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1 The Chapter Nature of Negotiation Fill in the Blank Questions 1. People ____________ all the time. Answer: negotiate Page: 2 2. The term ____________ is used to describe the competitive, win-lose situations such as haggling over price that happens at yard sale, flea market, or used car lot Answer: bargaining Page: 3 3. Negotiating parties always negotiate by ____________. Answer: choice Page: 6 4. There are times when you should _________ negotiate. Answer: not Page: 6 5. Successful negotiation involves the management of ____________ (e.g., the price or the terms of agreement) and also the resolution of ____________. Answer: tangibles, intangibles Page: 8 6. Independent parties are able to meet their own ____________ without the help and assistance of others. Answer: needs Page: 9 7. The mix of convergent and conflicting goals characterizes many ____________ relationships. Answer: interdependent Page: 10 8. The ____________ of peoples goals, and the ____________ of the situation in which they are going to negotiate, strongly shapes negotiation processes and outcomes. Answer: interdependence, structure Page: 10 9. Whether you should or should not agree on something in a negotiation depends entirely upon the attractiveness to you of the best available _________. 1 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: alternative Page: 10 12 10. When parties are interdependent, they have to find a way to ____________ their differences. Answer: resolve Page: 12 2 Test Bank, Chapter 1 11. Negotiation is a ____________ that transforms over time. Answer: process Page: 12 12. Negotiations often begin with statements of opening ____________. Answer: positions Page: 13 13. When one party accepts a change in his or her position, a ____________ has been made. Answer: concession Page: 13 14. Two of the dilemmas in mutual adjustment that all negotiators face are the dilemma of ____________ and the dilemma of ____________. Answer: honesty, trust Page: 14 15. Most actual negotiations are a combination of claiming and ____________ value processes. Answer: creating Page: 16 16. ____________ ____________ is analyzed as it affects the ability of the group to make decisions, work productively, resolve its differences, and continue to achieve its goals effectively. Answer: Intragroup conflict Page: 18 17. Most people initially believe that ____________ is always bad. Answer: conflict Page: 19 18. The objective is not to eliminate conflict but to learn how to manage it to control the ____________ elements while enjoying the productive aspects. Answer: destructive Page: 20 19. The two-dimensional framework called the ____________ ____________ ____________ postulates that people in conflict have two independent types of concern. Answer: dual concerns model Page: 22 20. Parties who employ the ____________ strategy maintain their own aspirations and try to persuade the other party to yield. Answer: contending Page: 23 3 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e True/False Questions T F 21. Negotiation is a process reserved only for the skilled diplomat, top salesperson, or ardent advocate for an organized lobby Register to View AnswerPage: 2 T F 22. Many of the most important factors that shape a negotiation result do not occur during the negotiation, but occur after the parties have negotiated. Register to View AnswerPage: 3 T F 23. Negotiation situations have fundamentally the same characteristics, Register to View AnswerPage: 6 T F 24. A creative negotiation that meets the objectives of all sides may not require compromise. Register to View AnswerPage: 8 T F 25. The parties prefer to negotiate and search for agreement rather than to fight openly, have one side dominate and the other capitulate, permanently break off contact, or take their dispute to a higher authority to resolve it Register to View AnswerPage: 8 T F 26. It is possible to ignore intangibles, because they affect our judgment about what is fair, or right, or appropriate in the resolution of the tangibles. Register to View AnswerPage: 8 T F 27. In any industry in which repeat business is done with the same parties, there is always a balance between pushing the limit on any particular negotiation and making sure the other partyand your relationship with himsurvives intact. Register to View AnswerPage: 11 T F 28. When the goals of two or more people are interconnected so that only one can achieve the goalsuch as running a race in which there will be only one winner this is a competitive situation, also known as a non-zero-sum or distributive situation Register to View AnswerPage: 10 4 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 29. Remember that every possible interdependency has an alternative; negotiators can always say no and walk away. Register to View AnswerPage: 12 T F 30. A zero-sum situation is a situation in which individuals are so linked together that there is a positive correlation between their goal attainments. Register to View AnswerPage: 10 T F 31. The value of a person's BATNA is always relative to the possible settlements available in the current negotiation, and the possibilities within a given negotiation are heavily influenced by the nature of the interdependence between the parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 12 T F 32. The effective negotiator needs to understand how people will adjust and readjust, and how the negotiations might twist and turn, based on ones own moves and the others responses. Register to View AnswerPage: 13 T F 33. The pattern of give-and-take in negotiation is a characteristic exclusive to formal negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 14, 15 T F 34. In contrast, non-zero-sum or integrative or mutual gains situations are ones where many people can achieve their goals and objectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 15 T F 35. Negotiators do not have to be versatile in their comfort and use of both major strategic approaches to be successful. Register to View AnswerPage: 16 T F 36. Differences in time preferences have the potential to create value in a negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 17 T F 37. Conflict doesnt usually occur when the two parties are working toward the same goal and generally want the same outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 18 5 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 38. Intragroup conflict occurs between groups. Register to View AnswerPage: 18 T F 39. Negotiation is a strategy for productively managing conflict. Register to View AnswerPage: 20 T F 40. The dual concerns model has two dimensions: the vertical dimension is often referred to as the cooperativeness dimension, and the horizontal dimension as the assertiveness dimension. Register to View AnswerPage: 22 Multiple Choice Questions 41. Which perspective can be used to understand different aspects of negotiation? A) economics B) psychology C) anthropology D) law E) All of the above perspectives can be used to understand different aspects of negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 3 42. To most people the words "bargaining" and "negotiation" are A) mutually exclusive. B) interchangeable. C) not related. D) interdependent. E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 3 43. A situation in which solutions exist so that both parties are trying to find a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict is known as which of the following? A) mutual gains B) win-lose C) zero-sum D) win-win E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 3 6 Test Bank, Chapter 1 44. Which is not a characteristic of a negotiation or bargaining situation? A) conflict between parties B) two or more parties involved C) an established set of rules D) a voluntary process E) None of the above is a characteristic of a negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 8 45. Tangible factors A) include the price and terms of agreement. B) are psychological motivations that influence the negotiations. C) include the need to look good in negotiations. D) cannot be measured in quantifiable terms. E) None of the above statements describe tangible factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 8 46. Which of the following is not an intangible factor in a negotiation? A) the need to look good B) final agreed price on a contract C) the desire to book more business D) fear of setting a precedent E) All of the above are intangible factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 8 47. Interdependent parties relationships are characterized by A) interlocking goals. B) solitary decision making. C) established procedures. D) rigid structures. E) Interdependent relationships are characterized by all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 10 48. A zero-sum situation is also known by another name of a situation. Which of the following is that? A) integrative B) distributive C) win-lose D) negotiative E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 10 7 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 49. BATNA stands for A) best alternative to a negotiated agreement. B) best assignment to a negotiated agreement. C) best alternative to a negative agreement. D) best alternative to a negative assignment. E) BATNA stands for none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 12 50. What are the two dilemmas of negotiation? A) the dilemma of cost and the dilemma of profit margin B) the dilemma of honesty and the dilemma of profit margin C) the dilemma of trust and the dilemma of cost D) the dilemma of honesty and the dilemma of trust E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 14 51. How much to believe of what the other party tells you A) depends on the reputation of the other party. B) is affected by the circumstances of the negotiation. C) is related to how he or she treated you in the past. D) is the dilemma of trust. E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 14 52. Satisfaction with a negotiation is determined by A) the process through which an agreement is reached and the dollar value of concessions made by each party. B) the actual outcome obtained by the negotiation as compared to the initial bargaining positions of the negotiators. C) the process through which an agreement is reached and by the actual outcome obtained by the negotiation. D) the total dollar value of concessions made by each party. E) Satisfaction with a negotiation is determined by none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 15 53. Which of the following statements about conflict is true? A) Conflict is the result of tangible factors. B) Conflict can occur when two parties are working toward the same goal and generally want the same outcome. C) Conflict only occurs when both parties want a very different settlement. 8 Test Bank, Chapter 1 D) Conflict has a minimal effect on interdependent relationships. E) All of the above statements about conflict are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 18 54. In intragroup conflict, A) sources of conflict can include ideas, thoughts, emotions, values, predispositions, or drives that are in conflict with each other. B) conflict occurs between individual people. C) conflict affects the ability of the group to resolve differences and continue to achieve its goals effectively. D) conflict is quite intricate because of the large number of people involved and possible interactions between them. E) None of the above describes intragroup conflict. Register to View AnswerPage: 18 55. Which of the following contribute to conflict's destructive image? A) increased communication B) misperception and bias C) clarifying issues D) minimized differences; magnified similarities E) All of the above contribute to conflict's destructive image. Register to View AnswerPage: 19 56. In the Dual Concerns Model, the level of concern for the individual's own outcomes and the level of concern for the other's outcomes are referred to as the A) cooperativeness dimension and the competitiveness dimension. B) the assertiveness dimension and the competitiveness dimension. C) the competitiveness dimension and the aggressiveness dimension. D) the cooperativeness dimension and the assertiveness dimension. E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 22 57. An individual who pursues his or her own outcomes strongly and shows little concern for whether the other party obtains his or her desired outcomes is using another of the following strategies. Which one? A) yielding B) compromising C) contending D) problem solving E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 23 9 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 58. Negotiators pursuing the yielding strategy A) show little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, but are quite interested in whether the other party attains his or her outcomes. B) pursue their own outcome strongly and shows little concern for whether the other party obtains his or her desired outcome. C) shows little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, and does not show much concern about whether the other party obtains his or her outcomes. D) show high concern for attaining their own outcomes and high concern for whether the other attains his or her outcomes. E) Negotiators pursuing the yielding strategy demonstrate none of the above behaviors. Register to View AnswerPage: 23 59. Parties pursuing one of the following strategies show little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, and do not show much concern about whether the other party obtains his or her outcomes. Which of the ones listed below? A) contending B) compromising C) problem solving D) yielding E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 24 60. Whereas distributive bargaining is often characterized by mistrust and suspicion, integrative negotiation is characterized by which of the following? A) obligation and perseverance B) avoidance and compromise C) influence and persuasiveness D) trust and openness E) cognition and emotion Register to View AnswerPage: 26 Short Answer Essays 61. What are the three reasons negotiations occur? Answer: Negotiations occur for several reasons: (1) to agree on how to share or divide a limited resource, such as land, or property, or time; (2) to create something new that neither party could do on his or her own, or (3) to resolve a problem or dispute between the parties. Page: 2 62. Is the give-and-take process used to reach an agreement the heart of the negotiation as 10 Test Bank, Chapter 1 most people assume? Answer: While that give-and-take process is extremely important, negotiation is a very complex social process; many of the most important factors that shape a negotiation result do not occur during the negotiation, but occur before the parties start to negotiate, or shape the context around the negotiation. Page: 3 63. Why do parties negotiate by choice? Answer: That is, they negotiate because they think they can get a better deal by negotiating than by simply accepting what the other side will voluntarily give them or let them have. Negotiation is largely a voluntary process. We negotiate because we think we can improve our outcome or result, compared to not negotiating or simply accepting what the other side offers. It is a strategy pursued by choice; seldom are we required to negotiate. Page: 6 64. What are tangible and intangible factors in negotiation? Answer: Tangible factors include quantifiable items, such as the price, terms of agreement, etc. By intangible factors, we are referring to the deeper psychological motivations that may directly or indirectly influence the parties during the negotiation. Page: 8 65. What are the three ways that characterize most relationships between parties? Answer: Most relationships between parties may be characterized in one of three ways: independent, dependent, and interdependent. Page: 9, 10 66. Define "zero-sum" situation. Answer: Individuals are so linked together that there is a negative correlation between their goal attainments. Page: 11 67. Describe a mutual gains situation. Answer: when parties goals are linked so that one persons goal achievement helps others to achieve their goals, it is a mutual-gains situation, also known as a non-zero-sum or integrative situation, where there is a positive correlation between the goal attainments of both parties. Page: 10 68. What does BATNA stand for? Answer: Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement. Page: 12 69. What role do concessions play when a proposal isnt readily accepted? Answer: If the proposal isnt readily accepted by the other, negotiators begin to defend 11 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e their own initial proposals and critique the others proposals. Each partys rejoinder usually suggests alterations to the other partys proposal, and perhaps also contains changes to his or her own position. When one party agrees to make a change in his or her position, a concession has been made (Pruitt, 1981). Concessions restrict the range of options within which a solution or agreement will be reached; when a party makes a concession, the bargaining range (the difference between the preferred acceptable settlements) is further constrained. Page: 13 70. What are concessions? Register to View Answerconcession has been made when one party accepts a change in his or her position. Concessions restrict the range of options within which a solution or agreement will be reached. Page: 13 71. Describe the strategies and tactics a negotiator would employ in a distributive bargaining situation. Answer: In distributive situations negotiators are motivated to win the competition and beat the other party, or gain the largest piece of the fixed resource that they can. In order to achieve these objectives, negotiators usually employ win-lose strategies and tactics. This approach to negotiationcalled distributive bargainingaccepts the fact that there can only be one winner given the situation, and pursues a course of action to be that winner. The purpose of the negotiation is to claim valuethat is, to do whatever is necessary to claim the reward, gain the lions share, or gain the largest piece possible Page: 15 72. Why should negotiators be versatile in their comfort and use of both value claiming and value creating strategic approaches? Answer: Not only must negotiators be able to recognize which strategy is most appropriate, but they must be able to use both approaches with equal versatility. There is no single best, preferred or right way to negotiate; the choice of negotiation strategy requires adaptation to the situation, as we will explain more fully in the next section on conflict. Moreover, if most negotiation issues/problems have claiming and creating values components, then negotiators must be able to use both approaches in the same deliberation. Page: 16 73. Define synergy? Answer: "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts" Page: 16 74. Name the four levels of conflict that are commonly identified. Answer: The four levels of conflict are: 1) intrapersonal or intrapsychic conflict, 2) interpersonal conflict, 3) intragroup conflict, and 4) intergroup conflict. Page: 18 12 Test Bank, Chapter 1 75. Explain how conflict is a potential consequence of interdependent relationships. Answer: Conflict can result from the strongly divergent needs of the two parties, or from misperceptions and misunderstandings. Conflict can occur when the two parties are working toward the same goal and generally want the same outcome, or when both parties want very different outcomes. Regardless of the cause of the conflict, negotiation can play an important role in resolving it effectively. In this section, we will define conflict, discuss the different levels of conflict that can occur, review the functions and dysfunctions of conflict, and discuss strategies for managing conflict effectively. Page: 18 76. How does decreased communication contribute as one of the destructive images of conflict in a negotiation? Answer: Productive communication declines with conflict. Parties communicate less with those who disagree with them, and more with those who agree. The communication that does occur is often an attempt to defeat, demean, or debunk the others view or to strengthen ones own prior arguments. Page: 19 77. Conflict also has productive aspects and one of those is that conflict encourages psychological development. Elaborate. Answer: It helps people become more accurate and realistic in their self-appraisals. Through conflict, persons take others perspectives and become less egocentric. Conflict helps persons to believe that they are powerful and capable of controlling their own lives. They do not simply need to endure hostility and frustration but can act to improve their lives. Page: 20 78. The Dual Concerns Model is a two-dimensional framework that postulates that people in conflict have two independent types of concern. What are those two types of concerns? Answer: concern about their own outcomes (shown on the horizontal dimension of the figure) and concern about the others outcomes (shown on the vertical dimension of the figure). Page: 22 79. Where would you likely to find the concept of yielding on the dual concerns model? Answer: Yielding (also called accommodating or obliging) is the strategy in the upper left-hand corner. Actors pursuing the yielding strategy show little interest or concern in whether they attain their own outcomes, but they are quite interested in whether the other party attains his or her outcomes. Yielding involves lowering ones own aspirations to let the other win and gain what he or she wants. Yielding may seem like a strange strategy to some, but it has its definite advantages in some situations. Page: 23 80. What are the five major strategies for conflict management (as identified in the Dual 13 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Concerns framework)? Answer: Contending, Yielding, Inaction, Problem Solving, and Compromising. Page: 23, 24 Chapter 2 Strategy and Tactics of Distributive Bargaining Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Distributive bargaining is basically a competition over who is going to get the most of a ____________ ____________. Answer: limited resource Page: 33 2. Whether or not one or both parties in a distributive bargaining situation achieve their objectives will depend upon the ____________ and ____________ they employ. Answer: strategies, tactics Page: 33 3. The ____________ ____________ is the point beyond which a person will not go and would rather break off negotiations. Answer: resistance point Page: 35 4. The spread between the resistance points is called the ____________ ____________. Answer: bargaining range Page: 35 5. A ____________ bargaining range occurs when the buyer's resistance point is above the seller's. Answer: positive Page: 35, 36 6. ____________ are important because they give the negotiator power to walk away from any negotiation when the emerging deal is not very good. Answer: Alternatives Page: 36 7. The package of issues for negotiation is the ____________ ____________. Answer: bargaining mix. Page: 38 8. Central to planning the strategy and tactics for distributive bargaining is effectively locating the other party's ____________ ____________. Answer: resistance point Page: 39 14 Test Bank, Chapter 1 9. The more attractive the other party's alternatives, the more likely he or she will be to maintain a ____________ resistance point. Answer: high Page: 41 15 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 10. ____________ ____________ reduces the likelihood of making verbal slips or presenting any clues that the other side could use to draw conclusions. Answer: Selective reticence Page: 44 11. Channeling all communication through a ____________ ____________ reduces inadvertent revelation of information. Answer: team spokesperson Page: 45 12. In some ways, the ultimate weapon in negotiation is to threaten to ____________ ____________. Answer: terminate negotiations Page: 47 13. Although disruptive action tactics can work, they may also produce ____________ and escalation of ____________. Answer: anger, conflict Page: 48 14. ____________ can be used to squeeze negotiations into the last remaining minutes of a meeting in order to extract concessions from one party. Answer: Delay tactics Page: 48 15. To communicate the most effective message, a negotiator should try to send a consistent message through both an ____________ ____________ and an ____________ ____________. Answer: opening offer, opening stance Page: 50 16. If one side is not prepared to make concessions, either the other must ____________ or the negotiations will ____________. Answer: capitulate, deadlock Page: 51 17. An offer that may have been accepted had it emerged as a result of ____________ ____________ may be rejected when it is presented as a fait accompli. Answer: concession making Page: 52 18. Commitments exchange ____________ for certainty of action. Answer: flexibility Page: 54 19. Another way to strengthen a commitment is to ____________ with one or more allies. 16 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Answer: link Page: 56 20. A party changing his or her position after a commitment should be given every opportunity to retreat with ____________. Answer: dignity Page: 59 17 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 21. When acting as if the decision to close the deal has already been made, the negotiator is using the ____________ ____________ ____________ method of closing the agreement. Answer: assume the close Page: 61 22. Most hardball tactics are designed to either ____________ the appearance of the bargaining position of the person using the tactic or to ____________ ____________ the appearance of the options available to the other party. Answer: enhance, detract from Page: 62 23. Good ____________ is critical for defending against the lowball/highball (or all) hardball tactics. Answer: preparation. Page: 65 24. The ____________ ____________ tactic occurs when negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information that they have trouble determining which information is real or important. Answer: snow job Page: 69 25. ____________ ____________ is a conflict situation wherein parties seek their own advantage through tactics including concealing information, attempting to mislead or using manipulative actions. Answer: Distributive bargaining. Page: 70 True/False Questions T F 26. Distributive bargaining strategies are the only strategies that are effective in interdependent situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 33 T F 27. Distributive bargaining strategies and tactics are useful when a negotiator wants to maximize the value obtained in a single deal. Register to View AnswerPage: 33 T F 28. The resistance point is the point at which a negotiator would like to conclude negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 35 18 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 29. Each party's resistance point is openly stated at the conclusion of negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 35 T F 30. Anything outside the bargaining range will be summarily rejected by one of the negotiators. Register to View AnswerPage: 35 T F 31. A negative bargaining range occurs when the buyer's resistance point is above the seller's. Register to View AnswerPage: 36 T F 32. Negotiations with a positive settlement range are obvious from the beginning. Register to View AnswerPage: 36 T F 33. A resistance point will be influenced by the cost an individual attaches to delay or difficulty in negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 40 T F 34. The more you can do to convince the other party that his or her costs of delay or aborting negotiations will be costly, the more likely he or she will be to establish a modest resistance point. Register to View AnswerPage: 41 T F 35. The first step for a negotiator completing a distributive bargaining negotiation is to obtain information about the other party's outcome values and resistance points. Register to View AnswerPage: 42 T F 36. In "calculated incompetence," the negotiator is intentionally given false or misleading information to reveal to the other party. Register to View AnswerPage: 44 T F 37. Selective presentation can be used to lead the other party to form the desired impression of your resistance point or to open up new possibilities for agreement that are more favorable to the presenter than those that currently exist. Register to View AnswerPage: 45 19 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 38. Studies indicate that negotiators who make low or modest opening offers get higher settlements than do those who make extreme opening offers. Register to View AnswerPage: 49 T F 39. Parties feel better about a settlement when negotiations involve a progression of concessions. Register to View AnswerPage: 52 T F 40. If a major concession has been made on a significant point, it is expected that the return offer will be on the same item or one of similar weight and comparable magnitude. Register to View AnswerPage: 53 T F 41. A small concession late in negotiations may indicate that there is little room left to move. Register to View AnswerPage: 53 T F 42. It is important to signal to the other party with either behavior or words that the concessions are almost over. Register to View AnswerPage: 54 T F 43. One way negotiators may convey the message that "this is the last offer" is by making the last concession substantial. Register to View AnswerPage: 55 T F 44. A public commitment statement means that the wider the audience, the less likely the commitment will be changed. Register to View AnswerPage: 56 T F 45. All the advantages of a committed position work against a negotiator when the other party becomes committed, so it is important to try to prevent the other negotiator from becoming committed. Register to View AnswerPage: 59 T F 46. Hardball tactics work most effectively against powerful, well-prepared negotiators. Register to View AnswerPage: 61 20 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 47. Hardball tactics are infallible if used properly. Register to View AnswerPage: 61 T F 48. To respond to hardball tactics, a negotiator must identify the tactic quickly and understand what it is and how it works. Register to View AnswerPage: 62 T F 49. The best response to the chicken tactic is to challenge the other party by responding with one's own chicken tactic, thereby calling the other's bluff. Register to View AnswerPage: 67 T F 50. An effective means of countering the intimidation tactic is to ignore it. Register to View AnswerPage: 68 Multiple Choice Questions 51. Distributive bargaining strategies A) are the most efficient negotiating strategies to use. B) are used in all interdependent relationships. C) are useful in maintaining long term relationships. D) can cause negotiators to ignore what the parties have in common. E) None of the above describes distributive bargaining strategies. Register to View AnswerPage: 33 52. The target point is the A) point at which a negotiator would like to conclude negotiations. B) negotiator's bottom line. C) first offer a negotiator quotes to his opponent. D) initial price set by the seller. E) None of the above describes the target point. Register to View AnswerPage: 34 53. Starting points A) are usually contained in the opening statements each negotiator makes. B) are usually learned or inferred as negotiations get under way. C) are not known to the other party. D) are given up as concessions are made. E) None of the above describes starting points. 21 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Register to View AnswerPage: 34 54. The objective of both parties in distributive bargaining is to obtain as much of which of the following as possible? A) bargaining range B) resistance point C) target point D) bargaining mix E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 37 55. The resistance point is established by the ____________ expected from a particular outcome, which is in turn the product of the ____________ and ____________ of an outcome. A) cost, value, worth B) value, worth, cost C) value, cost and timeliness D) cost, importance, value E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 39 22 Test Bank, Chapter 1 56. The more you can convince the other party that your costs of delay or aborting negotiations are ____________, the more modest will be the other's resistance point. A) high B) modest C) extreme D) low E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 41 57. The more you can convince the other that you value a particular outcome outside the other's bargaining range, the more pressure you put on the other party to set by one of the following resistance points. A) high B) low C) modest D) extreme E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 41 58. A large majority of agreements in distributive bargaining are reached when the deadline is A) near. B) flexible. C) past. D) undefined. E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 47 59. Disruptive action tactics can cause A) embarrassment. B) increased costs. C) anger. D) escalation of conflict. E) Disruptive action tactics can cause all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 48 60. The opening stance is A) another name for the first round of concessions. B) the first price that a buyer quotes to a seller. C) the attitude to adopt during the negotiation. D) a package of concessions. E) All of the above describe the opening stance. 23 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Register to View AnswerPage: 50 24 Test Bank, Chapter 1 61. The bargaining range is defined by A) the opening stance and the initial concession. B) the initial round of concessions. C) the bargaining mix and the opening stance. D) the opening offer and the counteroffer. E) The bargaining range is defined by all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 50 62. What action can be taken after the first round of offers? A) hold firm B) insist on the original position C) make some concessions D) make no concessions E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 50 63. Good distributive bargainers will A) begin negotiations with the other party with an opening offer close to their own resistance point. B) ensure that there is enough room in the bargaining range to make some concessions. C) accept an offer that is presented as a fait accompli. D) immediately identify the other party's target point. E) All of the above are actions that good distributive bargainers will take. Register to View AnswerPage: 52 64. Parties feel better about a settlement when negotiations involve a(n) A) immediate settlement. B) single round of concessions. C) progression of concessions. D) fait accompli. E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 52 65. What statement about concessions is false? A) Concessions are central to negotiations. B) Concessions is another word for adjustments in position. C) Concession making exposes the concession maker to some risk. D) Reciprocating concessions is a haphazard process. E) All of the above statements are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 53 25 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 66. Concession making A) indicates an acknowledgment of the other party. B) shows a movement toward the other's position. C) implies a recognition of the legitimacy of the other party's position. D) recognizes the other party's position. E) All of the above are characteristics of concession making. Register to View AnswerPage: 53 67. When successive concessions get smaller, the most obvious message is that A) the negotiator is reaching the fatigue point. B) the resistance point is being reached. C) the concession maker's position is weakening. D) the negotiator has passed the resistance point. E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 53 68. Skilled negotiators may A) suggest different forms of a potential settlement that are worth about the same to them. B) recognize that not all issues are worth the same amount to both parties. C) frequently save a final small concession for near the end of the negotiation to "sweeten" the deal. D) make the last concession substantial to indicate that "this is the last offer". E) Skilled negotiators may take all of the above actions. Register to View AnswerPage: 54 69. A commitment A) should not be interpreted as a threat. B) postpones the threat of future action. C) is designed to increase both parties' choices to a portfolio of options. D) removes ambiguity about the actor's intended course of action. E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 55 70. A commitment statement should have a A) low degree of finality. B) high degree of specificity. C) an indefinite statement of consequences. D) a high degree of emotionality. E) None of the above should be included in a commitment statement. Register to View AnswerPage: 56 26 Test Bank, Chapter 1 71. Negotiators who make threats A) are perceived as more powerful than negotiators who do not use threats. B) receive higher outcomes than negotiators who do not use threats. C) are perceived as more cooperative in distributive negotiations. D) should use detailed, complex statements of demands, conditions and consequences. E) All of the above describe negotiators who make threats. Register to View AnswerPage: 58 72. To prevent the other party from establishing a committed position, a negotiator could A) give them the opportunity to evaluate the matter fully. B) acknowledge the other's commitment. C) reiterate the commitment. D) make a joke about the commitment. E) None of the above should be used to prevent the other party from establishing a committed position. Register to View AnswerPage: 58 73. Hardball tactics are designed to A) be used primarily against powerful negotiators. B) clarify the user's adherence to a distributive bargaining approach. C) pressure targeted parties to do things they would not otherwise do. D) eliminate risk for the person using the tactic. E) Hardball tactics are designed to accomplish all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 61 74. Aggressive behavior tactics include A) the relentless push for further concessions. B) asking for the best offer early in negotiations. C) asking the other party to explain and justify their proposals item by item. D) forcing the other side to make many concessions to reach an agreement. E) Aggressive behavior tactics include all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 68 75. The negotiator's basic strategy is to A) get information about the opposition and its positions. B) reach the final settlement as close to the other's resistance point as possible. C) convince members of the other party to change their minds about their ability to achieve their own goals. D) promote his or her own objectives as desirable, necessary, and inevitable. E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 70 27 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Short Answer Essays 76. Define distributive bargaining. Register to View Answercompetition over who is going to get the most of a limited resource (often money). Page: 33 77. List two situations when distributive bargaining strategies are useful. Answer: When a negotiator wants to maximize the value obtained in a single deal and when the relationship with the other party is not important. Page: 33 78. A negative bargaining range occurs when: Answer: The seller's resistance point is above the buyer's. Page: 36 79. How can a negotiation that begins with a negative bargaining range be resolved? Answer: If one or both parties are persuaded to change their resistance points, or if someone else forces a solution upon them that one or both parties dislike. Page: 36 80. What can happen when one or both parties do not think they got the best agreement possible? Answer: One party or the other may try to get out of the agreement later or try to recoup losses or get even. Page: 38 81. Define bargaining mix. Answer: The package of issues for negotiation. Page: 38 82. What are the four important tactical tasks for a negotiator in a distributive bargaining situation? Answer: (1) Assess the other party's outcome values and the costs of terminating negotiations; (2) manage the other party's impression of one's own outcome values; (3) modify the other party's perception of his or her own outcome values; (4) manipulate the actual costs of delaying or aborting negotiations. Page: 41, 42 83. List several information sources one can use to indirectly assess the other party's resistance point. Answer: Making direct observations, consulting readily available documents and publications, talking to knowledgeable experts. Page: 42 28 Test Bank, Chapter 1 84. What is the simplest way to screen a position? Answer: Say and do as little as possible. Page: 44 85. Define calculated incompetence. Answer: The negotiating agent is not given all of the necessary information, making it impossible for information to be leaked. Page: 45 86. Define selective presentation. Answer: Negotiators reveal only the facts necessary to support their case. Page: 45 87. What negative effect can be caused by using trivial items as distractions or magnifying minor issues? Answer: The other person may become aware of this maneuver and concede on the minor points, thereby gaining the right to demand equally generous concessions on the central points. Page: 46 88. What are the three ways to manipulate the costs of delay in negotiation? Answer: (1) Plan disruptive action; (2) ally with outsiders; (3) manipulate the scheduling of negotiations. Page: 47 89. Why is it advantageous to make an extreme opening offer? Answer: Gives more room for movement in negotiation and therefore more time to learn the other party's priorities. May create the impression that there is a long way to go before a reasonable settlement will be achieved and more concessions than originally intended may have to be made to bridge the difference between the two opening positions. Page: 49 90. What are the disadvantages of making a more extreme opening offer? Answer: It may be summarily rejected by the other party, communicates an attitude of toughness that may be harmful to long term relationships. Page: 49 91. What characteristics of original offer, opening stance and opening concession would signal a position of firmness? Of flexibility? Answer: Firmness: an extreme original offer, a determined opening stance, and a very small opening concession. Flexibility: a more moderate opening offer, a reasonable cooperative opening stance, and a more generous initial concession. Page: 51 92. What are the advantages of adopting a flexible position? 