carer conveyed to hospital Not conveyed to hospital Accompanied by other person Hospital Reported to: Hospital staff signature Ambulance Control Hospital staff name Social Services Police Crew signature In person By telephone Date / Time Form sent to Treatment & Management of Assault By e-mail Fax Post CONSENT (where applicable) The information contained in this form may be shared between the ambulance service and other agencies, in order to protect you from harm. Declaration: I consent to the information recorded on this form being shared with other agencies responsible for my ongoing welfare. Name: Signature: For advice / support ring When completed this form must be faxed to The Ambulance Service will act in accordance with the Data Protection Act (1998)10 and the obligations contained therein, within its role as Data Controller. Page 14 of 14 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Sexual Assault INTRODUCTION PROTECTION Attending patients who have been sexually assaulted demands sensitive medical and emotional care from Ambulance Clinicians. It also demands an awareness of forensic aspects of these cases. For the protection of Ambulance Clinicians, individuals should avoid being alone with the patient where possible. It may be appropriate for the patient to be accompanied in the back of the ambulance by another person as well as a member of the ambulance crew. The ambulance crew should be aware that the patient may be anxious when left alone with a person of the same sex as the assailant. On the other hand, they may be reassured by the presence of a professional person. The wishes of the patient must be considered and attempts made to make them feel reassured and safe. HISTORY History should be limited to identifying the need for medical treatment. It is not appropriate for Ambulance Clinicians to probe the details of the assault. In the worst case scenario this could affect the outcome of Police investigations. Encourage the patient to leave the same clothes on as were worn at the time of the assault, and not to throw away or destroy any clothing. Where necessary, follow medical/trauma guidelines. the appropriate Where a hospital alert message is passed over the radio, provide details only of injuries present and their management. It may be appropriate to delay full assessment of some injuries until arrival at the treatment centre, to avoid further distressing the patient and disturbing evidence. If called to the location of the assault, make every effort to avoid disturbing the scene. Ensure that Police are called promptly so that the scene can be secured. COMPETENCE AND CONSENT Patients are likely to be very distressed about the events surrounding sexual assault. They may not want to involve anybody else, and may not consent to disclosure of information to other parties such as the Police. Do NOT judge, or give the appearance of judging the patient. Be kind and considerate, and allow the patient space, and as much choice about options for their treatment as possible. They may well feel worthless, guilty and humiliated; dominant controlling behaviour will intensify these feelings. Reference to the safeguarding children and vulnerable adult policies may be appropriate. Where a patient is competent to refuse hospital treatment, and does so, then it is important to advise them to seek further medical attention. They may need post exposure prophylaxis and or contraceptive advice, both of which can be provided condentially. Treatment and Management of Assault If a blanket is needed for patient modesty or warmth, then this should ideally be one which has not been handled by any other patient or relative. Single use blankets are ideal for this situation. Blankets used should be left with the patient. Encourage the patient not to bathe or wash until forensic investigations have been completed. Avoid cleaning wounds unless absolutely necessary clinically. If required a lightly applied dry dressing should be used. Any used dressings or swabs should be retained for forensic examination. It is normal practice to collect saliva and possibly swab the buccal mucosa, therefore, avoid giving the patient drinks until ofcers have had the opportunity to collect these samples. Similarly do not let the patient brush their teeth. Forensic analysis will concentrate specically on those areas affected, such as wounds, mouth, anus and vagina as well as any areas where the victim was kissed, licked or bitten. This may all be contaminated with an assailants deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and represent the best opportunity for detecting stranger rapes. Drug screening for sexual assault should be done as soon as possible, as some drugs have a very short half life, and the Police will need to collect an evidential urine sample. All of these recommendations are vital to conserve evidence for a successful prosecution of the offender, BUT must be conveyed with great tact to the patient who may well want to shower and change. October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Treatment & Management of Assault ASSESSMENT Sexual Assault FURTHER CARE Encourage all victims of sexual assault to attend treatment centres, and inform the police. Both will be able to provide physical, medical and emotional support. In some areas special arrangements exist for patients suffering sexual assault to be examined and interviewed in Police or other facilities. Local guidelines should be followed as to the best destination and mode of transport for the patient. Handover at the care centre should be to an appropriate member of staff, with due regard to the sensitive nature of the information. Handover should not take place in a public area. DOCUMENTATION Complete the clinical record in great detail, documenting only facts, not your opinion. Document what the patient says, and your own ndings, with relevant timings. This should be done contemporaneously. A Police statement may well be needed later on. Key Points Sexual Assault Sexual assault may be concurrent with other injuries which will need treating. Treatment should avoid disturbing evidence where possible. Leave the investigation to the police. Accommodate patient wishes where possible. Police may have special facilities for dealing with victims. Treatment & Management of Assault METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse All vulnerable adults have the right to be protected from harm and the ambulance service should refer all cases of suspected abuse to the appropriate Social Services Department. Where there are concerns about the standard of care provided in a nursing or residential home, or by a domiciliary care agency, the case will also be referred to the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection (CSCI). In circumstances which could be described as an emergency, cases will be referred to the police. In the reporting of a suspected case of abuse, the emphasis must be on shared professional responsibility and immediate communication. Attempts must be made to meet the needs of the vulnerable person, taking into consideration their race, culture, gender, language and level of disability. To help clinicians recognise cases of abuse a set of notes are attached at Appendix 1. OBJECTIVES 1. To ensure all clinicians are aware of, and can recognise, cases of suspected abuse of a vulnerable adult. 2. To provide guidance enabling Ambulance Clinicians and Control Ofcer to assess and report cases of suspected abuse of a vulnerable adult. 3. To ensure that all clinicians involved in a case of reported abuse are aware of the possible outcome and of any subsequent actions. PROCEDURE Principles of Adult Protection The principles of adult protection differ from those of child protection, in that adults have the right to take risks and may choose to live at risk if they have the capacity to make such a decision. Their wishes should not be overruled lightly. For example, most older people are not confused. Similarly, people with learning disabilities or mental health problems may have the capacity to make some decisions about their lives, but not others. All Local Authorities should have Inter-Agency Adult Protection Procedures which comply with the No Secrets guidance1 and many authorities will also have an Interagency Adult Protection Committee. In addition, the CSCI is responsible for inspecting the standard of care provided in nursing homes, residential care homes and by domiciliary care agencies. Treatment and Management of Assault Actions when abuse or risk of harm is suspected There are a number of ways in which ambulance crews may receive information or make observations which suggest that a vulnerable adult has been abused or is at risk of harm. An Ambulance Clinician will often be the rst professional on scene and their actions and recording of information may be crucial to subsequent enquiries. It is particularly important that other people who may be present should not be informed of an Ambulance Clinicians concerns in circumstances when this may result in a refusal to attend hospital or in any situation where a vulnerable adult may be placed at further risk (See Appendix 2). PATIENT ASSESSMENT Ambulance crews should follow the normal historytaking routine, taking particular note of any inconsistency in history and any delay in calling for assistance. If necessary, they should ask appropriate questions of those present to clarify what is being said. Crews should be aware that someone who is frightened may be reluctant to say what may be the cause of their injury, especially if the person responsible for the abuse is present. It may be helpful to make a note of the persons body language. It is important to stop questioning when suspicions are claried. Avoid unnecessary questioning or probing, as this may affect the credibility of subsequent evidence. NOTE: The ambulance service is not there to investigate suspicions. The task for ambulance crews is to ensure that any suspicion is passed to the appropriate agency, i.e. staff in the emergency department, the appropriate local Social Services Department, the Regional Ofce of CSCI or the police. This should be achieved by following the guidelines below in the section actions to be taken by ambulance crews. Actions to be taken by ambulance crews If an Ambulance Clinician comes into contact with a vulnerable adult (see Appendix 1) and are concerned that they may have been abused or are at risk of abuse. If there is another person present and the Ambulance Clinicians are concerned that they may be the abuser, they should not let the person know they are suspicious. If the patient is conveyed to hospital, the clinicians should inform a senior member of the October 2006 Page 1 of 11 Treatment & Management of Assault INTRODUCTION Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse emergency department (ED) staff, or nursing staff if conveying to another department, of their concerns about possible abuse. They should ensure that a copy of the Patient Report Form (PRF) is handed over and a suspected abuse form completed, with a copy left with the ED staff. They should be careful not to do this in a way that would alert the alleged abuser or place the vulnerable adult at risk of further abuse or intimidation. Ambulance Control should be informed of the incident and a copy of the suspected abuse form faxed to them at the earliest opportunity. Patient transport service crews should also inform their site manager. ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY AMBULANCE CONTROL OFFICERS It is important to ascertain the wishes of the patient and to take into account whether or not they want to be conveyed to hospital. However, the decision not to convey a patient to hospital is one that must not be taken lightly. In some cases the clinicians may assess that the patient clearly does not have the capacity to make a judgement with respect to their need for medical care, and may decide to act under the Doctrine of Necessity (if there is risk to life or limb) or make alternative arrangements for the patient if their condition requires less immediate treatment (e.g. a General Practitioner visit the following day). If the patient needs to be conveyed to hospital and another person tries to prevent this, the Control Room Ofcer may need to request police attendance and / or contact Social Services. The Control Room Ofcer will also arrange for an Ambulance Ofcer to attend the scene. In some circumstances, they should also inform the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection. If the patient needs to be conveyed to hospital and another person tries to prevent this, crews may need to consider whether to involve the Police. The Ambulance Clinicians should inform Ambulance Control about the situation and complete a reporting form (See Appendix 3). Ambulance Control will take any further action (see below). A suspected abuse form should be faxed to Ambulance Control at the earliest opportunity. Treatment & Management of Assault If the patient is not conveyed to hospital, or if the Ambulance Clinicians have concerns about someone else in the household or on the premises, they should contact Ambulance Control and inform them of their concerns. If the vulnerable person is not the patient but is accompanying someone else to hospital, the clinician should inform ED, or other hospital nursing staff of their concerns. At the earliest opportunity they should complete a suspected abuse form, leaving a copy at the hospital and faxing it to Ambulance Control. In all cases where abuse of a vulnerable adult is suspected a suspected abuse form must be competed and, where the vulnerable adult is conveyed to hospital, a copy provided to the department. In all cases a copy must be faxed to Ambulance Control. The original form should be sent with the rest of the clinicians documentation for recording and archiving in the usual way. Page 2 of 11 On receiving details about a potential case of abuse of a vulnerable adult, the senior Control Room Ofcer should consult any records held in the control room and contact the appropriate Local Authority Social Service Department if the incident occurs during normal working hours. If the incident occurs out of hours, the Control Room Ofcer should use their judgement as to whether the case can wait until the next working day or whether the emergency 24-hour team needs to be contacted. As well as reporting the matter to the appropriate Social Service Department, it should also be reported to the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection if either of the following conditions apply: the alleged abuse has taken place in a nursing or residential care home the alleged abuser is employed by a domiciliary care agency (including domiciliary care provided directly by the local authority). Any observations / concerns about the standards of care provided by any of these services should also be reported to the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection, even if this did not directly contribute to the condition of the patient, as other people may be at risk. The Control Room Ofcer should make a decision whether also to report the incident to the police and / or ask an Ambulance Ofcer to attend the scene, based on the information received from the Ambulance Clinician. When the Control Room Ofcer receives the completed form from the Ambulance Clinician, they should forward a copy to the relevant Social Services Department, and send the original fax to the designated senior manager at Ambulance Headquarters. If there are concerns about the standards of care in a nursing or residential care home, or the service provided by a domiciliary care agency, a copy should also be sent to the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection. In addition, patient anonymised copies must be sent to the Ambulance Clinicians Station Ofcer and Training October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse Ofcer, or PTS site manager so that any need for support of the clinician by managers can be identied and provided. Ambulance Control must facilitate clinicians to complete and fax the suspected abuse form as soon as practicable, utilising Ofcers to facilitate access to fax machines where that is difcult out of hours. Key Points Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adult Subsequent Action Adult protection concerns notied by the Ambulance Service will be subject to enquiries by Social Services departments, who will co-ordinate an investigation. Investigations may be carried out jointly between Social Services, the Police and healthcare professionals, depending on the circumstances. All cases of institutional abuse will also be referred to the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection. Vulnerable adults have a right to be protected. Crews must document the circumstances giving rise to concern as soon as possible. The wishes of the patient should be taken into account where possible. Clinicians should not investigate allegations. Police involvement should be considered. REFERENCES The Designated Senior Ofcer, or their deputy, will ensure that all suspected abuse forms are collected from Ambulance Control and a check made to see if the vulnerable adult has come to the attention of the service before. Follow up should be made to the relevant Social Services department to ensure that information has reached the appropriate persons and to establish what action is planned. This information should be relayed back to the Ambulance Clinician who raised the concern. 2 Data Protection Act (1998) London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts1998/19980029.htm. 3 Lord Chancellors Department. Who Decides: making decisions on behalf of mentally incapacitated adults. 1997. General Medical Council. Duties of a Doctor: General Medical Council: London. Available from: http://www.gmcuk.org/guidance/library/duties_of_a_doctor.asp, 2005. METHODLOGY Refer to methodology section. Treatment & Management of Assault ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY THE DESIGNATED SENIOR OFFICER Department of Health. No Secrets: guidance on developing and implementing multi-agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. 2000. 4 Ambulance clinicians may be required to assist by giving a statement to clarify their observations in more detail. Ambulance clinicians may be requested to attend a case conference or to provide information. 1 Senior Management Responsibilities Senior managers will ensure that any request from a statutory agency for a statement or other information will be communicated through the clinicians line manager. They will also ensure that any member of Ambulance Service instructed to attend court to give evidence will receive appropriate support and advice from the Trust. This will include ensuring the documentation is available in good time, allowing time for brief / debrief before and after a Court appearance or case conference, and that the clinician will be accompanied by an Ofcer. Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 3 of 11 Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse APPENDIX 1 physical abuse sexual abuse emotional or psychological abuse nancial or material abuse neglect and acts of omission discriminatory abuse. A person may be subject to one or a combination of these. Abuse can take place in any context. It may occur when a vulnerable adult lives alone or with someone else. It may occur in the vulnerable adults own home, either when they receive a service there or when the abuser either lives with them or visits them. It may also occur within nursing, residential or day care settings, in hospitals, or in public places. Causes of abuse Treatment & Management of Assault A person may be vulnerable to abuse if they are unable to protect themselves from the actions of others. They may live or come into contact with people who inict harm upon them or take advantage of their vulnerability to exploit them. In some cases, the place where they live or the services they receive may be of a poor quality. The nature of a persons disability, ability to communicate or mental capacity may increase the likelihood of abuse remaining undiscovered. Who abuses? All types of abuse may be inicted deliberately; some may be as the result of negligence, ignorance, or lack of understanding. The person responsible for the abuse is often known to the person being abused. They may be: a family member, friend or neighbour Page 4 of 11 an occasional visitor or service provider Abuse is the violation of an individuals human and civil rights by any other person. It can vary from the seemingly trivial act of not treating someone with proper respect to extreme punishment or torture. In the context of vulnerable adults, the recognised forms of abuse include: another resident or service user INTRODUCTION a volunteer PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE ADULTS RECOGNITION OF ABUSE someone providing health or social care services a stranger. The person responsible for the abuse may be misusing alcohol or substances, or may be dependent on the vulnerable adult for housing or emotional support, or may have other special needs themselves. Who is vulnerable to abuse? Particular groups of people may be more vulnerable to abuse. These include people from minority ethnic groups, people with physical disabilities, people with learning disabilities, mental health problems, severe physical illnesses, older people, the homeless, people with sensory impairments or those diagnosed as HIV positive. Some people with special needs (e.g. sensory impairment or learning disabilities) may demonstrate challenging behaviour, which may or may not be as a result of abuse. Abuse within personal relationships A carer is a person who looks after an ill, disabled or frail relative, friend or neighbour at home. Some vulnerable people are themselves carers, and may nd themselves being abused by the person they care for. The risk of abuse may increase if a vulnerable person is living or in contact with someone who has a history of violence, including domestic violence, or a history of sexual offences. The abuse of alcohol or other substances may also be a factor. Older people, people with disabilities and people with mental health needs often nd themselves in unequal power relationships and this may lead to a situation where there is exploitation and abuse. Institutional abuse Abuse can take place in hospitals, day care, residential homes, nursing homes, hostels and sheltered housing. People living in their own homes may also be abused by staff employed to provide support to them. Abusive behaviour may be part of the accepted custom within an organisation, or it may be carried out by an individual member of staff or a particular staff group. It may be difcult to draw a line between poor quality care and abuse, and it is important that the Regional Ofce of the Commission for Social Care Inspection is informed of any concerns about poor standards of care. October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse Institutional abuse is more likely to occur if staff are inadequately trained, poorly supervised or work where there are inadequate stafng levels. It is also more likely to occur if staff feel powerless to inuence practice and feel afraid of losing their job if they report any concerns. the length of time it has been occurring the impact on the individual and the risk of repeated or increasingly serious acts involving this or other vulnerable adults. Disclosure Statutory offences have been created which specically protect those who may be incapacitated in various ways. Examples of actions which may constitute criminal offences are assault and rape, theft, fraud or other forms of nancial exploitation, and certain forms of discrimination, whether on racial or gender grounds. Alleged criminal offences differ from all other noncriminal forms of abuse, in that the responsibility for initiating the action rests with the state in the form of the police and the Crown Prosecution Service. This is usually done by working in partnership with health and social care colleagues. When a complaint about alleged abuse suggests that a criminal offence may have been committed, it is imperative that reference should be made urgently to the Police by the person receiving the complaint. In the Ambulance Service, this should be undertaken by Ambulance Control on behalf of the clinician. What degree of abuse justies intervention? The law, as it stands, does not give a denition of the degree of abuse of a vulnerable adult that requires intervention. However, in determining how serious or extensive abuse must be to justify intervention, No Secrets1 suggests that a useful starting point can be found in Who Decides?3 Building on the concept of significant harm introduced in the Children Act (1989), the Law Commission suggested that: harm should be taken to include not only ill-treatment (including sexual abuse and forms of ill-treatment which are not physical), but also the impairment of physical or mental health; and the impairment of physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural development. The seriousness or extent of abuse is often not clear when anxiety is rst expressed. Once reported, Social Services will take the lead in co-ordinating an investigation, including making a judgement on the level of intervention required, based on the details of the case. In making any assessment of seriousness they consider the following factors: the vulnerability of the individual No problem arises where patients give informed consent to their information being disclosed to a third party. Nevertheless, statute, case law and professional guidance recognises that confidentiality may be breached in exceptional cases and with appropriate justication. The GMC in its guidance Duties of a Doctor4 states: Disclosure may be necessary in the public interest where a failure to disclose information may expose the patient, or others, to risk of death or serious harm. In such circumstances you should disclose information promptly to an appropriate person or authority. ABUSE OF VULNERABLE ADULTS In No Secrets1 and Who Decides?3, a vulnerable adult is dened as any person over the age of 18 who is, or may be, in need of community care services by reason of mental or other disability, age or illness. Vulnerable adults may be unable to take care of themselves and are therefore unable to protect themselves against signicant harm or exploitation. Types of abuse Abuse may consist of a single act or repeated acts. It may be an act of neglect or a failure to act. It may occur when a vulnerable person is persuaded to enter into a nancial or sexual transaction to which he or she has not consented, or cannot consent. Abuse can occur in any relationship and may result in signicant harm to, or exploitation of, the person subjected to it. Physical abuse Physical abuse is non-accidental harm to the body, for example: being hit, slapped, pushed, shaken, kicked, bitten, burned or scalded purposely under- or over-medicating or other misuse of medication the nature and extent of the abuse Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 5 of 11 Treatment & Management of Assault Is abuse a crime? Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse deliberately being underfed, being given alcohol or a substance that is known to cause harm (e.g. sugar for diabetic) being conned, locked up or otherwise physically restrained. pregnancy in a person who is unable to give consent to sexual relations. Emotional or psychological abuse Emotional or psychological abuse is any action which has an adverse effect on an individuals mental wellbeing, causing suffering and affecting their quality of life. This may include the threat that other types of abuse could take place. Psychological abuse can include: Some indicators of physical abuse are: any injury not explained by the history given different versions of the cause of an injury given to different people any self-inicted injury unexplained fractures, lacerations, bruises or burns weight loss, dehydration, complaints of hunger untreated medical problems poor personal hygiene including incontinence. living in a culture of fear and coercion being bullied, controlled or intimidated being humiliated, ridiculed or blamed being threatened with harm or abandonment being isolated or deprived of contact being withdrawn from services or supportive networks having no choice about who to live with or spend time with being consistently ignored. Sexual abuse Sexual abuse is the involvement of someone in sexual activities which they do not have the capacity to understand, have not consented to, or to which they were pressurised into consenting. It can also include the involvement of people in sexual activities where one party is in a position of trust, power or authority, or where a sexual relationship is outside law and custom. Sexual abuse can include: Indicators of psychological abuse include: rape or sexual assault unwanted touching or being forced to touch another person in a sexual manner to Abuse occurs where there is a power imbalance and a person may be reacting to living in fear because of threats and coercion. Treatment & Management of Assault being subject harassment sexual innuendoes and not having a choice about someone of the same sex to undertake intimate personal care. self harm emotional withdrawal and symptoms of depression unexplained fear or defensiveness severe lack of concentration. Financial abuse Financial abuse is the theft or misuse of money or personal possessions, and can include: Indicators of sexual abuse include: money being withheld or stolen goods or services purchased in someones name without their consent torn, stained or blood-stained underclothing or bedding being deliberately overcharged for goods or services pain, itching or bruising in the genital area, thighs and/or upper arms misuse or misappropriation possessions or benets sexually transmitted disease, urinary tract infection and vaginal infection money being borrowed by someone who is providing a service to the vulnerable adult. obsession with washing full or partial disclosure, or hints, about sexual abuse inappropriate sexualised behaviour Page 6 of 11 October 2006 of property, Treatment and Management of Assault Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse Indicators of neglect can include: someone being dependent on the vulnerable adult for the provision of accommodation (this may also apply to other forms of abuse) a person lacking goods or services which they can afford a person living in poorer circumstances than other members of a household a person being encouraged to spend their money on items intended for communal use in a residential home benefits being absorbed into the household income and not being used for the vulnerable person. neglect of accommodation, including inadequate heating and lighting failure to provide basic personal care needs inadequate or unsuitable food failure to give medication or giving too much medication failure to ensure appropriate privacy and dignity. Discriminatory abuse Discriminatory abuse includes ill-treatment motivated by racism, sexism, homophobia or on the basis of religion or disability. This can include: A person will suffer if his or her physical and / or emotional needs are being neglected. Examples of neglect can include: failing to respond to a persons needs or preventing someone else from meeting their needs failing to provide access to appropriate health, social care or educational services withholding necessities of life such as medication, adequate hygiene, nutrition or heating preventing someone from interacting with others. denying people their rights belittling or humiliating people not providing appropriate food preventing access to places of worship preventing people from carrying out cultural or religious practices regarding someone as being intrinsically different from other human beings. ignoring someones medical or physical care needs harassment Neglect and acts of omission When a professional or paid care provider does not ensure that the appropriate care, environment or services are provided to those in their care, they may be open to a charge of wilful neglect. It should be noted, however, that adults have the right to choose their own lifestyle in their own home (including selfneglect) if they have the capacity to make such a decision. However, the judgement as to whether an individual has the capacity to make decisions leading to on-going signicant self neglect is more complex than those surrounding a single event with regard to consent to treatment and may well be outside the competencies of Ambulance Clinicians. If Ambulance Clinicians are concerned that the level of self neglect is such that it is/would lead to signicant impairment of health, they should consider breaking condentiality and allowing appropriately trained and competent staff from Social Services to make an assessment as to the individuals capacity. Any such breech of confidentiality should be carefully and fully documented. Treatment and Management of Assault Indicators of discriminatory abuse include: lack of self-esteem emotional withdrawal and symptoms of depression self harm. NOTE: These notes should be read in conjunction with The Ambulance Services operational procedure Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and reporting forms for the Protection of Vulnerable Adults. October 2006 Page 7 of 11 Treatment & Management of Assault Indicators of nancial abuse include: Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse NOTE: As a health care worker who may come into contact with children and vulnerable adults, you have a duty to report concerns about abuse. If you do not report the abuse you may be putting the victim at greater risk. You may also discourage them from disclosing again, as they may feel they were not believed. This may put other people at risk. APPENDIX 2 PROTECTION OF CHILDREN & VULNERABLE ADULTS Guidelines for Ambulance Clinicians These guidelines summarise what you need to be aware of if someone tells you that they have been abused, or if you suspect that someone has been abused. The guidelines should be used in conjunction with the Protection of Children and Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults Operational Procedures, Recognition of Abuse notes (Appendix 1) and suspected abuse form (Appendix 3). It is your role and responsibility: to listen to the person telling you about the abuse to ensure their safety and your own safety to report the abuse via the appropriate channels to keep a detailed record of your observations and / or what you have been told. If someone tells you that they have been abused If the person is an adult, move to a private place if possible. Let them tell you what happened in their own words. Reassure them that they have done the right thing in telling you about the abuse. Do not ask leading questions as this might affect a subsequent Police enquiry. Treatment & Management of Assault Never promise to keep a secret. Tell them as soon as possible that you will have to report to at least one other person, as it is your duty to do this. (This will give them the chance to stop talking if they are not happy for this to happen.) Do not talk to anyone who does not need to know about the allegation or suspicion of abuse, not even the witnesses, if there were any. By inadvertently telling the alleged abuser, for example, you may later be accused of corrupting evidence or alerting. Reporting Any allegation or suspicion of abuse must be taken seriously and reported immediately. Complete a suspected abuse form in as much detail as possible and follow the appropriate Operational Procedure for reporting the abuse. Page 8 of 11 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse APPENDIX 3 PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE ADULTS SUSPECTED ABUSE REPORT FORM Patients name Address Age / DOB Date Crew 1. 2. Time CAD / ref no Call sign Concerns (please tick): In your opinion, why is the person Reason for concern (please tick): Physical abuse Vulnerable? (please tick): Physical signs Sexual abuse Older person Inconsistent story Emotional abuse Physical disability Behavioural signs Financial abuse Learning disability Environment Neglect Mental health problem Disclosure by victim / other person Discriminatory abuse Other Is the patient a resident of a nursing / residential care home / hostel? (please tick): Yes No If Yes, please state name and address of the home / hostel: Do you have concerns about the welfare of other residents? Yes No Yes Treatment & Management of Assault Do you have concerns about the standard of care received by the patient at the home / hostel? Yes No No If Yes, please include in Details of the Environment below. Does the patient use a Day Care Service? (please tick): If Yes, please state address where the service is based (if known): Do you have concerns about the standard of care received by the patient at the Day Care Service? Yes Do you have concerns about the welfare of other service users? No Yes No If Yes, please include in Details of the Environment below. Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 9 of 11 Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse Does the patient receive a service in their home from a domiciliary care agency? Yes No If Yes, please state name and address of the agency (if known): Local Authority area: Do you have any concerns about the standard of service provided by that agency? Yes No If Yes, please include in Details of the Environment below. Please give a written description of your concerns, including the general appearance, condition and behaviour of the patient (give an example if possible): Version of events given by the victim (and what they want to be done about the situation): Please give a description of your ndings. If the patient has a physical injury, please mark it below using the front and back gure : Treatment & Management of Assault Injury = X ?Fracture = # Burns = O Pain = Page 10 of 11 October 2006 Treatment and Management of Assault Suspected Abuse of Vulnerable Adults and Recognition of Abuse Details of signicant family members, members of staff, friends or other people who are with the patient: Details of the Environment (including concerns about nursing / residential care homes / hostels / Day Care Services / Domiciliary Care Agencies): Patient conveyed to hospital Accompanied by Not conveyed to hospital Hospital Reported to: Control Hospital staff signature Social Services Police Hospital Staff Name In person By telephone Crew signature Form sent to Date / Time By e-mail Fax Post CONSENT (where applicable) The information contained in this form may be shared between the Ambulance Service and other agencies, in order to protect you from harm. Declaration: I consent to the information recorded on this form being shared with other agencies responsible for my ongoing welfare. Signature: The Ambulance Service will act in accordance with the Data Protection Act (1998)2 and the obligations contained therein, within its role as Data Controller. For advice / support, ring When completed, this form must be faxed to on Treatment and Management of Assault October 2006 Page 11 of 11 Treatment & Management of Assault Name: Medical Emergencies in Children overview INTRODUCTION Abnormal upper airway sounds should be sought: Recognising the signs and symptoms of serious illness in a child is much more important than seeking a diagnosis. inspiratory noises (stridor) obstruction near the larynx a snoring noise (stertor) may be present when there is obstruction in the pharynx e.g. massive tonsils. Early recognition and management of developing respiratory distress, circulatory impairment or decreased level of consciousness will alert the Ambulance Clinician to the need for transferring the child rapidly to hospital for further urgent assessment and treatment. Adults often suffer sudden cardiac arrest while fairly well perfused and in a relatively normal metabolic state, because the heart suddenly stops with an arrhythmia. A child, in contrast, is much more likely to have a cardiac arrest because of hypoxia, the heart eventually stopping because of the severity of the hypoxia and acidosis. In this situation a child is much less likely to respond to resuscitation as the body is already so metabolically abnormal. Thus if a child is to have a good chance of survival, it is essential that their illness is recognised long before cardiac arrest occurs. Recognition of the seriously ill or injured child involves the identication of a number of key signs affecting the childs airway, breathing, circulatory or neurological systems. If these signs are present, the child must be regarded as time critical. ASSESSMENT Primary Assessment Airway Assessment of the Airway Check the airway for obstruction, foreign material or vomit. Position the head to open the airway The younger the child the less head extension will be required. A newborn will require the head to be in the neutral position and a small child will sniff the morning air. If trauma is suspected, a jaw thrust should be used. Paediatric Guidelines airway Breathing Assessment and Recognition of Potential Respiratory Impairment Measure the respiratory rate Rapid breathing rate (tachypnoea) in a child at rest indicates that increased ventilation is due to: airway problems lung problems circulatory problems metabolic problems. Table 1 Normal Respiratory Rate Age Respiratory Rate <1 year 30 40 breaths per minute 12 years 25 35 breaths per minute 25 years 25 30 breaths per minute 511 years 20 25 breaths per minute Recession (indrawing, retraction) Children have pliable rib cages so when respiratory effort is high, indrawing is seen between the ribs (intercostal recession) and along the costal margins where the diaphragm attaches (subcostal recession). In tiny babies even the sternum itself may be drawn in (sternal recession) as children get older, the rib cage becomes less pliable and signs of accessory muscle use (see below) will be seen. Recession in older children may suggest that there is severe respiratory difculty. Accessory Muscle Use As in adult life, the sternomastoid muscle may be used as an accessory respiratory muscle when the work of breathing is increased. In infants this may cause the head to bob up and down with each breath. October 2006 Page 1 of 7 Paediatric Guidelines The most important skill in managing paediatric emergencies is patient assessment. Good assessment allows the child with actual or potential life-threatening illness or injury to be rapidly identied and managed. indicate Medical Emergencies in Children overview Flaring of the Nostrils Paediatric Guidelines Mental Status Inspiratory or Expiratory Noises Wheezing indicates lower airway narrowing and is most commonly heard on expiration. The volume of stridor or wheezing is NOT an indicator of severity and indeed may diminish with increasing distress because less air is being moved. Inspiratory noises (stridor) can indicate an imminent danger to the airway due to reduction in airway circumference to approximately 10% of normal.1 Grunting is produced by exhalation against a partially closed laryngeal opening (glottis). This is a sign of severe respiratory distress and is characteristically seen in infants. The hypoxic child will be agitated, drowsy. This is a subtle sign that is easily missed. It indicates signicant respiratory distress. Drowsiness gradually increases and eventually leads to unconsciousness. Agitation may be difcult to identify due to the childs distress. Parents may be helpful in making this assessment. Circulation Recognition of Potential Circulatory Failure (Shock) Assessment of the circulation may be very difcult in children as each physical sign may have a number of confounding variables. It is important to make an assessment of all the signs below and take each into account when assessing whether a child is shocked. Heart Rate: Effectiveness of Breathing chest expansion and breath sounds. Note the degree of chest expansion on both sides of the chest and whether it is equal. tachycardia may result from circulatory volume loss. The rate, particularly in infants, can be very high (up to 220 beats per minute) bradycardia will be apparent before cardiac arrest (see above). Auscultate the chest with a stethoscope. A silent chest is a pre-terminal sign, as it indicates that very little air is going in or out of the chest. Table 2 Normal Heart Rate Pulse oximetry Age Heart Rate This can be used at all ages to measure oxygen saturation (readings are less reliable in the presence of shock, hypothermia and some other conditions such as carbon monoxide poisoning and severe anaemia). <1 year 110 160 beats per minute 12 years 100 150 beats per minute 25 years 95 140 beats per minute 511 years 80 120 beats per minute Table 2 The effects of respiratory inadequacy on other systems. Heart Rate Tachycardia or eventually bradycardia may result from hypoxia and acidosis. Skin Colour Bradycardia in a sick child is a pre-terminal sign. Flushed skin may be noted due to increased respiratory effort in early stages. peripheral pulses will become weak then absent with advancing shock children shut down their circulation segmentally, and increasing shock will result in cool /cold skin, initially distally and becoming more proximal as shock advances there is no validated relationship between the presence of certain peripheral pulses and the systemic blood pressure in children. Skin pallor may be due to vasoconstriction due to hypoxia. Page 2 of 7 Pulse Volume: Cyanosis is pre-terminal sign of hypoxia. October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Medical Emergencies in Children overview Response to a painful stimulus: this should be measured on the forehead, sole of the foot or sternum a capillary rell time of >2 seconds indicates poor perfusion, although this may be inuenced by a number of factors, particularly cold. Blood pressure: Pinch a digit or pull frontal hair; a child who is unconscious or who only responds to pain has a signicant degree of coma (refer to Glasgow Coma Scale Appendix 1). Posture: Observe the childs posture; children may be: should not routinely be measured in pre-hospital care as it is complex to undertake correctly and may delay on scene time oppy (hypotonic) any child with new onset of oppiness must be assumed to be seriously ill until proven otherwise varies with age it drops very late in shock in children and thus other signs of circulatory inadequacy will be present long before hypotension occurs stiff (hypertonic) or back arching (opisthotonic) new onset stiffness must be regarded as a sign of severe cerebral upset decerebrate or decorticate posturing indicates serious cerebral abnormality. hypotension is a pre-terminal sign. Pupils: Table 3 The effects of circulatory inadequacy on other systems Respiratory Rate A rapid respiratory rate but without recession, may be due to circulatory insufficiency leading to poor tissue perfusion which results in acidosis. Mottled, cold, pale skin indicates poor perfusion. Initially, in shock, the child will become agitated and, as it progresses, drowsy. The child may ultimately become unconscious as a result of poor cerebral perfusion. Mental Status pupil size and reaction must be tested pupils should be equal and of a normal size and react briskly to light any abnormality or change in the pupil size or reaction may be signicant. Table 4 The effects of central neurological impairment on other systems. Tachypnoea is due to the body trying to correct the metabolic abnormality. Skin An abnormal respiratory pattern (hyperventilation, Cheyne-Stokes breathing or apnoea) may indicate cerebral malfunction. Bradycardia may be due to dangerously raised intracranial pressure Blood glucose level in any seriously ill child. Respiratory System Circulatory System Disability Recognition of Potential Central Neurological Failure NOTE: the whole assessment should take less than two minutes unless intervention is required. Level of Consciousness/ Alertness Frequent re-assessment of ABCDs is necessary to assess the response to treatment or to detect deterioration. A Alert V Responds to voice P Responds to painful stimulus U Unresponsive Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 7 Paediatric Guidelines Capillary Rell: Medical Emergencies in Children overview MANAGEMENT Endotracheal intubation: INTRODUCTION Any child believed to have a serious problem involving: Paediatric Guidelines Airway Breathing Circulation Disability Needle cricothyroidotomy: must be considered to have a TIME CRITICAL condition and receive immediate management of airway, breathing and circulation, and be rapidly transferred to an appropriate receiving hospital with a suitable pre-alert message. Remember: A and B problems should be corrected on scene and C problems managed en-route to further care. AIRWAY MANAGEMENT the childs airway should be managed in a stepwise manner if epiglottitis is possible then extreme caution must be exercised. surgical airways should not be performed in children under 12 years of age needle cricothyroidotomy is a method of last resort the initial oxygen (O2) ow rate in litres per minute should be set equal to the childs age in years and gradually increased until the chest wall moves adequately. Refer to foreign body airway obstruction in children guideline. BREATHING MANAGEMENT Ensure adequate oxygenation: adequate oxygenation is essential to all very sick children; administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients to maintain an oxygen saturation of 95% high concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, in children with sickle cell disease or a history of cardiac disease if the child is distressed by the presence of a mask, ask the parent to help by holding the mask as close to the face as possible. If this still produces distress, wafting O2 across the face directly from the tubing (with the facemask detached from the tubing) is better than nothing consider assisted ventilation at a rate equivalent to the normal respiratory rate for the age of the child (refer to paediatric resuscitation charts for normal values) if: Manual manoeuvres, chin lift/extension, or jaw thrust in cases of trauma: it is important not to place pressure on the soft tissues under the chin and in front of the neck, as this may obstruct the airway. Aspiration, removal of any foreign body: nger sweeps should be avoided as they may push material further down the airway or damage the soft palate paediatric suction catheters should be used where available. Oropharyngeal airway (OPA): the hazards associated with intubation in children are considerable and the disadvantages usually outweigh the advantages. It should ONLY be attempted where other more basic methods of ventilation have failed (refer to paediatric resuscitation charts for ET sizes). ensure the OPA is of the appropriate size and inserted using the correct technique. Discontinue insertion or remove if the child gags (refer to paediatric resuscitation charts) Nasopharyngeal airway: correct sizing is essential care should be taken not to cause trauma to the tonsillar/adenoidal tissue in small children, a smaller size may be required. the child is hypoxic (SpO2 is <90%) and remains so after 30-60 seconds on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <half normal or >three times normal expansion is inadequate. Page 4 of 7 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Medical Emergencies in Children overview ensure a good mask seal with an appropriate size mask. Avoid hyperventilation to reduce the risk of gastric insufation or causing barotrauma. The bag-valve-mask should have a pressure release valve as an added safety measure. If this is not available extreme care must be taken not to cause over expansion of the lungs. No bag smaller than 500ml volume should be used for bag valve mask ventilation unless the child is less than 2.5kg (preterm baby size). Wheezing The management of asthma is discussed elsewhere (refer to asthma in children guideline) CIRCULATION MANAGEMENT NOTE: Do not waste time on the scene attempting to gain intravenous (IV) or intraosseous (IO) access. This should be done en-route unless delay is unavoidable e.g. entrapment. Cannulation: Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an indication for urgent fluid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement2 UNLESS there are other signs of circulatory failure (cold peripheries, delayed capillary rell time, mottled skin, weak thready pulse) then commence 20ml/kg bolus of crystalloid. 