29 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: Can learn about the other party's outcome values and perceived possibilities. Establishes a cooperative rather than combative relationship hoping to get a better agreement. Keeps negotiations going. Page: 51 93. Discuss the importance of reciprocating (or not reciprocating) concessions. Answer: Concession making indicates an acknowledgment of the other party and a movement toward the other's position. It implies a recognition of that position and its legitimacy. If the other party does not reciprocate, the concession maker may appear to be weaker by having given up something and received nothing in return. If the giver has made a major concession on a significant point, it is expected that the return offer will be on the same item or one of similar weight and somewhat comparable magnitude. To make an additional concession when none has been received (or when what was given was inadequate) can imply weakness and can squander valuable maneuvering room. Page: 52, 53 94. What is the disadvantage of letting the absence of further concessions convey the message of the final offer? Answer: The other party may not recognize at first that the last offer was the final one and might volunteer a further concession to get the other to respond. Finding that no further concession results, the other party may feel betrayed and perceive that the pattern of concessioncounter concession was violated. Page: 55 95. Define commitment. Answer: "Taking of a bargaining position with some explicit or implicit pledge regarding the future course of action." Page: 55 96. What are the three properties of commitment statements? Register to View Answerhigh degree of finality, a high degree of specificity, and a clear statement of consequences. Page: 56 97. List ways to prevent the other party from establishing a committed position. Answer: Deny them the opportunity to take the time to establish commitments, ignore or downplay the threat by not acknowledging the other's commitment or by making a joke about it, pretend that the other party's statement was not heard or was not understood. Page: 58 98. How can a negotiator abandon a committed position? Answer: Word the commitment so that the conditions by which it applied have changed. Let the matter die silently. Make a tentative step in a direction previously excluded by the other's commitment. Restate the commitment in more general terms. Minimize any 30 Test Bank, Chapter 1 possible damage to his or her self-esteem or with constituent relationships. Page: 59 99. What are the risks involved when using hardball tactics? Answer: Harm to reputation, Losing the deal, Negative publicity, Dealing with the other party's revenge. Page: 62 100. What are the strategies for responding to hardball tactics? Answer: ignore them, discuss them, respond in kind, co-opt the other party. Also discussed in the text but not listed specifically: preparation, familiarity with hardball tactics, identification and discussing the tactics, halting the negotiation process, team negotiations. Page: 62, 63 Chapter 3 Strategy and Tactics of Integrative Negotiation Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Although the conflict may appear initially to be win-lose to the parties, ____________ and ____________ ____________ will usually suggest win-win alternatives. Answer: discussion, mutual exploration Page: 72 2. Those wishing to achieve integrative results find that they must manage the ____________ and ____________ of the negotiation in order to gain the willing cooperation and commitment of the other party. Answer: context, process Page: 73 3. Effective ____________ exchange promotes the development of good integrative solutions. Answer: information Page: 73 4. Successful integrative negotiation requires that the negotiators search for solutions that meet the ____________ and ____________ of both (all) sides. Answer: needs, objectives Page: 74 5. In an integrative negotiation, negotiators must be ____________ about their primary interests and needs, but ____________about the manner in which these interests and needs are met through solutions. 31 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: firm, flexible Page: 74, 75 6. In integrative negotiation, ____________ are measured by the degree to which they meet both negotiators' goals. Answer: outcomes Page: 75 7. The ____________ step is often the most difficult step in the integrative negotiation process. Answer: problem identification Page: 76 8. As a problem is defined jointly, it should accurately reflect both parties' ____________ and ____________. Answer: needs, priorities Page: 77 9. For positive problem solving to occur, both parties must be committed to stating the problem in ____________ terms. Answer: neutral Page: 77 10. Problem definition should specify what ____________ must be overcome for the goal to be attained. Answer: obstacles Page: 78 11. The integrative negotiation process cannot work unless negotiators avoid ____________ ____________ until they have fully defined the problem and examined all the possible alternative solutions. Answer: premature solutions Page: 78 12. _________ interests are related to how the negotiations unfold. Answer: Process Page: 81 13. Successful ____________ requires a fundamental reformulation of the problem such that the parties are no longer squabbling over their positions; instead, they are disclosing sufficient information to discover their interests and needs and then inventing options that will satisfy both parties' needs. Answer: bridging Page: 87 14. ____________ ____________occurs in integrative negotiation when one party is allowed to obtain his/her objectives and then "pays off" the other person for accommodating his/her interests. 32 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Answer: Nonspecific compensation Page: 87 15. Research has shown that when brainstormers work at the process for a long period of time, the best ideas are most likely to surface during the ____________ part of the activity. Answer: latter Page: 89 16. Integrative negotiation solutions should be judged on two major criteria: how ____________ they are, and how ____________ they will be to those who have to implement them. Answer: good, acceptable Page: 92 17. The strategy of ____________ is effective not only in inventing options, but also as a mechanism to combine options into negotiated packages. Answer: logrolling Page: 93 18. A ____________ goal is one in which both parties work toward a common end but one that benefits each party differently. Answer: shared Page: 95 19. Those who do not share a belief that they can work together in an integrative negotiation are less willing to invest the time and energy in the potential payoffs of a collaborative relationship and are more likely to assume a ____________ or ____________ approach to conflict. Answer: contending, accommodating Page: 96 20. Integrative negotiation requires negotiators to accept both their own and the other's attitudes, interests and desires as ____________. Answer: valid Page: 96 21. For integrative negotiation to succeed, the parties must be motivated to ____________ rather than to compete. Answer: collaborate Page: 96 22. Even cooperatively motivated negotiators have less trust, exchange less information about preferences and priorities, and achieve agreements of lower joint profit when they can ____________ the other party than when they do not have this capability. Answer: punish Page: 97 33 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 23. People who are interdependent but do not trust each other will act ____________ or ____________. Answer: tentatively, defensively Page: 98 24. When people trust each other, they are more likely to share _____________ and to _____________ accurately their needs, positions, and the facts of the situation. Answer: information, communicate Page: 98 25. When there are strong negative feelings or when one or more parties are inclined to dominate, negotiators may create ____________, ____________ procedures for communication. Answer: formal, structured Page: 100 True/False Questions T F 26. In integrative negotiation, the goals of the parties are mutually exclusive. Register to View AnswerPage: 71 T F 27. The failure to reach integrative agreements is often linked to the failure to exchange sufficient information that will allow the parties to identify integrative options. Register to View AnswerPage: 73 T F 28. Integrative agreements have been shown to be facilitated when parties exchanged information about their positions on particular issues, but not necessarily about their priorities on those issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 73, 74 T F 29. Parties should enter the integrative negotiation process with few preconceptions about the solution. Register to View AnswerPage: 77 T F 30. For positive problem solving to occur, both parties must be committed to stating the problem in neutral terms. Register to View AnswerPage: 77 34 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 31. An integrative negotiation problem should be defined as a solution process rather than as a specific goal to be attained. Register to View AnswerPage: 78 T F 32. In integrative negotiations, negotiators are encouraged to state the problem in terms of their preferred solution and to make concessions from these most desired alternatives. Register to View AnswerPage: 78 T F 33. If both parties understand the motivating factors for the other, they may recognize possible compatibilities in interests that permit them to invent positions which both will endorse as an acceptable settlement. Register to View AnswerPage: 79, 80 T F 34. Intrinsic relationship interests exist when the parties derive positive benefits from the relationship and do not wish to endanger future benefits by souring it. Register to View AnswerPage: 80 T F 35. Focusing on interests allows parties to move beyond opening positions and demands to determine what the parties really wantwhat needs truly must be satisfied. Register to View AnswerPage: 82 T F 36. In logrolling, if the parties do in fact have different preferences on different issues, each party gets their most preferred outcome on their high priority issue and should be happy with the overall agreement. Register to View AnswerPage: 85 T F 37. "Expanding the pie" as a method of generating alternative solutions is a complex process, as it requires much more detailed information about the other party than do other methods. Register to View AnswerPage: 86 T F 38. Successful bridging requires a fundamental reformulation of the problem such that the parties are no longer squabbling over their positions; instead, they are disclosing sufficient information to discover their interests and needs and then inventing options that will satisfy both parties' needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 87 35 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 39. In generating alternative solutions to the problem, groups should also adopt procedures for defining the problem, defining the interests, and generating options, however, to prevent the group process from degenerating into a win-lose competition or a debating event. Register to View AnswerPage: 89 T F 40. In brainstorming, participants are urged to be spontaneous, even impractical, and to censor anyones ideas (including their own). Register to View AnswerPage: 89 T F 41. Whether the integrative negotiation is simple or complex, the evaluation and selection steps must always be kept separate, or a contamination of the negotiation effort may occur after an informal decision has already been made. Register to View AnswerPage: 91 T F 42. When a specific solution must meet the criteria of both quality and acceptability, those evaluating the solution options may have to be prepared to make trade-offs between the two to insure that both criteria are met. Register to View AnswerPage: 92 T F 43. Intangibles can lead the negotiator to fight harder to attain a particular solution option if that option satisfies both tangibles and intangibles. Register to View AnswerPage: 93 T F 44. In integrative negotiation, decisions must be finalized in each step of the negotiation process. Register to View AnswerPage: 94 T F 45. A common goal is one in which all parties share the result equally. Register to View AnswerPage: 95 T F 46. Negotiators who are firmer about insisting that their own point of view become incorporated into the group solution achieve less integrative agreements than those who are less firm. Register to View AnswerPage: 96 36 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 47. For successful integrative negotiation to occur, each party should be as interested in the objectives and problems of the other side as each is in his own. Register to View AnswerPage: 97 T F 48. Although there is no guarantee that trust will lead to collaboration, there is plenty of evidence to suggest that mistrust inhibits collaboration. Register to View AnswerPage: 98 T F 49. Multiple communication channels should not be used as they inevitably pass along inaccurate and confusing information. Register to View AnswerPage: 100 T F 50. Most situations are mixed-motive negotiations, containing some elements that require distributive bargaining processes, and others that require integrative negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 103 Multiple Choice Questions 51. Which of the following is not an element of integrative negotiations? A) a focus on commonalties B) an attempt to address positions C) a required exchange of information and ideas D) the use of objective criteria for standards of performance E) All of the above are elements of integrative negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 72 52. Which of the following processes is central to achieving almost all integrative agreements? A) moderating the free flow of information to ensure that each party's position is accurately stated B) exchanging information about each party's position on key issues C) emphasizing the commonalties between the parties D) searching for solutions that maximize the substantive outcome for both parties E) All of the above processes are central to achieving integrative agreements. Register to View AnswerPage: 73 53. Which of the following is a major step in the integrative negotiation process? A) identifying and defining the problem 37 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e B) understanding the problem and bringing interests and needs to the surface C) generating alternative solutions to the problem D) choosing a specific solution E) All of the above are major steps in the integrative negotiation process. Register to View AnswerPage: 75 54. In which major step of the integrative negotiation process of identifying and defining the problem would you likely find that if the problem is complex and multifaceted the parties may not even be able to agree on a statement of the problem? A) define the problem in a way that is mutually acceptable to both sides. B) state the problem with an eye toward practicality and comprehensiveness. C) state the problem as a goal and identify the obstacles to attaining this goal. D) depersonalizing the problem. E) separate the problem definition from the search for solutions. Register to View AnswerPage: 76 - 78 55. An interest is instrumental if A) the parties value it because it helps them derive other outcomes in the future. B) the parties value the interest in and of itself. C) it relates to "tangible issues" or the focal issues under negotiation. D) the relationship is valued for both its existence and for the pleasure that sustaining the relationship creates. E) All of the above relate to instrumental interests. Register to View AnswerPage: 80 56. Substantive interests A) are the interests that relate to the focal issues under negotiation. B) are related to the way we settle the dispute. C) mean that one or both parties value their relationship with each other and do not want to take actions that will damage the relationship. D) regard what is fair, what is right, what is acceptable, what is ethical, or what has been done in the past and should be done in the future. E) All of the above relate to substantive interests. Register to View AnswerPage: 80 57. Which of the following statements about interests is true? A) There is only one type of interest in a dispute. B) Parties are always in agreement about the type of interests at stake. C) Interests are often based in more deeply rooted human needs or values. D) Interests do not change during the course of an integrative negotiation. E) All of the above statements about interests are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 82 38 Test Bank, Chapter 1 58. Successful logrolling requires A) that the parties establish more than one issue in conflict and then agree to trade off among these issues so one party achieves a highly preferred outcome on the first issue and the other person achieves a highly preferred outcome on the second issue. B) no additional information about the other party than his/her interests, and assumes that simply enlarging the resources will solve the problem. C) that one party is allowed to obtain his/her objectives and he/she then "pays off" the other party for accommodating his/her interests. D) a fundamental reformulation of the problem such that the parties are disclosing sufficient information to discover their interests and needs and then inventing options that will satisfy both parties' needs. E) Successful logrolling requires all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 85 59. What approach can parties use to generate alternative solutions by redefining the problem or problem set? A) brainstorming B) logrolling C) surveys D) nonspecific compensation E) None of the above approaches can be used to redefine the problem. Register to View AnswerPage: 87 60. In nonspecific compensation A) resources are added in such a way that both sides can achieve their objectives. B) one party achieves his/her objectives and the other's costs are minimized if he/she agrees to go along. C) the parties are able to invent new options that meet each sides' needs. D) one person is allowed to obtain his/her objectives and "pay off" the other person for accommodating his interests. E) All of the above are related to nonspecific compensation. Register to View AnswerPage: 87 61. What questions can be asked to facilitate nonspecific compensation? A) What are the other party's goals and values? B) How can both parties get what they are demanding? C) What issues are of higher and lower priority to me? D) What risks and costs does my proposal create for the other? E) None of the above can be used to facilitate nonspecific compensation. Register to View AnswerPage: 88 39 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 62. "What are the other's real underlying interests and needs?" is a question that can facilitate the _____________ process. A) expanding the pie B) logrolling C) nonspecific compensation D) bridging E) The question should not be used with any of the above processes. Register to View AnswerPage: 88 63. In brainstorming A) individuals work in a large group to select a single optimal solution. B) all solutions are judged and critiqued as they are recorded, and a weighted-average percentage is assigned to each solution. C) parties are urged to be spontaneous and even impractical. D) the success of the approach depends on the item-by-item evaluation and critique of the solutions as presented. E) None of the above is a part of the brainstorming process. Register to View AnswerPage: 89 64. When identifying options in an integrative negotiation, solutions are usually attained through: A) hard work B) information exchange C) focusing on interests rather than positions D) firm flexibility E) Solutions are attained by using all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 90 65. When confronted with complex problems, or a large number of alternative options, which of the following steps is necessary? A) broaden the range of solution options B) evaluate solutions on the basis of quality, standards, and acceptability C) decide on criteria while evaluating options D) maintain a focus on the influence of tangibles in selecting options E) All of the above steps should be used when confronted with complex problems. Register to View AnswerPage: 91 - 94 66. Which guideline should be used in evaluating options and reaching a consensus? A) keep the range of solution options as wide as possible B) evaluate the solutions on the basis of speed and expediency C) keep detailed records throughout the discussion and evaluation process 40 Test Bank, Chapter 1 D) be alert to the influence of intangibles in selecting options E) None of the above should be used in the evaluation process. Register to View AnswerPage: 93 67. A common goal is one in which A) all parties share the result equally B) the parties work toward a common end but benefit differently C) all parties work together to achieve some output that will be shared D) individuals with different personal goals agree to combine them in a collective effort. E) All of the above are characteristics of a common goal. Register to View AnswerPage: 95 68. A joint goal is one in which A) all parties share the result equally. B) the parties work toward a common end but benefit differently. C) individuals with different personal goals agree to combine them in a collective effort. D) all parties work together to achieve some output that will be shared. E) All of the above are characteristics of a common goal. Register to View AnswerPage: 95 69. Which of the following is not necessary for integrative negotiation to succeed? A) Each party should be as interested in the objectives and problems of the other as each is in his/her owneach must assume responsibility for the other's needs and outcomes as well as for his/her own. B) The parties must be committed to a goal that benefits both of them rather than to pursuing only their own ends. C) The parties must be willing to adopt interpersonal styles that are more congenial than combative, more open and trusting than evasive and defensive, more flexible (but firm) than stubborn (but yielding). D) Needs have to be made explicit, similarities have to be identified, and differences have to be recognized and accepted. E) All of the above are essential for integrative negotiation to succeed. Register to View AnswerPage: 96 70. Which of the following is a major characteristic of a pre-settlement settlement? A) The settlement results in a firm, legally binding written agreement between the parties. B) It occurs in advance of the parties undertaking a full-scale negotiation. C) The parties intend that the agreement will be replaced by a more clearly delineated long-term agreement which is to be negotiated. D) It resolves only a subset of the issues on which the parties disagree, and may simply establish a framework within which the more comprehensive agreement can be 41 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e defined and delineated. E) All of the above are characteristics of a pre-settlement settlement. Register to View AnswerPage: 95, 96 71. Which of the following factors does not contribute to the development of trust between negotiators? A) We are more likely to trust someone we perceive as similar to us or as holding a positive attitude toward us. B) We often mistrust people who are dependent upon us because we are in a position to help or hurt them. C) We are more likely to trust people who initiate cooperative, trusting behavior. D) We are more likely to trust negotiators who make concessions. E) All of the above contribute to the development of trust between negotiators. Register to View AnswerPage: 98, 99 72. When people do not trust each other they are more than likely to engage in which of the following behaviors? A) promoting collaboration B) communicating accurately C) positional bargaining D) committing to a joint solution E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 98 73. When formal channels of communication break down, negotiators are permitted to finding alternatives and can use which of the following? A) conversations over coffee breaks B) separate meetings between chief negotiators outside of the formal sessions C) off-the-record contacts between key subordinates D) all of the above E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 100 74. Integrative negotiation fails because A) negotiators fail to perceive the integrative potential of the negotiating problem. B) of distributive assumptions about the negotiation problem. C) of the mixed-motive nature of the issues. D) of the negotiator's previous relationship with one another. E) All of the above are reasons why integrative negotiations fail. Register to View AnswerPage: 102 42 Test Bank, Chapter 1 75. Which of the following 5-step processes has been used successfully in a collective bargaining situation? A) commitment, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation B) commitment, exploration, verification, prioritization, negotiation C) collaboration, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation D) collaboration, exploration, verification, prioritization, negotiation E) None of the above processes have been used in collective bargaining. Register to View AnswerPage: 103 Short Answer Essays 76. What elements must a negotiation contain to be characterized as "integrative?" Register to View Answerfocus on commonalties rather than differences, an attempt to address needs and interests, a commitment to achieving needs of all involved parties, the required exchange of information and ideas, the invention of options for mutual gain, the use of objective criteria for standards of performance. Page: 72 77. Why might it be beneficial for parties in an integrative negotiation to know and share BATNAs? Answer: Parties who are aware of their own alternatives to a negotiated agreement increased their walkaway points, made better negotiating trade-offs and increased the size of the resource pie, but only when both parties were aware of the alternatives. Negotiators who keep the availability of a good BATNA to themselves received some benefits to themselves but failed to obtain the additional benefits obtained when this information was shared. Page: 73 78. In their search for solutions that meet the objectives and needs of both sides, negotiators must be firm but flexible about what? Answer: Firm about their primary interests and needs, but flexible about the manner in which these interests and needs are met through solutions. Page: 74, 75 79. What are the four major steps in the integrative negotiation process? Answer: Identifying and defining the problem, understanding the problem and bringing interests and needs to the surface, generating alternative solutions to the problem, and choosing a specific solution from among those alternatives. Page: 75 80. How should the problem statement be constructed? Answer: It should state the problem as succinctly as possible while assuring that the most important dimensions and elements are included Page: 77 43 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 81. How can personal preferences get in the way of integrative negotiations? Answer: When parties are engaged in conflict, they tend to become evaluative and judgmental. They view their own actions, strategies, and preferences in a positive light and the other party's actions, strategies, and preferences in a negative light. Such evaluative judgments can get in the way of clear and dispassionate thinking Page: 78 82. Define interests. Answer: Interests are the underlying concerns, needs, desires, or fears behind a negotiator's position, which motivate the negotiator to take that position. Page: 79 83. Identify and define the four types of interests. Answer: Substantive interests are the types of interests that relate closely to "tangible issues," and relate to the focal issues under negotiation. Process interests are related to the way we settle the dispute. Relationship interests mean that one or both parties value their relationship with each other and do not want to take actions that will harm or damage the relationship. Interests in principles involve what is fair, what is right, what is acceptable, what is ethical, or what has been done in the past and should be done in the future. Page: 81 84. What is the benefit of bringing different interests to the surface? Answer: Bringing different interests to the surface may enable the parties to see that in fact they care about very different things, and thus they can invent a solution that addresses the interests of both sides. Page: 82 85. What two approaches can be used to generate alternative solutions? Answer: Redefine, recast, or reframe the problem so as to create win-win alternatives out of what earlier appeared to be a win-lose problem; and taking the problem as given and creating a long list of alternative options from which they can choose a particular option. Page: 83 86. Define "nonspecific compensation." Register to View Answerprocess which allows one person to obtain his objectives and "pay off" the other person for accommodating his interests. This payoff may be unrelated to the substantive negotiation, but the party who receives it nevertheless views it as adequate for acceding to the other party's preferences. Page: 87 87. Define "bridging." Answer: The parties are able to invent new options that meet each side's needs. Successful bridging requires a fundamental reformulation of the problem such that the 44 Test Bank, Chapter 1 parties are no longer squabbling over their positions; instead, they are disclosing sufficient information to discover their interests and needs and then inventing options that will satisfy both parties' needs. Page: 87 88. What rules should be observed to facilitate successful brainstorming? Answer: (1) Avoid judging or evaluating solutions; (2) separate the people from the problem; (3) be exhaustive in the brainstorming process; (4) ask outsiders. Page: 89, 90 89. What is a disadvantage to brainstorming over surveys? Answer: The disadvantage of brainstorming is that is does not solicit the ideas of those who are not present at the negotiation. Page: 90 90. What tactics can be used to communicate firm flexibility to an opponent? Answer: (1) Use competitive tactics to establish and defend basic interests, rather than using them to demand a particular position or solution to the dispute; (2) send signals of flexibility and concern about your willingness to address the other party's interests; (3) indicate a willingness to change your proposals if a way can be found to bridge the two parties' interests; (4) demonstrate a problem-solving capacity; (5) maintain open communication channels; (6) reaffirm what is most important to you through the use of deterrent statements; (7) reexamine any aspects of your interests that are clearly unacceptable to the other party and determine if they are still essential to your fundamental position; (8) separate and isolate contentious tactics from problem-solving behavior to better manage the contentious behavior. Page: 91 91. What guidelines should be used in evaluating options and reaching a consensus? Answer: (1) Narrow the range of solution options; (2) evaluate solutions on the basis of quality and acceptability; (3) agree to the criteria in advance of evaluating options; (4) be willing to justify personal preferences; (5) be alert to the influence of intangibles in selecting options; (6) use subgroups to evaluate complex options; (7) take time to cool off; (8) explore different ways to logroll; (9) keep decisions tentative and conditional until all aspects of the final proposal are complete; (10) minimize formality and record keeping until final agreements are closed. Page: 92 - 94 92. Why should criteria be decided in advance of evaluating options? Answer: If the parties first debate their criteria and determine which ones are most important, they will be able to decide on criteria independent of the consideration of any particular candidate or option. Then, when they consider the individual candidates or options, they will pick the best one based on these criteria, not on the individual preferences of one side or the other. Page: 92 45 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 93. What approaches to logrolling can be particularly helpful in the "evaluation and selection of alternatives" phase of integrative negotiation? Answer: Exploit differences in risk preference, exploit differences in expectations, exploit differences in time preferences. Page: 93, 94 94. What are the potential pitfalls of voting on final agreements or packages? Answer: Voting only accomplishes the relative disenfranchisement of the losing party, and jeopardizes the likelihood that "losers" will be less committed than desirable for the implementation and attainment of the negotiated outcome. Page: 95 95. What are the preconditions necessary for the integrative negotiation process? Answer: The presence of a common goal, faith in one's own problem-solving ability, a belief in the validity of the other's position, the motivation and commitment to work together, trust, clear and accurate communication, and an understanding of how to approach an integrative negotiation process. Page: 95 - 101 96. How can motivation and commitment to problem solving be enhanced? Answer: The parties can come to believe that they share a common fate, the parties can demonstrate to one another that there is more to be gained by working together (to increase the payoffs or reduce the costs) than by working separately, the parties can engage in commitments to each other before the negotiations begin. Page: 97, 98 97. Define pre-settlement settlements. Answer: Commitments that parties engage in before the negotiations begin. They are distinguished by three major characteristics: the settlement results in a firm, legally binding written agreement between the parties, it occurs in advance of the parties undertaking a full-scale negotiation, it resolves only a subset of the issues on which the parties disagree. Page: 97 98. Why is analogical learning an especially powerful way to learn about integrative negotiation? Answer: Analogical learning involves the direct comparison of different negotiation examples to identify and understand the underlying principles and structure of the negotiation. Page: 101 99. Define integrative negotiation. Register to View Answercollaborative process in which the parties define their common problem and pursue strategies to solve it. Page: 101 46 Test Bank, Chapter 1 100. What is the primary reason negotiators do not pursue integrative agreements? Answer: They fail to perceive a situation as having integrative potential and are primarily motivated to achieve outcomes that satisfy only their own needs. Page: 102 Chapter 4 Negotiation Strategy and Planning Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Without effective planning and target setting, results occur more by ____________ than by negotiator effort. Answer: chance Page: 107 2. Effective goals must be ____________, ____________, and ____________. Answer: concrete, specific, measurable Page: 109 3. Tactics are subordinate to strategy; they are structured, directed and driven by ____________ considerations. Answer: strategic Page: 111 4. A negotiator's unilateral choice of strategy is reflected in the answers to two simple questions: how much concern does the actor have for achieving the ____________ outcomes at stake in this negotiation, and how much concern does the negotiator have for the current and future quality of the ____________ with the other party? Answer: substantive, relationship Page: 112 5. A strong interest in achieving only substantive outcomes tends to support a ____________ strategy. Answer: competitive (or distributive) Page: 112 6. The decision to negotiate is closely related to the desirability of ____________ ____________. Answer: available alternatives Page: 113 7. ____________ strategies tend to create "we-they" or "superiority-inferiority" patterns, which often lead to distortions in judgment regarding the other side's contributions and efforts, and to distortions in perceptions of the other side's values, needs and positions. Answer: Distributive Page: 114 47 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 8. ____________ strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight. Answer: Accommodative Page: 114 48 Test Bank, Chapter 1 9. Negotiation, like communication in problem-solving groups, proceeds through distinct ____________ or ____________. Answer: phases, stages Page: 116 10. An initiation (or beginning) phase, problem-solving (or middle) phase and an ending (or resolution) phase are descriptive of ____________ negotiations. Answer: successful Page: 116 11. According to Greenhalgh's stage model of negotiation, ____________ is extremely critical to satisfactorily moving the other stages forward. Answer: relationship building Page: 116 12. ____________ is the process by which each party states their opening offer. Answer: Bidding Page: 118 13. The dominant force for success in negotiation is in the ____________ that takes place prior to the dialogue. Answer: planning Page: 118 14. Multiple-issue negotiations lend themselves more to ____________ negotiations. Answer: integrative Page: 121 15. ____________ issues are often difficult to discuss and rank-order. Answer: Intangible Page: 123 16. ____________ are the points where you decide that you should stop the negotiation rather than continue, because any settlement beyond this point is not minimally acceptable. Answer: Limits (resistance point, reservations prices, walkaway points are also acceptable) Page: 125 17. ____________ are other agreements negotiators could achieve and still meet their needs. Answer: Alternatives Page: 125 18. A ____________ ____________ is the place where you decide that you should absolutely stop the negotiation rather than continue because any settlement beyond this point is not minimally acceptable. 49 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: resistance point Page: 125 19. ____________ ____________ often requires considering how to package several issues and objectives. Answer: Target setting Page: 126 20. A "field analysis" is one way to assess all the key parties in a ____________. Answer: negotiation Page: 127 21. In a ____________ negotiation, the other party may be less likely to disclose information, and/or may misrepresent their limits and alternatives. Answer: distributive Page: 132 22. ____________ are potential hurdles that can move one in the wrong direction. Answer: Assumptions Page: 133 23. When the other side raises an unexpected issue the negotiator is completely unprepared to discuss, the experienced negotiator may ask for a ____________ to get information and prepare themselves on the new issue. Answer: recess Page: 135 24. ____________ is the most critically important activity in negotiation. Answer: Planning Page: 137 25. Having a sense of direction and the ____________ derived from it is a very important factor in affecting negotiating outcomes. Answer: confidence Page: 137 True/False Questions T F 26. Negotiators usually set clear objectives that can serve as standards for evaluating offers and packages. Register to View AnswerPage: 107 T F 27. If what we want exceeds what the other party is capable of or willing to give, we must either change our goals or end the negotiation. 50 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Register to View Answer Page: 109 T F 28. The pursuit of only a singular, substantive goal often tends to support the choice of a competitive strategy. Register to View AnswerPage: 112 T F 29. If both substance and relationship outcomes are important, the negotiator should pursue a competitive strategy. Register to View AnswerPage: 112 T F 30. A competitive strategy would be appropriate when the relationship outcome is relatively more important to the strategizer than the substantive outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 113 T F 31. Distributive strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight. Register to View AnswerPage: 114 T F 32. The objective of "closing the deal" is to build commitment to the agreement. Register to View AnswerPage: 118 T F 33. The dominant force for success in negotiation is in the dialogue that takes place prior to the planning. Register to View AnswerPage: 118 T F 34. A single planning process can be followed for both a distributive and an integrative process. Register to View AnswerPage: 119 T F 35. All negotiations consist of multiple issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 119 T F 36. Single-issue negotiations can often be made integrative by working to decrease the number of issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 121 51 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 37. Single-issue negotiations and the absence of a long-term relationship with the other party are the strongest drivers of claiming value strategies. Register to View AnswerPage: 121 T F 38. Large bargaining mixes allow many possible components and arrangements for settlement. Register to View AnswerPage: 123 T F 39. It is important to set priorities and possibly assign points for both tangible and intangible issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 123 T F 40. Interests may be process-based and relationship-based. Register to View AnswerPage 124 T F 41. Interests are what a negotiator wants. Register to View AnswerPage: 124 T F 42. Alternatives are very important in both distributive and integrative processes because they define whether the current outcome is better than any other possibility. Register to View AnswerPage: 125 T F 43. It is not possible to evaluate packages the same way as evaluating individual issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 126 T F 44. If intangibles are a key point of the bargaining mix, negotiators must know the point at which they are willing to abandon the pursuit of an intangible in favor of substantial gains on tangibles. Register to View AnswerPage: 127 T F 45. Context issues (e.g., history of the relationship) can affect negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 129 T F 46. Gathering information about the other party is a critical step in preparing for negotiation. 52 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Register to View Answer Page: 130 T F 47. It is sufficient to learn about the other party's interests and resources. Register to View AnswerPage: 130 T F 48. In a distributive negotiation, the other party may be less likely to disclose information about their limits and alternatives. Register to View AnswerPage: 132 T F 49. Drawing up a firm list of issues before the initial negotiation meeting is a valuable process because it forces negotiators to think through their positions and decide on objectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 135 T F 50. In new bargaining relationships, discussions about procedural issues should occur after the major substantive issues are raised. Register to View AnswerPage: 136 Multiple Choice Questions 51. What are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives? A) Effective strategizing, planning and preparation B) goal setting and target planning C) defining frames and setting goals D) framing and strategizing E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 107 52. Which of the following is not a reason that negotiations fail? A) Allowing insufficient time for planning B) Failing to set clear objectives C) Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of their and the other party's positions D) Depending on being quick and clever during negotiations Register to View AnswerPage: 107 53. A negotiator's goals: A) are intrinsically in conflict with his opponent's goals B) have no boundaries or limits C) are explicitly stated wishes 53 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e D) must be reasonably attainable E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 109 54. The less concrete and measurable goals are: A) the harder it is to communicate to the other party what we want B) the easier it is to understand what your opponent wants C) the easier it is to determine whether a particular outcome satisfies our goals D) the harder it is to restate what the initial goal was E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 109 55. Which is not a difference between strategy and tactics? A) Scale B) Goals C) Perspective D) Immediacy Register to View AnswerPage: 110 56. A strong interest in achieving only substantive outcomes tends to support which of the following strategies? A) collaborative B) accommodating C) competitive D) avoidance E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 112 57. A strong interest in achieving only the relationship outcomes suggests one, if any, of the following strategies. Which one? A) competitive B) accommodation C) collaborative D) avoidance E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 112 58. Avoidance could best be used when: A) negotiation is necessary to meet your needs B) the time and effort to negotiate are negligible C) the available alternatives are very strong 54 Test Bank, Chapter 1 D) the only available negotiator is a senior manager. E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 113 59. Which one of the following is as much a win-lose strategy as competition, although it has a decidedly different image? A) collaboration B) avoidance C) engagement D) accommodation Register to View AnswerPage: 113 60. Characteristics of collaborative strategies include: A) long-term focus B) trust and openness C) efforts to find mutually satisfying solutions D) pursuit of goals held jointly with others E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 115 61. In an accommodative negotiation, the relationships have: A) a short-term focus B) a long-term focus C) may be either short term or long term D) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 115 62. Accommodative strategies emphasize: A) Subordinating one's own goals in favor of those of others. B) Secrecy and defensiveness C) Abandonment of bad images and consideration of ideas based on merit D) A key attitude of "I win; you lose" E) All of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 115 63. Getting to know the other party and understanding similarities and differences represents what key step in the negotiation process: A) preparation B) information gathering C) relationship building D) information using E) None of the above 55 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Register to View Answer Page: 116 64. The general structure of a phase model of negotiations involves: A) Three phases: initiation; problem-solving; resolution B) Four phases: pre-initiation; initiation; problem-solving; resolution C) Two phases: problem-solving and resolution D) None of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 117 65. Which is not a key step to an ideal negotiation process? A) Preparation B) Relationship Building C) Information Gathering D) Bidding E) All of the above are key steps Register to View AnswerPage: 117, 118 66. What is the dominant force for success in negotiation? A) a distributive vs. integrative strategy B) the planning that takes place prior to the dialogue C) the discussions that precede planning sessions D) the tactics selected in support of strategic goals E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 118 67. Effective planning requires hard work on the following points: A) Defining the issues B) Defining the bargaining limit C) Defining interests D) Defining limits and alternatives E) All of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 118 68. Interests can be: A) substantive, directly related to the focal issues under negotiation B) process based, related to the manner in which we settle this dispute C) relationship based, tied to the current or desired future relationship between the parties D) based in the intangibles of the negotiation E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 124 56 Test Bank, Chapter 1 69. Which is not true of limits? A) Are the point where you should stop the negotiation B) Are also called resistance point C) Establishing them is a critical part of planning D) They should be ignored in a bidding war E) All of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 125 70. Does any of the following represent the point at which we realistically expect to achieve a settlement? A) specific target point B) resistance point C) alternative D) asking price E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 125 71. Which represents the best deal we can possibly hope to achieve? A) specific target point B) resistance point C) alternative D) asking price E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 125 72. Reactive strategies: A) encourage negotiators to be more flexible and creative B) can efficiently clear up confusion about issues C) will lessen a negotiator's defensive posture D) can make negotiators feel threatened and defensive E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 126 73. If the other party has a strong and viable alternative, he/she will A) be dependent on achieving a satisfactory agreement B) appear aggressive and hostile in negotiations C) set and push for high objectives D) have unlimited negotiating authority E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 131 57 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 74. A negotiator should ask which of the following questions when presenting issues to the other party to assemble information. A) What facts support my point of view? B) Whom may I consult or take with to help me elaborate or clarify the facts? C) What is the other party's point of view likely to be? D) How can I develop and present the facts so they are most convincing? E) All of the above questions should be asked. Register to View AnswerPage: 134 75. Under which of the following questions of protocol would you find a bargaining relationship discussion about procedural issues that should occur before the major substantive ones have been raised? A) What agenda should we follow? B) Where should we negotiate? C) What is the time period of the negotiation? D) What might be done if negotiation fails? E) How will we keep track of what is agreed to? Register to View AnswerPage: 136 Short Answer Essays 76. What are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives? Answer: Effective strategy and planning Page: 107 77. What are the three types of goals? Answer: Tangibles, intangibles and procedural Page: 109 78. Define goal. Register to View Answergoal is a specific, focused realistic target that one can specifically plan to achieve. Page: 109 79. Why is important for goals to be concrete, specific and measurable? Answer: The less concrete and measurable they are, the harder it is to communicate to the other party what we want, to understand what he/she wants, and to determine whether any particular outcome satisfies our goals. Page: 109 80. How does the single episodic assumption affect our choice of strategy? Answer: Developing and framing goals in the view of a single negotiation episode 58 Test Bank, Chapter 1 allows us to ignore the relationship (and future dealings) with the other party in favor of a simplistic concern for achieving only the substantive outcome. Page: 110 81. Define strategy and tactics. Answer: Tactics are short-term, adaptive moves designed to enact or pursue broader (or higher level) strategies, which in turn provide stability, continuity, and direction for tactical behaviors. Page: 110, 111 82. What are the four types of initial strategies for negotiators? Answer: Competition, collaboration, accommodation and avoidance Page: 112 83. What strategic negotiation purposes can be served by avoidance? Answer: First, if you are able to meet your needs without negotiating at all, it may make sense to use an avoidance strategy. Second, it simply may not be worth the time and effort to negotiate. Third, the decision to negotiate is closely related to the desirability of available alternativeswhat outcomes the negotiator can hope to achieve if negotiations fall through or don't work out. Finally, avoidance may be appropriate when the negotiator is responsible for developing others into becoming better negotiators. Page: 113 84. What is the primary goal in the use of the strategy of accommodation? Answer: To build or strengthen the relationship (or the other party) and the negotiator is willing to sacrifice the outcome. Page: 114 85. What is a drawback of accommodation strategies? Answer: Accommodation strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight. Page: 114 86. Why is it important to understand the typical steps or flow in a negotiation? Answer: To understand how negotiations are likely to evolve and why planning is so important. Page: 116 87. What are the types of questions typically addressed by phase research? Answer: How does the interaction between parties change over time? How do the interaction structures relate to inputs and outcomes over time? How do the tactics affect the development of the negotiation? Page: 116 88. Define Relationship building, a key step in an ideal negotiation. Answer: Relationship building is getting to know the other party, understanding how you 59 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e and the other are similar and different, and building commitment toward achieving a mutually beneficial set of outcomes. Page: 116 89. Research by Greenhalgh suggests there are seven key steps to an ideal negotiation process. What are those seven steps? Answer: (1) Preparation, (2) relationship building, (3) information gathering, (4) information using, (5) bidding, (6) closing the deal, and (7) implementing the agreement. Page: 117 90. Which of the Greenhalgh seven steps of negotiation do Asian negotiators spend a great deal of time on? Answer: Relationship building Page: 118 91. What specific steps are entailed in effective planning? Answer: Defining the issues; assembling issues and defining the bargaining mix; defining interests; defining limits and alternatives; defining one's own objectives (targets) and opening bids (where to start); assessing constituents and the social context in which the negotiation will occur; analyzing the other party; planning the issue presentation and defense; defining protocol where and when the negotiation will occur, who will be there, agenda, etc. Page: 118 92. Define bargaining mix. Answer: The combined lists of issues from each side in the negotiation. Page: 123 93. What are the advantages and disadvantages of large bargaining mixes? Answer: Large bargaining mixes give us more possible components and arrangements for settlement, thus increasing the likelihood that a particular package will meet both parties' needs and, therefore, increasing the likelihood of a successful settlement. At the same time, larger bargaining mixes can lengthen negotiations because there are more possible combinations of issues to consider and combining and evaluating all these mixes makes things very complex. Page: 123 94. Why may bargainers want to consider "giving away something for nothing?" Answer: Even if an issue is unimportant or inconsequential to you, it may be valuable or attractive to another. Awareness of the actual or likely value of such concessions to the parties can considerably enrich the value that you offer to the other at little or no cost to yourself. Page: 127 95. What information do we need about the other party to prepare effectively? 60 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Answer: The other party's current resources, interests, and bargaining mix. The other party's interests and needs. The other party's resistance point and alternative(s). The other party's targets and objectives. The other party's reputation and negotiation style. The other party's constituents, social structure and authority to make an agreement. The other party's likely strategy and tactics. Page: 130 96. What are the advantages and disadvantages of limiting a negotiator's authority? Answer: Advantages: Negotiators kept on a "short leash" cannot be won over by a persuasive presentation to commit their constituency to something that is not wanted. They cannot give out sensitive information carelessly. Disadvantages: When a negotiator always has to "check things out" with those he represents, the other party may refuse to continue until someone who has the power to answer questions and make decisions is brought to the table. The limited authority may frustrate the other and create an unproductive tension in the negotiating relationship. Page: 132 97. What is the danger about making assumptions to predict the other party's negotiating behavior? Answer: We can use the information to prepare, to alert ourselves to what might happen; but we should also act with caution and actively look for new information that confirms or denies the validity of our assumption. There is often a tendency to seek and recognize information confirming our desires and assumptions, while failing to seek or recognize "disconfirming" information that counters them. Page: 133 98. What elements of the negotiation protocol might it be useful to prenegotiate? Answer: What agenda to follow, the location of the negotiation, the time period of the negotiation, what might be done if the negotiation fails, how to keep track of what is agreed to, how to recognize a good agreement. Page: 135, 136 99. Why is note taking critical? Answer: The person with the best notes becomes the memory of the session, can take some license in the drafting of the agreement and will have something that can be reviewed by experts and specialists. Page: 136 100. What is likely to happen to a negotiator who resolves procedural issues before the major substantive ones are raised? Answer: The negotiator should find it easier to reach agreement later on the substantive issues. Page: 136 Chapter 5 Perception, Cognition, and Emotion 61 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Perception is a "sense-making" process; people interpret their ____________ so they can make appropriate responses to it. Answer: environment Page: 139 2. The perceiver's own needs, desires, motivations, and personal experiences may be likely to create a ____________ about the other party in an upcoming negotiation. Answer: predisposition Page: 139 3. ____________ ____________ occur when people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual. Answer: Halo effects Page: 140 4. Projection occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or ____________ that they possess themselves. Answer: feelings Page: 141 5. A ____________ is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions. Answer: frame Page: 142 6. The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create ____________ of their own. Answer: biases Page: 144 7. ____________ in frames between parties are sources of conflict. Answer: Mismatches Page: 144 8. Parties who focus on ____________ in a dispute are often able to find ways to resolve that dispute. Answer: interests Page: 145 9. Disputes settled by ____________ usually create clear winners and losers. Answer: power Page: 146 62 Test Bank, Chapter 1 63 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 10. Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the ____________ ____________. Answer: bargaining mix Page: 147 11. ____________ can also occur as one party uses metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point. Answer: Reframing Page: 149 12. Frames shape what the parties define as the ____________ ____________ and how they talk about them. Answer: key issues Page: 149 13. Negotiators operating under ____________ also reached agreements having higher joint value for the two parties. Answer: accountability Page: 152 14. Negotiations in which the outcomes are ____________ framed tend to produce fewer concessions, reach fewer agreements, and perceive outcomes as less fair. Answer: negatively Page: 154 15. ____________ is the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true. Answer: Overconfidence Page: 156 16. The ____________ _________ ____________ is the tendency to neglect to use information that is available but expressed in numerical probabilities. Answer: base rate fallacy Page: 159 17. ____________ ____________ is the process of devaluing the other party's concessions simply because the other party made them. Answer: Reactive devaluation Page: 160 18. Misperceptions and cognitive biases typically arise out of ____________ ____________ as negotiators gather and process information. Answer: conscious awareness Page: 160 19. Considering mood and emotion, negotiators are portrayed as rational beings who seem 64 Test Bank, Chapter 1 ____________, calm, and in control. Answer: calculating Page: 164 65 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 20. Negotiators may intentionally manipulate ____________ in order to get the other side to adopt certain beliefs or take certain actions. Answer: emotion Page: 168, 169 True/False Questions T F 21. Perception is the process by which individuals "connect" to their environment. Register to View AnswerPage: 139 T F 22. Stereotyping and halo effects are examples of perceptual distortion by the anticipation of encountering certain attributes and qualities in another person. Register to View AnswerPage: 140 T F 23. Halo effects can be positive or negative. Register to View AnswerPage: 140 T F 24. If perceptual distortions and initial assumptions are correct, then negotiators may not be able to reverse their effects. Register to View AnswerPage: 141, 142 T F 25. A perceptual bias is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 142 T F 26. Framing is about focusing, shaping, and organizing the world around us but does not define persons, events or processes. Register to View AnswerPage: 142 T F 27. Frames are important in negotiation because disputes are often nebulous and open to different interpretations. Register to View AnswerPage: 142 T F 28. A characterization frame can clearly be shaped by experience with the other party but identity frames (of self) tend to be negative while the characterization frames tend to be positive. Register to View AnswerPage: 144 66 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 29. The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create biases of their own. Register to View AnswerPage: 144 67 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 30. Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of one factor. Register to View AnswerPage: 145 T F 31. Disputes over rights are sometimes referred to formal or informal arbitrators to decide whose standards or rights are more appropriate. Register to View AnswerPage: 145 T F 32. The definition of issues at stake in a negotiation may not change as the discussion evolves. Register to View AnswerPage: 147 T F 33. Early in a negotiation, it is common for the parties to talk past each other. Register to View AnswerPage: 148 T F 34. When brought into the conversation, these secondary concerns often transform the conversation about the primary issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 149 T F 35. The way an issue is framed will not influence how negotiators perceive risk and behave in relation to it. Register to View AnswerPage: 153 T F 36. Negotiators always ask about the other partys perceptions and thoughts. Register to View AnswerPage: 160 T F 37. The question of how best to manage perceptual and cognitive bias is not a difficult one. Register to View AnswerPage: 160 T F 38. Reframing does not require negotiators to be flexible during a negotiation but they should anticipate that multiple contingencies may arise during negotiations... Register to View AnswerPage: 162 T F 39. Telling people about a perceptual or cognitive bias, or having them discuss things in a group meeting, will make the bias go away. Register to View AnswerPage: 163 68 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 40. Negotiators who feel positive emotions are more likely to be inflexible in how they arrive at a solution to a problem. Register to View AnswerPage: 165 69 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Multiple Choice Questions 41. Perception is A) the process by which individuals connect to their environment. B) strongly influenced by the receiver's current state of mind, role and understanding or comprehension of earlier communications. C) a factor that can affect how meanings are ascribed. D) a complex physical and psychological process. E) All of the above describe perception. Register to View AnswerPage: 139 42. Which of the following lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order? A) stimulus, translation, attention, recognition, behavior B) stimulus, behavior, translation, attention, recognition C) stimulus, attention, recognition, translation, behavior D) behavior, stimulus, recognition, attention, translation E) None of the above lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order. Register to View AnswerPage: 139 43. Halo effects occur when A) attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group. B) people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual. C) the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief. D) people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves. E) All of the above describe halo effects. Register to View AnswerPage: 140 44. Projection occurs when A) attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group. B) people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual. C) the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief. D) people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves. E) All of the above describe projection. Register to View AnswerPage: 141 70 Test Bank, Chapter 1 45. Frames are important in negotiation because A) they allow parties to develop separate definitions of the issues B) they can be avoided C) disputes are often nebulous and open to different interpretations D) do not allow negotiators to articulate an aspect of a complex social situation E) all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 142 46. In which type of frame would parties be more likely to engage primarily in distributive (win-lose or lose-lose) negotiations than in other types? A) Identity B) Loss-gain C) Outcome D) Process E) Substantive Register to View AnswerPage: 143 47. An insight drawn from research of the frames negotiators use in disputes would suggest that parties discussing salary may be likely to use outcome frames and may be related to which of the following. A) Negotiators can use more than one frame. B) Mismatches in frames between parties are sources of conflict. C) Particular types of frames may led to particular types of agreements. D) Specific frames may be likely to be used with certain types of issues. E) Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of various factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 145 48. Those attempting to negotiate in China recognize the value the Chinese place in saving face. Which of the following cultural elements should also be examined in approaching discussions with the Chinese? A) Social linkage B) Harmony C) Roles D) Reciprocal obligations E) All of the above should be considered Register to View AnswerPage: 146 49. Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the bargaining mix. Which of the following factors can affect how the conversation is shaped? A) Negotiators tend to argue for stock issues, or concerns that are raised every time the parties negotiate. 71 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e B) Each party attempts to make the best possible case for his or her preferred position or perspective. C) Frames may define major shifts and transitions in a complex overall negotiation. D) Multiple agenda items operate to shape issue development. E) All of the above contribute to the shaping of the conversation. Register to View AnswerPage: 148, 149 50. One of the most important aspects of framing as issue development is the process of reframing, or the manner in which the thrust, tone, and focus of a conversation change as the parties engage in it. Reframing is or occurs: A) the way parties challenge each other, as they present their own case or refute the others. B) a dynamic process that may occur many times in a conversation. C) when using metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point. D) and may be used intentionally by one side or the other. E) all of the above apply to reframing as parties often propose new ways to approach a problem. Register to View AnswerPage: 147, 148 51. The irrational escalation of commitment bias refers to A) the standard against which subsequent adjustments are measured during negotiation. B) the perspective or point of view that people use when they gather information and solve problems. C) how easily information can be recalled and used to inform or evaluate a process of a decision. D) a negotiator's commitment to a course of action, even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on his/her part. E) None of the above refer to irrational escalation of commitment. Register to View AnswerPage: 150 52. Which of the following is not a cognitive bias? A) the irrational escalation of commitment B) the belief that the issues under negotiation are all "fixed pie" C) the process of anchoring and adjustment in decision making D) the winner's curse E) All of the above are cognitive biases. Register to View AnswerPage: 150 53. The availability of information bias operates with which of the following statements? A) when negotiators sometimes maintain commitment to a course of action even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on their part. B) when thorough preparation, along with the use of a devils advocate or reality check, 72 Test Bank, Chapter 1 can help prevent errors. C) when information that is presented in vivid, colorful, or attention-getting ways becomes easy to recall, and thus also becomes central and critical in evaluating events and options. D) when the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true E) when the tendency will often lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, as follows: People who expect to be treated in a distributive manner will (1) be more likely to perceive the other partys behavior as distributive, and (2) treat the other party in a more distributive manner Register to View AnswerPage: 155 54. Which of the following cognitive biases can lead negotiators to discount the worth or validity of the judgment of others? A) Irrational escalation of commitment B) Mythical fixed-pie beliefs C) Anchoring and adjustment D) Availability of information E) Overconfidence Register to View AnswerPage: 156 55. The Endowment Effect A) is making attributions to the person or the situation B) is drawing conclusions from small sample sizes C) is negotiators believing that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than actually true D) is the tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess Register to View AnswerPage: 159 56. Reactive devaluation A) leads negotiators to minimize the magnitude of a concession made by a disliked other. B) leads to reduced willingness to respond with a concession of equal size. C) may be minimized by maintaining a more objective view of the process. D) can lead to motivation to seek even more once a concession has been made. E) All of the above are elements of reactive devaluation. Register to View AnswerPage: 160 57. The best way to manage perceptual and cognitive biases is: A) to be aware that they exist. B) to participate in group discussions. C) to tell people about the bias. 73 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e D) complete a questionnaire. E) All of the above help manage biases but may not be enough in and of themselves. Register to View AnswerPage: 160 58. The distinction between mood and emotion is based on which of the following characteristics? A) specificity B) intensity C) duration D) all of the above E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 164 59. Negative emotions may lead parties to A) more integrative processes B) escalate the conflict C) promote persistence D) define the situation as integrative E) more integrative outcomes Register to View AnswerPage: 166 60. Which of the following statements about how emotion plays a part in negotiation is accurate? A) Negotiations only create negative emotions. B) Positive feelings do not promote persistence. C) Negative feelings may create positive outcomes. D) Positive emotion may result from impasse. E) Negative emotions do not undermine a negotiators ability to analyze a situation accurately. Register to View AnswerPage: 168 Short Answer Essays 61. Define perception. Answer: The process of screening, selecting, and interpreting stimuli so that they have meaning to the individual. Page: 139 62. Define perceptual distortion by generalization. Answer: Perceptual distortion by generalization occurs when small amounts of perceptual information are used to draw large conclusions about individuals. Page: 140 74 Test Bank, Chapter 1 63. What is stereotyping? Answer: Stereotyping occurs when attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group. Page: 140 64. How does projection occur? Answer: Projection occurs when people assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves and it arises out of a need to protect ones own self-concept. Page: 141 65. A key issue in perception and negotiation is framing. What is framing? Register to View Answerframe is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions. Page: 142 66. How are frames critical in negotiations? Answer: Because how parties frame and define a negotiating issue or problem is a clear and strong reflection of what they define as central and critical to negotiating objectives, what their expectations and preferences are for certain possible outcomes, what information they seek and use to argue their case, the procedures they use to try to present their case, and the manner in which they evaluate the outcomes actually achieved. Page: 142, 143 67. How does an outcome frame function in an environmental dispute? Answer: An outcome frame is a partys predisposition to achieving a specific result or outcome from the negotiation. To the degree that a negotiator has a specific, preferred outcome he or she wants to achieve, the dominant frame may be to focus all strategy, tactics, and communication toward getting that outcome. Parties who have a strong outcome frame are more likely to engage primarily in distributive (win-lose or lose-lose) negotiations than in other types of negotiations Page: 143 68. Why are mismatches in frames between parties sources of conflicts? Answer: Such mismatches cause conflict and ambiguity, which may either create misunderstanding, lead to conflict escalation and even stalemate, or lead one or both parties to reframe the conflict into frames that are more compatible and that may lead to resolution. For highly polarized disputes, mutual reframing may not occur without the help of a third party. Page: 144, 145 69. List the five concepts from Chinese culture, as identified by C. Tinsley that those attempting to negotiate in China should recognize. Answer: Social linkage, harmony, roles, reciprocal obligations, and face. Page: 146 75 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 70. What role do frames play in the way they are constructed so that bargainers define problems and courses of action jointly through their talk? Answer: Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the bargaining mix. Although both parties may approach the discussion with initial frames that resemble the categories described earlier, the ongoing interaction between them shapes the discussion as each side attempts to argue from his or her own perspective or counter argue against the others perspective. Page: 147, 148 71. How do multiple agenda items operate to shape issue development? Answer: Although parties usually have one or two major objectives, priorities, or core issues, there are often a number of lesser or secondary items. When brought into the conversation, these secondary concerns often transform the conversation about the primary issues. Page: 142 72. Define cognitive biases. Answer: Systematic errors made when processing information. Page: 149 73. Explain "Irrational Escalation of Commitment." Answer: Negotiators sometimes maintain commitment to a course of action, even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on their part. Once a course of action is decided, negotiators often seek supportive (confirming) evidence for that choice, while ignoring or failing to seek disconfirming evidence. Page: 150, 151 74. What can help prevent errors of anchoring and adjustment? Answer: Thorough preparation along with the use of a devil's advocate or reality check. Page: 153 75. Both risk-averse and risk-seeking framing is part of what theory? Answer: Prospect theory. Page 153 75. What are the two things to keep in mind about the effect of frames on risk in negotiation (according to Neale and Bazerman)? Answer: (1) negotiators are not usually indifferent to risk, but (2) they should not necessarily trust their intuitions regarding it. In other words, negotiators may overreact to a perceived loss when they might react more positively to the same situation if it is framed as a perceived gain. Hence, as a negotiator you must avoid the pitfalls of being framed while, simultaneously, understanding positively and negatively framing your opponent. Page: 154 76 Test Bank, Chapter 1 77. In negotiation, when does the availability bias operate? Answer: When information that is presented in more vivid, colorful, or attention-getting ways becomes easier to recall and thus also becomes more central and critical in evaluating events and options. Page: 155 78. What is the best remedy for the winner's curse? Answer: Prevent it from occurring. Thorough investigation and preparation provides negotiators with independent verification of the worth of the settlement. Page: 156 79. Describe the double-edged effect of overconfidence. Answer: (1) Overconfidence can solidify the degree to which negotiators support positions or options that are incorrect or inappropriate; and (2) overconfidence can lead negotiators to discount the worth or validity of the judgments of others, in effect shutting down other parties as sources of information , interests, and options necessary for a successful integrative negotiation. Page: 156 80. Define the fundamental attribution error. Answer: When people "explain" another's behavior, the tendency is to overestimate the casual role of personal or internal factors and underestimate the causal role of situational or external factors. Page: 158 Chapter 6 Communication Fill in the Blank Questions 1. _____________ is conceptualized as an activity that occurs between a sender and a receiver. Answer: Communication Page: 172 2. Messages are the ____________ forms by which information is communicated. Answer: symbolic Page: 175 3. _____________ and ____________ are the conduits by which messages are carried. Answer: Channels, media Page: 175 4. ____________ is the process by which messages are put into symbolic form. Answer: Encoding Page: 175 77 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 5. A communicator who wishes to convey an emotional appeal may risk message ____________ in writing when a personal conversation would make it easier to convey emotion. Answer: distortion Page: 176 6. In negotiations, language