20ml/kg should be given as a bolus to restore vital signs to normal no more than three boluses should be given except on medical advice. Exceptions: Attempt cannulation with the widest bore cannula that can be condently placed. The vehicle can be stopped briey to allow for venipuncture and disposal of the sharp with transport being recommenced before the IV dressing is applied. The intraosseous route may be required where venous access has failed on two occasions or no suitable vein is apparent within a reasonable timeframe. The intraosseous route is the preferred route for vascular access in all cases of cardiac arrest in young children. Blood glucose level should be measured in all children in whom vascular access is being obtained and must be measured in children with decreased conscious level (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline). in diabetic hyperglycaemia special caution is required (refer to glycaemic emergencies in children) if evidence of heart failure or renal failure give bolus of 10ml/kg and stop if patient deteriorates. Transfer to hospital as a priority in hypoglycaemia uid should be withheld unless life threatening shock is present when 10ml/kg should be administered over 10-15 minutes (refer to glycaemic emergencies in children guideline) if there are exceptional circumstances, e.g. long transfer time, on-line advice should be obtained. DISABILITY MANAGEMENT The aim of management of any child with a cerebral insult is to minimise further insult by optimising their circumstances. Fluid administration Fluids should be: 0.9% saline or Hartmanns solution when treating shock where possible warmed measured in millilitres and documented as volume administered, not the volume of uid chosen Treat the treatable; apart from the above, in prehospital care this generally means management designed to: generally administered as boluses rather than run in. Paediatric Guidelines Fluid volumes Arrest external haemorrhage Handover at the receiving unit must include details of volume and type of uid administered. prevent hypoxia (see above) normalise circulation (but do not overload) check for and treat hypoglycaemia (refer to glycaemic emergencies in children guideline). October 2006 Page 5 of 7 Paediatric Guidelines Medical Emergencies in Children overview Other conditions which can be treated before hospital and are discussed elsewhere include: Paediatric Guidelines convulsions (refer to convulsions in children guideline) Key Points Medical Emergencies in Children opiate poisoning (refer to naloxone protocol for dosages and information) meningococcal meningococcal guideline). septicaemia septicaemia (refer to in children SUMMARY The patient history may give you valuable insight into the cause of the current condition. The airway can usually be controlled without the need for intubation. Hypoxia and hypovolaemia need urgent correction in the seriously ill child. Always check the blood glucose in seriously ill children or those with a decreased level of consciousness. A and B should be corrected on scene and C problems managed en-route to further care. Primary assessment of the child will determine whether the child is time critical or not. Immediate correction of A and B problems must be undertaken without delay at the scene. C problems can be corrected en-route to hospital. Children who are found to be seriously ill must be considered TIME CRITICAL and MUST BE taken to the nearest suitable receiving hospital without delay. A Hospital Alert Message should be given whenever a seriously ill child is transported. NOTE: paediatric drug doses are expressed as mg/kg, (refer to specific drug protocols for dosages and information). These protocols MUST be checked prior to ANY drug administration, no matter how condent the practitioner may be. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Remember that the patient history may give you valuable insight into the cause of the current condition. The following may be of great help in your diagnosis: relatives, carers or friends with knowledge of the childs history packets or containers of medication or evidence of administration devices (e.g. inhalers, spacers etc.) medic alert type jewellery (bracelets or necklets) which detail the childs primary health risk (e.g. diabetes, anaphylaxis etc) but also list a 24 hour telephone number to obtain a more detailed patient history also refer to safeguarding children guideline. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Walls RM, editor. Manual of emergency airway management Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000. Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Pre-hospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Phillips B, Zideman D, Garcia-Castrillo L. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2000 for Paediatric Advanced Life Support: a statement from the Paediatric Life Support Working Group and approved by the executive committee of the European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 2001;48(3):231-34. Resuscitation Council (UK). Resuscitation Guidelines 2005: Resuscitation Council (UK): Available from:http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/guide.htm, 2005. Maconochie I. Capillary rell time in the eld its enough to make you blush! Pre-hospital Immediate Care 1998;2:95-96. Jewkes F, Lubas P, McCusker K, editors. Prehospital Paediatric Life Support 2nd ed. London: Blackwells, 2005. Group ALS. Pre-hospital paediatric life support. London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1999. Advanced Life Support Group. Advanced paediatric life support: the practical approach. 3rd ed. London: BMJ Books, 2000. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Page 6 of 7 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Medical Emergencies in Children overview APPENDIX 1 Glasgow Coma Scale and modied Glasgow Coma Scale. Item Paediatric Guidelines GLASGOW COMA SCALE Score Eyes Opening: Spontaneously To speech To pain None 4 3 2 1 Motor Response: Obeys commands Localises pain Withdraws from pain Abnormal exion Extensor response No response to pain 6 5 4 3 2 1 Verbal Response: Orientated Confused Inappropriate words Incomprehensible sounds No verbal response 5 4 3 2 1 MODIFICATION OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE FOR CHILDREN UNDER <4 YEARS OLD Item Score Eyes opening: as per adult Scale Motor response: as per adult Scale Best verbal response: appropriate words or social smiles, xes on and follows objects cries, but is consolable persistent irritable restless, agitated Silent Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 5 4 3 2 1 Page 7 of 7 Trauma Emergencies in Children overview Every year approximately 700 children die as a result of accidents in England and Wales.1 About half of them die as a result of motor vehicle incidents. Fatalities as a result of cycle and pedestrian incidents are most common in children. While the law states that all children should be restrained in vehicles,2,3 this is often not complied with and ejection also causes a signicant number of deaths and serious injuries. A third of childhood fatalities occur in the home. Burns and falls are the main cause of death in this environment. It is a truism that MOST child deaths could be regarded as avoidable if injury prevention methods had been rigorously applied. The basic principles of the ABC approach to paediatric trauma management are very similar to those of the adult. There are, however, areas of difference in terms of anatomy, relative size and physiological response to injury. This guide is intended to highlight those differences. BASIC TRAUMA APPROACH triage if more than one casualty. Situation: observe and note mechanisms of injury (MOI) always look for evidence of children such as toys or child seats that may indicate that a child has been ejected from a vehicle or wandered off from the scene but may still require medical attention. ASSESSMENT Primary Survey Rapid In-depth primary survey (6090 seconds) Airway with cervical spine control (see C-spine collar) Breathing Circulation Disability Exposure, Examine and Evaluate The management of a child suffering a traumatic injury requires a careful approach, with an emphasis on explanation, reassurance and honesty. Trust of the carer by the child makes management much easier. Paediatric Guidelines Stepwise Primary Survey Assessment As for all trauma care, a systematic approach, managing problems as they are encountered before moving on. Airway Assessment Initial spinal immobilisation is mandatory using manual methods at rst; subsequent use of a correctly sized cervical collar, head blocks and forehead/chin tapes on a long board is ideal, although, a compromise using less formal measures, such as manual immobilisation may be necessary (refer to neck and back trauma guideline). In a small child, the size of the occiput may result in the head being flexed forward and it may be appropriate to consider using a small amount of padding under the shoulders to return the head to the neutral position. Airway obstruction may result from vomit, blood or foreign material. Gentle aspiration under direct vision should be used. Blind nger sweeps are contraindicated. Scene: If possible, it is helpful to keep the childs parents/carers close by for reassurance, although their distress can exacerbate that of the child! If an airway adjunct is needed, then an oropharyngeal airway can be inserted directly with down pressure on the tongue. A nasopharyngeal airway can also be used, but with adenoidal tissue there is the potential for bleeding. Burns are a special case (refer to burns and scalds in children guideline). Looking for soot in the nostrils and mouth, erythema and blistering of the lips with a hoarse voice may indicate potential airway injury. There may be a need to progress to endotracheal (ET) intubation, but only if trained and airway reexes are absent. If airway reexes are present then rapid sequence intubation will be required; either initiate emergency transfer to further care or bring such skills to the scene e.g. immediate care Doctor (refer to paediatric resuscitation charts for ET sizes). The next step on the airway ladder is needle cricothyroidotomy. Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-rebreathing mask, using the stoma in neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation, in patients sustaining major trauma and long bone fracture. October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Trauma Emergencies in in Childrenoverview Trauma Emergencies Children overview High ow oxygen through a tightly tting oxygen mask with a reservoir is the ideal, although a compromise, even to the point of the mask being held close but not in contact may be needed. All efforts should be made to increase the level of inspired oxygen. Paediatric Guidelines Breathing Assessment The chest wall in a child is very elastic and it is quite possible to have signicant injury without there being apparent external signs on the chest wall. The chest should be inspected for pattern bruising and for the rate and adequacy of breathing. Chest wall movement and the presence of any wounds should be sought. Assess for a haemothorax (refer to thoracic trauma guideline). For sucking chest wounds (refer to thoracic trauma guideline). Inadequate ventilation resulting in hypoxia and hypercarbia may be tolerated for a prolonged period before rapid progression to cardiac arrest. Treatment should be based on restoring ventilation, possibly by augmenting respiratory effort with bag-valve-mask ventilation using high ow oxygen. consider assisted ventilation at a rate equivalent to the normal respiratory rate for the age of the child (refer to paediatric resuscitation charts for normal values) if: SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 Palpation may reveal some crepitus suggesting fractured ribs or surgical emphysema. Poor excursion may suggest an underlying pneumothorax. respiratory rate is <half normal or >three times normal Auscultation should reveal good bilateral air entry and the absence of any added sounds. Areas to be listened to: expansion is inadequate. Circulation Assessment above the nipples in the mid-clavicular line in the mid-axilla under the armpits at the rear of the chest, below the shoulder blades. A normal mental state with good skin colour and temperature are useful crude indicators of adequate circulation. A normal capillary rell time (<2 seconds) can be another useful indicator. In the rst instance, assess for evidence of signicant external haemorrhage and apply direct pressure to stop any loss. Table 1 Normal Respiratory Rate Age Respiratory Rate <1 year 30 40 breaths per minute 12 years 25 35 breaths per minute 25 years 25 30 breaths per minute 511 years 20 25 breaths per minute Feel for radial or brachial pulse rate and volume (depending on age and see table). Tachycardia with a poor pulse volume suggests shock. Bradycardia can also occur in the shocked child but is a PRETERMINAL SIGN. Table 2 Normal Heart Rate Assess for a tension pneumothorax (refer to thoracic trauma guideline and below) Age <1 year absent or greatly reduced breath sounds on one side of the chest in ventilated patients, increasing resistance to ventilation with reduced or absent air entry on one side of the chest 80 120 beats per minute distended neck veins (difcult in children) 95 140 beats per minute 511 years severe and increasing breathlessness 100 150 beats per minute 25 years 110 160 beats per minute 12 years Remember to consider a tension pneumothorax if there is: Heart Rate tracheal deviation (late sign). Page 2 of 5 Immobilisation of major long bone fractures on a longboard or by application of traction to femoral fractures in older children can help control bleeding. October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Trauma Emergencies in Children overview The administration of a uid bolus at a rate of 20ml/Kg body weight has been the standard treatment while observing for a physiological response. This was then repeated until a physiologically normal state was restored. This has become controversial with the adoption of the concepts behind hypotensive resuscitation in adults4 and recent paediatric guidelines now recommend 5ml/Kg bolus administration until an effect is observed. Disability / Level of Consciousness Assessment Note: the initial level of consciousness on the AVPU Scale and the time of this assessment, together with information on the pupil size, shape, symmetry and response to light, and whether the child was moving some or all limbs. A Alert V Responds to voice Evaluate Children are prone to rapid heat loss when exposed for examination and immobilisation during trauma care. Investing in protecting the child from a cold environment during the primary survey is very important. Exposing a child can also have lasting negative psychological effects. EVALUATE patient as TIME CRITICAL or NONTIME CRITICAL at the end of the rapid PRIMARY SURVEY, on the basis of the following criteria: A and B problems should have been identied and addressed as encountered during the primary survey. In the presence of any difculties, rapid packaging and urgent transport, immobilised on a long board, to nearest suitable Emergency Department is indicated. Consideration should be given to the need for a HOSPITAL ALERT en-route. If there is no apparent problem with the Primary Survey then the situation may be less time critical and there may be value in a more careful Secondary Survey. This should take no more than a few minutes and should not signicantly delay the transfer to denitive care. A large part can be done while in transit to hospital. P Responds to painful stimulus U Unresponsive Secondary Survey If the child does not score A then the patient should be considered time critical. A formal GCS (see below)5 en-route may be valuable to the receiving hospital but should only be recorded if it can be accurately done. A misleading score is worse than a simple AVPU with a description of progression. If there is no movement, then ask the patient to wiggle their ngers and toes, paying particular note to movements peripheral to any injury site. Head: re-check the pupil size, shape, symmetry and response to light assess and palpate for bruising, lacerations or tenderness over the scalp. Signicant blood loss can occur through a scalp laceration and this should be guarded against. Conscious level: Stepwise Disability Management Confusion or agitation in the injured child may arise directly from a head injury, but equally may be secondary to hypoxia from airway impairment, impaired breathing or hypoperfusion due to blood loss and shock. The management of any child with changed level of alertness is based on ensuring an adequate airway, oxygenation, ventilation and circulation. A plasma blood glucose level in a child with a changed level of alertness is mandatory and the need is not restricted to those with diabetes. If the child is hypoglycaemic then for treatment refer to glycaemic emergencies in children guideline. Paediatric Guidelines This is a systematic and careful review of each part of the injured child looking for less clinically critical and/or occult injuries. assess the neurological status using the standard Glasgow Coma Scale (refer to Glasgow Coma Scale Appendix 1) in smaller children the speech component may require modication to allow for their relative lack of maturity and this is also listed a GCS of <8 is the denition of coma, however a GCS of <12 in a child post-trauma that is not rapidly returning to normal mandates meticulous airway management, optimising of the ventilation and cerebral perfusion and a formal investigation of brain injury using a computerised tomography (CT) scan. October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Paediatric Guidelines Vascular access should be gained, where possible, en-route to hospital, not prolonging the time on scene. The widest possible cannula for identiable veins should be used. Trauma Emergencies in Children overview ANALGESIA IN TRAUMA Neck: it is often impractical to clinically clear a cervical spine of a child in the pre-hospital environment. Paediatric Guidelines immobilisation in the older and more cooperative patient (refer to neck and back trauma guideline). Chest: changes to the respiratory function and chest may evolve with time. At this stage, a more thorough assessment is indicated, looking particularly for evidence of pattern bruising, rib fractures, instability and surgical emphysema (skin crackling) listening for breath sounds needs to be in all areas. A trauma patient is often supine and the pneumothorax will be anterior and, more deceptively, the haemothorax will be more posterior. Abdomen: pattern bruising, particularly in relation to the use of a lap seat belt is helpful feeling for tenderness in all four abdominal quadrants is informative but an awareness that many serious abdominal injuries have a delayed presentation is important triage is dynamic. Pelvis: traditionally the pelvis was sprung by lateral compression or front to back pressure to assess its stability. It is now felt that the risk of exacerbating the bleeding outweighs the benets of compressing the pelvis to assess for potential fractures. Such injuries should be assumed from the mechanism and other associated pattern injuries. Injured children may require analgesia (refer to management of pain in children guideline) once their life threatening problems have been resolved in the same humanitarian way adults do. This should be via the IV route and titrated to effect, administer morphine sulphate (refer to morphine drug protocols for dosages and administration). NOTE: paediatric drug doses are expressed as mg/kg, (refer to specific drug protocols for dosages and information). These protocols MUST be checked prior to ANY drug administration, no matter how condent the practitioner may be. SUMMARY Read the scene for mechanism of injury and manage in a manner similar to the adult trauma process. Remember that there are anatomical and physiological differences as the assessment progresses through the airway, breathing, circulation and disability areas. Children can physiologically compensate very well and so can conceal serious injury unless a high index of suspicion is retained. Agitation and/or confusion may indicate primary brain injury, but could just as readily be due to inadequate ventilation and cerebral perfusion. DEFG (DONT EVER FORGET GLUCOSE) in terms of assessment of an altered mental state. Key Points Trauma Emergencies in Children Limbs: look for wounds and evidence of fractures. Dress and immobilise any injuries found. A simple MSC check for ALL four limbs may be valuable (see below): M MOTOR Test for movement S SENSATION Apply light touch to evaluate sensation C CIRCULATION Detect time critical problems early. Toys or child seats may indicate that a child has been involved in the incident and ejected from a vehicle or wandered off from scene. Drug doses are expressed as mg/kg. Refer to specific drug protocols for dosages and information. These protocols MUST be checked prior to ANY drug administration, no matter how condent the practitioner may be. Continuously re-assess ABCD, AVPU. Provide hospital alert. Assess pulse and skin temperature Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Trauma Emergencies in Children overview 1 2 Quan L, Seidel JS, editors. Pediatric advanced life support: instructors manual. Dallas: American Heart Association, 1997. The Motor Vehicles (Wearing of Seat Belts by Children in Rear Seats) Regulations 1989:1989 No. 1219 3 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Pre-hospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). GLASGOW COMA SCALE Item 5 Spontaneously To speech To pain None Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, Clement CM, Lesiuk H, De Maio VJ, et al. The Canadian C-Spine Rule for Radiography in Alert and Stable Trauma Patients. JAMA 2001;286(15):1841-1848. 4 3 2 1 Motor Response: Teasdale G, Jennett B. ASSESSMENT OF COMA AND IMPAIRED CONSCIOUSNESS: A Practical Scale. The Lancet 1974;304(7872):81-84. 6 Score Eyes Opening: The Motor Vehicles (Wearing of Seat Belts by Children in Front Seats) Regulations, 1993 1993 No. 31 4 APPENDIX 1 Glasgow Coma Scale and modied Glasgow Coma Scale Paediatric Guidelines REFERENCES Obeys commands Localises pain Withdraws from pain Abnormal exion Extensor response No response to pain 6 5 4 3 2 1 Verbal Response: Orientated Confused Inappropriate words Incomprehensible sounds No verbal response METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. 5 4 3 2 1 MODIFICATION OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE FOR CHILDREN UNDER <4 YEARS OLD Item Score Eyes opening: as per adult Scale Motor response: as per adult Scale Best verbal response: appropriate words or social smiles, xes on and follows objects cries, but is consolable persistent irritable restless, agitated Silent Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 5 4 3 2 1 Page 5 of 5 Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions in Children ASSESSMENT Anaphylaxis in children is becoming increasingly common. Nut allergy is frequently seen and other allergies including drug allergies are not uncommon (see Table 1). Allergy to penicillin is over diagnosed and is less common that it would appear. This may be particularly so in children who have been given penicillin as part of treatment for a (usually viral) infection and then developed a rash. The chances are that the rash is due to the infection, but such children are frequently labelled penicillin allergic. Rarer allergies such as latex allergy have been seen in children as young as 2 years of age. This has obvious implications for equipment use. Assess ABCDs: Anaphylaxis in children may present in even more diverse ways than adults, making diagnosis more difcult. There may be a history of exposure to a known allergen. Signs include (but do not have to be present): Insect stinginduced anaphylaxis Insect stings are the second most common cause. Bees may leave a venom sac which should be scraped off (not squeezed). Injected allergens commonly result in cardiovascular compromise, with hypotension and shock predominating. Drug-induced anaphylaxis Medications, particularly penicillin, account for a large percentage of anaphylactic reactions. Slow release drugs prolong absorption and exposure to the allergen. Other causes Latex, and exercise. For background and pathphysiology of anaphylaxis refer to anaphylaxis/allergic reactions in adults guideline. rhinitis and conjunctivitis wheezing angio oedema urticaria skin ushing or pallor Food-induced anaphylaxis Food is the most common cause of anaphylaxis, particularly peanuts, tree nuts (e.g. hazel, brazil, walnut), sh and shellsh. Facial oedema, laryngeal oedema and respiratory difculty usually predominate. airway obstruction Table 1 Common precipitants cardiovascular collapse abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting. They may be of rapid or slow onset, and may be biphasic or rarely may even be delayed for a few hours. The child, parent or carer may carry an adrenaline pen and /or wear Medic Alert type jewellery (bracelets or necklets) ask if they do. Paediatric pens contain either 300mcg (approximating to the 250mcg dose below) or 125 mcg of adrenaline. MANAGEMENT1 Quickly remove the triggering source (if possible). If signs of anaphylaxis are identied, immediately correct A and B problems. Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%. Administer adrenaline (refer to adrenaline protocol for administration and information), 1. the importance of a good history e.g. exposure to a known allergen. NOTE: Intravenous adrenaline should not generally be administered by Paramedics. It may be considered in exceptional circumstances after on line medical advice from a Doctor and given under ECG monitoring, It is potentially very dangerous. 2. the lack of a good evidence base on which to base management. Provide a pre-alert and transport to the nearest suitable hospital as an emergency case. 3. the importance of adrenaline in treatment. Continue management en-route. Main points include: Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions in Children Intramuscular chlorphenamine should be given to counteract histamine release (refer to chlorpheniramine protocol for administration and information). Key Points Anaphylaxis in children Paediatric Guidelines Salbutamol may be given to counteract wheezing (refer to salbutamol protocol for administration and information). Anaphylaxis may be difcult to diagnose. Remove the allergen. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment. Reactions may recur. Hydrocortisone is not part of the immediate treatment. Fluid therapy Central pulse ABSENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an absolute indication for urgent uid. REFERENCES 1 Chamberlain D. Emergency medical treatment of anaphylactic reactions. Project Team of the Resuscitation Council (UK). J Accid Emerg Med 1999 16(4):243-247. 2 Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid Resuscitation in Pre-hospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emergency Medical Journal 2002;19(494-98). Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse ABSENT is an indication for urgent fluid depending on other indications including tissue perfusion and blood loss. Central pulse PRESENT, radial pulse PRESENT DO NOT commence uid replacement2 UNLESS there are other signs of circulatory failure (cold peripheries, delayed capillary rell time, mottled skin, weak thready pulse) then commence 20ml/kg bolus of crystalloid. Reassess vital administration. signs prior to further fluid METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Hydrocortisone may be administered after severe attacks or to patients who are asthma sufferers, once other management is under way and if time allows (refer to hydrocortisone protocol for administration and information). This is particularly important in patents with asthma who may be predisposed to severe anaphylaxis. Hydrocortisone helps avoids LATE sequelae. Place the patient in a position of comfort. Warn carers that some children with even moderately severe attacks may suffer an early recurrence of symptoms and some should be observed for 24 hours. Certain children are predisposed: severe slow onset reactions with unknown allergen severe asthmatic asthmatics possible continuing absorption of the allergen previous history of biphasic reactions. Page 2 of 2 component or in severe October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Asthma in Children Asthma is one of the commonest of all medical conditions requiring hospitalisation in children and a signicant mumber of children will die of asthma each year. These guidelines are concerned with an acute asthma attack. Asthma usually presents to the Ambulance Service in one of two forms (see Table 1): 1. Life Threatening 2. Acute Severe SpO2 <85% in air oxygen saturations (SpO2) less than 92% in air silent chest poor respiratory effort HISTORY altered consciousness The patient may have a history of increased wheezing or breathlessness, often worse late at night or early in the morning, associated with allergy, infection or exertion as a trigger. cyanosis peak ow <33% of predicted (if attempted not usually appropriate). Upper respiratory tract infections often also trigger asthma attacks in children.The child may be known to have asthma and may be on regular medications (usually inhalers: a preventer and /or reliever) and sometimes montelukast (Singulair). too breathless to talk or feed heart rate > 130 (2-5 years), >120 (5-18 years) (NOTE: salbutamol causes tachycardia this is NOT included in this denition) An asthma plan may be available, these are formed by the Doctor and patient/parent to control daily symptoms as well as exacerbations. respiratory rate >50 breaths per minute (2-5 years), >30 breaths per minute (5-18 years) Most younger children have their medications delivered by a spacing device, they come in various shapes and sizes. use of accessory muscles/marked respiratory distress A few children will have home nebulisers. peak flow (if done) 33% 50% predicted (may be too difcult for some children when ill). Children who have been previously admitted to hospital, particularly intensive care, are at risk of developing severe or life threatening symptoms again and a history of this should be sought. There is an increased risk of death in this group. If a child is suffering from a rst episode of asthma, an inhaled object should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis, particularly if wheezing is unilateral. It will not, however, cause problems if the child who has inhaled a foreign body is treated for asthma. MANAGEMENT1 General: Start correcting: BREATHING CIRCULATION administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation. Primary Survey AIRWAY ASSESSMENT transport without delay to hospital. check peak ow if practical (take the best of three readings); this is often impractical in children during an attack and should not be pursued if it causes distress or worsening of the condition. This should be undertaken as part of the routine assessment of recognition of the seriously ill child (refer to recognition of the seriously ill child guideline). Remember to exclude the presence of pneumothorax this is a rare complication of asthma. Respiratory Examination Refer to recognition of the seriously ill child for details of examination of the respiratory system under Breathing. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Asthma in Children Paediatric Guidelines adminster salbutamol2 (refer to salbutamol protocol for dosages and information) via an oxygen driven nebuliser, running at 6 8 litres per minute. Consider adding ipratropium bromide (refer to ipratropium bromide protocol for dosages and information) to the salbutamol if symptoms life threatening if the child becomes exhausted, bag-valve-mask ventiation will be necessary and in-line nebulisation using a T-piece should be used if available pulse oximetry is essential and ECG monitoring useful. Regular observation must be documented Further Care Remember the need to support parents/guardians/carers of affected children. Be clear with instructions and answers to both children and parents. AT HOSPITAL Give clear and concise details about the patient and any treatment given. Handover a completed Patient Clinical Record. if there is no improvement after 510 minutes after the initial nebuliser, give a further dose of nebulised salbutamol (refer to salbutamol protocol for dosages and information). Ipratropium bromide (refer to ipratropium bromide protocol for dosages and information) should be administered at this time if it has not been given during the rst nebuliser repeat or continuous nebulised salbutamol can be given until arrival at hospital. In children under the age of one year, salbutamol should only be repeated if there has been a positive reponse to the rst dose. Ipratropium should be tried if salbutamol does not work it is often more effective in very young children consider administering hydrocortisone IV (refer to hydrocortisone protocol for dosages and information) if there is a delay getting to hospital (30 minutes or more), but not if it will compromise other therapy or monitoring. Steroids take time to take effect, so this may help the course of the illness most in hospital. NOTE: Advice from paediatric respiratory consultants regarding the use of parenteral (subcutanoeus or intramuscular) adrenaline is that it is NOT recommended in children. the Key Points Paediatric Asthma Asthmatic children require high concentration oxygen therapy. Assessment of severity is important. Mainstay of treatment is nebulised salbutamol. Ipratropium should be used in severe cases. There is no place for parenteral epinephrine in treating asthma in children. REFERENCES 1 British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. The BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. Thorax 2003;58(Supplement I):i1-i94. 2 Becker AB, Nelson NA, Simons FE. Inhaled salbutamol (albuterol) vs injected epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma in children. Journal of Pediatrics 1983;102:465-9. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Provide a hospital alert message if the asthma is severe or life threatening. Take a peak ow reading AFTER treatment if possible to conrm improvement. Complete the patient clinical record form. Special Cases In children under the age of one year, salbutamol should only be repeated if there has been a positive reponse to the rst dose. Ipratropium is given up to every two hours in children. Given travelling times this is likely to make Ipratropium a single dose drug. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Burns and Scalds in Children ASSESSMENT Burns and scalds are relatively common in children. General principles of care are similar to those of adults and this section should be read in conjunction with the management of adult burns. Ensure safety of yourself the patient and the scene. Scalds, flame or thermal burns, chemical and electrical burns, will all produce a different burn pattern. Inhalation of smoke or toxic chemicals from a re may cause serious accompanying complications. resulting from falls from a height in res injuries sustained as a result of road traffic accidents, where the vehicle has ignited after an accident from explosion, which can induce ash burns and other serious injuries due to the effect of the blast wave and ying debris. Inhalation of super-heated smoke, steam or gases in a re, can induce signicant major airway swelling and problems in children. This can occur even where steam has been inhaled from a kettle; this has been known to cause fatal airway obstruction. Non-accidental injury should always be borne in mind when burns have occurred in small children, in particular where the mechanism of injury described does not match the injury sustained, or there is inconsistency in the history (refer to safeguarding children guideline). It is vitally important to remove the heat source and cool the injured area for not more than 10 minutes. HISTORY Record the following information: soot in the nasal cavity and mouth cavities cough and hoarseness coughing up blackened sputum difculty with breathing and swallowing blistering around the mouth and tongue scorched hair, eyebrows or facial hair. Assess breathing rate for depth and any increasing breathing difculty or audible sounds. The above assessments and records are mandatory in managing burns in children. It should be noted that the smaller airways in children may make the management of the patient more difcult. Early and rapidly developing airway swelling may soon make intubation very difcult, so rapid transfer to further care is essential, pre-alerting the receiving unit, which ideally should be the local Burns Unit. Calculation of Burn Area The Rule of Nines does not work in patients under the age of 14 because of different body proportions. Local guidance or charts should be used; a rough guide is to assume that the size of the patients hand, including the digits, equals 1% of the surface area of the child. If patient is non-time critical, perform a more thorough patient assessment with a brief Secondary Survey. what happened? when did it happen? were any other injuries sustained? are any circumstances present that increase the risk of airway burns (conned space, prolonged exposure)? Specic checks should be made for signs of airway burns, including: As with adult burns, some cases can be complicated by serious injury: Assess ABCDs. any evidence of co-existing or precipitating medical conditions. THE TIME THE BURN OCCURRED is IMPORTANT to DOCUMENT, as is time and volume of ALL infusions, as all subsequent uid therapy is calculated from the time of the burn onwards. In ELECTRICAL burns it is important to search for entry and exit sites. Assess ECG rhythm. The extent of burn damage in electrical burns is often impossible to assess fully at the time of injury. In SCALDS, the skin contact time and temperature of the burning uid determines the depth of the burn. Scalds with boiling water are frequently of extremely short duration as the water ows off the skin rapidly. Record the type of clothing, e.g. wool retains the hot Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Burns and Scalds in Children Paediatric Guidelines water. Those resulting from hot fat and other liquids that remain on the skin will cause signicantly deeper and more serious burns. Also the time to cold water and removal of clothing is of signicant impact and should be included in pre-arrival advice from Control. Intravenous access in children may be difcult. The intraosseous route should be considered (remember to use local anaesthetic if the child is conscious). Wherever possible, the burn area should be avoided but can be used if no alternative is available. In CHEMICAL burns, it is vital to note the nature of the chemical. Alkalis in particular may cause deep, penetrating burns, sometimes with little initial discomfort. Certain chemicals such as phenol or hydrouoric acid can cause poisoning by absorption through the skin and therefore must be irrigated with COPIOUS1 amounts of water. If an area greater than 25% of the body surface is affected and the time from injury to hospital is likely to be in excess of an hour, then the following uid therapy should commence: 12 years and over 1000 mls CIRCUMFERENTIAL (Encircling completely a limb or digit) full thickness burns, may be limb threatening, and require early in hospital incision/release of the burn area along the length of the burnt area of the limb (escharotomy). In any situation where smoke inhalation may have occurred, administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation in all but the smallest burns. consider assisted ventilation at a rate equivalent to the normal respiratory rate for the age of the child (refer to paediatric resuscitation charts for normal values) if: SpO2 is <90% on high concentration O2 respiratory rate is <half normal or >three times normal expansion is inadequate. Should intubation become impossible, needle cricothyroidotomy is the management of choice. 5 to 11 years 500 mls Less than 5 years 10 mls per kg (calculated from tape) If the burn is complicated by other traumatic injury, then resuscitation should take precedence and management of the other injuries must be the priority. MANAGEMENT Crystalloid should be used in the following initial doses:- if the child is wheezing as a result of smoke inhalation, nebulisation with salbutamol and an O2 ow of at least 6-8 litres per minute will frequently improve symptoms (refer to the drug protocols for dosages and information). It is important, wherever possible, to obtain a peak ow reading both before and after nebulisation, to assess and record its effect No creams or lotions should be applied to burns prior to assessment by the hospital team. Burns should be covered with cling-lm; wrapping may have a constricting effect so smaller pieces are better than a circumferential sheet. This avoids removal of the dressing each time the wound needs examining, and reduces pain from contact or draughts. Continue to irrigate over the cling-lm or gel based dressing whilst ensuring the rest of the child is warmly wrapped. Be aware of the potential for hypothermia induced by continual irrigation of large areas of the body. It is rare to need more than 10 minutes irrigation except for chemicals that adhere to the skin, for example phosphorus. Cling-lm may be applied, followed by wet gauzes to produce cooling by evaporation. Water gels should be used with caution and only if <12.5% body surface area (BSA) is burnt due to the potential for hypothermia. in alkali burns, irrigate with water en-route to hospital, as it may take hours of irrigation to neutralise the alkali. This also applies to eyes that require copious and repeated irrigation with water or saline. chemical burns should NOT be wrapped in clinglm but covered with wet dressings (refer to CBRN guideline). Vascular access will be necessary if: the child requires intravenous analgesia (see below) the burn is more than one hour old and greater than 10% of the surface area. Page 2 of 3 Analgesia (refer to management of pain in children) If the burn area is small, cooling and paracetamol (refer to paracetamol protocol for dosages and information) may be all that is required. October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Burns and Scalds in Children Paediatric Guidelines Signicant burns or scalds may require Entonox (refer to Entonox protocol for administration and information) if the child is able to co-operate, or oral morphine sulphate (refer to oral morphine sulphate protocol for dosages and information). Intravenous analgesia (morphine sulphate) (refer to morphine sulphate protocol for dosages and information) is appropriate for larger burns and should be given early. Burns to face, hands, perineum, must be taken directly to a specialist Burns Unit with paediatric expertise, if available. Key Points Burns and Scalds in Children Warm the child and cool the burn. Do not cool the burn for more than 10 minutes. Burnt children require early effective analgesia. Always remember child abuse. Remember they may have other injuries. Treat other injuries as normal. REFERENCES 1 Cooke MW, Ferner RE. Chemical burns causing systemic toxicity. Arch Emerg Med 1993;10(4):368-71. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 3 INTRODUCTION Hypoxia Any patient suffering from hypoxia, regardless of cause, may convulse. The cause may be very simple which is why good A and B maintenance is important prior to drug therapy. Hypotension A convulsion is a period of involuntary muscular contraction, often followed by a period of profound lethargy and confusion and sometimes profound sleep. Severe hypotension can trigger a convulsion. This may be seen with syncope or a vasovagal attack where the patient remains propped up. In these instances there will usually be a clear precipitating event and no prior history of epilepsy. Once the patient is laid flat and the blood pressure is restored the convulsion will generally stop. Most convulsions in children under the age of 5 years will be due to febrile convulsions. The rst convulsion can be very frightening for the parents. Children with learning disabilities or congenital syndromes may have epilepsy as part of the condition. Convulsions can occur for various reasons (see Table 1). Table 1 Reasons for convulsions Epilepsy Febrile convulsions Hypoglycaemia Paediatric Guidelines In pre-hospital care, the majority of episodes attended are convulsions occurring in patients known to have epilepsy. These patients are usually on anti-epileptic medication, (e.g. phenytoin sodium valproate (Epilim), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and Lamotrigine (Lamictal). Urinary incontinence and tongue biting often accompany a full epileptic convulsion (tonic/clonic). The other most common ambulance emergency involving convulsions are febrile convulsions. These tend to occur in children (between 6 months and 5 years) with an infection accompanied by a rapid rise in temperature, and may recur in subsequent pyrexial illnesses. Most children who have febrile convulsions DO NOT go on to develop epilepsy later in life. Convulsions may be a presenting sign of HYPOGLYCAEMIA and should be considered in ALL patients, especially known diabetics and children. An early blood glucose level reading is essential in all actively convulsing patients (including known epileptics). There are a signicant number of other causes of convulsions and these include: 1. cerebral tumour 2. electrolyte imbalance 3. drug overdose 4. cardiac arrhythmias. It is important not to label a patient as epileptic unless there is a conrmed diagnosis. HISTORY Is the child known to have a conrmed diagnosis of epilepsy? If so, are they on medication, and are they taking it appropriately? Have they had convulsions recently? Have they had a high temperature in the last 24 hours? Is the child DIABETIC (could this be secondary to hypoglycaemia)? Is there any history of head injury? Is there any evidence of alcohol ingestion or drug/ toxic substance usage (including inhaled volatile agents)? October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Paediatric Guidelines Convulsions in Children Convulsions in Children ASSESSMENT all patients who are convulsing, post ictal or have a convulsion secondary to a head injury (even if they appear fully recovered) should receive high concentration oxygen establish if any treatment e.g. rectal diazepam has already been administered consider IV/IO access if convulsions persist or recur. Assess ABCDEs. Paediatric Guidelines Evaluate whether there are any TIME CRITICAL features present: These may include: any major ABCD problems serious head injury status epilepticus underlying infection, e.g. meningitis Specically consider: position for airway security, comfort and protection from dangers, especially the head do not attempt to force an oropharyngeal airway into a convulsing child. A nasopharyngeal airway is a useful adjunct in such patients apply pulse oximetry and monitor check blood glucose level to exclude hypoglycaemia. If blood glucose <4.0mmol or hypoglycaemia is clinically suspected, give oral glucose, glucose 10% IV or glucagon IM (refer to relevant glucose drug protocols) (refer to glycaemic emergencies in children guideline) if the child convulses repeatedly in close succession or has one convulsion lasting >5 minutes then administer diazepam (refer to diazepam protocol for dosages and information) if the child can be moved, despite the convulsion, it is important to reach hospital for denitive care as rapidly as possible in the pyrexial child (temp > 37.5C) who has ceased convulsing and regained consciousness, remove excess clothing and administer paracetamol (refer to paracetamol protocol for dosages and information) to reduce pyrexia and make the child more comfortable. Tepid sponging is associated with increased patient distress and generally unnecessary if the above advice is followed If any of these features are present, CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE THEN COMMENCE TRANSPORT to Nearest Suitable Receiving Hospital in these cases the ease and safety with which the patient can be moved whilst still convulsing should be considered and treatment may need to begin in situ. With small children it may be best to carry the child to the ambulance and continue assessment and treatment en-route. correct A and B problems on scene then commence transport immediately to Nearest Suitable Hospital provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information Call at the hospital, provide a comprehensive verbal handover, and a completed patient report form to the receiving hospital staff if child is left at home then leave a copy of the patient record form at home and give advice to carers regarding actions if further convulsions occur or carers become concerned Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call. En-route continue patient MANAGEMENT (see below). If no TIME CRITICAL problems are present, perform a more thorough assessment and a brief Secondary Survey. Assess type of convulsion if still convulsing is this a generalised convulsion, tonic-clonic, focal or one-sided? Tonic-clonic assess for focal neurological loss before, during or after the convulsion assess for raised temperature (child may feel hot after a convulsion) and any sign of a rash, (possible meningitis) assess for mouth/tongue injury, incontinence. MANAGEMENT Follow management of the seriously ill child guideline, remembering to: administer high concentration oxygen (O2) (refer to oxygen protocol for administration and information) via a non-re-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients, to ensure an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of >95%. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Convulsions in Children some children may have a specific protocol developed by the Doctor and patient/carer to be enacted when a convulsion occurs, ask if one exists. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Post ictal Is the term given to patients who have had a convulsion but are now in the recovery phase. Convulsions are extremely disorientating, even for epileptics who may suffer them regularly. It is not uncommon for patients to act out of character when post ictal. This may include verbal or physical aggression. Oxygen therapy and a calm approach are important; remember, when the patient recovers they may be a completely different person. Febrile convulsions A febrile convulsion typically presents as a grand mal convulsion, although, as with all such episodes, the exact nature may vary from patient to patient. Transport all children with a rst febrile convulsion or under 1 year of age to an Emergency Department, even if the convulsion has ceased on your arrival at the scene, because of the risk of serious underlying illness and because the parent (or carer) will be very frightened. In patients who have a history of febrile convulsions (which have previously been investigated and management advice given) it is reasonable to consider contacting the General Practitioner (GP) to agree management rather than transporting the child to hospital but ONLY if child appears well, the parents are condent with this AND the patient has not had: a convulsion lasting in excess of ten minutes. A number of patients with diagnosed epilepsy, who have repeated convulsions and a well documented history of this, may present regularly to the Ambulance Service. If they are fully recovered and not at risk, and in the care of a responsible adult, consideration may be given to not transferring them routinely to hospital unless they wish to travel. These cases must have vital signs recorded on a disclaimer form, along with the explanation given to the parents/guardian. Patients and the responsible adult should be advised to contact either the GP if the child feels generally unwell or 999 if there are repeated convulsions. The reasons for the decision not to transport must be documented on a disclaimer form, which must be signed by the parent/guardian. Ensure contact is made with the patients GP particularly in cases where the patient has made repeated calls. It is important wherever possible to obtain contact details of any witnesses to a convulsion in the above circumstances and pass this to the receiving Hospital. Key points Convulsions in children Febrile convulsions most common type of convulsion in under ves. Most convulsions settle spontaneously without drug therapy. Hypoxia causes convulsions check A and B. Always check blood glucose level. Provide a hospital alert message for status epilepticus. 2 or more convulsions in rapid succession Epilepsy METHODOLOGY A thorough examination should be performed on any patient who is to be left at home. Any signs of potentially serious underlying illness require assessment in hospital. Refer to methodology section. If the patient is not removed to hospital the G.P. MUST be informed. Status Epilepticus Patients with persistent and continual convulsions are in STATUS EPILEPTICUS, and need aggressive ABC care and rapid transport to hospital. Administer diazepam IV or PR where IV access cannot be rapidly achieved (refer to diazepam protocol for dosages and information). NOTE: this is a medical emergency and the child must be removed to hospital as rapidly as possible. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Paediatric Guidelines Dealing with the Death of a Child (Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) Being called to a death of a child or infant is one of the most difcult experiences that ambulance clinicians encounter. They are usually the rst professionals to arrive at the scene, and, at the same time as making difcult judgements about resuscitation, they have to deal with the devastating initial shock of the parents/carers. it is better for parents/carers to know that resuscitation was attempted but failed, than to be left feeling that something that might have saved their infant was not done once resuscitation has been initiated, the infant should be transported at once to the nearest suitable emergency department, with resuscitation continuing en-route. Despite the recent fall in incidence, sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) remains the single largest category of death in infants from one month to one year. It may also occasionally occur in older children. A specic cause is found for about half of all SUDI, either from a careful investigation of the circumstances or from post mortem examination and tests. It is estimated that about 10% of SUDI may arise from some form of maltreatment by carers. This means that the police should be informed about all cases of SUDI to carry out an investigation. However it should be remembered that the large majority of SUDI arise from natural causes, and parents/carers should always be treated with compassion and sensitivity. This document draws on the experience of ambulance clinicians throughout the country. The guidelines it sets out are in accord with the recommendations of the Kennedy Report 1. Care of the family The initial response of professionals (and you will probably be the rst on the scene) will affect the family profoundly. The parents/carers have just suffered one of the worst shocks that life can offer, and may exhibit a variety of reactions, such as overwhelming grief, anger, confusion, disbelief or guilt, so be prepared to deal with any of these feelings with sympathy and sensitivity, remembering some reactions may be directed at you as a manifestation of their distress. Think before you speak. Chance remarks cause a lasting impression and may cause offence e.g. Im sorry he looks so awful. Avoid any criticism of the parents/carers, either direct or implied. Ask the infants name and use it when talking about the infant (try to avoid referring to the infant as it). MULTI-AGENCY APPROACH The Kennedy Report1 requires a multi-agency approach to the management of SUDI, in which all the professionals involved keep each other informed and collaborate. If possible, do not put children in body bags. It is known that relatives do not perceive very traumatic events in the way that unrelated onlookers might and it is important they are allowed to see, touch and hold their loved one. Objectives Explain what you are doing at every stage. The main objectives for ambulance clinicians when called to deal with the sudden unexpected death of an infant are: Allow the parents/carers to hold the infant if they so wish (unless there are obvious indications of trauma), as long as it does not interfere with clinical care. resuscitation (refer to child resuscitation guidelines) should be attempted in all cases, unless there is a condition unequivocally associated with death or a valid advance directive (refer to recognition of life extinct by ambulance clinician guideline) The parents/carers will need to accompany you when you take the infant to hospital. If appropriate, offer to take one or both in the ambulance. Alternatively ensure that they have other means of transport, and that they know where to go. it may be very difcult to feel a pulse in a sick infant (refer to medical and trauma emergencies in children), so the absence of peripheral pulses is not by itself a reliable indication of death. Similarly, a sick infant may have marked peripheral cyanosis and cold extremities Paediatric Guidelines If they have no telephone, offer to help in contacting a relative or friend who can give immediate support, such as looking after other children or making sure the premises are secure. October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Dealing with the Death of a Child (Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) Forewarn the emergency department of your arrival, asking them to be ready to take over resuscitation if you have set it in progress. Document: when you arrive Paediatric Guidelines the situation in which you nd the infant e.g. position in cot, bedding, proximity to others, room temperature, etc., a quick description from the parents/carers of the events leading up to their nding the infant dead, e.g. when last seen alive, health at that time, position when found, etc. The police and a paediatrician will want to go into these things in greater detail, but what the parents/carers say initially may be particularly valuable in the investigation. Write all this information down as soon as you have the opportunity, giving times and other details as precisely as possible. Communication with other agencies After you have arrived at the house and conrmed that the infant is dead or moribund, inform the police (if this is an agreed procedure). Advise the parents/carers that the death, being unexpected, has to be reported to the coroner, and that they will be interviewed by the coroners ofcer and the police. Share the information you have collected with the police and with relevant health professionals. Participate in the design, implementation and audit of your areas multi-agency protocol, in which the ambulance clinicians have an important role. Find out about the multi-disciplinary case discussion, which should be convened by the paediatrician about eight weeks after the death, and attend it if possible. Transferring the infant Support for ambulance clinicians The death of a child is very distressing for all those involved, and opportunities for debriefing or counselling should be available for ambulance clinicians. It is usual (and important) to sit down and have a cup of tea with others involved in the resuscitation attempt. Some clinicians will feel ongoing distress. This is normal but should be recognised and other forms of therapy, from informal support from colleagues, to formal counselling, may be required. Most local paediatricians or the medical director of the ambulance service would be happy to discuss the episode further if required. The failed resuscitation of a child weighs heavily on most peoples shoulders and it is very important to remember that that vast majority of children who arrest outside hospital will die, whoever is there, or whatever is done. Such an outcome is almost never the fault of those attempting resuscitation; they will have done their best. CONCLUSION Many parents/carers have told the Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths how important the actions and attitudes of ambulance clinicians were to them, and most speak very highly of the way they and their infant were treated. Your role is not only essential for immediate practical reasons, but also has a great inuence on how the family deals with the death long after the initial crisis is over. Always take the infant to the nearest appropriate emergency department, not direct to a mortuary. This should apply even when the infant has clearly been dead for some time and a doctor has certied death at home (it may occasionally be necessary to remind a doctor that taking the infant to a hospital is now the preferred procedure, as recommended by the Kennedy Report).1 The main reasons for taking the infant to the hospital rather than the mortuary are that at hospital an immediate examination can be made by a paediatrician, early samples can be taken for laboratory tests and parents/carers can talk with a paediatrician and be put in touch with other support services. Page 2 of 3 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Dealing with the Death of a Child (Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) Key Points Dealing With the Death of a Child (Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy) Paediatric Guidelines SUDI is one of the most emotionally traumatic and challenging events. Resuscitation should always be attempted unless there is a condition unequivocally associated with a death or a valid advance directive. Communication and empathy are essential, and the family must be treated with compassion and sensitivity throughout. Ensure the family is aware of where you are taking their infant. Collect information pertaining to the situation in which you nd the baby, history of events, and any signicant past medical history. Follow agreed protocols with regards to interagency communication and informing the police. When appropriate explain to the family that the death, being unexpected, has to be reported to the coroner, and that they will be interviewed by the coroners ofce and the police. REFERENCE 1 Royal College of Pathologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Sudden unexpected death in infancy. Report of a working group convened by the Royal College of Pathologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Chair: Baronness Helena Kennedy QC. London: Royal College of Pathologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2004. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Both hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose level) and hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose level) occur in children. HYPOGLYCAEMIA INTRODUCTION A low blood glucose level is dened as <4.0mmol/L, but it must be remembered that the clinical features of hypoglycaemia may be present at higher levels. Clinical judgement is as important as a blood glucose reading. The reversal of hypoglycaemia is an important pre-hospital intervention. Hypoglycaemia if left untreated may lead to the patient suffering permanent brain damage and may even prove fatal. Glucagon may be used intramuscularly (refer to glucagon protocol for dosages and information) while vascular access is sought. It may be life-saving in a difcult situation though is not popular with hospital paediatricians, because it often causes severe vomiting which can make it impossible for the child to take oral uids /food. Intravenous glucose 10% may be given (refer to glucose 10% protocol for dosages and information). The dose may be titrated to the response and less may be required. Glucose 50% must NOT be used as it may cause brain damage, even in older children. If you are so close to the hospital that treatment need not be carried out, do give a pre-alert that the child is hypoglycaemic, so that they can have suitable glucose solutions ready to give on arrival. Causes of hypoglycaemia DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus (DM) may be due to a relative excess of insulin over available glucose in the management of DM as in adults However, the classical symptoms of hypoglycaemia in an adult may NOT be present and children may have a variety of odd symptoms with low blood sugars. Listen to the parents and if in any doubt check a blood glucose level. OTHER CAUSES OF LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS: Seriously ill or injured babies and sometimes children may burn up all their liver stores of glycogen and become hypoglycaemic. This is why it is crucial to check the blood glucose level in any child with a decreased conscious level (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline). there are also some rare metabolic illnesses of profound hypoglycaemia in children (usually babies). They, too, cannot mobilise any more sugar from the liver. MANAGEMENT OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA If the child is conscious, where possible, give oral glucose tablets, gel or drinks. It can be very difcult to gain cooperation e.g. in aggressive, confused toddlers and unfortunately parents are only likely to call you if they are having a problem. Hypoglycaemia in NON diabetic children and babies. The same principles and treatment apply as for diabetics but remember they have already burnt up their liver stores of glycogen, so glucagon is much less likely to work. If the situation is desperate, it is worth a try but attempts to obtain vascular (remember intraosseous) access should be continued because it cannot be expected that glucagon will have a signicant effect. HYPERGLYCAEMIA Causes of hyperglycaemia DIABETES MELLITUS (DM) For background of the pathophysiology of this illness, refer to glycaemic emergencies guideline. Diabetes mellitus can occur in infants. Such children may be very difcult to manage, so called brittle. They may have a special protocol, ask and listen to the parents. Type 1 (insulin dependent) DM is nearly universal in children though occasional Type 2 (non insulin dependent) DM is now seen, usually in association with severe obesity. Dextrose 40% gel MAY be given (refer to Dextrose 40% gel protocol for dosages and information) in children with a decreased level of consciousness it should be applied to the buccal mucosa and care taken to avoid aspiration. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 2 Paediatric Guidelines Glycaemic Emergencies in Children Glycaemic Emergencies in Children Paediatric Guidelines DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA)1 Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in new diabetics may occur relatively rapidly in children, sometimes without a long history of the classical symptoms. Severe acidosis and Kussmauls breathing (deep sighing respiration) are common. True shock (circulatory failure) as opposed to dehydration, is relatively uncommon in children with DKA. The severity of the raised glucose is not a good indicator of the onset of DKA and certainly most children with a blood glucose level of <11 are unlikely to have DKA. Nevertheless children with quite severe DKA (perhaps with blood glucose levels in the 20s) may still appear quite well. It is important to know whether illness is due to DKA in children because the uid management is crucial. If children are given uid too fast in DKA they can get cerebral oedema and die. This is a much more common complication than in adults particularly in very small children and adolescents (ketone meter, where available, may be useful in a diabetic child in differentiating DKA from infection). Administer high concentration oxygen (O2) via a nonre-breathing mask, using the stoma in laryngectomee and other neck breathing patients. High concentration O2 should be administered routinely, whatever the oxygen saturation Obtain intravenous access (intraosseous if the child is in a life threatening situation and only this is possible). In extremely exceptional circumstances (where there is tachycardia and a prolonged capillary rell time) intravenous saline may be given very slowly in a dose not exceeding 10ml/kg. Excessive uid administration may cause cerebral oedema. Key Points Glycaemic Emergencies OTHER CAUSES OF RAISED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS: spurious testing the childs ngers may have been in contact with sugary things like sweets before testing quite commonly, suddenly seriously acutely ill or convulsing children may have a raised blood glucose level on testing with a glucose meter. This is usually due to the stress of the physical problem. It should be reported to the hospital so that it can be rechecked when the crisis is over. It requires no other treatment. REFERENCES 1 Dunger DB, Sperling MA, Acerini CL, Bohn DJ, Daneman D, Danne TPA, et al. European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology/Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society Consensus Statement on Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 2004;113(2):e133-140. 2 National Collaborating Centre for Womens and Childrens Health. Type 1 diabetes diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in children and young people. London: RCOG Press, 2004. MANAGEMENT OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA2 Assess and start to correct: AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) Both high and low blood glucose levels occur in children. Usually, in hyperglycaemia, no active treatment will be required except timely medical attention and good handover. Administer high concentration O2 therapy. In hypoglycaemia administer glucose: in conscious children administer oral glucose tablets, gel or drinks; in children with a decreased level of consciousness apply Dextrose 40% gel to the buccal mucosa, taking care to avoid aspiration; glucagon may be used intramuscularly; intravenous glucose 10% titrated to the response. Evacuation METHODOLOGY Usually NO active treatment will be required except timely medical attention and good handover. Refer to methodology section. Uncommonly the child will be shocked with evidence of circulatory collapse. Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Overdose and Poisoning in Children Evaluate if there are any TIME CRITICAL features present. These may include: INTRODUCTION There are 3 main types of poisoning in children: impaired ABCDs decreased level of consciousness and respiration are often combined in overdose (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline) extreme hypotension (BP <70 mmHg) is common in sedative and anti-depressant overdose arrhythmias (refer to cardiac rhythm disturbance guideline) convulsions (refer to tting guideline) hypothermia especially if the child has been unconscious for a time (refer to hypothermia guideline) Accidental ingestion hyperthermia This usually occurs with young children. Ingestion of tablets is common but almost anything, however unpalatable and incredible to the adult palate, may be ingested. The event may not be obvious and may only be found on detailed questioning of the child, if old enough to give a history. If any of these features are present, CORRECT A AND B PROBLEMS ON SCENE THEN COMMENCE TRANSFER to nearest suitable receiving hospital Take a history of: MANAGEMENT 2. deliberate ingestion (overdose) of (usually a medicine) in a mentally distressed child who needs help 3. deliberate poisoning of children, a type of child abuse which is extremely unlikely to be discovered by the ambulance service, but if it is suspected it must be reported following the safeguarding children guideline. It will not be discussed further (refer to the safeguarding children guideline). HISTORY the drug/substance ingested the quantity of the drug/substance ingested collect all suspected drugs/substances mode of poisoning e.g. ingestion, inhalation any other factors that may be relevant Follow Medical remembering to: the event e.g. when did it happen? Provide a Hospital Alert Message / Information call. has any treatment occurred yet? Emergencies Guidelines, Start correcting: BREATHING CIRCULATION DISABILITY (mini neurological examination) oxygen saturation and ECG monitoring should be undertaken unless it is certain that the child has not taken a harmful substance A rapid mental health assessment should be undertaken including assessment of suicide risk. AIRWAY ensure adequate ventilation. If respiration and levels of consciousness are decreased, and drugs such as morphine, heroin or other related drugs are suspected, provide respiratory support to relieve respiratory depression. Consider the use of naloxone (IV/IM) to reduce respiratory depression (refer to naloxone protocol for dosages and administration). Be aware that naloxone can induce sudden recovery with severe agitation and acute withdrawal symptoms establish IV access as appropriate en-route to hospital. ASSESSMENT Assess ABCDs try to nd out what, if anything, has been ingested and take the substance to hospital. This includes berries and plants gather up tablets/medicines etc., and try to estimate the maximum amount that may have been consumed ask about ALL tablets in the house however apparently inaccessible. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 3 Paediatric Guidelines 1. accidental ingestion of a poisonous substance or medicine by an inquisitive child (common) Overdose and Poisoning in Children Paediatric Guidelines if the child is exposed to chemicals, remove the child from the source of chemical at once. In the case of SKIN CONTAMINATION with chemicals, remove clothing with care NOT to contaminate rescuers, and IRRIGATE with generous amounts of water if the child has decreased consciousness (refer to decreased level of consciousness guideline) ALWAYS check blood glucose level and correct if low (blood glucose <4.0mmol/l) with glucose 10% IV (refer to glucose 10% protocol for dosages and information). Glucagon is often not effective in overdoses. activated charcoal may be of benet if given within one hour of ingestion. However, at present, it is not routinely recommended for use in pre-hospital care because of the difculty of administration and the risks of aspiration (which are exacerbated by the risk of motion sickness). Specically consider: transfer all children who have ingested a substance to hospital collect any MEDICINE CONTAINERS or ACTUAL MEDICINES for inspection at hospital take a sample to hospital, unless it is specically veried on Toxbase1 to be harmless and it is certain that ingestion was accidental if the child vomits, retain a sample, if possible, for inspection at hospital the health visitor or General Practitioner must always be informed unknown plants and tablets can usually be identied NEVER induce vomiting in the case of swallowed caustics and petroleum products dilute by giving a glass of milk at the scene wherever possible if a young person has taken a deliberate overdose of anything (even if it is known to you to be harmless), they must be transferred to hospital. They require a mental health assessment refer to table 1 for specic substance management. Table 1 Specic substance management Alcohol (ethanol) Tricyclic antidepressants Common in young teenagers. Can cause severe hypoglycaemia even in teenagers. ALWAYS check the blood glucose levels in any child or young person with a decreased conscious level especially, in children and young adults who are drunk, as hypoglycaemia (blood glucose <4.0mmol/l) is common and requires treatment with oral glucose, glucose 10% IV (refer to glucose 10% protocol for dosages and information). NOTE: Glucagon is not effective in alcohol induced hypoglycaemia. Poisoning with these drugs may cause decreased consciousness, profound hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. Newer anti-depressants such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Seroxat) have different effects. ECG monitoring and IV access should be established early in the treatment of tricyclic overdose. The likelihood of tting is high; this should be treated as per convulsions guidelines. Iron Iron pills are regularly used by large numbers of the population including pregnant mothers. In overdose, especially in children, they are exceedingly dangerous. They may cause extensive damage to the liver and gut and these children will require hospital assessment and treatment. Charcoal is contra-indicated as it may interfere with subsequent treatment. Remember that many analgesic drugs contain paracetamol and a combination of codeine or dextropropoxyphene. This, in overdose, creates two serious dangers for the child. The codeine and dextropropoxyphene are both derived from opioid drugs. This in overdose, especially if alcohol is involved, may well produce profound respiratory depression. This can be reversed with naloxone (refer to naloxone protocol for dosages and administration). Paracetamol Non-harmful substances Page 2 of 3 The secondary problem is the paracetamol that, even in modest doses, may induce severe liver and kidney damage in susceptible children. There is no evidence of this initially and this may lull the childs carers, the child, and Ambulance Clinicians into a false sense of security. It frequently takes 24 to 48 hours for the effects of paracetamol damage to become apparent and urgent blood paracetamol levels are required to assess the childs level of risk. Always check the substance(s) is non-harmful and document. October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Overdose and Poisoning in Children Key Points Overdose and Poisoning in Children All overdoses in children and adolescents must be transferred to hospital. Alcohol often causes hypoglycaemia even in adolescents. NEVER induce vomiting. If the child vomits, retain a sample, if possible, for inspection at hospital. Bring the substance or substances and any containers for inspection at hospital. Try and estimate the maximum amount ingested. Paediatric Guidelines REFERENCE 1 The National Poisons Information Service (NPIS). TOXBASE Available from: http://www.spib.axl.co.uk/. METHODOLOGY Refer to methodology section. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 3 Child Basic Life Support (BLS) 3. Keeping the airway open The following sequence is that followed by those with a duty to respond to paediatric emergencies (see Appendix 1). Look, listen and feel for normal breathing by putting your face close to the childs face and looking along the chest: look for chest movements MANAGEMENT listen at the childs nose and mouth for breath sounds 1. Safety feel for air movement on your cheek. Ensure that you, the child and any bystanders are safe Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds before deciding that breathing is absent. a. If the child IS breathing normally 2. Check responsiveness: Gently stimulate the child and ask loudly Are you all right? - DO NOT shake infants, or children with suspected cervical spinal injuries. a. If the child responds (by answering or moving): leave the child in the position found (provided the child is not in further danger) check the childs condition summon help if necessary turn the child onto his side into the recovery position (see below) taking appropriate precautions if there is any chance of injury to the neck or spine check for continued breathing. b. If the child is NOT breathing or is making agonal gasps (infrequent, irregular breaths): re-assess the child regularly. summon help if necessary give 5 initial rescue breaths turn the child carefully on to his back taking appropriate precautions if there is any chance of injury to the back or neck b. If the child does not respond: carefully remove any obvious airway obstruction while performing the rescue breaths note any gag or cough response to your action. These responses, or their absence, will form part of your assessment of signs of a circulation, which will be described later. open the childs airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin: with the child in the position found, place your hand on the forehead and gently tilt the head back at the same time, with your ngertip(s) under the point of the childs chin, lift the chin. Do not push on the soft tissues under the chin as this may block the airway if you still have difculty in opening the airway, try the jaw thrust method: place the rst two ngers of each hand behind each side of the childs mandible (jaw bone) and push the jaw forward. Both methods may be easier if the child is turned carefully onto his back when there is a risk of back or neck injury, establish a clear upper airway by using jaw thrust or chin lift alone in combination with manual in-line stabilisation of the head and neck by an assistant (if available). If life threatening airway obstruction persists despite effective application of jaw thrust or chin lift, add head tilt a small amount at a time until the airway is open; establishing a patent airway takes priority over concerns about a potential back or neck injury. Paediatric Guidelines Rescue breaths for a child over 1 year of age: ensure head tilt and chin lift use a bag valve mask device, if available, (with a mask appropriate to the size of the child) and inate the chest steadily over about 11.5 seconds watching for chest rise maintaining head tilt and chin lift, watch the chest fall as air comes out repeat this sequence 5 times. Identify effectiveness by seeing that the childs chest has risen and fallen in a similar fashion to the movement produced by a normal breath. Rescue breaths for an infant: ensure a neutral position of the head and apply chin lift use a bag valve mask device if available (with a mask appropriate to the size of the child) and inate the chest steadily over about 11.5 seconds sufcient to make the chest visibly rise October 2006 Page 1 of 5 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Child Basic Life Support (BLS) maintain head tilt and chin lift, watch the chest fall as air comes out repeat this sequence 5 times. Paediatric Guidelines Rescue breaths for a child over 1 year of age if no bag valve mask is available: ensure head tilt and chin lift pinch the soft part of the nose closed with the index nger and thumb, with the hand on the forehead open the mouth a little, but maintain the chin upwards take a breath and place your lips around the mouth, making sure that you have a good seal blow steadily into the mouth over about 11.5 seconds watching for chest rise maintain head tilt and chin lift, take your mouth away from the child and watch for his chest to fall as air comes out 4. Assess the childs circulation: Take no more than 10 seconds to look for signs of a circulation. This includes any movement, coughing, or normal breathing (not agonal gasps these are infrequent, irregular breaths) check the pulse but ensure you take no more than 10 seconds to do this: in a child over 1 year feel for the carotid pulse in the neck in an infant feel for the brachial pulse on the inner aspect of the upper arm. a. If you are condent that you can detect signs of a circulation within 10 seconds: ensure a neutral position of the head and a chin lift take a breath and cover the mouth and nasal apertures of the infant with your mouth, making sure you have a good seal. If the nose and mouth cannot be covered in the older infant seal only the infants nose or mouth with your mouth (if the nose is used, close the lips to prevent air escape) blow steadily into the childs mouth and nose over 11.5 seconds, sufcient to make the chest visibly rise maintain head tilt and chin lift, take your mouth away from the child and watch for the chest to fall as air comes out take another breath and repeat this sequence ve times. If you have difculty achieving an effective breath, the airway may be obstructed: open the childs mouth and remove any visible obstruction. DO NOT perform a blind nger sweep ensure that there is adequate head tilt and chin lift but also that the neck is not over extended turn the child on to his side (into the recovery position) if he remains unconscious taking appropriate precautions if there is any chance of injury to the neck or spine Rescue breaths for an infant if no bag valve mask is available continue rescue breathing, if necessary, until the child starts breathing effectively on his own take another breath and repeat this sequence ve times. Identify effectiveness by seeing that the childs chest has risen and fallen in a similar fashion to the movement produced by a normal breath. make up to 5 attempts to achieve effective breaths. If still unsuccessful, move on to chest compressions. re-assess the child frequently. b. If there are no signs of a circulation OR no pulse OR a slow pulse (less than 60/min with poor perfusion) OR you are not sure: start chest compressions combine rescue compressions. breathing and chest For all children, compress the lower third of the sternum: to avoid compressing the upper abdomen, locate the xiphisternum by nding the angle where the lowest ribs join in the middle compresss the sternum one ngers breadth above this compressions should be sufcient to depress the sternum by approximately one-third of the depth of the chest release the pressure, then repeat at a rate of approximately 100 a minute after 15 compressions, tilt the head, lift the chin and give two effective breaths continue compressions and breaths in a ratio of 15:2. if head tilt and chin lift has not opened the airway, try the jaw thrust method Page 2 of 5 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Child Basic Life Support (BLS) the position should be stable. In an infant, this may require the support of a small pillow or a rolled-up blanket placed behind his back to maintain the position it is important to avoid any pressure on the chest that impairs breathing it should be possible to turn the child onto his side and to return him back easily and safely, taking into consideration the possibility of cervical spine injury The lone rescuer should compress the sternum with the tips of 2 ngers. the airway should be accessible and easily observed If there are 2 or more rescuers, use the encircling technique. the adult recovery position is suitable for use in children. Although the rate of compressions will be 100 times a minute, the actual number delivered per minute will be less than 100 because of pauses to give breaths. The best method for compression varies slightly between infants and children. Chest compressions in infants Place both thumbs at side by side on the lower third of the sternum (as above) with the tips pointing towards the infants head. Spread the rest of both hands with the ngers together to encircle the lower part of the infants rib cage with the tips of the ngers supporting the infants back. Press down on the lower sternum with the two thumbs to depress it approximately one-third of the depth of the infants chest. Key Points Paediatric Basic Life Support Chest compression in children over 1 year of age Place the heel of one hand over the lower third of the sternum (as above). If the child is not breathing, carefully remove any obvious airway obstruction but DO NOT perform a blind nger sweep. Give 5 initial rescue breaths. Blow steadily into the mouth over about 11.5 seconds watching for chest rise. If there are no signs of circulation, pulse, or no or a slow pulse (<60/bpm with poor perfusion) or you are not sure start at a rate chest compressions of approximately 100 a minute. Continue compressions and breaths in a ratio of 15:2. Lift the ngers to ensure that pressure is not applied over the childs ribs. Position yourself vertically above the childs chest and, with your arm straight, compress the sternum to depress it by approximately one-third of the depth of the chest. In larger children or for small rescuers, this may be achieved most easily by using both hands with the ngers interlocked. 5. Continue resuscitation until: the child shows signs of life (spontaneous respiration, pulse, movement) you become exhausted. RECOVERY POSITION An unconscious child whose airway is clear and who is breathing spontaneously should be turned onto his side into the recovery position: the child should be placed in as near a true lateral position as possible with his mouth dependent to allow free drainage of uid Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 5 Paediatric Guidelines Lone rescuers may use a ratio of 30:2, particularly if they are having difculty with the transition between compression and ventilation. Child Basic Life Support (BLS) BIBLIOGRAPHY METHODOLOGY Paediatric Guidelines 1 Berg RA, Hilwig RW, Kern KB, Ewy GA. Bystander Chest Compressions and Assisted Ventilation Independently Improve Outcome From Piglet Asphyxial Pulseless Cardiac Arrest. Circulation 2000;101(14):1743-1748. The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. 2 Babbs CF, Nadkarni V. Optimizing chest compression to rescue ventilation ratios during onerescuer CPR by professionals and lay persons: children are not just little adults. Resuscitation 2004;61(2):173. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. 3 Dorph E, Wikc L, Steend PA. Effectiveness of ventilationcompression ratios 1:5 and 2:15 in simulated single rescuer paediatric resuscitation. Resuscitation 2002;54(3):259-264. 4 Whyte SD, Wyllie JP. Paediatric basic life support: a practical assessment. Resuscitation 1999;41(2):153. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. 5 Clements F, McGowan J. Finger position for chest compressions in cardiac arrest in infants. Resuscitation 2000;44(1):43. 6 Stevenson AGM, McGowan J, Evans AL, Graham CA. CPR for children: one hand or two? Resuscitation 2005;64(2):205. 7 Samson R, Berg R, Bingham R, PALS Task Force. Use of automated external debrillators for children: an update. An advisory statement from the Pediatric Advanced Life Support Task Force, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 2003;57(3):237-243. 8 Berg RA, Hilwig RW, Kern KB, Babar I, Ewy GA. Simulated mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compressions (bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation) improves outcome in a swine model of pre-hospital pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27(9):1893-1899. 9 Tang W, Weil MH, Jorgenson D, Klouche K, Morgan C, Yu T, et al. Fixed-energy biphasic waveform debrillation in a pediatric model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Critical Care Medicine 2002.;30(12):2736-2741. Page 4 of 5 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Child Basic Life Support (BLS) APPENDIX 1 Paediatric Basic Life Support Algorithm Paediatric Guidelines UNRESPONSIVE? Summon help if appropriate Open airway NOT BREATHING NORMALLY? 5 rescue breaths STILL UNRESPONSIVE? (no signs of a circulation) 15 chest compressions 2 rescue breaths Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 5 of 5 Child Advanced Life Support (ALS) Most of the changes in paediatric guidelines for 2005 have been made for simplication and to minimize differences between adult and paediatric protocols. Age denitions: Place monitoring electrodes in the conventional positions. an infant is a child under one year old Pads or paddles for children should be 8-12cms in size, and for infants should be 4.5cms. If larger pads or paddles only are available, then for infants it may be more appropriate to apply the pads or paddles to the front and back of the chest. a child is between one year and puberty. These guidelines are not intended to apply to the resuscitation of newborn (refer to neonatal resuscitation guideline). 4. Assess rhythm and check for signs of circulation: SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS Check the pulse: 1. Establish basic life support child feel for the carotid pulse in the neck infant feel for the brachial pulse on the inner aspect of the upper arm. 2. Oxygenate, ventilate, compression: and start chest Provide positive pressure ventilation with high inspired oxygen concentration. Provide ventilation initially by bag and mask. Ensure a patent airway by using an airway manoeuvre as described in the child basic life support guideline. Provide compressions and ventilation in ratio of 15 compressions to 2 ventilations. The compression rate should be 100 per minute and the ventilation rate about 10 per minute. In most circumstances, tracheal intubation should be avoided in children. The technique is difcult and used only rarely; the skill is very difcult to acquire and maintain. The position of the tube cannot always be veried outside hospital, tubes are often misplaced, on-scene times are extended, xation of the small tubes is difcult and they often become displaced during the subsequent journey. Intubation should be considered only when the journey to hospital is likely to be prolonged or where there is an appreciable risk of aspiration (for example after drowning). Compressions should be continuous when the trachea is intubated. Take care to ensure that ventilation remains effective. Take no more than 10 seconds for the pulse check Assess the rhythm on the monitor: non ventricular fibrillation VF/non-ventricular tachycardia VT (asystole or pulseless electrical activity) VF/pulseless VT. 5. Non-shockable (asystole, pulseless electrical activity - PEA) This is the more common nding in children. Perform continuous CPR: ventilate with high concentration oxygen if ventilating with bag-mask give 15 chest compressions to 2 ventilations for all ages if the patient is intubated, chest compressions can be continuous as long as this does not interfere with satisfactory ventilation the compression rate should be 100 per minute and the ventilation rate about 10 per minute. NOTE: Once there is return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) the ventilation rate should be 1220 per minute. Measurement of exhaled CO2 should be used if possible to ensure correct tracheal tube placement if the child has been intubated. 3. Attach a debrillator or monitor: Assess and monitor the cardiac rhythm. If using a debrillator, place one debrillator pad or paddle on the chest wall just below the right clavicle, and one in the left anterior axillary line. Paediatric Guidelines Look for signs of circulation. These include responsiveness, coughing, and normal breathing. Administer adrenaline: obtain circulatory access. Insert a peripheral venous cannula or an intraossous needle. Do not delay finding a vein if in doubt use the intraosseous route October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Child Advanced Life Support (ALS) once circulatory access has been established, give adrenaline 10 micrograms/kg (0.1mls/kg of 1 in 10,000 solution) Paediatric Guidelines given a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of adrenaline given by the ET route, this route of administration is no longer recommended. Continue CPR Resume CPR: Then pause briey to check the monitor Give 10 micrograms/kg of adrenaline (refer to adrenaline for further information) every 3 to 5 minutes (i.e. every other loop), while continuing to maintain effective chest compression and ventilation without interruption. The dose should be 10 micrograms/kg for all subsequent doses, i.e. high dose adrenaline should not be used. If the airway is protected by tracheal intubation, provide chest compressions without pausing for ventilation. Provide a ventilation rate of approximately 10 per minute and a compression rate of 100/minute. When circulation is restored, ventilate the child at a rate of 12 to 20 breaths per minute. Consider and correct reversible causes: 4Hs 4Ts If still VF/pulseless VT give a second shock at 4 Joules/kg if using a manual debrillator OR the adult shock energy for a child over 8 years using an AED OR a paediatric attenuated adult shock energy for a child between 1 year and 8 years Resume CPR immediately after the second shock. Consider and treat reversible causes (see above: 4Hs and 4Ts). Continue CPR for 2 minutes: Pause briey to check the monitor: If still VF/ pulseless VT: give adrenaline 10 micrograms/kg followed immediately by a third shock resume CPR immediately and continue for another 2 minutes. 1. Hypoxia 2. Hypovolaemia 3. Hyper/hypocalaemia Pause briey to check the monitor 4. Hypothermia If still VF / pulseless VT give an intravenous or intraosseous bolus of amiodarone (refer to amiodarone for further information) 5 millgramsg/kg and an immediate further (4th) shock continue giving shocks every 2 minutes, minimising the breaks in chest compressions as much as possible 1. Tension pneumothorax give adrenaline before every other shock (i.e. every 3-5 minutes) until return of spontaneous circulation. 2. Tamponade 3. Toxic/therapeutic disturbance 4. Thromboembolism 5. Shockable (VF/Pulseless VT) This is less common in paediatric practice but likely when there has been a witnessed and sudden collapse. It is commoner in children with heart disease. Debrillate the heart: give 1 shock of 4 Joules/kg if using a manual debrillator if using an AED, in a child under the age of 8 years use paediatric attenuation (according to the manufacturers instructions) whenever possible use the adult shock energy (150-200 Joules biphasic; 360 monophasic) Page 2 of 4 without re-assessing the rhythm or feeling for a pulse resume CPR immediately, starting with chest compressions. Continue CPR for 2 minutes: Repeat the cycle: if using an AED in a child over the age 8 years use the adult shock energy. After each 2 minutes of uninterrupted CPR, pause briey to assess the rhythm. If still in VF/VT continue CPR with the shockable rhythm (VF/VT) sequence. If asystole October 2006 continue CPR and switch to the non-shockable (asystole / PEA) sequence as above. Paediatric Guidelines Child Advanced Life Support (ALS) Atkins DL, Jorgenson DB. Attenuated pediatric electrode pads for automated external debrillator use in children. Resuscitation 2005;66(1):31. 6 Berg RA, Chapman FW, Berg MD, Hilwig RW, Banville I, Walker RG, et al. Attenuated adult biphasic shocks compared with weight-based monophasic shocks in a swine model of prolonged pediatric ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 2004;61(2):189. 7 If there is return of a spontaneous circulation (ROSC) continue post-resuscitation care 5 Clark CB, Zhang Y, Davies LR, Karlsson G, Kerber RE. Pediatric transthoracic debrillation: biphasic versus monophasic waveforms in an experimental model. Resuscitation 2001;51(2):159. 8 Tang W, Weil MH, Jorgenson D, Klouche K, Morgan C, Yu T, et al. Fixed-energy biphasic waveform defibrillation in a pediatric model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Critical Care Medicine 2002.;30(12):2736-2741. 9 Perondi MBM, Reis AG, Paiva EF, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA. A Comparison of High-Dose and Standard-Dose Epinephrine in Children with Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med 2004;350(17):1722-1730. 10 Patterson MD, Boenning DA, Klein BL, Fuchs S, Smith KM, Hegenbarth MA, et al. The use of highdose epinephrine for patients with out-of-hospital cardio-pulmonary arrest refractory to pre-hospital interventions. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005;21:227-237. If there is NO pulse, and there are no other signs of a circulation, give adrenaline 10 micrograms/kg and continue CPR as for the non-shockable sequence as above. Key Points Paediatric Advanced Life Support Changes in guidelines have been made for simplification and minimise the difference between adult and paediatric protocols. One debrillating shock rather than three stack shocks should be used. The use of manual debrillators (with suitable electrodes) simplies the administration of the correct shock energy. If using an AED paediatric attenuation should be used whenever possible but an unmodied AED may be used in children older than one year. If an AED is the only machine available it may be used in infants under the age of one year. BIBLIOGRAPHY METHODOLOGY 1 Efrati O, Ben-Abraham R, Barak A, Modan-Moses D, Augarten A, Manisterski Y, et al. Endobronchial adrenaline: should it be reconsidered? Dose response and haemodynamic effect in dogs. Resuscitation 2003;59(1):117-122. The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. 2 Newth CJL, Rachman B, Patel N, Hammer J. The use of cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. The Journal of Pediatrics 2004;144(3):333. 3 Khine HH, Corddry DH, Kettrick RG, Martin TM, McCloskey JJ, Rose JB, et al. Comparison of Cuffed and Uncuffed Endotracheal Tubes in Young Children during General Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1997;86(3):627-631. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. 4 van Alem AP, Chapman FW, Lank P, Hart AAM, Koster RW. A prospective, randomised and blinded comparison of rst shock success of monophasic and biphasic waveforms in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 2003;58(1):17. Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Paediatric Guidelines If an organised rhythm appears at any time, check for a central pulse: Child Advanced Life Support (ALS) APPENDIX 1 Paediatric Advanced Life Support Algorithm UNRESPONSIVE? Paediatric Guidelines Commence BLS Oxygenate/ventilate Summon help if appropriate CPR 15:2 Until debrillator/monitor attached Assess rhythm Shockable (VF/pulseless VT) 1 Shock 4 Joules/kg or AED (attenuated as appropriate) Immediately resume CPR 15:2 for 2 minutes 1 Reversible Causes Hypoxia Hypovolaemia Hypo/hyperkalaemia/metabolic Hypothermia Page 4 of 4 Non-Shockable (PEA/Asystole) During CPR: Correct reversible causes1 Check electrode position and contact Attempt/verify: IV access airway and oxygen Give uninterrupted compressions when trachea intubated Give adrenaline every 3-5 minutes Consider: amiodarone atropine Immediately resume CPR 15:2 for 2 minutes Tension pneumothorax Tamponade, cardiac Toxins Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary) October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Child Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) INTRODUCTION MANAGEMENT The majority of choking events in infants and children occur during play or whilst eating when a carer is usually present. Relief of FBAO Events are frequently witnessed, and interventions are usually initiated when the child is conscious. Rescuers should take care not to place themselves in any danger and consider the safest action to manage the choking child. Foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) is characterised by the sudden onset of respiratory distress associated with coughing, gagging, or stridor (Table 1). 2. Actions are determined by effectiveness of coughing. Similar signs and symptoms may also be associated with other causes of airway obstruction such as laryngitis or epiglottitis, which require different management. If the childs coughing is (or is becoming) ineffective summon help if appropriate and determine the childs conscious level. Recognition of FBAO When a foreign body enters the airway the child reacts immediately by coughing in an attempt to expel it. A spontaneous cough is likely to be more effective and safer than any manoeuvre a rescuer might perform. if coughing is absent or ineffective and the object completely obstructs the airway, the child will rapidly become asphyxiated. If the child is coughing effectively no external manoeuvre is necessary. Encourage the child to cough and monitor continuously. Active interventions to relieve FBAO are therefore required only when coughing becomes ineffective, but they then need to be commenced rapidly and condently. Conscious child with FBAO: If the child is still conscious but has absent or ineffective coughing, give back blows. If back blows do not relieve the FBAO, give chest thrusts to infants or abdominal thrusts to children. These manoeuvers increase intrathoracic pressure and may dislodge the foreign body. Unconscious child with FBAO: If the child with FBAO is, or becomes, unconscious, place him on a rm, at surface. Proceed as follows: a. Open the Airway: Suspect FBAO if: the onset was very sudden there are clues to alert the rescuer, for example a history of eating or playing with small items immediately prior to the onset of symptoms. if one is seen, make an attempt to remove it with a single nger sweep. there no other signs of illness open the mouth and look for any obvious object DO NOT attempt blind or repeated nger sweeps these can impact the object more deeply into the pharynx and cause injury. Table 1 - General Signs of Foreign Body Airway Obstruction GENERAL SIGNS OF FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Witnessed episode Coughing or choking Sudden onset Recent history of playing with or eating small objects Ineffective coughing Effective coughing Unable to vocalise Crying or verbal response to questions Quiet or silent cough Loud cough Unable to breathe Able to breathe before coughing Cyanosis Fully responsive Decreasing level of consciousness Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Paediatric Guidelines 1. Safety Child Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) b. Attempt ventilation: In a child over 1 year of age: open the airway and make 5 attempts to ventilate the lungs back blows are more effective if the child is positioned head down Paediatric Guidelines assess the effectiveness of each ventilation: if it does not make the chest rise, reposition the head before making the next attempt. a small child may be placed across the rescuers lap as with an infant if this is not possible, support the child in a forward-leaning position and deliver the back blows from behind. c. Perform chest compression and CPR: if there is no response to 5 attempts at ventilation (moving, coughing, spontaneous breaths) proceed to chest compressions without further assessment of the circulation follow the sequence for single rescuer CPR for approximately 1 minute when the airway is opened for attempted ventilation, look to see if the foreign body can be seen in the mouth if it appears that the obstruction has been relieved, open and check the airway as above. Perform ventilation if the child is not breathing if the child regains consciousness and exhibits spontaneous effective breathing, place him in a safe side-lying (recovery) position and monitor breathing and conscious level, transfer to hospital. If back blows fail to dislodge the object, and the child is still conscious, use chest thrusts for infants or abdominal thrusts to children. Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich manoeuvre) must not be used in infants. Chest thrusts for infants: turn the infant into a head-downwards supine position. This is achieved safely by placing the free arm along the infants back and encircling the occiput with the hand support the infant down your arm, which is placed down (or across) your thigh identify the landmark for chest compression (lower sternum approximately a ngers breadth above the xiphisternum) deliver 5 chest thrusts. These are similar to external chest compressions but sharper in nature and delivered at a slower rate. if an object is seen, attempt to remove it with a single nger sweep 3. Chest thrusts NOTES ON TECHNIQUES Abdominal thrusts for children over 1 year: 1. Back blows stand or kneel behind the child. Place your arms under the childs arms and encircle his torso clench your st and place it between the umbilicus and xiphisturnum grasp this hand with the other hand and pull sharply inwards and upwards repeat up to 5 times ensure that pressure is not applied to the xiphoid process or the lower rib cage as this may result in abdominal trauma. In an infant: support the infant in a head-downwards, prone position, to enable gravity to assist removal of the foreign body a seated or kneeling rescuer should be able to support the infant safely across his lap support the infants head by placing the thumb of one hand, at the angle of the lower jaw, and one or two ngers from the same hand at the same point on the other side of the jaw do not compress the soft tissues under the infants jaw, as this will exacerbate the airway obstruction deliver up to 5 sharp back blows with the heel of one hand in the middle of the back between the shoulder blades 4. Re-assessment Following the chest re-assess the child: the aim is to relieve the obstruction with each blow rather than to give all 5. Page 2 of 4 October 2006 or abdominal thrusts, if the object has not been expelled and the victim is still conscious, continue the sequence of back blows and chest (for infant) or abdominal (for children) thrusts Paediatric Guidelines Child Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) do not leave the child at this stage. Arrange transfer to hospital if the object is expelled successfully, assess the childs clinical condition. It is possible that part of the object may remain in the respiratory tract and cause complications abdominal thrusts may cause internal injuries and all victims so treated should be assessed further. Key Points Child Foreign Body Airway Obstruction FBAO is a potentially treatable cause of death, often occurs whilst playing or eating. Characterised by sudden onset of respiratory distress. If coughing effectively, encourage child to cough. If coughing is ineffective give back blows initially, if ineffective give chest thrusts to infants and abdominal thrusts to children. Abdominal thrusts can cause serious internal bleeding therefore patients should be assessed in hospital. Avoid blind nger sweeps. Paediatric Guidelines BIBLIOGRAPHY Refer to child basic life support. METHODOLOGY The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Paediatric Guidelines Child Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) APPENDIX 1 - Paediatric Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO) Paediatric Guidelines Assess severity Ineffective cough Unconscious Open airway 5 breaths Start CPR Page 4 of 4 Effective cough Conscious 5 back blows 5 thrusts (chest for infant) (abdominal for child >1 year) October 2006 Encourage cough Continue to check for deterioration to ineffective cough or relief of obstruction Paediatric Guidelines Newborn Life Support Passage through the birth canal is a hypoxic experience for the fetus since respiratory exchange through the placenta is prevented for the 5075 seconds duration of the average contraction. Most babies tolerate this well, but those few that do not may require help to establish normal breathing at delivery. Newborn life support is intended to provide this help and comprises the following elements: 1. drying and covering the baby to conserve heat 2. assessing the need for any intervention Whatever the problem, rst ensure that the cord is clamped and then dry the baby. Remove wet towels and cover the baby with dry ones. Drying the baby will provide sufcient stimulation and allow time to assess the babys colour, tone, breathing and heart rate. Re-assess these parameters regularly, particularly the heart rate, every 30 seconds or so. The rst signal of improvement will be an increase in heart rate. Assess heart rate by listening with a stethoscope. Palpating the umbilical vessels or a peripheral pulse is not so reliable. If the environment is noisy or very cold, however, it may be a good alternative and may save unwrapping the baby so much. 3. opening the airway 4. lung aeration 5. rescue breathing Decide whether help is required (and likely to be available) or whether rapid evacuation to hospital is indicated. If transferring to hospital follow pre-alert procedure. 6. chest compression. Physiology In the face of hypoxia in utero, the neural centres responsible for breathing become depressed and spontaneous breathing ceases. The baby can maintain an effective circulation in the face of hypoxia however, so the most urgent requirement of any asphyxiated baby at birth is that the lungs are aerated. Then, provided the circulation is intact, oxygenated blood will be conveyed from the lungs to the heart and onwards to the brain. The neural centres responsible for breathing will recover and the baby will breathe spontaneously. Merely aerating the lungs is sufcient for the majority of cases. Where cardiac function has deteriorated to an extent that the circulation is inadequate, a brief period of chest compression may be needed. In a very small number of cases, lung aeration and chest compression will not be sufcient; the outlook in this group is poor. SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS (see appendix 1) 1. Keep the baby warm and assess Babies are small and born wet. They become cold very easily, particularly if they remain wet and in a draught. A healthy baby will be born blue but will have a good tone, will cry within a few seconds of delivery, will have a good heart rate (normally 120 150 per minute), and will become pink within the rst 90 seconds or so. A less healthy baby will be blue, will have less good tone, may have a slow heart rate (less than 100 per minute) and may not establish adequate breathing by 90120 seconds. An ill (very hypoxic) baby will be born Paediatric Guidelines pale and oppy, not breathing and with a very slow heart rate. Once the baby is in the ambulance, the patient compartment should be kept as warm as can be tolerated. This may be uncomfortable for the attendant and mother but will help the baby, especially if pre-term. 2. Airway The airway must be open for a baby to breathe effectively. The best way to achieve this is to place the baby on his back with the head in a neutral position i.e. with the head neither exed nor extended. If the baby is very oppy it may be necessary to apply chin lift or jaw thrust. 3. Breathing If the baby is not breathing adequately by about 90 seconds give ve ination breaths. Until birth the babys lungs have been lled with uid. Aeration of the lungs in these circumstances is likely to require sustained application of pressures of about 30 centimetres of water for 23 seconds. These are ination breaths. Bagvalve-mask devices for use in the newborn should incorporate a safety device that allow this pressure to be generated yet prevents higher pressures that might damage the lungs. If the heart rate increases you can assume that you have successfully aerated the lungs. If the heart rate increases but the baby does not start breathing, continue to provide regular breaths at a rate of about 3040 per October 2006 Page 1 of 4 Paediatric Guidelines INTRODUCTION Newborn Life Support Paediatric Guidelines minute until the baby starts to breathe on his own. These ventilation breaths do not need as long an inspiratory time approximately one second. Continue to monitor the heart rate. If the rate should drop below 100 it suggests insufcient ventilation. In that case increase the rate of ination or use a longer inspiratory time. If the heart rate does not increase following ination breaths, either you have not aerated the lungs or the baby requires more than lung aeration alone. It is most likely that you have not aerated the lungs effectively. If the heart rate does not increase, and the chest does not move with each ination you have not aerated the lungs; in this situation consider: 1. Is the head in the neutral position? 2. Do you need jaw thrust? 4. Do you need help with the airway from a second person? the Chest compressions should only be started once you are sure that the lungs have been successfully aerated. In babies, the most efcient method of delivering chest compressions is to encircle the lower chest with both hands in such a way that the two thumbs can press on the lower third of the sternum, at a point just below an imaginary line joining the nipples, with the ngers over the spine at the back. Compress the chest quickly and rmly in such a way as to reduce the antero-posterior diameter of the chest by about a third. The ratio of compressions to inations in newborn resuscitation is 3:1 3. Do you need a longer ination time? 5. Is there obstruction in (laryngoscope and suction)? followed soon by normal breathing. In some cases, however, chest compressions are necessary. oropharynx 6. Do you need a Guedel airway? Check the babys head is in the neutral position; that breaths are at the correct pressure and applied for the correct time and the chest moves with each breath. If the chest still does not move, consider an obstruction in the oropharynx that may be removable under direct vision. If the heart rate remains slow (less than 60 beats per minute) following ve ination breaths, or the heart beat is absent despite good passive chest movements in response to inations, start chest compressions. If the baby is not vigorous at birth or does not respond very rapidly to bag-valve-mask ventilation, rapid transportation to hospital with a pre-alert is indicated. If the mother has received pethidine or any other opiate within the previous four hours and the baby does not breathe adequately, give naloxone intramuscularly (refer to naloxone drug protocol for dosages and information) and support the respiration until it takes effect. NEVER give naloxone to babies of mothers who are addicted to opiates or on a treatment programme to treat addiction. It may precipitate a severe withdrawal reaction in the neonate and induce seizures. Support the respiration of the baby and transport urgently to hospital. Meconium 1. Attempts to aspirate meconium from the nose and mouth of the baby while the head is still on the perineum does not prevent aspiration of meconium and is no longer recommended. 2. Attempts to aspirate meconium from the airways of vigorous babies after birth also fails to prevent aspiration. 3. If babies are born through thick meconium and are unresponsive at birth, the oro-pharynx should be inspected and cleared of meconium. If a suitable laryngoscope is available the larynx and trachea should also be cleared. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 1. There is no evidence to suggest that any one concentration of oxygen is better than another when starting resuscitation. Air has also been shown to be effective. Whenever possible, additional oxygen should be available if there is not a rapid improvement in the babys condition. 2. It is no longer recommended that adrenaline be given by the ET tube. 4. Circulation Almost all babies needing help at birth will respond to successful lung ination with an increase in heart rate Page 2 of 4 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Newborn Life Support 1 Passage through the birth canal is a hypoxic experience and some babies may require help to establish normal breathing at delivery. Babies become cold very easily, dry the baby, remove any wet towels and replace with dry ones, once in the ambulance keep the compartment as warm as possible. Ensure the airway is open by placing the baby on his back with the head in a neutral position; if the baby is very oppy it may be necessary to apply chin lift or jaw thrust. If the baby is not breathing adequately by about 90 seconds give ve ination breaths. If the mother has received opiates within the previous four hours and the baby does not breathe adequately, administer naloxone; NEVER administer naloxone to babies of mothers who are addicted to opiates or on a treatment programme to treat addiction, as this may precipitate a severe withdrawal reaction in the neonate and induce seizures. If chest compressions are necessary compress the chest quickly and rmly at a ratio of 3:1 compressions to inations. Paediatric Guidelines Vain NE, Szyld EG, Prudent LM, Wiswell TE, Aguilar AM, Vivas NI. Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning of meconium-stained neonates before delivery of their shoulders: multicentre, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2004;364,(9434):597-602. 2 Wiswell TE, Gannon CM, Jacob J, Goldsmith L, Szyld E, Weiss K, et al. Delivery Room Management of the Apparently Vigorous Meconium-stained Neonate: Results of the Multicenter, International Collaborative Trial. Pediatrics 2000;105(1):1-7. METHODOLOGY The methodology describing the development process of the international cardio-pulmonary resuscitation treatments recommendations on which this guideline is based is fully described in the publications listed below. Morley PT, Zaritsky A. The evidence evaluation process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 2005;67(2-3):167-170. Zaritsky A, Morley PT. The Evidence Evaluation Process for the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2005;112(22_suppl):III-128-130. October 2006 Page 3 of 4 Paediatric Guidelines REFERENCES Key Points Neonatal Life Support Newborn Life Support APPENDIX 1 Newborn Resuscitation Algorithm BIRTH Paediatric Guidelines Term gestation? Amniotic uid clear? Breathing or crying Good muscle tone? YES Routine care Provide warmth Dry Clear airway if necessary Assess colour NO Provide warmth Position; clear airway if necessary1 Dry, stimulate, reposition A Evaluate breathing, heart rate, colour and tone Apnoeic or HR<100 -1 B Give positive pressure ventilation1 HR <60 min -1 C Ensure effective lung ination,1 then add chest compression Consider supplemental oxygen at any stage if cyanosis persists. 1 Page 4 of 4 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page BIRTH Heart Rate 110-160 Systolic Blood Pressure 70-90 Respiration Rate 30-40 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 3.5kg AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 000 Endotracheal Tube: 3.0mm (Diameter) 10cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 1 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 13 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE N/A N/A N/A N/A AMIODARONE N/A N/A N/A N/A VOLUME ROUTE 70ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS N/A N/A N/A N/A ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 100mcg 100mcg 100mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 1.0ml 0.50ml 0.17ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 300 milligrams 300 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 5.0ml 1.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS N/A N/A N/A N/A DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 2.5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.1 milligams 1 milligram per vial 0.1 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 1.8g 0.1gml=10% 18.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE N/A N/A N/A N/A IPRATROPIUM N/A N/A N/A N/A MORPHINE N/A N/A N/A N/A MORPHINE (ORAL) N/A N/A N/A N/A NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 200mcg N/A 400mcg/ml N/A 0.50ml N/A IM ONLY N/A PARACETAMOL N/A N/A N/A N/A SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 1 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 4.4kg 1 MONTH Heart Rate 110-160 Systolic Blood Pressure 70-90 Respiration Rate 30-40 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 00 Endotracheal Tube: 3.0mm (Diameter) 10cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 1.0 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 20 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 44 micrograms (all doses) 1:10,000 0.44ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 21 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 0.7ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 90ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 50mcg 1:1,000 0.05ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 100mcg 100mcg 100mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 1.0ml 0.50ml 0.17ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 300 milligrams 300 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 5.0ml 1.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 1.3 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.26ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 2.5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 500mcg 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 2.2g 0.1g/ml=10% 22.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 18 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.18ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 125mcg 500mcg in 2ml 0.50ml-1.0ml Neb MORPHINE N/A N/A N/A N/A MORPHINE (ORAL) N/A N/A N/A N/A NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 44mcg 440mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.11ml 1.1ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL 88 milligrams various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Page 2 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 110-160 Systolic Blood Pressure 70-90 Respiration Rate 30-40 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 6kg 3 MONTHS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 00 Endotracheal Tube: 3.5mm (Diameter) 11cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 1.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 25 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 60mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 0.60ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 30 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 1.0ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 120ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 50mcg 1:1,000 0.05ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 120mcg 120mcg 120mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 1.2ml 0.60ml 0.20ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 300 milligrams 300 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 5.0ml 1.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 1.8 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.36ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 2.5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 3.0g 0.1g/ml=10% 30.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 24 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.24ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 125-250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 0.50ml-1.0ml Neb MORPHINE N/A N/A N/A N/A MORPHINE (ORAL) N/A N/A N/A N/A NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 60mcg 600mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.15ml 1.5ml IV/IO IV/IO (60-62.5mg)(120-125mg) 2.5 milligrams various preparations Oral 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY PARACETAMOL SALBUTAMOL Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 3 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 7.8kg 6 MONTHS Heart Rate 110-160 Systolic Blood Pressure 70-90 Respiration Rate 30-40 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 00 Endotracheal Tube: 4.0mm (Diameter) 12cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 1.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 40 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 80mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 0.80ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 39 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 1.3ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 160ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 156mcg 156mcg 156mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 1.6ml 0.78ml 0.26ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 300 milligrams 300 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 5.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 1.