operates at two levels: the _____________ level (for proposals or offers) and the _____________ level (for semantics, syntax, and style). Answer: logical, pragmatic Page: 182 7. The use of _____________ ____________ is defined as when negotiators use positive words when speaking of their own positions, and negative words when referring to the other party's position. Answer: polarized language Page: 183 8. High levels of _____________ ____________ denote comfort and competence with language, and low levels denote discomfort, anxiety, or inexperience. Answer: lexical diversity Page: 183 9. Nonverbal communicationdone wellmay help negotiators achieve better outcomes through _____________ coordination. Answer: mutual Page: 185 78 Test Bank, Chapter 1 10. Researchers have been examining the effects of channels in general, and _____________ in particular, on negotiation processes and outcomes during much of the past decade. Answer: e-mail Page: 186 11. One of the most common techniques for clarifying communication and eliminating noise and distortion is the use of _____________. Answer: questions Page: 190 12. _____________ questions cause attention, get information and start thinking. Answer: Manageable Page: 190 13. _____________ ____________ involves receiving a message while providing no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception. Answer: Passive listening Page: 192 14. _____________ techniques allow negotiators to understand more completely the other party's positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that they are understood. Answer: Role-reversal Page: 194 15. Achieving _____________ in negotiation is, in large part, making decisions to accept offers, to compromise priorities, to trade off across issues with the other party, or some combination of these elements. Answer: closure Page: 195 True/False Questions T F 16. Most communication, particularly in negotiation, involves give-and-take dialogue and discussion between at least two parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 173 T F 17. Communication works to the degree that a wide variety of information is completely and thoroughly shared among the parties, and mutual understanding is reached. Register to View AnswerPage: 174 T F 18. The elements of the communication model and the linkages among them are 79 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e invulnerable to external factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 174, 175 80 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 19. The more diverse the goals of the two parties, or the more antagonistic they are in their relationship, the lesser the likelihood that distortions and errors in communication will occur. Register to View AnswerPage: 175 T F 20. The more prone we are to use symbolic communication, the more likely it is that the symbols we choose may not accurately communicate the meaning we intend. Register to View AnswerPage: 175 T F 21. Decoding can be defined as the process by which messages are put into symbolic form. Register to View AnswerPage: 175 T F 22. One-way communication is the only instance in which feedback is not essential to the communication process. Register to View AnswerPage: 176 T F 23. While the blend of integrative versus distributive communication content varies as a function of the issues being discussed, it is also clear that the content of communication is only partly responsible for negotiation outcomes. Register to View AnswerPage: 177 T F 24. Thompson et al. found that winners and losers evaluated their own outcomes equally when they did not know how well the other party had done, but if they found out that the other negotiator had done better, or was even pleased with his or her outcome, then negotiators felt less positive about their own outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 T F 25. Mitigating circumstances occur where negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives. Register to View AnswerPage: 178 T F 26. Sitkin and Bies suggest that negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes and that the negative effects of poor outcomes can be mitigated by communicating explanations for them. Register to View AnswerPage: 179 81 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 27. Low verbal immediacy is intended to engage or compel the other party, while high verbal immediacy is intended to create a sense of distance or aloofness. Register to View AnswerPage: 183 82 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 28. High levels of language intensity are used to convey strong feelings in the recipient, while low intensity conveys weak feelings. Register to View AnswerPage: 183 T F 29. A negotiator's choice of words may only signal a position; it may never shape or predict it. Register to View AnswerPage: 184 T F 30. Manageable questions cause difficulty, give information, and bring the discussion to a false conclusion. Register to View AnswerPage: 190 Multiple Choice Questions 31. In which of the following examples is the communication model listed in the correct order? A) sender encodes the message, message is transmitted, receiver decodes the message, receiver provides feedback to the sender B) message is transmitted, sender encodes the message, receiver decodes the message, receiver provides feedback to the sender C) sender encodes the message, receiver decodes the message, message is transmitted, receiver provides feedback to the sender D) sender encodes the message, message is transmitted, receiver provides feedback to the sender, receiver decodes the message E) None of the above list the communication process in the correct order. Register to View AnswerPage: 175, 176 32. Encoding can be defined as A) the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist within individuals and act as a set of filters for interpreting the decoded messages. B) the process by which messages are put into symbolic form. C) the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into a form that makes sense. D) the process by which the receiver reacts to the sender's message. E) Decoding can be defined as all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 175 33. Which of the following would be likely to distort messages and their meaning, preventing them from being understood completely? A) shared or common goals between the sender and receiver B) the elimination of distraction and confusion in the communication environment 83 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e C) the avoidance of symbolic communication D) the congruence or incongruence between multiple transmission channels E) All of the above would be likely to distort messages and their meaning. Register to View AnswerPage: 176 84 Test Bank, Chapter 1 34. "Interpretation" can be defined as A) the process by which the receiver reacts to the sender's message. B) the process of screening, selecting, and interpreting stimuli so that they have meaning to the individual. C) the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist within individuals and act as a set of filters for interpreting the decoded messages. D) small amounts of perceptual information that are used to draw large conclusions about individuals. E) None of the above define "interpretation." Register to View AnswerPage: 176 35. The presence of feedback can A) distort communication in negotiation. B) lead negotiators to change the way that they negotiate or evaluate negotiation outcomes. C) influence the offers that negotiators make. D) motivate the sender to change his or her behavior, either in a positive or negative direction. E) The presence of feedback can cause all of the above to occur. Register to View AnswerPage: 176 36. Define exonerating circumstances. A) Negotiators suggest that they had no choice in taking the positions they did. B) Negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives. C) Outcomes can be explained by changing the context. D) Negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes. E) None of the above can define exonerating circumstances. Register to View AnswerPage: 179 37. Which of the following is not one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats? A) the use of polarized language B) the conveyance of verbal immediacy C) the degree of lexical diversity D) the extent of low-power language style E) All of the above are elements of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats. Register to View AnswerPage: 183 38. Gibbons, Bradac, and Busch suggest that threats can be made more credible and more compelling by using A) positively polarized descriptions of the other party. B) low immediacy. 85 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e C) high intensity. D) low verbal diversity. E) None of the above can make threats more credible and compelling. Register to View AnswerPage: 183 86 Test Bank, Chapter 1 39. Which of the following is not one of the four biases that threaten e-mail negotiations? A) Temporal synchrony bias is the tendency for e-mail negotiators to behave as if they are in a synchronous situation when they are not (parties are not working on the same time frame). B) Sinister attribution bias occurs when one mistakenly assumes that anothers behavior is caused by personality flaws, while overlooking the role of situational factors (dissimilarity between parties and shortage of rapport may exist among e-mail lead individuals to project sinister and deceitful motives onto the other party). C) Impasse in e-mail negotiations bias is the tendency for the negotiators to disclose personal information through e-mail about themselves and the issues with the other party (no mutual self-disclosure on the part of the out-group party). D) Burned bridge bias is the tendency for individuals to employ risky behavior during email negotiations that they would not use during a face-to-face encounter (negotiators may be more willing to challenge the other party). E) Squeaky wheel bias is the tendency for e-mail negotiators to use a negative emotional style to achieve their goals (resort to intimidation, rude behavior, poor etiquette to achieve outcomes). Register to View AnswerPage: 188, 189 40. What are the most dominant contributors to breakdowns and failures in negotiation? A) failures and distortions in perception, meaning, and feedback B) failures and distortions in perception, feedback, and behaviors C) failures and distortions in perception, communication, and framing D) failures and distortions in perception, cognition, and communication. E) None of the above contribute to breakdowns and failures in negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 189 41. Which of the following are types of manageable questions? A) close-out questions that force the other party into seeing things your way B) leading questions that point toward an answer C) impulse questions that occur "on the spur of the moment," without planning D) loaded questions that put the other party on the spot regardless of his/her answer E) None of the above are types of manageable questions. Register to View AnswerPage: 191 42. Questions can be used to A) manage difficult or stalled negotiations. B) pry or lever a negotiation out of a breakdown or an apparent dead end. C) assist or force the other party to face up to the effects or consequences of their behaviors. D) collect and diagnose information. E) Questions can be used for all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 192 87 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 43. In passive listening A) the receivers restate or paraphrase the sender's message in their own language. B) the receivers interject responses to keep communicators sending messages. C) the receiver provides no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception. D) senders may misinterpret acknowledgments as the receiver's agreement with their position, rather than that they are simply receiving the message. E) None of the above occurs in passive listening. Register to View AnswerPage: 192 44. Successful reflective responding can be characterized by A) a greater emphasis on speaking than listening. B) responding to abstract rather than personal points. C) following the other rather than leading him or her into areas that the listener thinks should be explored. D) suggesting or questioning what the speaker should be thinking or feeling. E) All of the above are characteristics of reflective responding. Register to View AnswerPage: 194 45. Research supports which conclusion about role reversal? A) Role reversal is effective in producing cognitive changes but not attitude changes. B) When parties' positions are fundamentally compatible with one another, role reversal is likely to produce better results. C) When parties' positions are fundamentally incompatible; role reversal may dull the perceptions of incompatibility. D) Role reversal leads to easier resolutions of conflict, particularly when accurate communication reveals a fundamental incompatibility in the positions of the two sides. E) All of the above conclusions are supported by research. Register to View AnswerPage: 194, 195 Short Answer Essays 46. How does communication pervade the negotiation process according to Putnam and Poole? Answer: Communication undergirds the setting and reframing of goals; the defining and narrowing of conflict issues; the developing of relationships between disputants and among constituents; the selecting and implementing of strategies and tactics; the generating, attacking, and defending of alternative solutions; and the reaching and confirming of agreements. Page: 172 88 Test Bank, Chapter 1 47. Describe the communication model. Register to View Answersender has a thought or meaning in his or her mind. The sender encodes this meaning into a message that is to be transmitted to a receiver. The message may be encoded into verbal language, nonverbal expression, or both. Once encoded, the message is then transmitted through a channel to the receiver. The receiver's receptors eyes and ears receive the transmission and decode it, giving meaning and understanding to the receiver. Page: 172, 173 48. How can feedback be used strategically? Answer: Feedback can be used strategically to induce concessions, changes in strategy, or altered assessments of process and outcome. Page: 177 49. A communicative framework for negotiation is based on what assumptions? Answer: (1) The communication of offers is a dynamic process; (2) the offer process is interactive; and (3) a variety of internal and external factors drive the interaction and motivate a bargainer to change his or her offer. Page: 178 50. According to Pinkley and her colleagues, having a BATNA changes which things in a negotiation? Answer: (1) Negotiators with attractive BATNAs set higher reservation prices for themselves; (2) negotiators whose counterparts had attractive BATNAs set lower reservation points for themselves; and (3) when both parties were aware of the attractive BATNA that one of the negotiators had, that negotiator received a more positive negotiation outcome. Page: 178 51. Define "reframing explanations." Answer: Outcomes can be explained by changing the context (e.g. short-term pain for long term gain). Page: 178 52. Define the "information is weakness" effect. Answer: Negotiators who know the complete preferences of both parties will have more difficulty determining fair outcomes than will negotiators who do not have this information. Page: 182 53. What are the five linguistic dimensions of making threats? Answer: The use of polarized language, the conveyance of verbal immediacy, the degree of language intensity, the degree of lexical diversity, the extent of high-power language style. Page: 183 89 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 54. How can using the five linguistic dimensions make threats more credible and compelling? Answer: Threats can be made more credible and more compelling by negatively polarized descriptions of the other party and his or her position, high immediacy, high intensity, high lexical diversity, and a distinctively high-power style. Page: 183 55. Some nonverbal acts, called attending behaviors, are particularly important in connecting with another person during a coordinated interaction like negotiation. Why? Answer: Because they let the other know that you are listening and prepare the other party to receive your message. Page: 184 56. Define social bandwith. Answer: The ability of a channel to carry and convey subtle social and relational cues from sender to receiver that go beyond the literal text of the message itself (see also Short, Williams, and Christie, 1976, who used the term social presence). Greater social bandwidth means that a channel can convey more cues having social, relational, or symbolic content. Page: 186 57. Why do negotiators treat e-mail as just another vehicle for written communication? Answer: Because it is analytically simplistic and because email interactions frequently substitute for communication that would otherwise occur via telephone, face-to-face, or perhaps not at all. Page: 186 58. What three main techniques are available for improving communication in negotiation? Answer: The use of questions, listening, and role reversal. Page: 189 59. As negotiations come to a close, what are the two key aspects of communication and negotiation that negotiators must attend to simultaneously? Answer: The avoidance of fatal mistakes and the achievement of satisfactory closure in a constructive manner. Page: 195 60. We know that role reversal can be a useful tool for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other partys position in negotiation. But when is it useful? Answer: This tool may be most useful during the preparation stage of negotiation, or during a team caucus when things are not going well Page: 195 Chapter 7 90 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Finding and Using Negotiation Power Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Power is the ____________ to alter the attitudes and behaviors of others that an individual brings to a given situation. Answer: potential Page: 197 2. Negotiators employ tactics designed to create power ____________ as a way to "level the playing field." Answer: equalization Page: 198 3. In their study, Lytle and her colleagues found that most negotiations cycled through three strategies____________, ____________, and ____________during the same encounter. Answer: interests, rights, power Page: 199 4. The hands of the unskilled, power can be dramatically ____________. Answer: destructive Page: 201 5. Within the context of negotiation, ____________ is the most common source of power. Answer: information Page: 202 6. One of the major sources of power, ____________ power can be defined as power that is derived from the context in which negotiations take place. Answer: contextual Page: 203 7. ____________ power is accorded to those who are seen as having achieved some level of command and mastery of a body of information. Answer: Expert Page: 205 8. The available labor supply, staff that can be allocated to a problem or task, temporary help is called ____________ ____________. Answer: human capital Page: 210 9. In his book Managing with Power, Jeffrey Pfeffer illustrated how powerful political and 91 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e corporate figures build empires founded on ____________ ____________. Answer: resource control Page: 210 10. In allocating resources, the power holder must be willing to dole them out depending on the other's ____________ with the power holder's requests. Answer: compliance or cooperation Page: 211 11. The third type of relational power also comes from ____________ in an organizational structure, but not necessarily a hierarchical structure. Answer: location Page: 212 12. The more ____________ a node is in a network of exchanges and transactions, the more power that nodes occupant will have. Answer: central Page: 214 13. Employees who want to succeed rapidly are frequently counseled to find jobs with high ____________ and ____________ in an organization so they can get the experience and visibility necessary for rapid promotion. Answer: centrality, criticality Page: 215 14. Cultureboth organizational and nationaloften translates into deeply embedded structural ____________ in a society. Answer: inequalities Page: 217 15. In dealing with others who have more power, ____________ the information that would be most compelling or persuasive to the other side; ____________ it so that you can draw on it quickly and ____________ it to be maximally persuasive. Answer: analyze, organize, assemble Page: 218 True/False Questions T F 16. Tactics designed to create power equalization are often employed as a way to gain advantage or to block the other's power moves. Register to View AnswerPage: 198 T F 17. Negotiators who don't care about their power or who have matched power equally high or low will find that their deliberations proceed with greater ease 92 Test Bank, Chapter 1 and simplicity toward a mutually satisfying and acceptable outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 198 T F 18. During economic downsizings, labor unions can find themselves negotiating new contracts that delay wage increases or even reduce wages, which means giving hard-won concessions back to managementsomething union officials want to do. Register to View AnswerPage: 200 93 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 19. According to Deutsch, an actor does not have power in a given situation and cannot satisfy the purposes that he is attempting to fulfill in that situation. Register to View AnswerPage: 200 T F 20. The effective use of power requires a sensitive and deft touch, and its consequences may not vary greatly from one person to the next. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 T F 21. Expert power is derived from the ability to assemble and organize information to support the desired position, arguments, or outcomes. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 T F 22. Organization and national culture are both descriptors of contextual power. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 T F 23. If power is based on personality and individual differences, the personality traits will affect how individuals acquire and use power. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 T F 24. Social structures are inherently inefficient, and this realization creates the basis for legitimate power. Register to View AnswerPage: 208 T F 25. If enough people begin to distrust the authority or discredit its legitimacy, they will begin to defy it and thereby undermine its potential as a source of power. Register to View AnswerPage: 208 T F 26. The effectiveness of formal authority is derived from the willingness of followers to acknowledge the legitimacy of the organizational structure and the system of rules and regulations that empowers its leaders. Register to View AnswerPage: 208 T F 27. Personal reward power cannot be derived from the target being influenced because the agent liked them or showed them some form of social acceptance. Register to View AnswerPage: 210 T F 28. In an organizational network the star is in the center position between a 94 Test Bank, Chapter 1 gatekeeper and a linking pin. Register to View AnswerPage: 213 T F 29. Visibility is the same as centrality or criticality in network structure. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 T F 30. When agents, constituencies and external audiences are present in a negotiation, they can become actively involved to formally or informally pressure others as part of the negotiation process. Register to View AnswerPage: 217 Multiple Choice Questions 31. Tactics designed to create power equalization are often employed as a way to A) gain advantage in a distributive bargaining situation. B) block the other's power moves. C) level the playing field. D) diminish the expert power of the other party. E) Tactics designed to create power equalization are often employed to accomplish all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 198 32. Lytle and her colleagues found that most negotiators cycled through three strategies during the same encounters. Which are the three strategies? A) interests, information, effectiveness. B) effectiveness, coercion, deception. C) interests, rights, power. D) deception, reward, position. E) information, position, rights. Register to View AnswerPage: 199 33. Nearly 50 years ago there were five major types of sources of power that could be exercised. All but one of the following is part of that group. Which one is not? A) Personal power. B) Reward power. C) Coercive power. D) Legitimate power. E) Referent power. Register to View AnswerPage: 201 95 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 34. Which of the following is not a major source of power from one of the five different groupings? A) Informational sources of power. B) Personal sources of power. C) Organizational sources of power. D) Relationship-based sources of power. E) Contextual sources of power. Register to View AnswerPage: 202 96 Test Bank, Chapter 1 35. Information as a source of power is A) the accumulation and presentation of data to change the other person's point of view or position on an issue. B) an acknowledged accumulation of information, or mastery of a body of information, on a particular problem or issue. C) the accumulation of money, raw material, manpower, time or equipment which can by used to create incentives for other people to comply, or as threats and punishments if they do not comply. D) power derived from being located in a particular position in an organizational or communication structure. E) Information as a source of power is all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 203 36. Expert power is A) accorded to those who are seen as having achieved some level of command and mastery of specific information. B) derived from the ability to allocate, dispense, or withhold resources. C) derived from occupying a particular job, office, or position in an organizational hierarchy. D) derived from the ability to assemble and organize information to support the desired position, arguments, or outcomes. E) All of the above are characteristics of expert power. Register to View AnswerPage: 205 37. In which of the following types of power based on personality and individual differences would you find a person characterized by beliefs that power is distributed relatively equally across various groups, which compete and bargain for a share of the continually evolving balance of power? A) the unitarian. B) the radical. C) the pluralist. D) the idealist. E) the conformist. Register to View AnswerPage: 206 38. Legitimate power and its effectiveness of formal authority that are derived from the willingness of the followers to: A) create a group structure that gives one person a power base, group members generate a willingness within themselves to obey that persons directives. B) willingly give up their right to participate in every decision by vesting authority in someone who can act on their behalf. C) acknowledge the legitimacy of the organizational structure and the system of rules and regulations that empowers its leaders. 97 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e D) simply show respect for a persons position or organization. E) All of the above contribute to the effectiveness of legitimate power. Register to View AnswerPage: 207 98 Test Bank, Chapter 1 39. Which of the following statements about legitimate power is false? A) Legitimate power is at the foundation of our social structure. B) Social structures are inherently inefficient, and this realization creates the basis for legitimate power. C) Legitimate power cannot function without obedience. D) Legitimate power is often derived from manipulating other sources of power. E) All of the above statements about legitimate power are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 209 40. Resources are more useful as instruments of power to the extent they are highly valued be participants in the negotiation. Which of the following is not a resource of organizational context? A) Money, in its various forms. B) Supplies, in form of materials, components, parts. C) Human capital in available labor supply, staff, temporary help. D) Critical services, in repairs, upkeep, technical support. E) Stress, in imposing deadlines, increasing workloads, Register to View AnswerPage: 210 41. Cooperative goals tend to shape the power with orientation, even between superiors and subordinates. These goals induce higher expectations of all but one of the following. Which one? A) To perform effectively and achieve common objectives. B) To reinforce or enhance existing power differences. C) For more assistance and greater support. D) For more trusting and friendly attitudes. E) For more persuasion and less coercion. Register to View AnswerPage: 211 42. The story about the new faculty member who might decide to volunteer to head up the speakers program for faculty seminars because it would put him in the center of many communications about the weekly presentations is illustrative of network structure through A) flexibility. B) visibility. C) centrality. D) coalition. E) criticality. Register to View AnswerPage: 214 43. The concept of criticality in a communication network involves A) the degree to which the key individual can exercise discretion in how certain 99 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e decisions are made or who gains access. B) how visible the task performance is to others in the organization. C) the amount of information that passes through a node, the number of transactions that occur through the node, or the degree to which the node is central to managing information. D) the essentiality of the information that flows through the node to the organization's mission, major task, or key product. E) None of the above describes criticality in a communication network. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 44. In which of the following five aspects of network structure would you find the role of a gatekeeper? A) Centrality. B) Criticality. C) Flexibility. D) Visibility. E) Coalitions. Register to View AnswerPage: 215 45. One way that lower power parties can deal with the big players in business deals and partnerships is by limiting the ways you can do business or who you can do business with and it is an example of one of the following dealings. Which one? A) Never do an all-or-nothing deal. B) Make yourself bigger. C) Build momentum by doing deals in sequence. D) Constrain yourself. E) Do what you can to manage the process. Register to View AnswerPage: 217, 218 Short Answer Essays 46. Do compliance strategies result in long-term or short-term persuasion? Why? Answer: We treat power as the potential to alter the attitudes and behaviors of others that an individual brings to a given situation. Influence, on the other hand, can be thought of as power in action the actual messages and tactics an individual undertakes in order to change the attitudes and/or behaviors of others. Page: 197 47. Seeking power in negotiation usually arises from one of which two perceptions? Answer: (1) The negotiator believes he or she currently has less leverage than the other party; that the other party already has some advantage that can and will be used, so he or she seeks power to offset or "counter-balance" their leverage; (2) the negotiator believes 100 Test Bank, Chapter 1 that he or she needs more leverage than the other party to increase the probability of controlling the other and/or securing a desired outcome. Page: 198 48. What is a likely outcome for a negotiator who isnt concerned with power? Answer: In general, negotiators who dont care about their power or who have matched powerequally high or lowwill find that their deliberations proceed with greater ease and simplicity toward a mutually satisfying and acceptable outcome. Page: 198 49. How can the use of threats be effective? Answer: To be effective, threats must be specific and credible, targeting the other partys high-priority interests. Otherwise, the other party has little incentive to comply. Page: 199 50. State the "relational" definition of power as defined by Deutsch. Answer: An actor has power in a given situation (situational power) to the degree that he can satisfy the purposes (goals, desires, or wants) that he is attempting to fulfill in that situation. Power is a relational concept; it does not reside in the individual but rather in the relationship of the person to his environment. Thus, the power of an actor in a given situation is determined by the characteristics of the situation as well as by his own characteristics. Page: 200 51. If power is in the eye of the beholder, then how is power effective? Answer: For power to be effective it does not necessarily have to be fully and completely possessed; rather, the actor must convey the appearance that he or she has power and can use it at will. Power is therefore somewhat self-fulfilling. If youand othersthink you have it, you have it. If youand othersdont think you have it, you dont have it. Perceived power is what creates leverage, and many power holders go out of their way to create the image of power as the critical element of effective influence. Page: 202 52. Today car-buying customers can enter negotiation armed with accurate facts and figures about a car. Describe how car buyers felt before the age of the Internet. Answer: Before the age of the Internet, many consumers approached buying a car with the same enthusiasm as visiting the dentist. Customers knew their role was to scoff at the asking price, threaten to walk away from the vehicle, and generally engage in tough negotiation postures in order to get the best deal. Still, after they drove the car off the lot, nagging doubts remained about whether or not they paid too much for their new car. Page: 204 53. Describe the concept of power motives. Answer: The disposition of some people to have high needs to influence and control 101 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e others, and to seek out positions of power and authority. Page: 206 53. Define legitimate power. Answer: Legitimate power is derived from occupying a particular job, office, or position in an organizational hierarchy. The power resides in the title, duties and responsibilities of the job itself. Page: 207 55. How are resources deployed generally speaking? Answer: Resources are generally deployed in one of two principal ways: as rewards and as punishments. Page: 210 56. How does location in an organization contribute to power? Answer: Even without a lofty position or title, individuals can become powerful because of the way that their actions and responsibilities are embedded in the flows of information, goods and services, or contacts. Page: 212 57. Describe how strength of ties between individuals in an organization works. Answer: Strength of ties between individuals can be determined by how often the parties interact, how long they have known each other, how close the personal relationship is with the other, how many different ways the two parties interact with each other, and how much reciprocity or mutuality there is in the relationship so that each contributes equally to the give and take. Stronger ties with another usually indicate greater power to have the other accede to requests. Page: 214 58. How can centrality in network be determined? Answer: By the amount of information that passes through a node, number of transactions that occur through the node, or the degree to which the node is central to managing information flow. Page: 214 59. Why is a BATNA a good source of power? Answer: It enables you to walk away from this negotiation as long as you can get your need met and interests addressed somewhere else. Page: 216 60. What is the problem of dancing with elephants? Answer: The concept is defined as striking a deal with an opponent much bigger than you). Page: 217 Chapter 8 Influence 102 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Fill in the Blank Questions 1. The ____________ route, according to Petty and Cacioppo, is characterized by subtle cues and context, with less cognitive processing of the message. Answer: peripheral Page: 221 2. In structuring the message, one important thing to emphasize is the ____________ the other party gains from accepting our proposal. Answer: advantage Page: 223 3. When negotiators are on the ____________ end of a proposal, they frequently choose not to talk about the attractive features of an offer but rather to highlight why certain features are undesirable. Answer: receiving Page: 223 4. When presenting a two-sided argument, it is more effective to present the preferred argument ____________. Answer: last Page: 225 5. Negotiators who can use active approaches are generally more persuasive than those who don't, since an active approach requires the receiver to exert effort, which leads to involvement, which leads to ____________. Answer: attitude change Page: 227 6. Persuasion that occurs through the ____________ route is less likely to bring about real attitude change, is more likely to last a shorter time, and is more vulnerable to counterinfluence. Answer: peripheral Page: 230 7. The ____________ effect states that the first item in a long list of items is the one most likely to be remembered. Answer: primacy Page: 231 8. As a person listens to a persuasive argument, part of their attention is devoted to what is being said, but a large portion is also devoted to developing ____________. Answer: counterarguments Page: 231 103 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 104 Test Bank, Chapter 1 9. Source credibility depends mostly on three things: the qualifications of the source, the perceived ____________ of the source, and self-presentation. Answer: trustworthiness Page: 232 10. ____________ involves enhancing the other's self-image or reputation through our statements or actions, and thus enhancing our own image in the same way. Answer: Ingratiation Page: 236 11. Emotion combined with ____________ leads to assertiveness and determination. Answer: persistence Page: 238 12. Establishing your personal expertise is preferred to highlighting differences in positional power, especially if the goal is no just simple short-term ____________, but longer term relational benefits as well. Answer: compliance Page: 240 13. The principle of ____________ ____________ suggests that people look to others to determine the correct response in many situations. Answer: social proof Page: 243 14. The principle of ____________ suggests that when things are less available, they will have more influence. Answer: scarcity Page: 243 15. Exchange is the process of offering ____________ to secure the other's compliance and cooperation. Answer: resources Page: 244 16. In mapping the influence landscape, it is important to attend not just to the target of influence, but also to ____________ or coalitions that support the target. Answer: subgroups Page: 246 17. ____________ means repeating in our own words what someone else has said. Answer: Paraphrasing Page: 248 18. Negotiators are frequently ineffective because they respond only to what they ____________ is the other party's statement or proposal. 105 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: dislike Page: 248 19. One of the most effective ways of getting people to stand firm on a position is to have them make a ____________ ____________ to that position. Answer: public commitment Page: 248 20. The best way to inoculate people against attacks on their position is to involve them in developing a ____________. Answer: defense Page: 250 True/False Questions T F 21. According to Petty and Cacioppo, the first route to persuasion is referred to as the peripheral route and involves thought and integration of the message into the individual's previously existing cognitive structures. Register to View AnswerPage: 221 T F 22. When negotiators are on the receiving end of a proposal, they frequently choose not to discuss the undesirable features of the argument, but rather to discuss the attractive features of the offer. Register to View AnswerPage: 223 T F 23. In general, two-sided messages are considered to be more effective than one-sided messages. Register to View AnswerPage: 225 T F 24. People learn better and are more likely to change their attitudes and beliefs for the long term when they are actively involved in the process of learning and understanding new material. Register to View AnswerPage: 227 T F 25. Because of their dramatic nature and the emotional response they evoke, threats are never tempting to use. Register to View AnswerPage: 228 T F 26. When receivers are distracted, they are less able to engage in issue-relevant thinking, and hence may be more susceptible to processing "peripheral" cues 106 Test Bank, Chapter 1 which may push them toward a particular choice option. Register to View AnswerPage: 231 T F 27. When meeting others for the first time, people generally tend to evaluate them negatively rather than positively. Register to View AnswerPage: 234 T F 28. Children are often considered to be among the worst negotiators because they are so persistent in pursuing what they want. Register to View AnswerPage: 235 T F 29. Research has shown that likeability is less important than other credibility factors. Register to View AnswerPage: 237 T F 30. If it is to your advantage to find and explore commonalties in experience, attitude, and background with the other party, it is also to your disadvantage to highlight those areas where you differ. Register to View AnswerPage: 238 T F 31. Even though authority can take different forms it always yields the same outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 239 T F 32. The norm of reciprocity applies only to favors of the same size. Register to View AnswerPage: 240 T F 33. Agreement to innocuous statements early in the negotiation may be used as a foundation for further and further concessions. Register to View AnswerPage: 242 T F 34. The principle of scarcity suggests that people are harder to influence when they feel that they are obtaining a scarce resource. Register to View AnswerPage: 243 T F 35. Sanctions are more appropriately used when changing behavior is more important than maintaining good will. Register to View AnswerPage: 245 107 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 36. When members of an organization feel involved in the decision making process and perceive that process as fair, they are more likely to accept tough decisions. Register to View AnswerPage: 246 T F 37. Negotiators frequently give very little attention to the other party's opinions and point of view. Register to View AnswerPage: 247 T F 38. People are more likely to repeat behavior that is not rewarded than behavior that is rewarded. Register to View AnswerPage: 248 T F 39. Influence that occurs through the peripheral route is likely to be relatively enduring and resistant to counterinfluence. Register to View AnswerPage: 251 T F 40. Negotiators usually spend a great deal of time devising ways to support and document their positions; they devote less time to considering how the information is presented or how to use qualities of the source and receiver to increase the likelihood that persuasion will be successful. Register to View AnswerPage: 251 Multiple Choice Questions 41. Persuasion occurring through the peripheral route is A) likely to last a shorter time than central route persuasion. B) integrated into existing cognitive structures. C) used to determine if the position taken by the source has any merit. D) involves thought and integration of the message into the individual's previously existing cognitive structures. E) None of the above occurs through the peripheral route of persuasion. Register to View AnswerPage: 221 42. Which of the following is not an aspect that contributes to persuasion through the central route? A) One- and two-sided messages. B) Message components. C) Repetition. 108 Test Bank, Chapter 1 D) Motivations. E) Conclusions. Register to View AnswerPage: 225 43. Two-sided messages tend to be most effective A) with better educated audiences. B) when the other party initially disagrees with the position. C) when the other party will be exposed to people who will argue points of view different from the position advocated. D) when the issue discussed is already familiar. E) Two-sided messages are effective in all of the above situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 225 44. Which of the following statements about persuasive style is false? A) People learn better and are more likely to change their attitudes and beliefs for the long term when they are actively involved in the process of learning and understanding new material. B) Metaphors should not be used as persuasion tools because they can lead the other party to believe that you're filled with "hot air". C) People who argue positions that are thought to be counter to their self-interest are generally more persuasive. D) Language of relatively low intensity seems to be more effective than highly intense language. E) All of the above statements about persuasive style are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 228 45. All but one of the following is an aspect of messages that foster the peripheral route. Which one is not? A) Message order. B) Format. C) Distractions. D) Source Credibility. E) All of the above are aspects of the messages of the peripheral route. Register to View AnswerPage: 230, 231 46. The recency effect A) indicates that the important points should be made early. B) should be used when the topics are familiar, interesting, or controversial to the receiver. C) states the tendency for the last item presented to be the best remembered. D) states that the first item in a long list of items is the one most likely to be remembered. 109 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e E) None of the above statements about the recency effect are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 231 47. Which of the following statements about source credibility is true? A) The stronger the perceived qualifications and expertise on the subject matter, the lower the credibility. B) People appear more or less credible because of their "presence." C) Trustworthiness, and how qualified the person appears to be, are less powerful characteristics in determining our perception of another's credibility than the type of person the source is. D) When meeting others they don't know, people generally tend to evaluate them negatively rather than positively. E) All of the above statements about source credibility are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 233 48. Status gives people visibility, which allows them to get attention and be heard. Where do people get their status from among the following criteria? A) Their occupation. B) Their age. C) Their education level. D) Their manner of dress. E) All the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 234 49. The effective use of persistence means A) pursuing one's goals blindly and rigidly. B) communicating with natural enthusiasm, sincerity and spontaneity. C) finding new, unique, and creative ways to pursue the same request. D) considering the long term consequences of their behavior on their future reputations. E) None of the above defines the effective use of persistence. Register to View AnswerPage: 235 50. A useful negotiating tactic, therefore, is to identify and discuss experiences, characteristics, and opinions you hold in common with the other party and this tactic is labeled A) perceived emotion. B) perceived ingratiation. C) perceived friendliness. D) perceived similarity. E) perceived helpfulness. Register to View AnswerPage: 237, 238 110 Test Bank, Chapter 1 51. Researchers have found that expressing high anger and low compassion toward another led the negotiators to A) a greater desire to work together in the future. B) achieve more joint gains. C) find and explore commonalties in experience. D) an unaffected ability to yield greater individual gains. E) Expressing high anger and low compassion can lead to all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 239 52. The norm of reciprocity A) suggests that when we receive something from another person we should respond in the future with a favor for them. B) plays only a nominal role in negotiations. C) applies only to favors of the same size. D) is prevalent only in Western culture. E) None of the above statements describe the norm of reciprocity. Register to View AnswerPage: 240 53. The process of ____________ to a position states that once people have decided something, they can be remarkable persistent in their beliefs. A) proof B) commitment C) reciprocity D) reward E) All of the above principles state that once people have decided something, they can be remarkable persistent in their beliefs. Register to View AnswerPage: 241 54. In what way can resources be used in negotiation? A) as a means to get attention and a means to overcome resistance B) through the principles of social proof and the norm of reciprocity C) as a BATNA and an exchange tactic D) in exchange and pressure tactics E) Resources cannot be used in any of the above ways. Register to View AnswerPage: 245 55. Which of the following is a condition for the use of pressure? A) The other party is independent of the power holder. B) The agent controls some form of resources which can be denied or taken away from the other party. C) The punishment can only be administered in a single manner. 111 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e D) The resources in question are not controlled by a single individual. E) None of the above is conditions for the use of pressure. Register to View AnswerPage: 245 56. Why is it important to explore the other party's outlook? A) It can give us more information. B) It can lead us to designing solutions to meet both sides' needs. C) It further increases the other party's feeling of being listened to. D) It makes the other party more receptive to meeting our needs. E) It is important to explore the other party's outlook for all of the above reasons. Register to View AnswerPage: 247 57. How can we reward people for what they say during a negotiation? A) acknowledge and support a point that they have made B) ignore or underplay points that we feel need to be emphasized but which weren't C) encourage the other party to develop unfavorable points D) accept all concessions and favors without returning any E) None of the above tactics can be used to reward people for what they say during a negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 248 58. What are three major things that a listener can do to resist another's influence efforts? A) have a good BATNA, avoid public commitments, and defend one's self against the other's persuasive message B) avoid BATNAs, make a public commitment, and pay close attention to the other's persuasive message C) have a good BATNA, make a public commitment, and defend one's self against the other's persuasive message D) avoid BATNAs, avoid public commitments, and pay close attention to the other's persuasive message E) None of the above contains techniques that can be used to resist the other's influence efforts. Register to View AnswerPage: 248, 249 59. How can negotiators prevent the other party from making public commitments? A) emphasize statements of commitment B) respond to all statements of commitment C) look for a rationale to explain why the commitment does not apply at this time D) make pubic commitments of their own E) All of the above can be used to prevent the other party from making public commitments. Register to View AnswerPage: 249 112 Test Bank, Chapter 1 60. Which of the following statements about the three approaches for inoculating against the arguments of other parties is false? A) The most effective approach is the "double defense" approach. B) The least effective approach is that of developing arguments only in support of our own position. C) The best way to inoculate people against attacks on their position is to involve them in developing a defense. D) Asking people to make public statements supporting their original position decreases their resistance to counterarguments. E) All of the above statements are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 250 Short Answer Essays 61. What is the central route to persuasion, as defined by Petty and Cacioppo? Answer: The central route occurs consciously and involves thought and integration of the message into the individual's previously existing cognitive structures. Page: 221 62. What are the three major issues to consider when constructing a message? Answer: The content of the message (the facts and topics that should be covered), the message structure (how the topics and facts should be arranged and organized), and the delivery style that should be used to present the message. Page: 223 63. Explain how people are motivated to behave consistently with their values that are their religious, social, or ethical standards. Answer: These standards become part of peoples self-image, a concept in their mind of what they are really like. People will go to considerable lengths to act or say things consistent with their self-image. Page: 224 64. When is it a good idea to let others draw their own conclusion? When is it dangerous to let others draw their own conclusions? Answer: Research suggests when listeners are very intelligent, or have not yet made up their minds, leaving the conclusion open is a good approach. In contrast, for people whose ideas are already well formulated and strong, leaving the conclusion unstated is to leave the most important part of the persuasive effort undone. Page: 226 65. When can messages that contain threats be useful? Answer: When a negotiator needs to underscore the absolute importance of point being 113 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e made, and when the negotiator is prepared to follow through with the consequences threatened. Page: 228 66. What is the philosophy behind the technique of "violating expectations?" Answer: People who argue positions that are thought to be counter to their self-interest are generally more persuasive because they violate the receiver's expectation about what the sender "should" be arguing for. Page: 229 67. What is the recency effect? When should it be used? Answer: The tendency for the last item presented to be the best remembered. The recency effect should be considered when the message is likely to be contrary to the receiver's current point of view. Page: 231 68. What questions do people ask themselves when determining how much to believe another person? Answer: Is this person in a position to possess the information he or she claims to have? That is, is he or she competent and qualified? Page: 232 69. What techniques can be used to establish expertise? Answer: Find ways to introduce your education or experience into the conversation, cite other highly credible sources of information, ask questions or draw quick conclusions that could only be derived from in-depth, firsthand knowledge or experience. Page: 233 70. Keeping in mind the Intention to Persuade, is it better for the negotiator to come across as a huckster or poised and polished? Explain. Answer: Communicating with natural enthusiasm, sincerity, and spontaneity may take the edge off persuasive communication, reduce defensive reactions, and enhance the speakers credibility. Many skillful negotiators and persuaders may therefore assume a mild-mannered or even slightly confused demeanor to minimize the negative impact of a hard, persuasive style while giving or getting the information they need. Page: 234 71. Explain how ingratiation helps a negotiator. Answer: Ingratiation involves enhancing the others self-image or reputation through statements or actions, and thus enhancing ones own image in the same way. Flattering another person by giving compliments is perhaps the most obvious form of ingratiation. Handing out flattery presumably induces others to like you and be more prone to accept your persuasive arguments. Negotiators congratulate others on their excellent and thorough preparation, their considerate suggestions, or their willingness to listen or compromise or be reasonable. Compliments can be a potent means of ingratiation, not only because people like to receive them, but also because the norm of reciprocity leaves the other party with the obligation to return something for the compliment. 114 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Make the other feel comfortable and put them at ease, get to know the other negotiator, and discover things that they may have in common with the other. Page: 236 72. Rather than immediately getting down to business, successful negotiators use friendliness to: Answer: Make the other feel comfortable and put them at ease, get to know the other negotiator, and discover things that they may have in common with the other. Page: 237, 238 73. Why can emotion be a powerful tool? Answer: It offers a stark contrast to the expectation that negotiation is a cool, calm, rational exchange of inflation. Page: 238 74. Researchers have distinguished between two broad uses of authority in influence-seeking. The first is authority based on ones personal expertise or credibility. What is the second? Answer: The second is authority based on a persons legitimate position in an existing social hierarchy. Page: 239 75. The norm of reciprocity suggests that when we receive something from another person we should: Answer: Respond in the future with a favor for them. Page: 240 76. How should negotiators act when presented with the "influence tactics" within the norm of reciprocity? Answer: Respond politely to a favor and accept what is offered if it is something that you want. If it becomes apparent that the favor was an attempt at manipulation, then the negotiator should redefine the event as a trick rather than a favor. This will remove the obligation of the rule of reciprocity because "the rule says that favors are to be met with favors; it does not require that tricks be met with favors." Page: 241 77. How can a negotiator reduce the influence of false information in negotiations? Answer: Identify the false information and give it the weight it deserves. In negotiations, this means careful preparation and being aware of "facts" about the others' advocated views that do not seem to match your preparation. Do not automatically trust that the other party is being completely honest. Page: 243 78. How are the conditions for use of pressure similar to those for the use of exchange and praise? Answer: The other party is dependent on the power holder in some way, the agent 115 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e controls some form of resources that can be denied or taken away from the other party, and the punishment can be administered in a manner that will ensure the other partys compliance. Page: 245 79. What does paraphrasing accomplish? Answer: Paraphrasing ensures that both parties have understood each other accurately. Page: 248 80. What might managers who must support organizational policies with which they disagree do? Answer: They may want to inoculate themselves against subordinates arguments by preparing and rehearsing counterarguments that can be used to refute the key points the other is likely to make. Page: 250 Chapter 9 Ethics in Negotiation Fill in the Blank Questions 1. ____________ can be defined as individual and personal views for deciding what is right and wrong. Answer: Morals Page: 254 2. The concept of ____________ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences. Answer: end result Page: 255 3. Reasonable people will ____________ as to exactly where to draw the line between what is ethical and what is unethical for some tactics. Answer: disagree Page: 256 4. ____________ hold that the moral value and worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces. Answer: Utilitarians Page: 257 5. Social contract ethicists focus on what individuals owe to their ____________ and what they can or should expect in return. 116 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Answer: community Page: 262 6. Critics of personalistic ethics argue that there is no mechanism for resolving ____________ when they lead to conflicting views between individuals as to what is right or proper. Answer: disputes Page: 264 7. Most of the ethical questions in negotiation are about standards of ____________. Answer: truth-telling Page: 265 8. Negotiation is based on information dependencethe exchange of information to learn the true ____________ and ____________ of the other negotiator. Answer: preferences, priorities Page: 266 9. The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics are: 1) competitive bargaining, 2) emotional manipulation, 3) misrepresentation, 4) misrepresentation to opponents networks, 5) inappropriate information gathering, and 6) ____________. Answer: bluffing Page: 268 117 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 10. There is a positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the ______________ to use it. Answer: intention Page: 269 11. Misrepresentation by ____________ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other. Answer: omission Page: 270 12. The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics is to increase the negotiators ______________ in the bargaining environment. Answer: power Page: 272 13. The ____________ of a negotiator can clearly affect the tendency to use deceptive tactics. Answer: motivation Page: 273 14. When a negotiator has used a tactic that may produce a reaction the negotiator must prepare to ____________ the tactic's use. Answer: defend Page: 276 15. A negotiator who judges a tactic on the basis of its consequences is making judgments according to the tenets of act ______________. Answer: utilitarianism Page: 277 16. Explanations and justifications are self-serving ____________ for ones own conduct. Answer: rationalizations Page: 278 17. Dawson's study shows that when making decisions about ____________ issues, women were significantly more ethical than men. Answer: relational Page: 281 18. Research subjects who rated themselves as ____________ were significantly more likely to use bluffing, misrepresentation and a variety of other dishonest tactics than subjects who rated themselves as "cooperative." Answer: aggressive Page: 283 19. Negotiators were more likely to make more deceptive arguments, negotiate for a longer 118 Test Bank, Chapter 1 period of time, and make fewer concessions to the counterpart they previously experienced as ____________ compared to one who had been ____________. Answer: exploitative, cooperative Page: 286 20. Many negotiators fail to understand the nature of negotiation and so find themselves attempting to reconcile conflicts between the requirements of negotiation the their own sense of personal ____________. Answer: integrity Page: 288 21. Norms are the ____________ social rulesthe dos and dontsthat govern social behavior. Answer: informal Page: 288 22. Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ____________. Answer: undisclosed Page: 291 23. Calling the tactic indicates to the other side that you know he is ____________ or ____________. Answer: bluffing, lying Page: 293 24. If you are aware that the other party is bluffing or lying, simply ______________ it, especially if the deception concerns a relatively minor aspect of the negotiation Answer: ignore Page: 293 25. In general, the respond in kind approach is best treated as a ____________ ____________ strategy. Answer: last resort Page: 294 True/False Questions T F 26. The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 252 T F 27. The concept of "personalistic ethics" states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community. 119 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Register to View AnswerPage: 255 T F 28. The rightness of an action is determined by considering obligations to apply universal standards and principles is the definition of end-result ethics. Register to View AnswerPage: 255 T F 29. The concept of end-result ethics argues that it is deemed acceptable to break a rule or violate a procedure in the service of some greater good. Register to View AnswerPage: 257 120 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 30. The concept of end-result ethics emphasizes that one ought to commit one's self to a series of moral rules or standards, and make decisions based on those rules. Register to View AnswerPage: 260 T F 31. The social contract view would prescribe which behaviors are appropriate in a particular context in terms of what people owe one another. Register to View AnswerPage: 262 T F 32. Duty ethics argues that everyone ought to decide for himself or herself what is right based on his or her conscience. Register to View AnswerPage: 263 T F 33. Most of the ethics issues in negotiation are concerned with standards of truth telling and how individuals decide when they should tell the truth. Register to View AnswerPage: 265 T F 34. Questions and debate regarding the ethical standards for truth-telling are central and fundamental in the negotiating process. Register to View AnswerPage: 266 T F 35. Hiding the bottom line hurt negotiator performance in role plays. Register to View AnswerPage: 269 T F 36. Misrepresentation by omission is defined as actually lying about the common value issue. Register to View AnswerPage: 270 T F 37. Studies show that subjects were more willing to lie by omission than by commission. Register to View AnswerPage: 270 T F 38. Individuals are more willing to use deceptive tactics when the other party is perceived to be uniformed or unknowledgeable about the situation under negotiation; particularly when the stakes are high. Register to View AnswerPage: 272 T F 39. People may be more motivated to appear moral, rather than to act morally, 121 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e because to act morally may have a number of costs attached to it. Register to View AnswerPage: 274 T F 40. Real consequencesrewards and punishments that arise from using a tactic or not using itshould not only motivate a negotiator's present behavior, but also affect the negotiator's predisposition to use similar strategies in similar circumstances in the future. Register to View AnswerPage: 274 T F 41. One's own temptation to misrepresent creates a self-fulfilling logic in which one believes one needs to misrepresent because the other is likely to do it as well. Register to View AnswerPage: 277 T F 42. Research findings indicate that the more a subject felt that the partner's explanation was adequate for his or her deception, the more the subject expressed feelings of injustice, disapproval, punitiveness, and unforgiveness toward the partner. Register to View AnswerPage: 278 T F 43. Research has shown that it is very clear that situational influences can predispose very ethical people to do ethically marginal things. Register to View AnswerPage: 279 T F 44. Eastern Europeans are significantly more likely to use bluffing in negotiations than Americans. Register to View AnswerPage: 282 T F 45. Machiavellianism appears to be a very weak predictor of ethical conduct. Register to View AnswerPage: 284 T F 46. Respondents who expected to be in a short-term relationship were more likely to see the ethically marginal tactics as appropriate than those expecting a long-term relationship. Register to View AnswerPage: 287 T F 47. A balance of power should lead to less stable, less ethical conduct than an imbalance. Register to View AnswerPage: 287 122 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 48. An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality does not make an effective negotiator. Register to View AnswerPage: 288 T F 49. The more complex an individual's moral reasoning capability, the more he or she perceives conflict between personal standards and typical organizational demands. Register to View AnswerPage: 289 T F 50. The use of silence by a negotiator creates a verbal vacuum that makes the other uncomfortable and helps determine whether the other party is acting deceptively. Register to View AnswerPage: 293 Multiple Choice Questions 51. The concept of "duty ethics" states that A) the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences. B) the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is. C) the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community. D) the rightness of an action is based on one's conscience and moral standards. E) None of the above defines "duty ethics." Register to View AnswerPage: 255 52. Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define A) what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other. B) what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation. C) what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct. D) what the law defines as acceptable practice. E) All of the above are defined by ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct. Register to View AnswerPage: 256 53. Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness, more wrong as they produce unhappiness. Which approach applies? A) End-result ethics. 123 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e B) Duty ethics. C) Social context ethics. D) Personalistic ethics. E) Reasoning ethics. Register to View AnswerPage: 258, 259 54. A doctor facing the moral dilemma between a mandate to save lives and the mandate to relieve undue suffering for those whose lives cannot be saved is an example of: A) end-result ethics. B) duty ethics. C) social contract ethics. D) personalistic ethics. E) utilitarian ethics. Register to View AnswerPage: 262 55. Proponents of personalistic ethics argue that A) the best way to achieve the greatest good is to closely follow a set of rules and principles. B) the worth of a particular action is judged on the basis of the consequences it produces. C) societies, organizations and cultures determine what is ethically appropriate and acceptable within that group. D) everyone ought to decide for themselves what is right based on their conscience. E) Rule utilitarians argue all of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 263 56. Which of the following arguments refutes Carr's claim that business strategy is analogous to poker strategy? A) Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions. B) If an executive refuses to bluff periodically he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the "rules" of business C) Most games do not legitimize deception, and therefore business should not be analogous to a game that does legitimize deception D) Bluffing, exaggeration and concealment are legitimate ways for corporations to maximize their self interest E) None of the above arguments refute Carr's claim Register to View AnswerPage: 266 57. What is the implication of the dilemma of trust? A) We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty. B) We do not believe anything the other says and therefore are immune to their 124 Test Bank, Chapter 1 dishonesty. C) We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore we will never do better than this minimum level. D) We never reveal our requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore are able to far exceed that minimum level. E) None of the above describes the implication of the dilemma of trust. Register to View AnswerPage: 266 58. Which is a Category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics? A) Traditional Competitive Bargaining B) Emotional Manipulation C) Misrepresentation to Opponents Networks D) Bluffing E) All of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 268 59. Which tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation? A) misrepresentation B) bluffing C) misrepresentation to opponent's network D) inappropriate information collection E) All of the above are seen as inappropriate and unethical tactics. Register to View AnswerPage: 269 60. Per a study of ethically ambiguous tactics which of the following is true? A) There is a significant negative relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the intention to use it B) There is no significant positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of a specific tactic and actually using that tactic, for four of the five tactics studies C) Hiding the bottom line was the tactic least frequently used, exaggerating an opening offer was the most commonly used, followed by stalling for time and misrepresenting information. D) Hiding the bottom line improved negotiator performance in the role-play. Negotiators also believed that making empty promises, misrepresenting information, and exaggerating their opening offer improved their performance. E) All of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 269 61. Research has shown that negotiators use what two forms of deception in misrepresenting the common value issue? A) misrepresentation by omission and misrepresentation by commission B) misrepresentation by permission and misrepresentation by omission 125 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e C) misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by permission D) misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by commission E) None of the above forms of deception are used in misrepresenting the common value issue. Register to View AnswerPage: 270 62. Incidences in cheating in the Boston Marathon included all but one motive. Which one was not identified as a motive for cheating in the race? A) Some cheaters were angry or disturbed. B) Some cheaters were seeking family approval. C) Some cheaters were middle-aged males. D) Some cheaters were after recognition. E) Some cheaters were simply caught up in the moment. Register to View AnswerPage: 273 63. McCornack and Levine found that victims had stronger emotional reactions to deception when A) they had a distant relationship with the subject. B) the information at stake was unimportant. C) lying was seen as an unacceptable type of behavior for that relationship. D) the victim had used deceptive tactics as well. E) Research found that victims did not have strong emotional reactions in any of the above cases. Register to View AnswerPage: 275 64. When using the justification that "the tactic was unavoidable," the negotiator is saying that A) the negotiator was not in full control of his or her actions and hence should not be held responsible. B) what the negotiator did was really trivial and not very significant. C) the tactic helped to avoid greater harm. D) the quality of the tactic should be judged by its consequences. E) The justification that "the tactic was unavoidable" implies all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 276 65. Studies have shown that with the exception of "traditional competitive bargaining," men were: A) significantly less likely to use unethical tactics than women. B) somewhat less likely to use unethical tactics than women. C) somewhat more likely to use unethical tactics than women. D) significantly more likely to use unethical tactics than women. E) Studies have shown that there is no gender bias in the use of unethical tactics. 126 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Register to View AnswerPage: 281 66. Which of the following personality traits can most strongly predict the predisposition to behave unethically? A) cooperativeness B) Machiavellianism C) locus of control D) moral development E) None of the above can predict the predisposition to behave unethically. Register to View AnswerPage: 284 67. Research studies have shown that individuals who are strongly Machiavellian are A) more willing and able con artists. B) more likely to lie when they need to. C) better able to tell bigger lies with out feeling anxious about it. D) more persuasive and effective in their lies. E) Individuals who are strongly Machiavellian have all of the above traits. Register to View AnswerPage: 284 68. Research results have generally indicated that higher levels of moral development are associated with A) less ethical decisions. B) more cheating behavior. C) less helping behavior. D) more resistance to authority figures who are attempting to dictate unethical conduct. E) Higher levels of moral development are associated with all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 285 69. Which was not one of the findings of a recent study? A) If told to "do your best," partied reported less honestly than if they had a specific goal to meet B) Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their productivity than those without C) Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate their success when their actual performance was closer to the goal D) Participants who had to meet specific goals were more likely to overstate in those situations where they thought they "deserved" the reward based on overall productivity. Register to View AnswerPage: 285 70. Which of the following statements about situational influences on unethical conduct is 127 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e true? A) The negotiator's past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties have been previously competitive or cooperative. B) Negotiators were more likely to make more deceptive arguments, negotiate for a longer period of time, and make fewer concessions to the counterpart they previously experienced as cooperative compared to one who had been exploitative. C) Negotiators with less power are more likely to abuse what power they have by using less ethical tactics. D) An individual who confuses private ethics with business morality makes an effective negotiator. E) None of the above statements about situational influences on unethical conduct is True. Register to View AnswerPage: 286 71. The negotiators' past relationship will affect current behavior if the parties A) have been previously competitive. B) have been previously cooperative. C) feel indebted to one another. D) hold grudges toward one another. E) The negotiators' past relationship will affect current behavior under all of the above conditions. Register to View AnswerPage: 286 72. Which of the following statements about group and organizational norms is false? A) Job related pressures within particular work groups, departments, or divisions may be such that marginally ethical behavior is not only tolerated, but even condoned. B) The more loyalty and commitment people feel toward an organization, the less that loyalty may be abused. C) Organizations may exert direct pressures on an individual to breach ethics or even break the law in the service of achieving some corporate or organizational goal. D) The pressures of escalating commitment may predispose parties to commit more unethical actions. E) All of the above statements about group and organizational norms are True. Register to View AnswerPage: 290 73. When using the "intimidation" tactic to detect deception, one should A) emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit. B) lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception. C) play down the significance of any deceptive act. D) make a "no-nonsense" accusation of the other. E) None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic. Register to View AnswerPage: 292 128 Test Bank, Chapter 1 74. When using the "altered information" tactic to detect deception, one should A) try to get the other to admit a small or partial lie about some information and use this to push for admission of a larger lie. B) exaggerate what you believe is the deception and state it, hoping that the other will jump in to "correct" the statement. C) point out behaviors you detect in the other which might be an indication they are lying. D) indicate one's true concern for the other's welfare. E) None of the above actions would be used as part of the altered information tactic. Register to View AnswerPage: 292 75. Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party's distributive tactics or "dirty tricks"? A) ignoring the tactic B) "calling" the tactic C) responding in kind D) discussing what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors E) None of the above tactics should be used to respond to another party's dirty tricks. Register to View AnswerPage: 294 Short Answer Essays 76. Define ethics. Answer: Broadly applied social standards for what is right or wrong in a particular situation, or the process for setting those standards. Page: 254 77. According to Hitt, what are the four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation? Answer: (1) Choose a course of action on the basis of results I expect to achieve; (2) Choose a course of action on the basis of my duty to uphold appropriate rules and principles; (3) Choose a course of action on the basis of the norms, values, and strategy of my organization or community; and, (4) Choose a course of action on the basis of my personal convictions. Page: 255 78. Describe a pharmaceutical companys dilemma about its new miracle drug that will cure some forms of cancer from an end-results ethics perspective. Answer: It cannot release the drug yet because it has to comply with government regulation that controls drug testing prior to widespread distribution, and thousands of lives may be lost before the government approves the drug. Is it unethical to keep the drug off the market while the regulatory testing goes on? Or is it unethical to release the 129 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e drug before it has been thoroughly tested? Page: 257 79. Define "social contract ethics." Answer: The rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community. Page: 262 80. What does a "social contract" explain? Answer: Within the framework of social contract ethics, a social contract explains what the individual expected is to give to the community, what the individual can get back from the community, and the social rules or norms that govern that community and which all members are expected to follow. Page: 262 81. How does Carr argue that strategy in business is analogous to strategy in a game of poker? Answer: He advocates that business ought to play its game as poker players do. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically if he or she feels obligated to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth all the time he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the "rules" of business and is probably at a heavy disadvantage in business dealings. Page: 265 82. What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty? Answer: We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and it is likely that we will never do better than this minimum level. Page: 266 83. Considering the categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, what is the difference between misrepresentation and misrepresentation to opponents networks? Answer: Misrepresentation is distorting information or negotiation events in describing them to others, while misrepresentation to opponents networks is corrupting your opponents reputation with his peers. Page: 268 84. What is the purpose of using marginally ethical ambiguous negotiating tactics? Answer: To increase the negotiator's power in the bargaining environment. Page: 272 85. When were negotiators significantly more likely to see the marginally ethical tactics as appropriate? Answer: If they anticipated that the other would be competitive rather than cooperative. Page: 273 130 Test Bank, Chapter 1 86. As a result of employing an unethical tactic, the negotiator will experience positive or negative consequences. These consequences are based on: Answer: Whether the tactic is effective, how the other party evaluates the tactic, and how the negotiator evaluates the tactic. Page: 274 87. The use of unethical tactics may provoke what response from the "victim?" Answer: Victims of the use of unethical tactics are likely to seek retaliation and revenge. The victim is unlikely to trust the other party again, may seek revenge from the negotiator in future dealings, and may also generalize this experience to negotiations with others. Page: 275 88. What is/are the risks associated with frequent use of the self-serving process? Answer: The more frequently negotiators engage in this self-serving process, the more their judgments about ethical standards and values will become biased, diminishing their ability to see the truth for what it is. Page: 278, 279 89. Studies show that women make more ethical judgments, but only when the consequences of their decisions affect: Answer: someone else. Page: 281 90. How does age affect the use of ethically questionable tactics? Answer: Research has shown that both men and women make more ethical decisions as they age. Older parties tend to see bluffing as more acceptable and deception as less acceptable. Older individuals were significantly more likely to see marginally ethical tactics as inappropriate. Page: 281 91. What were the results of the study between district attorneys and public defenders on the use of deceptive negotiation tactics? Answer: Public defenders saw the tactics as more appropriate than district attorneys, that both groups increased their approval of the tactics when they thought the other party was likely to use them, and that public defenders increased their approval as a "defensive move" more than district attorneys. Page: 281, 282 92. How does locus of control affect ethical behavior? Answer: Individuals who are high in internal control are more likely to do what they think is right, and feel that they have more control over producing the outcomes they want to achieve in a situation in which there were temptations to be less than ethical. Locus of control seems most important when individuals can also exert control over 131 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e outcomes. Locus of control appears to be a moderately powerful contributor to ethical decision making. Page: 284 93. What is the role of incentives? Register to View Answersecond factor that can influence a negotiators tendency to use ethically ambiguous tactics is the role of incentives in place in a given situation. Page: 286 94. What two aspects of the negotiator's relationship with the other party affect the disposition to use unethical tactics? Answer: What the relationship has been like in the past and what the parties would like it to be in the future. Page: 286 95. Negotiators with relatively more power are more likely to abuse that power by using: Answer: Unethical tactics Page: 287 96. What is the ethical danger of using agents in negotiation? Register to View Answernumber of authors have suggested that when we act as an agent for someone elseparticularly when the goals for that agent are to get the best possible agreement agents may be more willing to violate personal ethical standards. In essence, acting as an agent may release people from their own personal ethical standards and code and allow them to create their own standards of legitimacythat it is appropriate to do whatever is necessary to maximize the results for the constituent. Page: 288 97. How does an organizations cultural or ethical climate contribute to the playing a key role in legitimizing inappropriate behavior? Answer: Studies have shown that different companies can have distinctly different ethical climates or cultures. Companies differ in how they value and endorse ethical conduct or appear to condone and tolerate marginally ethical behavior in the service of achieving corporate objectives at any price. Page: 288 98. What actions can a negotiator take to respond to the other party's distributive tactics or "dirty tricks?" Answer: (1) Ask probing questions; (2) force the other party to lie or back off; (3) call the tactic; (4) discuss what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors; (5) respond in kind; and, (6) ignore the tactic. Page: 291 - 293 99. Some people continue to believe that they can tell by looking into someones face if that person is inclined to be dishonest or truthful on a regular basis. What could study participants tell by photographs of aging men and women? 132 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Answer: Study participants were able to correctly identify the most honest men in the group as they aged, but their assessment of women was largely inaccurate. The researchers concluded that mens faces accurately reflected their tendency toward honesty, but womens faces were not particularly valid indicators of their truthfulness. Page: 294 100. Negotiators who are considering the use of deceptive tactics should ask themselves what three questions in order to evaluate the desirability of the tactic? Answer: (1) Will this tactic really enhance my power and achieve my objective? (2) How will the use of these tactics affect the quality of my relationship with the other party in the future? (3) How will the use of these tactics affect my reputation as a negotiator? Page: 295 Chapter 10 Relationships in Negotiation Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Negotiations occur in a rich and complex social context that has a significant impact on how the ____________ interact and how the process evolves. Answer: parties Page: 296 2. Only recently have researchers begun to examine actual negotiations in a rich ____________ context in order to offer better prescriptions on how to negotiate where the parties are deeply embedded in a relationship. Answer: relationship Page: 297 3. Distributive issues within ____________ negotiations can be emotionally hot. Answer: relationship Page: 299 4. In some negotiations, relationship preservation is the overarching negotiation goal and parties may make concessions on ____________ issues to preserve or enhance the relationship. Answer: substantive Page: 300 5. Salacuse says that negotiators should recognize a long-term business deal as a ____________ negotiation. Answer: continuing Page: 301 133 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 6. In communal sharing, collective identity takes precedence over ____________ ____________. Answer: individual identity Page: 302 7. It is clear that much of the early work of negotiation research has been dominated by the assumptions of a ____________ ____________ relationship. Answer: market pricing Page: 303 8. According to John Gottman studies; successful long-term relationships are characterized by continuing to stress what one likes, values, appreciates and ____________ in the other Answer: respects Page: 306 9. ____________ is the legacy that negotiators leave behind after a negotiation encounter with another party. Answer: Reputation Page: 307 134 Test Bank, Chapter 1 10. McAllister defines ____________ as "an individual's belief in and willingness to act on the words, actions and decisions of another." Answer: trust Page: 309 11. An individual's ____________ ____________ toward trust can be described as individual differences in personality that make some people more trusting than others. Answer: chronic disposition Page: 309 12. ____________ trust exists because the parties understand and appreciate each others wants and come to understand what they must do to sustain the others trust. Answer: Identification-based Page: 309 13. Parties affirm strong identification-based trust by developing a ____________ ____________; co-locating; creating joint products or goals, such as a new product line or a new set of objectives; and committing to commonly shared values. Answer: collective identity Page: 310 14. Identification-based trust is defined as confident positive expectations regarding anothers ____________ and is grounded in perceived compatibility of values, common goals, and positive emotional attachment to the other. Answer: conduct Page: 311 15. Integrative processes tend to increase trust, while more ____________ processes are likely to decrease trust. Answer: distributive Page: 311, 312 16. Trustors, and those trusted, may focus on different things as ____________ is being built. Answer: trust Page: 313 17. Distributive justice is about the distribution of ____________. Answer: outcomes Page: 316 18. ____________ justice is about how organizations appear to treat groups of individuals and the norms that develop for how they should be treated. Answer: Systemic Page: 316 19. Negotiators who helped develop a group negotiation strategy were more ____________ 135 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e to it and to the groups negotiation goals. Answer: committed Page: 317 136 Test Bank, Chapter 1 20. Trying to overcome a bad reputation, rebuilding trust, or restoring ____________ to a relationship are much easier to talk about than to actually do! Answer: fairness Page: 320 True/False Questions T F 21. Negotiations occur in a rich and complex social context that has a significant impact on how the parties interact and how the process evolves. Register to View AnswerPage: 296 T F 22. For decades researchers have examined negotiations in a relationship context, in order to offer better prescriptions on how to negotiate where the parties have a substantial history and anticipate a long future relationship Register to View AnswerPage: 297 T F 23. In a relationship, gathering information about the other's ideas, preferences and priorities is often the most important activity. Register to View AnswerPage: 298 T F 24. One of the disadvantages of negotiating in a game or simulation is that there is a defined end. Register to View AnswerPage: 299 T F 25. In relationship negotiations, parties should never make concessions on substantive issues to preserve or enhance the relationship. Register to View AnswerPage: 300 T F 26. Authority ranking is a one-to one correspondence relationship in which people are distinct but equal. Register to View AnswerPage: 302 T F 27. In a market pricing relationship, people see each other as interchangeable. Register to View AnswerPage: 303 T F 28. Parties who are in a communal-sharing relationship (or who expect to have future interaction) focus their attention more on the other party's outcomes as well as their own. 137 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Register to View AnswerPage: 304 T F 29. First impressions and early experiences with others are powerful in shaping others expectations; once these expectations are shaped, they become easy to change over time. Register to View AnswerPage: 307 138 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 30. In calculus-based trust, the promise of reward is likely to be a more significant motivator than the threat of punishment. Register to View AnswerPage: 309 T F 31. Identification-based trust relies on information about the other rather than the management of rewards and punishments. Register to View AnswerPage: 309 T F 32. Trust development is a mutual process, and while parties can initiate actions which may move the trust-development process forward, the strongest trust must be mutually developed at a pace acceptable to both parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 311 T F 33. It is the early research on trust that has revealed somewhat more complex relationships between trust and negotiation behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 313 T F 34. Reciprocity occurs among individuals who are better at taking the perspective of the other in a negotiation, and can also be coached by encouraging a negotiator to consider the views of the other party in their decision making. Register to View AnswerPage: 313 T F 35. Systemic justice is about the way that organizations appear to treat groups of individuals. Register to View AnswerPage: 316 T F 36. When some groups are discriminated against, disfranchised, or systematically given poorer salaries or working conditions, the parties may be more concerned about specific procedural elements and less concerned that the overall system may be biased or discriminatory in its treatment of certain groups and their concerns. Register to View AnswerPage: 316 T F 37. The four forms of justice (distributive, procedural, interactive, systemic) are separate entities that are never intertwined. Register to View AnswerPage: 318 T F 38. Perceptions of distributive unfairness are likely to contribute to parties' satisfaction with the result of a decision, while perceptions of procedural 139 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e unfairness are likely to contribute to the parties' dissatisfaction with the result or with the institution that implemented the unfair procedure. Register to View AnswerPage: 318 140 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 39. Idiosyncratic deals are much more common today, and they are not reserved only for a special few. Register to View AnswerPage: 319 T F 40. Building a relationship may be an essential critical component of being successful in negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 320 Multiple Choice Questions 41. Laboratory controlled research is much easier to conduct than field research because studying live negotiators in the middle of an often complex negotiation causes them to object to all but one of the following? A) to conduct interviews. B) to ask questions. C) to publicly report actual successes. D) to publicly report actual failures. E) they object to all the above. Answer: Page: 297 42. In a transactional negotiation, the most important issue is usually the A) enhancing the relationship. B) better deal. C) dependence dynamics. D) inventory questions. E) all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 298 43. Which of the following parameters shapes our understanding of relationship negotiation strategy and tactics? A) Negotiating within relationships takes place at a single point in time. B) Negotiation in relationships is only about the issue. C) Negotiating within relationships may never end. D) Parties never make concessions on substantive issues. E) All of the above parameters shape our understanding of relationship negotiation strategy and tactics. Register to View AnswerPage: 299 44. Because relationship negotiations are never over, A) parties generally tackle negotiations over tough issues first in order to "get off on the 141 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e right foot." B) it is often impossible to anticipate the future and negotiate everything "up front." C) issues on which parties truly disagree will go away with the conclusion of the negotiation. D) parties should never make concessions on substantive issues. E) All of the above are consequences of relationship negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 300 45. Jeswald Salacuse suggests which rule for negotiating a relationship? A) minimize the prenegotiation stage of the relationship B) recognize a long-term business deal as a continuing negotiation C) eliminate the need for mediation or conciliation D) end all discussions when the contract is signed E) Salacuse suggests all of the above rules for negotiating a relationship. Register to View AnswerPage: 301 46. Communal sharing is a relationship of A) unity, community, collective identity, and kindness. B) asymmetric differences. C) one-to-one correspondence. D) balanced reciprocity. E) None of the above describes a relationship of communal sharing. Register to View AnswerPage: 302 47. An example of authority ranking as a form of relationship would include A) college roommates B) fraternal organizations C) auto salesperson and buyer D) soldiers and their commander E) church congregates Register to View AnswerPage: 302 48. Higher ranks dominate lower ranks is an example of authority ranking as a fundamental relationship form. Under what other form would you find the concept of tit-for-tat revenge? A) communal sharing B) authority ranking C) equality matching D) market pricing E) none of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 302 142 Test Bank, Chapter 1 49. The values that govern a market pricing relationship are determined by a market system and include all but which of the following? A) utility points B) the relationship with the negotiator C) ratio of price to goods D) fair pricing E) the dollars Register to View AnswerPage: 303 143 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 50. Which of the statements is supported by research in communal-sharing relationships? A) Parties in a communal-sharing relationship are more cooperative and empathetic. B) Parties in a communal-sharing relationship craft better quality agreements. C) Parties in a communal-sharing relationship focus more attention on the norms that develop about their working together. D) Parties in a communal-sharing relationship are more likely to share information with the other and less likely to use coercive tactics. E) All of the above statements are supported by research in communal sharing relationships. Register to View AnswerPage: 304, 305 51. What key elements become more critical and pronounced when they occur within a negotiation? A) the agency relationship, the number of negotiation parties, and the role of emotion B) the agency relationship and the role of trust and fairness C) the roles of reputation, trust and justice D) the structure of the constituency and the agency relationship E) none of the above is key elements in managing negotiations within relationships Register to View AnswerPage: 307 52. Reputation is: A) a perceptual identity. B) reflective of the combination of personal characteristics. C) demonstrated behavior. D) intended images preserved over time. E) all of the above statements define reputation. Register to View AnswerPage: 307, 308 53. In calculus-based trust A) the trustor calculates the value of creating and sustaining trust in the relationship relative to the costs of severing it. B) the relationship develops over time, largely because the parties develop a history of experience with each other which allows them to predict the other's behavior. C) regular communication and courtship are key processes. D) the parties effectively understand and appreciate the other's wants. E) All of the above statements are inherent in calculus based trust. Register to View AnswerPage: 309 54. All but one of the following actions contributes to increase identification-based trust. Which one does not contribute? A) Stand for the same principles. B) Monitor the other partys actions. 144 Test Bank, Chapter 1 C) Develop similar interests. D) Try to develop similar goals, objectives and scenarios. E) Try to be interested in the same things. Register to View AnswerPage: 309, 310 145 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 55. Which type of justice is about the process of determining outcomes? A) Distributive B) Interactive C) Procedural D) Systemic E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 316 56. How parties treat each other in one-to-one relationships is the process of which of the following justices? A) Procedural B) Interactional C) Systemic D) Distributive E) None of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 316 57. Which of the following conclusions about the issue of fairness is not a true statement? A) Involvement in the process of helping to shape a negotiation strategy increases commitment to that strategy and willingness to pursue it. B) Negotiators (buyers in a market transaction) who are encouraged (primed) to think about fairness are more cooperative in distributive negotiations. C) Parties who are made offers they perceive as unfair may reject them out of hand, even though the amount offered may be better than the alternative settlement, which is to receive nothing at all. D) Establishment of some objective standard of fairness has a positive impact on the negotiations and satisfaction with the outcome. E) All of the above are true statements. Register to View AnswerPage: 317 58. Denise Rousseau has researched and defined the idiosyncratic deal as the unique ways that employers may come to treat certain employees compared to others in the same office or environment. Which observation stated below is inaccurate? A) Deals are more common when workers are willing to negotiate. B) Deals are more likely to work effectively when performance criteria are clear and well specified. C) Deals are more common in certain countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. D) Deals are more common when workers are located in large organizations. E) Deals are more likely to work when workers trust the performance appraisal process. Register to View AnswerPage: 319 146 Test Bank, Chapter 1 59. Which question that should be asked about working on the improvement of a relationship is false? A) If the relationship is in difficulty, what might have caused it, and how can I gather information or perspective to improve the situation? B) How can we take the pressure off each other so that we can give each other the freedom of choice to talk about what has happened, and what is necessary to fix it? C) Trust repair is a long and slow process. It requires adequate explanations for past behavior, apologies, and perhaps even reparations. Interestingly, cultures differ in the way they manage this process D) Must we surface the deeply felt emotions that have produced anger, frustration, rejection and disappointment? Should we effectively vent these emotions, or understand their causes, so that we can move beyond them? E) How can we begin to appreciate each others contributions, and the positive things that we have done together in the past? How can we restore that respect and value each others contributions? Register to View AnswerPage: 320, 321 60. Within relationships, we see that parties shift their focus considerably, away from a sole focus on price and exchange, to also attend to A) the future of the relationship. B) the level of trust between the parties. C) the emotions and evaluations of the other negotiator. D) questions of fairness. E) Within relationships, parties shift their focus to attend to all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 321 Short Answer Essays 61. How does context affect negotiation? Answer: One major way that context affects negotiation is that people are in relationships that have a past, present and future. Page: 296 62. Why are some research questions best answered under controlled laboratory conditions? Answer: Because it would be impossible to simulate the same conditions repeatedly in actual negotiations. Page: 297 63. In relationship negotiation, the resolution of simple distributive issues can have what effects on future decisions? Answer: The settlement of any one negotiation issue can create undesired or unintended precedents for the future. These negotiations may not only set precedents, or blueprints for how similar future issues should be resolved, but they may also shift the nature of the 147 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e future relationship, particularly around power and dependence. Page: 298 64. What does Salacuse say is the importance of prenegotiation? Answer: The prenegotiation process enhances gaining information about the other party and builds a relationship that may enhance trust, information sharing and productive discussions. Page: 301 65. Define a relationship. Register to View Answerpairing of entities that has meaning to the parties, in which the understood form of present and future interactions influences their behavior today. Page: 302 66. Describe an equality matching relationship. Answer: Equality matching is a one-to-one correspondence relationship in which people are distinct but equal, as manifested in balanced reciprocity, equal share distributions or identical contributions, in-kind replacement compensation, and turn-taking. People see each other as equal and separate, but often interchangeable; each is expected to both contribute equally to others and receive equally from others. Page: 302 67. How do people view goods in a market-pricing relationship? Answer: In market-pricing relationships, parties can attempt to change the ratio of price to goods in their own favor (maximize their utility) or they can seek what may be defined as a fair price. Page: 303 68. What are some of the findings of the limited amount of negotiation research about communal-sharing relationships? Answer: Studies have shown, however, that compared to those in other kinds of negotiations, parties who are in a communal-sharing relationship: Are more cooperative and empathetic, craft better quality agreements, perform better on both decision making and motor tasks, focus their attention on the other partys outcomes as well as their own, are more likely to share information with the other and less likely to use coercive tactics, and are more likely to use indirect communication about conflict issues and develop a unique conflict structure (among other findings). Page: 303 69. What two questions should be asked when arriving at an impasse? Answer: Ask what logic or data might change their views; and, ask if there is any way you might jointly design a technique that might provide more information. Page: 305 70. Give some examples of traits that help influence the definition of a reputation. Answer: Traits may include qualities such as age, race and gender; education and past 148 Test Bank, Chapter 1 experience, and personality traits, skills and behaviors. Page: 308 71. Why are negative reputations difficult to repair? Answer: The more long-standing the negative reputation, the harder it is to change that reputation to a more positive one. Reputations need to be actively defended and renewed in others eyes. Particularly when any event is likely to be seen by others in a negative light, we must work hard to defend and protect our reputation, and actively work to make sure that others do not remember the experience in a negative way. Page: 309 72. What are the three things that contribute to the level of trust one negotiator may have for another? Answer: The individual's chronic disposition toward trust; situation factors; and the history of the relationship between the parties. Page: 309 73. What are Lewicki and Wiethoffs two types of trust? Answer: Calculus-based trust and identification-based trust. Page: 309 74. Define identification-based trust. Answer: Identification-based trust is based on identification with the other's desires and intentions. At this level, trust exists because the parties effectively understand and appreciate the other's wants; this mutual understanding is developed to the point that each can effectively act for the other. Page: 309 75. Why is distrust growing in todays economy? Answer: Distrust is increasing in todays work environment, as a weak economy, corporate scandals, and the increasing discrepancy between chief executive and workerlevel salaries continues to increase. Page: 310 76. Under the four actions to manage the different forms of trust in negotiations, describe the basic steps to increase calculus-based trust. Answer: 1) Create and meet the other partys expectations. 2) Stress the benefits of creating mutual trust. 3) Establish credibility. 4) Keep promises. 5) Develop a good reputation. Page: 312 77. Do many people approach a new relationship with an unknown party with remarkably high levels of trust? Answer: Yes, most of us assume that the other can be trusted and are remarkably willing to trust the other even with very little information or knowledge about the other. Page: 313 149 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 78. What role does trust play in an online negotiation? Answer: Face-to-face negotiation encourages greater trust development than negotiation on-line. There is evidence that parties anticipating an online negotiation expect less trust before the negotiations began, are less satisfied with their negotiation outcomes, are less confident in the quality of their performance during the negotiation, trust the other less after the negotiation, and have less desire for a future interaction with the other party. Page: 314 79. Define interactional justice. Answer: Interactional justice is about how parties treat each other in one-to-one relationships. Page: 316 80. How does an egocentric bias play out in judgments about fairness? Answer: Recent research has shown that this egocentric bias can be diminished by strong interactional justice. That is, recognizing the need to treat the other person fairly, and actually treating the other fairly, lead to a smaller egocentric bias, a more even split of the resources, quicker settlements, and fewer stalemates. Page: 317 Chapter 11 Agents, Constituencies, Audiences Fill in the Blank Questions 1. In the ____________ relationship, negotiators are representing the interests of other parties who may or may not be at the table. Answer: agency Page: 323 2. A ____________ is one or more parties that have designated someone else to represent their positions and interests in a negotiation. Answer: constituent Page: 324 3. Team members may agree to play a special ____________ in negotiation, but they may also shift into another ____________ as the negotiation evolves. Answer: role, role Page: 325 4. Constituents expect to profit (or lose) as a direct result of the agents ____________, and 150 Test Bank, Chapter 1 they often select their agent based on his or her ability to achieve their goals. Answer: effectiveness Page: 327 5. A third type of audience is composed of external ____________ and observers. Answer: bystanders Page: 327 6. Audiences who are ____________ derive their payoffs as a direct result of the negotiator's behavior and effectiveness. Answer: outcome-dependent Page: 330 7. Negotiators ____________ when they know they are being watched. Answer: try harder Page: 331 8. Anyone who has ever played a friendly game of tennis, golf, basketball, or touch football with some competitive friends will recognize that much of the banter, teasing, and verbal harassment that occurs is designed to undermine the opponents ____________ or to challenge him or her to play better. Answer: self-confidence Page: 332 9. Audiences maintain control over negotiators by holding them ____________ for their performance. Answer: accountable Page: 335 10. The presence of ________________ pressures leads to longer, more time-consuming negotiations than when accountability pressures are absent. Answer: accountability Page: 335 11. The basic dilemma for a negotiator acting as an agent in a relationship negotiation is to determine how he or she can satisfy both his or her constituency's demands for ____________ and the other party's demand for ____________. Answer: firmness, concessions Page: 336 12. Successful management of a constituency requires that negotiators have control over the ____________ of their negotiating behavior. Answer: visibility Page: 337 13. A rejection vote by the union rank and file is tantamount to a vote of ____________ in the negotiator. Answer: no confidence Page: 340 151 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 14. ____________ communications are efforts by the negotiator to bring the opinions of audiences and constituents to bear on the other negotiator. Answer: Indirect Page: 342 15. Conducting negotiations through an agent who is not the senior person allows the organization to limit its ____________ by limiting the negotiator's power and authority to make decisions. Answer: concessions Page: 343 16. Direct communication with the other party's constituencyparticularly without the sanction of the other negotiatoris likely to be viewed as an ____________ tactic. Answer: inflammatory Page: 346 17. The ____________ play an integral role by serving as both an audience themselves and as a communication vehicle to reach other audiences. Answer: media Page: 347 18. An audience may be directly and seriously affected by the results of a particular negotiation but unable to exert leverage on the negotiations because they have no means for determining their _________ sentiments or making decisions among themselves. Answer: collective Page: 348 19. In addition to developing a relationship based on shared personal interests or genuine liking, agents may also stress their common ____________namely, the accountability pressures put on them by their constituencies. Answer: fate Page: 350 152 Test Bank, Chapter 1 20. Audiences can ____________ negotiators by publicly praising them and ____________ negotiators by firing them. Answer: reward, punish Page: 354 True/False Questions T F 21. The social environment becomes much less complex and dynamic as we add negotiating parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 323 T F 22. As the number of negotiators increases, the likelihood of finding common ground to satisfy all interests usually increases as well, thus making group negotiations more successful than a negotiating dyad. Register to View AnswerPage: 324 T F 23. A negotiator's team member can do as much to influence and shape a spokesperson's behavior as what the opposing negotiator says or does. Register to View AnswerPage: 325 T F 24. Negotiators who have constituents are usually involved in three or four distinctly different relationshipsand often in two separate and distinct negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 326 T F 25. Negotiating team members themselves can act as bystanders and observers. Register to View AnswerPage: 327 T F 26. An outcome-dependent audience is one that can observe the negotiation but will not be directly affected by the results. Register to View AnswerPage: 330 T F 27. The presence of an audience has no effect on the negotiators. Register to View AnswerPage: 331 T F 28. Audiences who are viewed only as a "somewhat-important group to please can nevertheless exert powerful influences over a negotiator's behavior by simply telling negotiators that they look weak and foolish. Register to View AnswerPage: 332 153 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 29. An audience that is dependent on a negotiators performance for their outcomes will generally insist that he or she be tough, firm, demanding, and unyielding in the struggle to obtain the best possible outcome for them Register to View AnswerPage: 335 T F 30. A negotiator must build a relationship with only his constituency or with the other negotiating party, but never both. Register to View AnswerPage: 336 T F 31. When negotiators negotiate in full view of their constituencies, they are less likely to make concessions than negotiators who deliberate in private. Register to View AnswerPage: 337 T F 32. Negotiators do not have to be careful about revealing how much authority and autonomy they really have. Register to View AnswerPage: 339 T F 33. It is important to establish negotiating ground rules as the negotiating process evolves. Register to View AnswerPage: 341 T F 34. In the short term, back channel diplomacy does not help to manage uncertainties by achieving early breakthroughs. Register to View AnswerPage: 345 T F 35. The quickest and most efficient way of letting one's own constituency know the exact elements of one's negotiating posture and personal commitment to this posture is to represent that position in the media. Register to View AnswerPage: 347 T F 36. Media relations and image management often become ends in themselves; strong negotiators can consciously stage their performance before radio microphones or television cameras in order to win public opinion to their side, which will then put pressure on the other party to concede Register to View AnswerPage: 347 154 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 37. Well-organized audiences can have significant effect on the outcome of negotiations even if their total number is small. Register to View AnswerPage: 349 T F 38. Portraying an image of confidence, control, and steadfast determination is not as essential in appealing to an audience as being well dressed and well spoken. Register to View AnswerPage: 349 155 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 39. It is a good idea to negotiate for yourself when you are emotionally involved in an issue or problem in order not to get sidetracked by the discussion. Register to View AnswerPage: 353 T F 40. Audiences usually have only unfavorable effects on negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 354 Multiple Choice Questions 41. An audience can be defined as A) parties on the same side that are working together and collectively advocating the same positions and interests. B) negotiators representing the interests of other parties. C) one or more parties that have designated someone else to represent their positions and interests in a negotiation. D) any individual or group of people who are not directly involved in or affected by a negotiation, but who have a chance to observe and react to the ongoing events and who may be drawn into the negotiation. E) An audience can be defined as all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 324 42. A constituency is A) one or more parties whose interests, demands, or priorities are being represented by the focal negotiator at the table. B) a negotiator representing the interests of another party. C) any individual or group of people who are not directly involved in or affected by a negotiation, but who have a chance to observe and react to the ongoing events. D) two or more parties on the same side who are working together and collectively advocating the same positions and interests. E) A constituency can be defined by all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 326 43. There are many different types of audiences and audience effects. A type of audience comprised of one or more parties whose interests, demands, or priorities are being represented by the focal negotiator at the table is part of one of the following. A) team member B) bystander C) neutral D) constituent E) observer Register to View AnswerPage: 326 156 Test Bank, Chapter 1 44. In a negotiator's relationship with a constituency A) the constituency delegates all power and authority to the negotiator. B) constituents expect that the negotiator will report back only when the negotiation is complete. C) constituents expect to directly profit (or lose) as a result of the negotiator's effectiveness. D) the negotiator presents his or her view of what he or she expects to achieve in the negotiation, and the constituency must agree to support it or find another negotiator. E) All of the above occur in a negotiator's relationship with a constituency. Register to View AnswerPage: 327 45. When audiences become directly involved in the