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 2.3 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.46ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 2.5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 3.9g 0.1g/ml=10% 39.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 31 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.31ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 125-250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 0.50ml-1.0ml Neb MORPHINE N/A N/A N/A N/A MORPHINE (ORAL) N/A N/A N/A N/A NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 78mcg 800mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.19ml 2.0ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (60-62.5mg)(120-125mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Page 4 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 110-160 Systolic Blood Pressure 70-90 Respiration Rate 30-40 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 8.9kg 9 MONTHS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 00 Endotracheal Tube: 4.0mm (Diameter) 12cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 1.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 40 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 90mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 0.90ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 45 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 1.5ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 180ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 178mcg 178mcg 178mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 1.8ml 0.89ml 0.30ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 300 milligrams 300 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 5.0ml 1.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 2.7 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.53ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 2.5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 4.5g 0.1g/ml=10% 45.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 36 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.36ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 125-250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 0.50ml-1.0ml Neb MORPHINE N/A N/A N/A N/A MORPHINE (ORAL) N/A N/A N/A N/A NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 88mcg 880mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.22ml 2.2ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (60-62.5mg)(120-125mg various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 5 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 9.8kg 12 MONTHS Heart Rate 110-150 Systolic Blood Pressure 80-95 Respiration Rate 25-35 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 00 or 0 Endotracheal Tube: 4.5mm (Diameter) 13cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 1.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 40 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 100mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 1.0ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 51 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 1.7ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 200ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 196mcg 196mcg 196mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 2.0ml 0.98ml 0.33ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 10.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 3.0 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.59ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 4.9g 0.1g/ml=10% 49.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 39 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.39ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 125-250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 0.50ml-1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 0.98-2.0 mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 0.98ml-2.0ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 1.96 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 0.98ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 100mcg 1000mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.25ml 2.5ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (120-125mg)(240-250mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Page 6 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 100-150 Systolic Blood Pressure 80-95 Respiration Rate 25-35 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 11.1kg 18 MONTHS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 00 or 0 Endotracheal Tube: 4.5mm (Diameter) 13cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.0 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 50 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 110mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 1.1ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 57 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 1.9ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 220ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 222mcg 222mcg 222mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 2.2ml 1.1ml 0.37ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 10.0ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 3.3 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.66ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 5.6g 0.1g/ml=10% 56.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 45 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.45ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 125-250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 1.1-2.2mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 1.1-2.2ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 2 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 1.0ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 112mcg 1120mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.28ml 2.8ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (120-125mg)(240-250mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 7 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 12.2kg 2 YEARS Heart Rate 95-140 Systolic Blood Pressure 80-100 Respiration Rate 25-30 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 0 or 1 Endotracheal Tube: 5mm (Diameter) 14cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.0 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 50 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 120mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 1.2ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 60 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 2.0ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 240ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 244mcg 244mcg 244mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 2.4ml 1.2ml 0.41ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 10.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 3.7 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.73ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 6.1g 0.1g/ml=10% 61.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 49 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.49ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 1.2-2.4mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 1.2ml-2.4ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 2.4 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 1.2ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 124mcg 1240mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.31ml 3.1ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (120-125mg)(240-250mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Page 8 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 95-140 Systolic Blood Pressure 80-100 Respiration Rate 25-30 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 14.4kg 3 YEARS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 Endotracheal Tube: 5mm (Diameter) 14cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.0 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 60 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 150mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 1.5ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 72 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 2.4ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 280ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 288mcg 288mcg 288mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 2.9ml 1.4ml 0.48ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 10.0ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 4.3 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.86ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 7.2g 0.1g/ml=10% 72.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 57 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.57ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 1.4-2.9mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 1.4-2.9ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 2.8 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 1.4ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 144mcg 1440mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.36ml 3.6ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (120-125mg)(240-250mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 9 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 16.4kg 4 YEARS Heart Rate 95-140 Systolic Blood Pressure 80-100 Respiration Rate 25-30 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 Endotracheal Tube: 5mm (Diameter) 15cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.0 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 70 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 170mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 1.7ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 81 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 2.7ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 320ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 328mcg 328mcg 328mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 3.3ml 1.6ml 0.55ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 10.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 4.9 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 0.98ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 8.2g 0.1g/ml=10% 82.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 66 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.66ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 1.6-3.3mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 1.6ml-3.3ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 3.2 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 1.6ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 164mcg 1640mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.41ml 4.1ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (120-125mg)(240-250mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Page 10 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 80+120 Systolic Blood Pressure 90-100 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 18.5kg 5 YEARS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 Endotracheal Tube: 5.5mm (Diameter) 15cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.0 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 70 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 190mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 1.9ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 93 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 3.1ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 370ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS 120mcg 1:1,000 0.12ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 370mcg 370mcg 370mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 3.7ml 1.9ml 0.62ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 10.0ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 5.5 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 1.1ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 5ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 9.3g 0.1g/ml=10% 93.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 74 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.74ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 1.9-3.7mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 1.9-3.7ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 3.8 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 1.9ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 184mcg 1840mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.46ml 4.6ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (120-125mg)(240-250mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 2.5 milligrams 2.5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb repeat once ONLY Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 11 of 16 17 Age per Page Average Weight 20.6kg 6 YEARS Heart Rate 80-120 Systolic Blood Pressure 80-110 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 Endotracheal Tube: 6mm (Diameter) 16cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 80 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 200mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 2.0ml IV/IO AMIODARONE 102 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 3.4ml IV/IO VOLUME ROUTE 400ml IV/IO FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS repeat once ONLY 250mcg 1:1,000 0.25ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 412mcg 412mcg 412mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 4.1ml 2.1ml 0.69ml IV/IO IV/IO IV/IO BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 10.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 2.0ml IV/IO IM DIAZEMULS 6.3 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 1.3ml IV/IO DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 10ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 10.3g 0.1g/ml=10% 103.0ml IV/IO HYDROCORTISONE 82 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.82ml IV/IO IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 2.1-4.1mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 2.1ml-4.1ml IV/IO MORPHINE (ORAL) 4.2 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 2.1ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 208mcg 2080mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.52ml 5.2ml IV/IO IV/IO PARACETAMOL (400-500mg) various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Page 12 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 80-120 Systolic Blood Pressure 90-110 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 23kg 7 YEARS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 or 2 Endotracheal Tube: 6mm (Diameter) 16cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 90 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 230mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 2.3ml IV AMIODARONE 114 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 3.8ml IV VOLUME ROUTE 460ml IV FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS repeat once ONLY 250mcg 1:1,000 0.25ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 460mcg 460mcg 460mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 4.6ml 2.3ml 0.77ml IV IV IV BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 10.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 2.0ml IV IM DIAZEMULS 7.0 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 1.4ml IV DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 10ml tube PR GLUCAGON 0.5 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 0.5 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 11.5g 0.1g/ml=10% 115.0ml IV HYDROCORTISONE 92 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 0.92ml IV IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 2.3-4.6mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 2.3ml-4.6ml IV MORPHINE (ORAL) 4.6 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 2.3ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 232mcg 2320mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.58ml 5.8ml IV IV PARACETAMOL 480-500mg various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 13 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 25.8kg 8 YEARS Heart Rate 80-120 Systolic Blood Pressure 90-110 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 or 2 Endotracheal Tube: 6.5mm (Diameter) 17cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 100 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 260mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 2.6ml IV AMIODARONE 129 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 4.3ml IV VOLUME ROUTE 500ml IV FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS repeat once ONLY 250mcg 1:1,000 0.25ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 516mcg 516mcg 516mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 5.2ml 2.6ml 0.86ml IV IV IV BENZYL PENICILLIN 600 milligrams 600 milligrams 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 10.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 2.0ml IV IM DIAZEMULS 7.8 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 1.6ml IV DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 10ml tube PR GLUCAGON 1.0 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 1 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 12.9g 0.1g/ml=10% 129.0ml IV HYDROCORTISONE 100 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 1.0ml IV IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 2.6-5.2mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 2.6ml-5.2ml IV MORPHINE (ORAL) 5.2 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 2.6ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 260mcg 2600mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.65ml 6.5ml IV IV PARACETAMOL 480-500mg various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Page 14 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 80-120 Systolic Blood Pressure 90-110 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 28.6kg 9 YEARS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 1 or 2 Endotracheal Tube: 6.5mm (Diameter) 17cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 2.5 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 120 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 290mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 2.9ml IV AMIODARONE 144 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 4.8ml IV VOLUME ROUTE 580ml IV FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS repeat once ONLY 250mcg 1:1,000 0.25ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 572mcg 572mcg 572mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 5.7ml 2.9ml 0.95ml IV IV IV BENZYL PENICILLIN 1.2g 1.2g 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 20.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 4.0ml IV IM DIAZEMULS 8.58 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 1.7ml IV DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 10ml tube PR GLUCAGON 1.0 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 1 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 14.3g 0.1g/ml=10% 143.0ml IV HYDROCORTISONE 110 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 1.1ml IV IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 2.9-5.7mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 2.9ml-5.7ml IV MORPHINE (ORAL) 5.8 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 2.9ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 288mcg 2880mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.72ml 7.2ml IV IV PARACETAMOL 480-500mg various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 15 of 17 Age per Page Average Weight 31.8kg 10 YEARS Heart Rate 80-120 Systolic Blood Pressure 90-110 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 2 or 3 Endotracheal Tube: 7mm (Diameter) 18cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 3 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 130 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 320mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 3.2ml IV AMIODARONE 159 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 5.3ml IV VOLUME ROUTE 640ml IV FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS repeat once ONLY 250mcg 1:1,000 0.25ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 600mcg 600mcg 600mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 6.0ml 3.0ml 1.0ml IV IV IV BENZYL PENICILLIN 1.2g 1.2g 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 20.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 4.0ml IV IM DIAZEMULS 9.5 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 1.9ml IV DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 10ml tube PR GLUCAGON 1.0 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 1 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 15.9g 0.1g/ml=10% 159.0ml IV HYDROCORTISONE 130 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 1.3ml IV IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 3.2-6.4mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 3.2ml-6.4ml IV MORPHINE (ORAL) 6.4 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 3.2ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 320mcg 3200mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.8ml 8.0ml IV IV PARACETAMOL 480-500mg various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Page 16 of 17 October 2006 Paediatric Guidelines Age per Page Heart Rate 80-120 Systolic Blood Pressure 90-110 Respiration Rate 20-25 Paediatric Guidelines Average Weight 35.3kg 11 YEARS AIRWAY Oropharyngeal Airway: 2 or 3 Endotracheal Tube: 7.0mm (Diameter) 18cm (Length) Laryngeal Mask: 3 CARDIAC ARREST DEFIBRILLATION Manual Debrillation 140 Joules Automatic External Debrillation Paediatric attenuation device if available CARDIAC ARREST DRUGS DRUGS DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE 350mcg (all doses) 1:10,000 3.5ml IV AMIODARONE 177 milligrams 300 milligrams in 10mls 5.9ml IV VOLUME ROUTE 700ml IV FLUID BOLUS OF CRYSTALLOID DRUG DOSE CONCENTRATION VOLUME ROUTE ADRENALINE ANAPHYLAXIS repeat once ONLY 250mcg 1:1,000 0.25ml IM ATROPINE BRADYCARDIA 600mcg 600mcg 600mcg 100mcg/ml 200mcg/ml 600mcg/ml 6.0ml 3.0ml 1.0ml IV IV IV BENZYL PENICILLIN 1.2g 1.2g 600 milligrams in 9.6ml 20.0ml 600 milligrams in 1.6ml 4.0ml IV IM DIAZEMULS 11 milligrams 5 milligrams/ml emulsion 2.2ml IV DIAZEPAM repeat once ONLY 10 milligrams 10 milligrams in 2.5ml 1 x 10ml tube PR GLUCAGON 1.0 milligrams 1 milligram per vial 1 vial IM GLUCOSE 10% 17.7g 0.1g/ml=10% 177.0ml IV HYDROCORTISONE 140 milligrams 100 milligrams in 1ml 1.4ml IV IPRATROPIUM 250mcg 500mcg in 2ml 1.0ml Neb MORPHINE 3.5-7.1mg 10 milligrams in 10ml 3.5ml-7.1ml IV MORPHINE (ORAL) 7 milligrams 10 milligrams in 5ml 3.5ml Oral NALOXONE (NOTE: cautions) First dose Subsequent doses 352mcg 3520mcg 400mcg/ml 400mcg/ml 0.88ml 8.8ml IV IV PARACETAMOL 480-500mg various preparations Oral SALBUTAMOL 5 milligrams 5 milligrams in 2.5ml 2.5ml Neb Paediatric Guidelines October 2006 Page 17 of 17 Methodology Guideline Development Process METHODOLOGY GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS This section outlines the overall methodology used in the development of the UK Ambulance Service Clinical Practice Guidelines 2006. The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison (JRCALC) guideline development committee, a sub-committee of JRCALC, is responsible for the development of clinical practice guidelines for UK Ambulance Clinicians, including registered Paramedics. The committees comprise representatives of the Royal Medical Colleges, British Paramedic Association, Ambulance Service Association, Royal College of Nursing, and all UK ambulance services. The overall guideline process is illustrated in Figure 1. Guidance is based on current best evidence and this edition comprises one hundred guidelines and protocols. The review process is iterative, building on the foundation of previous editions, and as such, some guidelines have a stronger evidence base than others; detailed search strategies are appended to some guidelines. Methodology October 2006 Methodology The guideline development process is partially funded with a grant from the Department of Health, although, individual ambulance services provide the majority of support by allowing staff to participate in the review process, attend consensus meetings and JRCALC committee meetings. Page 1 of 2 Methodology Guideline Development Process JRCALC guideline development process JRCALC committee: priority setting agenda setting phases I-VI guideline allocation Training workshops: guideline development evidence based healthcare Guideline review process Draft guideline submitted Via e-mail group Circulate guideline to development committee Upload to guideline development website Via e-mail group Comments from guideline development committee Via discussion forum Methodology Preparation of review submission: draft guideline comments (electronic submission) comments (discussion forum) comments (patient group submission) Presentation at consensus meetings I VI Stage I guideline discussion Stage II Chairman led consensus discussion involving all participants Stage III amendments based on group consensus Via e-mail group Circulate amended guideline to development committee Upload to guideline development website Present to main JRCALC committee for ratication Present draft guidelines for wider consultation including users, training ofcers etc. Subsequent comments: addressed by lead reviewer considered by Chairman / project director re-submit to development group Repeat consensus process if further evidence or wider consultation required Figure 1 Guideline Development Process Page 2 of 2 October 2006 Methodology ... 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