negotiation process, the complexity of the interaction increases depending on A) who the audience is. B) what issues are at stake. C) how much power the audience has. D) what kind of role the audience chooses to play. E) The complexity of the interaction depends on all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 328, 329 46. Which of the following is not an example of major characteristics of audiences? A) Audiences vary according to whether they are physically present at or absent from the negotiation. B) Audiences try harder when they are under surveillance. C) Audiences affect negotiations is by the degree of their involvement in the process. D) Audiences also give periodic feedback to the negotiators, evaluating their effectiveness and letting them know how they are doing. E) Audiences who are outcome-dependent derive their payoffs as a direct result of the negotiators behavior and effectiveness. Register to View AnswerPage: 331 47. In a study by Carnevale, Pruitt and Britton, negotiators who believed they were under surveillance A) were significantly more likely to conduct their negotiations in an integrative manner. B) were more likely to use threats, commitment tactics and put downs of their opponents. C) obtained higher joint outcomes than negotiators not under surveillance. D) were more likely to make concessions that would facilitate mutual gain. E) Negotiators who believed they were under surveillance exhibited all of the above behaviors. Register to View AnswerPage: 331 157 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 48. Which of the following insights about pressures on sports agents to compete leads to ethical pressures was not found to be true? A) Competition for top players is very heavy. B) The only way to compete is to cheat. C) Agents spend too much time negotiating salaries. D) Many follow religious principles to guide their conduct. E) Agents post security bonds that could pay damages to athletes if the agent misbehaves. Register to View AnswerPage: 333 158 Test Bank, Chapter 1 49. Audiences hold negotiators accountable in all but one of the following ways. Which one? A) When the negotiators performance is visible. B) When the audience is dependent upon the negotiator for their outcomes. C) When the negotiating agents were members of a group that developed the negotiating position. D) When the audience is able to judge how well a negotiator performs. E) When the audience insists that the negotiator be tough, firm, and demanding. Register to View AnswerPage: 335 50. Either you deal with me and my demands or you work with someone else from my constituency who is far more irrational than me is a statement from a negotiator who would fall into which of the following tactics described below? A) Limit ones own concessions by making negotiations visible to the constituency. B) Use the constituency to show militancy. C) Use the constituency to limit ones own authority. D) Use great caution in exceeding ones authority. E) Increase the possibility of concession to the other negotiator by reducing visibility to constituencies. Register to View AnswerPage: 338 - 342 51. As a genuine tactic, the negotiators constituency has actually defined limits to what the negotiator can decide on his or her own and is part of which of the following tactics? A) Limit ones own concessions by making negotiations visible to the constituency. B) C) D) E) Use the constituency to show militancy. Use the constituency to limit ones own authority. Use great caution in exceeding ones authority. Increase the possibility of concession to the other negotiator by reducing visibility to constituencies. Register to View AnswerPage: 339 52. Information can be privately exchanged in informal venues and could be found to increase the possibility of concession to the other negotiator by reducing visibility to constituents in which of the following approaches? A) Establish privacy prior to the beginning of negotiations. B) Screen visibility during negotiations. C) Be aware of time pressure. D) Establish a reputation for cooperation. E) Communicate through superiors. Register to View AnswerPage: 341 53. Which of the following strategies can be used to manipulate the effect an audience can 159 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e have? A) Limit one's own concessions by making negotiations invisible to the constituency. B) Do not allow the constituency to demonstrate their commitment to the bargaining position. C) Give the negotiator unlimited authority. D) Increase the possibility of concessions by cutting off visibility to audiences. E) None of the above tactics can be used to manipulate audience visibility. Register to View AnswerPage: 341 160 Test Bank, Chapter 1 54. Informal communications in a negotiation can take place in what way? A) communicate through superiors B) communicate through intermediaries C) communicate directly to the other party's constituency D) communicate directly to bystanders E) Informal communications can take place through all of the above methods. Register to View AnswerPage: 342 - 346 55. The tactic of communicating though intermediaries is most often used under what circumstance? A) when the negotiator represents an organization or group that has some formal hierarchy of power B) when the other party is not representing his or her constituency's interests clearly and effectively at the table C) when deliberations are deadlocked and need to be unfrozen D) as an effort to build alliances and support for one's own position E) Communicating through intermediaries and constituency members is used under all of the above circumstances. Register to View AnswerPage: 344 56. Communications through bystanders may occur A) as an explicit and conscious tactic to exert influence on the other party. B) as an effort to build alliances and support for ones own position. C) as a result of the natural tendency for conflict to proliferate and envelop innocent bystanders. D) as a manipulation by an agent to undermine the other partys position. E) All of the above are examples of communications through bystanders. Register to View AnswerPage: 346, 347 57. The media increasingly provide opportunities for disorganized majorities to have a voice through all but one of the following. Which one? A) Web-based chat rooms. B) Call-in talk shows. C) Weblogs. D) Media polls. E) Petitions. Register to View AnswerPage: 348, 349 58. The "harmony-and-light speech" A) communicates that the other negotiator is interested in building a personal relationship. B) indicates that the parties are adamant in their positions. 161 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e C) is a clear sign that negotiations will be tense. D) is another name for a deadlocked negotiation. E) The "harmony and light speech" accomplishes none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 350 162 Test Bank, Chapter 1 59. Which of the following would you not likely find the use of an agent in negotiations? A) When your natural conflict style is to compromise, accommodate, or avoid. B) When the agent has special friends, relationships or connections that he or she can use to contact the right people to get a deal done. C) When the representative has better negotiation skills than you. D) When you need to repair a damaged relationship. E) When you are emotionally involved in an issue or problem. Register to View AnswerPage: 352 60. Fisher and Davis have identified all but one of the following statements as advice to constituencies on managing agents. A) The constituent should focus most of his or her communication to the agent on interests, priorities, and alternatives, rather than specific settlement points B) The agents authority should expand as the agent and constituent gain insight about the other parties through the negotiation process. C) The agent should not be given the discretion to design and develop an effective overall negotiation process. D) Specific and direct instructions to the agent by constituents should be put in writing about the other parties through the negotiation process. E) The agent should have no authority to make a binding commitment on any substantive issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 353 Short Answer Essays 61. Why do constituencies use agents? Answer: Constituencies are usually absent from the actual negotiations, and thus designate their representatives to both advocate their interests and accurately report what has transpired during the deliberations. Page: 323 62. What is a negotiating team? Answer: Two or more parties on the same side who are working together and collectively advocating the same positions and interests. Page: 324 63. Define constituency. Register to View Answerconstituency is one or more parties whose interests, demands, or priorities are being represented by the focal negotiator at the table. Page: 326 64. Negotiators with constituencies are involved in what two different relationships? 163 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: The first relationship is with the constituencythe negotiator and constituency decide on their collective view of what they want to achieve in the negotiation and the strategy and tactics of how to get it. The second relationship is with the other partyin this relationship, the negotiator and the other party attempt to reach a viable and effective resolution of their differences. Page: 326 164 Test Bank, Chapter 1 65. What unique pressures and conflicts does representing a constituent create for an agent? Answer: The agent may be unable to both completely satisfy his or her constituent and achieve a resolution satisfactory to his or her opponent. Page: 327 66. When do audiences become indirectly involved in the negotiation? Answer: Indirect involvement occurs when audiences make their own wishes and desires known (through communication of their ideas) but do not directly try to influence the course of an ongoing negotiation. Page: 330 67. Individuals who are stronger in face threat sensitivity are more likely to agree to three statements according to a group of researchers. What are those three statements? Answer: My feelings are hurt easily. I dont respond well to direct criticism. And I am pretty thin-skinned. Page: 334 68. The accountability of a negotiator to an audience will occur under what two dominant conditions? Answer: When a bargainer's performance is visible to the audience (so that the audience is able to judge how well the bargainer performs) and when the audience is dependent on the bargainer for their outcomes. Page: 335 69. Continued characterizations of the negotiator as weak, soft, or someone who sells out may lead to what outcomes? Answer: First, the bargainer may become increasingly inflexible or retaliatory to demonstrate to the constituency that he or she is capable of defending their interest. Second, the bargainer may try to be a more loyal, committed, and dedicated advocate of the constituency's preferred outcomes and priorities, simply to attempt to regain their good favor and evaluation. Finally, the negotiator may be forced to resign, judged by oneself as incapable of representing the constituency's best interests. Page: 335 70. What is the dilemma of trust between agents and constituents? Answer: The dilemma is that the more trust constituents put in a representative, the more autonomy and freedom the representative will feel to "create value" with other negotiators; but the more they are involved in creating value, the more difficult it will be to go back and persuade constituents that the "new" solution truly represents the original interests of the constituents. Page: 336 71. How does a negotiator develop relationships with both his or her constituency and with the other party? Answer: Typically, negotiators first meet with the constituency to define their collective interests and objectives. They then meet with opposing negotiators, in private, so they can 165 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e candidly state their constituent's expectations, but also make necessary concessions without looking weak or foolish to the constituent. Finally, a negotiator returns to the constituent to "sell" the concessions to them, persuading them that the achieved settlement was the best one possible under the circumstances. Page: 337 166 Test Bank, Chapter 1 72. How can a constituency be used tactically to show support for a bargaining position? Answer: Make the constituency visible and let them demonstrate that they are more extreme, radical, committed, and inflexible than the negotiator. A barely-under-control militant constituency may not only intimidate the other party, but it also allows the negotiator to be a nice, pleasant, reasonable person in contrast. Page: 338 73. Why should a negotiator use great caution in exceeding authority? Answer: Negotiators who overextend their authority or exceed the limits set by their constituency may be unable to persuade the constituency that the achieved settlement is a good one. Page: 340 74. Negotiators can increase the possibility of concessions by: Answer: Reducing visibility to constituencies. Page: 341 75. How can a concern for reputations create a problem for agents? Answer: Agents who feel that their reputations are at stake in a negotiation may be more likely to take risks, display more contentious behavior, set higher walkaway prices, and have higher impasse rates than agents who do not feel that their reputations are at stake. Page: 342 76. When would a negotiator communicate directly to the other party's constituency? Answer: When the negotiator believes that negotiations are deadlocked, that the other negotiator is not communicating effectively with his or her constituency, or that the other party is either not representing his or her constituency's interests clearly and effectively at the table or not accurately reporting to his or her constituency. Page: 344 77. What is a negotiator's intent when communicating directly to bystanders and audiences? Answer: To manipulate the opinion of bystanders (other than constituencies) and to mobilize their support, either to build support for one's own position or to undermine the other party's position. Page: 346 78. The effectiveness of communicating through audiences is determined by several factors. What are those factors? Answer: First, the success of the tactic depends on the degree to which an audiences outcome hinges directly on the negotiators effectiveness and how severe the consequences are likely to be. Secondly, the effectiveness is determined to the degree to which the audience is organized as a coherent unit. And finally, communicating will be effective to the degree that the negotiator is sophisticated in the use of media relations. Page: 348, 349 167 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 79. Many experienced negotiators refer to expressions of common fate as: Answer: The harmony-and-light speech Page: 350 80. What are the two purposes of informal meetings between negotiators? Answer: To sense what the other side's major demands will be and to develop a relationship and an open channel of communication that can be used regardless of how tense the negotiations become. Page: 351 Chapter 12 Coalitions Fill in the Blank Questions 1. In a ____________, the parties are intentionally joining to accomplish some specific purpose that serves their interests. Answer: coalition Page: 357 2. A potential coalition has the potential to become a coalition by taking ____________ action but has not yet done so. Answer: collective Page: 358 3. ____________ coalitions are emergent interest groups that have not yet formed into an operating coalition. Answer: latent Page: 358 4. In general, people form coalitions to preserve or increase their ____________. Answer: resources Page: 361 5. Coalition ____________ may include the amount of effort one has exerted, the ability or skill one contributes to the task or problem, or the level of expertise one has obtained. Answer: inputs Page: 361 6. The ____________ develops some form of action agenda, vision, or commitment, and persuades others to join him or her in pursuing it. Answer: founder Page: 364 7. Successful founders usually have a strong ____________ of friends and associates whom 168 Test Bank, Chapter 1 they know and whom they can approach when they need support for a particular agenda. Answer: network Page: 364 8. Once a coalition is successful at reaching a ____________ mass, continued growth becomes considerably easier, but is now less necessary. Answer: critical Page: 366 9. Those advocating an ____________ allocation standard argue that everyone should receive the same outcome. Answer: equality Page: 369 169 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 10. The "strength-is-____________" theory states that the more resources one holds or controls, the more likely that he or she is likely to be a critical coalition member. Answer: strength Page: 369 11. According to Murnighan, "When anyone will do, interchangeability favors those who appear ____________." Answer: weak Page: 369, 370 12. The more resources a given potential partner brings to a coalition or the greater variety in resources or types of inputs, the more that partner can add to the coalition, and the more ____________ he or she will have in contributing to the coalition and dictating what the coalition should look like. Answer: power Page: 370 13. Research studies indicate that ____________ power from compatibility of interests is the overriding source of power in coalitions. Answer: relationship Page: 370 14. Block sees the dominant driving force for a coalition as ____________getting people to collectively endorse a view of greatness for their unit and organization that others will buy into. Answer: vision Page: 372 15. ____________ are people with whom a negotiator has conflicting goals and objectives, but who can be trusted to be principled and candid in their position. Answer: Opponents Page: 373 True/False Questions T F 16. A coalition is created by formal organizational designation. Register to View AnswerPage: 358 T F 17. Coalitions lack any internal hierarchy or formal legitimate authority. Register to View AnswerPage: 358 T F 18. Latent coalitions are interests groups which previously formed, but which are currently inactive. 170 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Register to View AnswerPage: 358 T F 19. A temporary coalition operates for a short period of time and is usually focused around a single issue or problem. Register to View AnswerPage: 359 171 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 20. Early in the coalition building process, founders offer only a small share of profits or benefits to potential partners. Register to View AnswerPage: 364 T F 21. As the coalition builds and strengthens, other prospective partners will have more interest in joining on their own, and the founder's power position shifts from strength to weakness. Register to View AnswerPage: 364 T F 22. Because others will be skeptical of lending their support to the coalition, a founder needs to give early partners enough to "make it worth their while." Register to View AnswerPage: 365 T F 23. Those founders who have a small, uniform network of strong ties are in a better situation to form a coalition than those who have a large, diverse network of weak ties. Register to View AnswerPage: 367 T F 24. In organizational settings, veto players are most likely to be founders because they already control a majority of the power in the organization. Register to View AnswerPage: 367 T F 25. Coalitions must be permanent, large, and public to be effective. Register to View AnswerPage: 367 T F 26. Those advocating an equity allocation standard argue that those who contributed more should receive more, in proportion to the magnitude of their contribution. Register to View AnswerPage: 369 T F 27. In general, parties tend to argue for the allocation standard that is most likely to serve their individual needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 369 T F 28. Normative power has no strategic function. Register to View AnswerPage: 370 T F 29. Authentic tactics require parties to tell everything they know, so that they can 172 Test Bank, Chapter 1 maximize what others know, maximize the common pool of information, and increase the ability of the parties to arrive at a solution that is in their individual and collective interests. Register to View AnswerPage: 371 173 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 30. Opponents are parties with whom a negotiator has high agreement on the vision or objectives, but low to moderate levels of trust. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 Multiple Choice Questions 31. Which of the following is not a property of a coalition? A) A coalition is an interacting group of individuals. B) A coalition is independent of the formal structure of the organization. C) A coalition consists of mutually perceived membership. D) A coalition is focused on a goal or goals internal to the coalition. E) All of the above are properties of coalitions. Register to View AnswerPage: 357, 358 32. A coalition is determined by the commitment of its members to A) meet on a regular basis. B) collectively focus their action on an intended target. C) the formal hierarchy of the coalition. D) maintain regular and accurate communication. E) A coalition is determined by the commitment of its members to all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 358 33. Which of the following lists three of the major types of coalitions? A) potential coalitions, operating coalitions, and recurring coalitions B) external coalitions, operating coalitions, and recurring coalitions C) latent coalitions, established coalitions, and potential coalitions D) established coalitions, operating coalitions, and temporary coalitions E) None of the above lists three major types of coalitions. Register to View AnswerPage: 358, 359 34. ____________ ____________ are emergent interest groups that have not yet formed into an operating coalition. A) Informal coalitions B) Formal coalitions C) Latent coalitions D) Dormant coalitions E) All of the above are emergent interest groups that have not yet formed into an operating coalition. Register to View AnswerPage: 358 174 Test Bank, Chapter 1 35. What is the "paradox" of being a coalition founder? A) Early in the coalition building process, the founder may have to give away a lot in order to apparently gain a little. B) The founder's position shifts from strength to weakness as the coalition grows. C) The founder is usually not a part of the leadership of the coalition. D) The founder's early share in the coalition is large, and grows as more members are added. E) None of the above describes the paradox of being a coalition founder. Register to View AnswerPage: 364 36. Coalitions build by A) organizing members through formal meetings . B) adding one member at a time. C) mobilizing departments or divisions. D) unification in a single, defining event. E) Coalitions are built by all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 365 37. The "joining threshold" is A) the total number of people who can join a specific coalition. B) the level where a minimum number of people have joined a coalition and others begin to join because they recognize that their current friends and associates are already members. C) the minimum number of people required for a coalition to be successful. D) the level at which a new member must "pay" in order to join the coalition. E) None of the above defines the joining threshold. Register to View AnswerPage: 366 38. The "strength-is-weakness" dynamic in coalitions states that A) coalition founders will go to those who are the weakest for support. B) the weakest members may need to be in the coalition the most. C) the weakest members will demand the least payoff from joining the coalition. D) the weakest members may hold power in the coalition. E) The "strength is weakness" dynamic in coalitions states all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 367 39. Those advocating a need allocation standard argue that A) those who contributed more should receive more, in proportion to the magnitude of their contribution. B) everyone should receive the same outcome. C) parties should receive more in proportion to some demonstrated need for the resource. 175 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e D) decision rules in coalitions should be made on an individual, case-by-case basis. E) Those advocating a need standard argue for all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 369 40. Which of the following statements about strength in coalitions is false? A) Those parties who have relatively fewer resources in a coalition may be stronger. B) The more resources one holds or controls, the more likely that he or she will be a critical coalition member. C) Coalition players with strength often become the center of communication networks. D) The more power one holds or controls, the more likely that he or she will be a central figure in pulling the coalition together and dictating its strategy. E) All of the above statements about strength in coalitions are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 369 41. Strategic power in coalitions A) emerges from the availability of alternative coalition partners. B) derives from what parties consider a fair or just distribution of the outcomes and results of a coalition. C) is dependent on which party's arguments ultimately shape the allocation rule used by the group. D) is shaped by the compatibility of preferences between two or more parties. E) Strategic power in coalitions is described by all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 370 42. Block argues that authentic tactics require parties to A) say "yes" when they mean "no." B) share only the information that is relevant to the issue at hand. C) use language that describes reality. D) reposition their endorsement or support for the sake of acceptance. E) Authentic tactics require parties to do all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 372 43. Allies can be defined as A) people with whom a negotiator has conflicting goals and objectives, but who can be trusted to be principled and candid in their opposition. B) parties who are in agreement with their goals and vision, and whom the negotiator trusts. C) parties with whom a negotiator has high agreement on the vision or objectives, but low to moderate levels of trust. D) negotiators who are low in agreement and low in trust. E) None of the above statements defines allies. Register to View AnswerPage: 372 176 Test Bank, Chapter 1 44. Bedfellows are parties with whom a negotiator has A) high agreement and low trust. B) low agreement and high trust. C) low agreement and low trust. D) high agreement and high trust. E) Bedfellows have none of the above characteristics. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 45. Adversaries can be described as A) parties who will not take a stand one way or the other on the issue. B) people with whom negotiator has conflicting goals and objectives, but who can be trusted to be principled and candid in their opposition. C) parties who a negotiator believes are in agreement with their goals and vision, and whom they trust. D) negotiators who are low in agreement and low in trust. E) None of the above statements describes adversaries. Register to View AnswerPage: 374 Short Answer Essays 46. What are the properties of a coalition? Register to View Answercoalition is an interacting group of individuals, deliberately constructed and issue oriented, existing independent of formal structure, lack formal structure, focusing on a goal(s) external to the coalition and requiring concerted member action. Page: 357, 358 47. Why are potential coalitions of interests to both coalition members and those they oppose? Answer: If one can identify how a particular course of action might lead a supportive or opposing coalition to form (or to invigorate a dormant one), one can select courses of action which might be more or less likely to activate that coalition. Page: 358 48. What are recurring coalitions? Answer: Recurring coalitions are coalitions which may have started as temporary but then determine that the issue or problem does not remain resolved; hence, the members need to remobilize themselves every time the presenting issue requires collective attention in the future. Page: 359 177 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 49. Why do coalitions form? Answer: People form coalitions to preserve or increase their resources. Page: 361 50. In coalition research, how is the commons dilemma avoided? Answer: Only if a large number of people accept some responsibility for doing their part of not taking advantage of an unlimited good, so that others may also be able to share that resource in the future. Page: 363 51. Who is the founder of the coalition? Answer: The founder is the person who initiates the coalition. Coalition founders usually identify some form of agenda or course of action that must be accomplished or achieved. Page: 364 52. Why might founders have to offer an unequal or inequitable share to early prospects? Answer: This is done because the prospects may be unwilling to take the risk and make the commitment to join the coalition without some kind of a significant incentive. Page: 364 178 Test Bank, Chapter 1 53. The founder makes explicit offers to attract new coalition partners based on what three criteria? Answer: The other has something important to bring to the coalition that will enhance its strength; the other wants less than other people in order to be a member of the coalition; the founder can make some form of promise of commitment to the other about future rewards, benefits or payoffs to be derived. Page: 366 54. What kind networks to founders usually have, and how do they use networks to recruit coalition members? Answer: Founders have extensive networks of weak ties with a number of other parties, often bring on those who have their own extensive networks (thereby extending the "network reach" of possible members), and use these ties to make contacts and build support. Page: 367 55. What is the strength in weakness argument? Answer: When any winning coalition obtains the same payoff, and the game structure indicates that two given actors are interchangeable (either one can contribute the same amount to the dominant coalition), those actors who appear to contribute the least resources, have the least power, or exert the least influence will have an advantage. Page: 369 56. How do relationship dynamics affect the formation and stability of coalitions? Answer: Relationships influence the preferences parties have for particular agreements, and therefore relationships can significantly affect the formation and stability of coalitions. Page: 371 57. According to Block, when does enlightened self-interest occur? Answer: When people: pursue activities that have meaning to themselves and to others; are needed; genuinely contribute to the organization and its purpose; act with integrity and tell the truth about what they see happening; treat others well and have a positive impact on others; and when they strive to be as good and productive as they can at what they do. Page: 371 58. In what roles can parties view other prospective coalition members? Answer: Allies, opponents, bedfellows, fence sitters and adversaries. Page: 372 59. Define "fence sitters." Answer: Fence sitters are parties who will not take a stand one way or the other on an issue. They refuse to take a position, or fear taking a position either because it could lock them in, be politically dangerous, or expose them to risk. Page: 373 179 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 60. With adversaries, what happens as you focus on trying to convert or pressure them? Answer: The more you focus on trying to convert or pressure them, the stronger they become, the more they threaten you, and the more you become obsessed with them. Page: 374 Chapter 13 Multiple Parties and Teams Fill in the Blank Questions 1. In multiparty negotiations, multiple parties are negotiating together to achieve a ____________ objective or group consensus. Answer: collective Page: 376 2. Differences are what make multiparty negotiations more complex, challenging, and ____________ to manage. Answer: difficult Page: 377 3. Multiparty negotiations have more ____________ at the table. Answer: negotiators Page: 378 4. Negotiators in a multiparty negotiation can explicitly engage in ____________ building as a way to marshal support. Answer: coalition Page: 381 5. Polzer, Mannix and Neale argue that ____________ are the most significant force in shaping which parties will enter coalitions with each other in a multiparty negotiation. Answer: relationships Page: 382 6. In a competitive negotiation, parties are likely to use information ____________ sharing very little with other parties, while attempting to gain much information from others Answer: strategically Page: 383 7. Many complex international negotiations give a great deal of time to the question of who will be ____________ and who can speak for others. Answer: recognized Page: 385 180 Test Bank, Chapter 1 8. Multiparty negotiations can be greatly facilitated by the presence of a ____________ chairperson. Answer: neutral Page: 388 9. ____________ of multiparty negotiations must be sensitive to keeping tight control over the group process while not directly affecting the groups outcome. Answer: Chairpersons Page: 389 181 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 10. During the information management phase of multiparty negotiations, ____________ "patrol" the environment and bring in relevant external information that may be useful to the group. Answer: scouts Page: 391 11. During the information management phase of multiparty negotiations, ____________ norms reflect the way the group engages in sharing and evaluating the information that is introduced. Answer: discussion Page: 391, 392 12. In ____________ technique, after a brainstormed list of solution options is created, group members rank, rate or evaluate the alternatives in terms of the degree to which each alternative solves the problem. Answer: nominal-group Page: 393 13. The drawback, of course, is that many group members may be satisfied with the first solutioneither because it already incorporates their views or because the difficulty of achieving it may sap their ____________ for exerting any time and energy to improve it. Answer: enthusiasm Page: 396 14. The chairman should listen for the emergence of the "____________ coalition" among key members. Answer: snowballing Page: 398 15. Remember that the person who does the ____________ often has more power than others, because he or she gets to ____________ the agreement in his or her own language and may bias or selectively remember some points and omit others. Answer: writing, write Page: 399 True/False Questions T F 16. Most of the complexities in multiparty negotiations will increase linearly, if not exponentially, as more parties, constituencies, and audiences are added. Register to View AnswerPage: 377 T F 17. Individualistically motivated parties in multiparty negotiations are more trusting and engage in less argumentation. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 182 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 18. Research on policy-making and decision-making groups has shown that efforts to minimize and avoid conflict can frequently lead to group decision-making disasters. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 183 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 19. In multiparty negotiations, research shows that parties who approached multiple issues simultaneously achieved lower quality agreements. Register to View AnswerPage: 380 T F 20. Negotiators who have some way to control the number of parties at the table may begin to strategically manipulate this control to serve their objectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 381 T F 21. There are three ways in which the complexity increases as five or more parties simultaneously engage in negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 382 T F 22. A single negotiator is simply one of the parties in a multiparty negotiation and wants to ensure that his or her own issues and interests are clearly incorporated into the final agreement Register to View AnswerPage: 385 T F 23. It is uncommon for coalitions to exist before negotiations begin. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 T F 24. When a chairperson is also advocating a particular position or preferred outcome, it will be difficult for that individual to act or be seen as "neutral." Register to View AnswerPage: 388 T F 25. One pointer on how to chair a multiparty negotiation effectively is to encourage people to express interests, mirror them back, and encourage people to identify not only what they want, but also why they want it. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 T F 26. During the information management phase of multiparty negotiations, scouts represent a formal link to some important constituency and help to acquire resources the group needs to continue to operate. Register to View AnswerPage: 391 T F 27. The Delphi technique may tend to generate compromise settlements rather than truly creative, integrative solutions. Register to View AnswerPage: 393 184 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 28. Conflict is a natural part of group life that improves members ability to complete tasks, work together, and sustain these relationships. Register to View AnswerPage: 393 185 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 29. If the group has been through a great deal of divisive and unproductive conflict to reach the first agreement, then the renegotiations do not have to specifically attend to changing and managing the conflict process. Register to View AnswerPage: 396 T F 30. When a team negotiates against a solo negotiator, these positive benefits of team negotiation do not occur. Register to View AnswerPage: 400 Multiple Choice Questions 31. Multiparty negotiations differ from two-party deliberations in which of the following ways? A) Multiparty negotiations have more negotiators at the table. B) More issues and more information are introduced than when two parties negotiate. C) The environment changes from a one-on-one dialogue to small group discussion. D) The process for multiparty negotiators is more complex than two-party ones. E) All of the above statements about multiparty negotiations are true. Register to View AnswerPage: 377 - 381 32. One of the most fundamental consequences of increasing the number of parties in a negotiation is that A) the negotiation situation tends to become less lucid. B) the negotiation situation tends to become more complex. C) the negotiation situation tends to become more demanding. D) there will be more values, interests, and perceptions to be integrated or accommodated. E) All of the above are fundamental consequences of increasing the number of parties in a negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 33. What is the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations? A) The fewer the number of parties, the more complex the decision making process becomes. B) The increased number of negotiators will streamline the decision making process. C) Negotiators can ignore the problem of multiple related issues. D) Negotiators will probably have to devote discussion time to how they will manage the process to arrive at the type of solution or agreement they want. E) All of the above are the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 380 186 Test Bank, Chapter 1 34. In multiparty negotiations, research shows that parties who approached multiple issues simultaneously: A) achieved lower quality agreements. B) increased the likelihood of achieving agreement. C) exchanged less information. D) have less insight into the preferences and priorities of the other parties at the table. E) Research shows that parties who approached multiple issues simultaneously achieved all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 380 35. One-on-one negotiations in full view of all group members would have all but one of the following consequences on negotiators. Which one would not be a consequence? A) Negotiators who have some way to control the number of parties at the table (or even in the room) may begin to act strategically. B) Since the exchanges are under surveillance negotiators will be sensitive to being observed and may feel the need to be tough. C) Negotiators can simply choose to ignore the complexity of the three or more parties and proceed strategically as a two-party negotiation. D) Negotiators can explicitly engage in coalition building as a way to marshal support. E) Negotiators will have to find satisfactory ways to explain modification of their positions. Register to View AnswerPage: 381 36. There are five ways in which the complexity increases as three or more parties simultaneously engage in negotiation. One of those listed below is not a correct statement. Which one? A) There are simply more parties involved in the negotiation. B) More parties bring more issues and positions to the table, and thus more perspectives must be presented and discussed. C) When negotiations become socially more complex, the social norms emerge that affect member participation, which reduces the stronger pressures to conform and suppress disagreement. D) As the negotiations become procedurally more complex, the parties may have to negotiate a new process that allows them to coordinate their actions more effectively. E) As the negotiations become more strategically complex, the parties must monitor the moves and actions of several other parties in determining what each will do next. Register to View AnswerPage: 382 37. Considering the many attributes of an effective group, under which one of the following would you find a need to fully explain or define key words or language that may be part of the agreement? A) Test assumptions and inferences. 187 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e B) Focus on interests, not positions. C) Disagree openly with any member of the group. D) Agree on the meaning of important words. E) Keep the discussion focused. Register to View AnswerPage: 383 38. What are the three key stages and phases that characterize multilateral negotiations? A) the prenegotiation stage, managing the actual negotiations, and managing the agreement stage. B) the coalition building stage, the relationship development stage, the networking stage. C) the coalition building stage, the networking stage, and the actual negotiation stage. D) the prenegotiation stage, the networking stage, and the managing the agreement stage. E) None of the above lists the three key stages and phases that characterize multilateral negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 39. Many complex international negotiations devote a great deal of time to the question of just who will be recognized and who can speak for others. The issue about participants can be decided by asking which of the following questions? A) Whose presence is likely to keep other parties from achieving their objectives? B) Whose presence is likely to help other parties achieve their objectives? C) Who could spoil the deal if they were excluded? D) All of the above questions can help decide who to recognize. E) None of the above questions will help determine inclusion/exclusion. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 40. The prenegotiation phase of multilateral negotiations A) is when the parties are employing decision rules and criteria. B) manages the group process and outcome. C) is when the chair is appointed. D) is characterized by lots of informal contact among the parties. E) All of the above characterize the prenegotiation phase of multilateral negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 41. In the Connect Model and the Requirements for Building a Relationship, what does the t stand for? A) Toss it! B) Try it! C) Time it! D) Track it! E) Trash it! 188 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Register to View AnswerPage: 388 42. Which of the following questions should not be asked as part of the requirements for building a relationship in the connect model? A) Can we agree to have a constructive conversation? B) Can our conversation be productive enough to make a difference? C) Can we restructure the agreement to include the original issue? D) Can we all commit to making improvements? E) Can we understand and appreciate each others perspective? Register to View AnswerPage: 388 43. When a group wants to achieve a consensus or unanimous decision, the responsibility of the chair is to be constantly attentive to the group process. Identify which of the pointers below for how to chair a multiparty negotiation effectively is not correct. A) Explicitly describe the role you will take as chair. Assure individual members that they will have an opportunity to make opening statements or other ways of placing their individual concerns and issues on the table. B) Introduce the agenda or build one based on the groups issues, concerns, and priorities. Be an active gatekeeper. C) Make logistical arrangements that will help the negotiation process. Listen for interests and commonalities. D) Introduce unnecessary ground rules or let the parties suggest them to distract. Introduce internal information that will help illuminate the issues and interests. E) Create or review decision standards and rules. Summarize frequently, particularly when conversation becomes stalled, confused, or tense Register to View AnswerPage: 389 44. During the information management phase, coordinators A) "patrol" the environment and bring in relevant external information that may be useful to the group. B) represent a formal link to some important constituency and help to acquire resources the group needs to continue to operate. C) provide a more formal link between the group members and the constituencies they represent. D) are specifically designated to keep some information inside the group and assure that there are no leaks or premature disclosures of key information or discussions. E) Coordinators accomplish all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 391 45. A moderator who sends out a questionnaire to all parties asking for input is one strategy used to avoid destructive conflict and emotion. That strategy is known as A) nominal group technique. 189 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e B) the Delphi technique. C) brainstorming. D) the consensus technique. E) the compromise technique. Register to View AnswerPage: 392 Short Answer Essays 46. In what ways do multiparty negotiations differ from two-party deliberations? Answer: Number of parties, informational and computational complexity, social complexity, procedural complexity, and strategic complexity. Page: 377 - 381 47. What challenge does the increased number of negotiators in a multiparty negotiation present? Answer: The increased number of negotiating parties creates challenges for managing all of the different perspectives and ensuring that each party has adequate time to speak and be heard. Page: 378 48. What is the "illusion of consensus?" Register to View Answersituation in which all parties believe that they are the only dissenting member in a fairly strong emerging agreement about what actions to take. Afraid to express their dissent for fear of looking weak and foolish, group members self-censor their reservations and concerns, thereby reinforcing the apparent surface consensus and leading to a decision with possibly disastrous consequences. Page: 379 49. Additional parties may be invited to a multiparty negotiation to: Answer: Add support or credence to a negotiator's position, to provide "independent" testimony or support to a point of view, or simply to present a show of force. Page: 381 50. How can members of coalitions exert greater strength in multiparty negotiations? Answer: By expressing solidarity with each other, by agreeing to help each other achieve their common or individual objectives, by dominating discussion time, and by agreeing to support each other as particular solutions and negotiated agreements emerge. Page: 382 51. Summarize the five ways in which the complexity increases as three or more parties simultaneously engage in negotiation. Answer: First, there are simply more parties involved in the negotiation. Second, more parties bring more issues and positions to the table. Third, negotiations become socially more complex. Fourth, negotiations become procedurally more complex, and the parties 190 Test Bank, Chapter 1 may have to negotiate a new process that allows them to coordinate their actions more effectively. Finally, negotiations become more strategically complex, because the parties must monitor the moves and actions of several other parties in determining what each will do next. Page: 382 52. Explain the concept of exchanging relevant information with nongroup members. Answer: If outsiders are invited in as experts or important sources of information, they should be fully briefed on the groups ground rules for operation and asked to comply with them so as to make the process as smooth as possible. Page: 384 53. In the prenegotiation phase of multilateral negotiations, issues about participants can be decided on the basis of what questions? Answer: Who must be included if a deal is to be reached (key coalition members)? Who could spoil the deal if they were excluded (veto players)? Whose presence is likely to help other parties achieve their objectives (desirable coalition members)? Whose presence is likely to keep other parties from achieving their objectives (key coalition blockers)? Whose status will be enhanced simply by being at the table? Page: 385 54. Describe a few of the many reasons why an agenda can be an effective decision aid. Answer: An agenda: establishes the issues that will be discussed; Depending on how the issues are worded, it can also define how each issue is discussed; It can define the order in which issues are discussed; It can be used to introduce process issues (decision rules, discussion norms, member roles, discussion dynamics), as well as substantive issues, simply by including them. And, an agenda can assign time limits to various items, thereby indicating the importance of the different issues. Page: 387 55. According to Mulvey, Veiga, and Elsass, what are the most common reasons why group members give up rather than continuing to participate in the group discussion? Answer: The presence of a perceived expert, the presence of a compelling argument, lacking confidence in one's ability to contribute, an unimportant or meaningless decision, pressure from others to conform to the group decision, a dysfunctional decision making climate. Page: 390 56. During the information management phase, what is the role of "guards?" Answer: Guards are specifically designated to keep some information inside the group and assure that there are no leaks or premature disclosures of key information or discussions. Page: 391 57. During the information management phase of multiparty negotiations, what group norms can specifically undermine effective discussions? 191 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: An unwillingness to tolerate conflicting points of view and perspectives, no means for diffusing emotionally charged discussions, coming to a meeting unprepared. Page: 392 58. Jenn and Mannix have studied the development and management of conflict over time in high performance task groups and examined three kinds of conflict typical to work groups. What are the three types? Answer: Relationship conflict (interpersonal incompatibilities, dislike among group members, and feelings of tension, friction, annoyance, frustration and dislike); task conflicts (awareness of difference in viewpoints about the groups task); and process conflict (awareness of controversies about how task accomplishment will proceedwho will do what, how much one should get from a result, etc.). Page: 394 59. Schwartz suggests that four key problem-solving steps occur during the agreement phase. What are the four steps? Answer: Select the best solution, develop an action plan, implement the action plan, and evaluate outcomes and the process. Page: 398 60. What does research show about interteam negotiations versus solo negotiations? Answer: Teams exchange more information than solo negotiators, which increases the likelihood that integrative potential can be discovered and exploited. Page: 4002 Chapter 14 Individual Differences I: Gender and Negotiation Fill in the Blank Questions 1. The term ____________ refers to the biological categories of male and female, and the term ____________ refers to the culture and psychological aspects associated with each category. Answer: sex, gender Page: 404 2. The search for gender ____________ is the most researched individual difference topic in negotiation. Answer: differences Page: 405 3. Women may place a ____________ emphasis on interaction goals (the interpersonal aspects of the negotiations) than men. Answer: greater Page: 406 192 Test Bank, Chapter 1 4. According to Kolb and Coolidge, women are more likely to seek ____________ where there is interaction among all parties in the relationship to build connection and enhance everyone's power. Answer: empowerment Page: 406 5. Watson and Kasten found that women managers perceived male behavior as more ____________ than men did. Answer: assertive Page: 409 6. In the study comparing the behavior of men and women in the ultimatum game the moral of the story seems to be that negotiators often harbor and act upon questionable assumptions that women will ____________ less and ____________ more. Answer: demand, concede Page: 411 7. Gerhart and Rynes found that males received a ____________ monetary payoff for bargaining their salary than did females. Answer: higher Page: 413 8. A study on aggressive behavior showed that females were ____________ times less likely to be hired when aggressive. Answer: 3.5 Page: 413 193 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 9. Sex differences in negotiation performance have been found to result from gender ____________ about male and female ability and behavior. Answer: stereotypes Page: 413 10. Empirical research would suggest that men and women conceive of ____________ in different ways, communicate differently in negotiation, and are treated differently in negotiation Answer: negotiations Page: 417 True/False Questions T F 11. There have been no new research developments in the areas of sex and gender in the last few years that give a clearer picture of the underlying psychology of gender in negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 404 T F 12. According to Kolb and Coolidge, women are likely to see negotiation as a behavior that occurs within relationships without large divisions marking when it begins and ends. Register to View AnswerPage: 406 T F 13. According to Kolb and Coolidge, men use dialogue to convince the other party that their position is the correct one, and to support various tactics and ploys that are used to win points during the discussion. Register to View AnswerPage: 407 T F 14. Males were more likely to perceive the task characteristics of conflict episodes Register to View AnswerPage: 407 T F 15. In a review of research on gender in negotiation, Kray and Babcock argue that gender differences are most evident when negotiation is portrayed as a collaborative effort rather than a competition. Register to View AnswerPage: 408 T F 16. In the Ultimatum Game, a comparison of the minimum acceptable amounts stated by recipients shows that women demanded lower minimum offers than men. Register to View AnswerPage: 411 194 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 17. Stereotypes enhance the performance of female negotiators. Register to View AnswerPage: 414 195 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 18. Much of the research places female negotiators at a disadvantage, suggesting that differences in process choices and styles, combined with the pernicious effects of stereotypes, leaves women worse off at the negotiation table Register to View AnswerPage: 414, 415 T F 19. In negotiation, approaching the negotiation with a powerful frame of mind can lead to higher outcomes for the female negotiator who might otherwise be at a disadvantage. Register to View AnswerPage: 415 T F 20. Gender is, of course, the primary individual differences with a role in negotiation processes and outcomes. Register to View AnswerPage: 418 Multiple Choice Questions 21. Research on gender characteristics in negotiation A) has shown a strength in the use of sex as the independent variable. B) has yielded consistent findings to document significant differences between male and female negotiators. C) has found there are differences in how males and females negotiate, but these differences are difficult to detect. D) has a generalized influence on the dependent variables in a negotiation. E) All of the above are results of research on gender characteristics in negotiation . Register to View AnswerPage: 405 22. Which theoretical finding about the role of women in negotiations is not true? A) Women may place a greater emphasis on interaction goals (the interpersonal aspects of the negotiations). B) Womens conceptualization of power may make them less comfortable than men with integrative versus distributive negotiation. C) Women were more likely to perceive conflict episodes in relationship terms. D) Women in negotiations are often treated worse than men during negotiations. E) Women using the same negotiation tactic that men used were less successful than men. Register to View AnswerPage: 406 23. According to Kolb and Coolidge, during a negotiation men tend to A) demarcate negotiating from other behaviors that occur in the relationship. B) perceive negotiation as part of the larger context within which it takes place. 196 Test Bank, Chapter 1 C) seek empowerment when there is interaction among all parties in the relationship. D) to engage the other in a joint exploration of ideas. E) None of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 406 24. According to Kolb and Coolidge, during a negotiation women tend to A) use dialogue to convince the other party that their position is correct. B) demarcate negotiating from other behaviors that occur in the relationship. C) seek empowerment when there is interaction among all parties in the relationship. D) use power to achieve their own goals. E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 406 25. Using dialogue to convince the other party that their position is correct and to support various tactics and ploys that are used to win points during the discussion is a characteristic of A) female negotiators. B) male negotiators. C) both male and female negotiators. D) neither male nor female negotiators. E) Either male or female negotiators, but not during the same negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 406 26. Which of the following statements about the important factors that affect how women and men approach negotiations is untrue? A) Women are more aware of the complete relationship among the parties who are negotiating and are more likely to perceive negotiation as part of the larger context within which it takes place than to focus only on the content of the issues being discussed. B) Women tend not to draw strict boundaries between negotiating and other aspects of their relationships with other people but instead see negotiation as a behavior that occurs within relationships without large divisions marking when it begins and ends. C) Men can be characterized as using power to achieve their own goals, or to force the other party to capitulate to their point of view. D) Men use dialogue in two ways: (a) to convince the other party that their position is the correct one and (b) to support various tactics and ploys that are used to win points during the discussion. E) Negative stereotypes about female bargainers do not shape expectations and behaviors by both men and women at the negotiating table. Register to View AnswerPage: 407 27. Identify the one result from among the following empirical findings on gender 197 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e differences that is not true. A) Men and women conceive of negotiations in different ways. B) Men and women communicate differently in negotiation. C) Men and women are treated similarly in negotiation. D) Men and women can use the same tactics to different effects. E) Men and women stereotypes affect negotiator performance. Register to View AnswerPage: 407 - 410 28. Women tend to fare worse on salary negotiations because: A) they tend to ask for higher salaries during interviews. B) they tend to accept what is offered them. C) they tend to not ask for more. D) they tend to anticipate a hypothetical salary. E) they tend to become overly involved with salary negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 412 29. Which of the following are likely to level the playing field for women who seem to be at a disadvantage in negotiations? A) Motivational interventions. B) Situational interventions. C) Cognitive Interventions. D) None of the above interventions can help rectify the disparity. E) All of the above contribute to reducing the constraints. Register to View AnswerPage: 414 - 416 30. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that women are at a disadvantage in negotiations as compared to male negotiators. The nature of this disadvantage may occur in A) being treated differently before and during negotiations than men. B) receiving worse opening offers from the other party. C) receiving worse outcomes in similar negotiations than males. D) being penalized when they use the same negotiation tactic that males use successfully. E) All of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 417 Short Answer Essays 31. What is the difference between sex and gender? Answer: Sex refers to the biological categories of male and female. Gender refers to cultural and psychological markers of the sexesthe aspects of role or identity (rather 198 Test Bank, Chapter 1 than biology) that differentiate men from women in a given culture or society. 404 Page: 32. What has past research tended to find in the search for gender differences? Answer: Past research tended to yield contradictory findings; some research suggests that there is little or no difference between male and female negotiators, while other research documents significant differences between male and female negotiators. Page: 405 33. According to Kolb and Coolidge, what are the six ways that women conceptualize negotiations differently than men? Answer: (1) Relational View of Others (Women are more likely to perceive negotiation as part of the larger context within which it takes place. Men tend to be task oriented and want to resolve the matter at hand and not to concentrate on the other party's feelings or perceptions.); (2) Embedded View of Agency (Women tend not to draw strict boundaries between negotiating and other aspects of their relationships with other people. Men tend to demarcate negotiating from other behaviors that occur in the relationship, and to signal the beginning and end of the negotiations behaviorally.); (3) Beliefs about Ability and Worth (Womens perceived worth affect how she approaches the negotiation table.); (4) Control through Empowerment (Women are more likely to seek empowerment when there is interaction among all parties in the relationship to build connection and enhance everyone's power. Men can be characterized as using power to achieve their own goals, or to force the other party to capitulate to their point of view.); (5) Problem Solving through Dialogue (Women seek to engage the other in a joint exploration of ideas whereby understanding is progressively clarified through interaction. Men use dialogue to convince the other party that their position is the only correct one, and to support various tactics and ploys that are used to win points during the discussion.); and, (6) Perceptions and Stereotypes. (Men have an advantage in negotiation as a dominant cultural stereotype. For the female negotiator, this may mean a reputation that precedes her.). Page: 406 - 407 34. What did Robin Pinkley find when she explored how disputants interpret, or frame, conflict situations? Answer: Pinkley found that disputants use three dimensions to interpret conflicts: relationship versus task, emotional versus intellectual, and compromise versus win. Page: 407 35. What do the authors, Babcock and Laschever, argue in their recent book addressing the gender divide in negotiation? Answer: The authors argue that, from birth, men are taught to uphold the masculine norms of competition and superiority: superiority is central to our societys definition of maleness. They contend that women learn, quite early, that competing and winning against a man can threaten his socially defined masculinity. Page: 407, 408 199 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 36. What did researchers find in how same-sex pairs of men and women negotiated in a lowconflict bargaining situation? Answer: They found that men were more likely to discuss positions than women, whereas women were more likely to reveal personal information and feelings than men. In addition, men and women chose different examples to buttress their arguments during the negotiation. Page: 409 37. Men and women may receive different treatment and outcomes during negotiations according to research on salary negotiations. Explain the differences. Answer: In a study of MBA graduates, Gerhart and Rynes found that males received a higher monetary payoff for negotiating their salary than did females, even though men and women were equally likely to negotiate. Gender differences in negotiated salaries may emerge from differences in how negotiators define the bargaining zone, which inevitably influences the offers that individuals will make and accept. Page: 413 38. What did Bowles and colleagues find out after investigating reactions to males and females who negotiate with aggressive tactics in a job interview situation? Answer: Results showed that both male and female candidates were less likely to be hired when they bargained aggressively. Page: 413 39. Does an activated stereotype matter more than the actual gender of the negotiator. Register to View Answerrecent study by Kray, Reb, Galinsky, and Thompson found that more powerful negotiators (those with a better alternatives in the form of a higher BATNA) obtained higher outcomes when a masculine stereotypeone that stressed that aggressiveness and self-interest were important for negotiator successwas explicitly activated. When a feminine stereotype was activated, negotiators of both sexes achieved more integrative outcomes. Page: 415 40. What role does mind-set play as a tool in negotiation for the different sexes? Answer: Having a powerful mind-set can be an important tool in negotiation. By powerful mind-set we mean an awareness of the role in the situation and its relation to tactics and outcomes. Galinsky, Gruenfeld, and Magee (2003) showed that such mindsets make a difference in behavior: power becomes action. In negotiation, approaching the negotiation with a powerful frame of mind can lead to higher outcomes for the female negotiator who might otherwise be at a disadvantage. Page: 415 Chapter 16 International and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Fill in the Blank Questions 200 Test Bank, Chapter 1 1. The term ____________ refers to the shared values and beliefs of a group of people. Answer: culture Page: 441 2. In order to understand the complexity of international negotiations, one must understand how the factors in both the ____________ and ____________ contexts can influence negotiation processes and outcomes. Answer: environmental, immediate Page: 443 3. The second implication of the complexity of cross-cultural negotiation is the tendency for negotiators to ____________ the amount of within-culture variation that exists. Answer: undervalue Page: 444 4. There are six factors identified by Salacuse in the environmental context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations they are: political and legal pluralism, international economics, foreign governments and bureaucracies, instability, ideology, and ____________. Answer: culture Page: 445 5. Countries differ in the extent to which the government regulates ____________ and organizations. Answer: industries Page: 446 6. Negotiators faced with unstable circumstances should include ____________ in their contracts that allow for easy cancellation or neutral arbitration. Answer: clauses Page: 447 7. Relative power is not simply a function of ____________ but appears to be due to management control of the project. Answer: equity Page: 448 8. The most frequently studied aspect of international negotiation is ____________. Answer: culture Page: 449 9. The "culture-as-learned-behavior" approach concentrates on creating a ____________ of behaviors that foreign negotiators should expect when entering a host culture. Answer: catalogue Page: 450 201 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 10. In the "culture-as-shared-value" approach, cross-cultural comparisons are made by finding the important ____________ and ____________ that distinguish one culture from another. Answer: norms and values Page: 450 11. In individualistic societies, negotiators are considered interchangeable, and ____________ (rather than relationship) is an important consideration when choosing a negotiator. Answer: competency Page: 451 12. Proponents of the ____________ approach recognize that negotiation behavior is multiply determined and using culture as the sole explanation of behavior is oversimplifying a complex social process. Answer: "culture in context" Page: 455 13. Cultures differ in the degree to which ____________, or the formality of the relations between the two negotiating parties, is important. Answer: protocol Page: 457 14. To avoid offending the other party in negotiations across borders, the international negotiator needs to observe cultural rules of ____________ carefully. Answer: communication Page: 457 15. Negotiation in risk-____________ cultures will seek further information and will be more likely to take a wait-and-see stance. Answer: avoiding Page: 459 16. Decision making in group-oriented cultures involves ____________ and may take considerably more time than American negotiators are used to. Answer: consensus making Page: 459 17. Researchers Gelfand and Realo found that accountability to a constituent influenced negotiators from individualistic and ____________ cultures differently. Answer: collectivistic Page: 464 18. One approach of negotiators who have very low familiarity with the other party's culture 202 Test Bank, Chapter 1 is to hire an ____________ who is familiar with the cultures of both parties. Answer: agent (or adviser) Page: 470 203 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 19. Many types of ____________ may be used in cross-cultural negotiations, ranging from someone who conducts introductions and then withdraws, to someone who is present throughout the negotiation and takes responsibility for orchestrating the negotiation process. Answer: mediators Page: 470 20. The "coordinate adjustment" strategy can be thought of as a special instance of negotiating the ____________ of negotiation. Answer: process Page: 470 True/False Questions T F 21. Countries can have only one culture; however cultures can span national borders. Register to View AnswerPage: 441 T F 22. The notion that negotiation is both art and science is especially valid at the crosscultural or international level. Register to View AnswerPage: 443 T F 23. There are six factors in the environmental context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations and these factors can act to limit or constrain organizations that operate internationally whether negotiators understand or appreciate their effects.. Register to View AnswerPage: 445 T F 24. Political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of business negotiations in various countries at different times. Register to View AnswerPage: 446 T F 25. Ideological clashes increase the communication challenges in cross-border negotiations in the broadest sense because the parties may disagree on the most fundamental levels about what is being negotiated. Register to View AnswerPage: 447 T F 26. In all cross-cultural negotiations, both parties approach the negotiation deductively. Register to View AnswerPage: 447 204 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 27. High-conflict situations that are based on ethnicity, identity or geography are most easy to resolve. Register to View AnswerPage: 448 T F 28. The relationship the principal negotiating parties develop before the actual negotiations will have an important impact on the negotiation process and outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 448 T F 29. Tangible and intangible factors play only a minor role in determining the outcomes of cross-border negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 449 T F 30. Many popular books and articles on international negotiation treat culture as expected behavior, providing lists of dos and donts to obey when negotiating with people from different cultures. Register to View AnswerPage: 450 T F 31. The "culture-as-shared-values" approach has advantages over the "culture-asdialectic" approach because it can explain variations within cultures. Register to View AnswerPage: 454 T F 32. Outside of North America there appears to be a great deal of variation across cultures in the extent to which negotiation situations are initially perceived as distributive or integrative Register to View AnswerPage: 456 T F 33. Risk-oriented cultures will be more willing to move early on a deal and will generally take more chances. Register to View AnswerPage: 457 T F 34. Research studies suggest that culture does have an effect of negotiation outcomes, although it may not be direct and it likely has an influence through differences in the negotiation process in different cultures Register to View AnswerPage: 462 T F 35. The best approach to manage cross-cultural negotiations is to be insensitive to the 205 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e cultural norms of the other negotiator's approach. Register to View AnswerPage: 467 T F 36. Research suggests that negotiators may naturally negotiate differently when they are with people from their own culture than when they are with people from other cultures. Register to View AnswerPage: 468 T F 37. Francis found that negotiators from a familiar culture (Japan) who made no attempt to adapt to American ways were perceived more positively than negotiators who made moderate adaptations. Register to View AnswerPage: 469 206 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 38. Weiss states that a negotiator should only use one strategy throughout an entire negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 469 T F 39. Negotiators using the "adapt to the other party's approach" strategy maintain a firm grasp on their own approach, but make modifications to help relations with the other negotiator. Register to View AnswerPage: 470 T F 40. To use the "improvise an approach" strategy, both parties to the negotiation need to have high familiarity with the other party's culture and a strong understanding of the individual characteristics of the other party. Register to View AnswerPage: 471 Multiple Choice Questions 41. We use the term "culture" to refer to the A) religious beliefs of a group of people. B) ethnicity of a group of people. C) geographic nationality of a group of people. D) shared values and beliefs of a group of people. E) Culture refers to none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 441 42. According to Salacuse, which of the following is not a factor in the environmental context of negotiations? A) political and legal pluralism B) foreign governments and bureaucracies C) relative bargaining power D) international economic factors E) All of the above are factors in the environmental context of negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 445 43. Which of the following is an immediate context factor in cross-cultural negotiations? A) external stakeholders B) instability C) international economic factors D) relationship between negotiators E) All of the above are immediate context factors in cross-cultural negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 445 207 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 44. Political and legal pluralism can make cross cultural negotiations more complex because A) there may be implications for the taxes that the organization pays. B) there may be implications for the labor codes or standards that the organization must meet. C) there may be different codes of contract law and standards of enforcement. D) political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of business negotiations in various countries at different times. E) Political and legal pluralism can make cross cultural negotiations more complex because of all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 446 45. Which of the following factors most influences relative bargaining power? A) the extent to which negotiators frame the negotiation differently B) tangible and intangible factors C) management control D) personal motivations of external stakeholders E) None of the above factors influence relative bargaining power. Register to View AnswerPage: 448 46. Which of the following is not one of Janosik's four ways that culture is used in international negotiation? A) culture as learned behavior B) culture as economic indicator C) culture as shared values D) culture as dialectic E) Each of the above is one of Janosik's four ways that culture is used in international negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 450 47. The "culture-as-shared-value" approach A) concentrates on documenting the systematic negotiation behavior of people in different cultures. B) concentrates on understanding the central values and norms of a culture and then building a model for how these norms and values influence negotiations within that culture. C) recognizes that all cultures contain dimensions or tensions among their different values. D) recognizes that no human behavior is determined by a single cause. E) All of the above are elements of the "culture as shared" value approach. Register to View AnswerPage: 450 208 Test Bank, Chapter 1 48. The individualism/collectivism dimension describes A) the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. B) the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group. C) the extent to which cultures hold values that were traditionally perceived as masculine or feminine. D) the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. E) None of the above describes the individualism/collectivism dimension. Register to View AnswerPage: 450 49. Power distance describes A) the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. B) the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group. C) the extent to which cultures hold values that were traditionally perceived as masculine or feminine. D) the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. E) None of the above describes power distance. Register to View AnswerPage: 451 50. What consequences do negotiators from high uncertainty-avoidance cultures bring to negotiations? A) Negotiators will strongly depend on cultivating and sustaining a long-term relationship. B) Negotiators may be more likely to "swap" negotiators, using whatever short-term criteria seem appropriate. C) Negotiators may need to seek approval from their supervisors more frequently. D) Negotiators may not be comfortable with ambiguous situations and may be more likely to seek stable rules and procedures when they negotiate. E) All of the above are consequences of high uncertainty avoidance cultures. Register to View AnswerPage: 452 51. Risk-avoiding cultures will A) be willing to move early on a deal. B) generally take more chances. C) seek further information. D) be less likely to take a wait-and-see stance. E) Risk avoiding cultures will generally take all of the above actions. Register to View AnswerPage: 459 209 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 52. In group-oriented cultures A) the individual comes before the group's needs. B) decisions are primarily made by senior executives. C) decision making is an efficient, streamlined process. D) negotiators may be faced with a series of discussions over the same issues and materials with many different people. E) All of the above occur in group-oriented cultures. Register to View AnswerPage: 459 53. According to Graham, which of the following statements would be characteristic of a Japanese negotiator? A) Higher profits are associated with making opponents feel uncomfortable. B) Higher profits are achieved by making opponents feel comfortable. C) The use of powerful and deceptive strategies is more likely to receive higher outcomes. D) Representational strategies are negatively related to profits. E) None of the above is characteristics of a Japanese negotiator. Register to View AnswerPage: 463 54. According to Weiss, when choosing a strategy, negotiators should A) choose one strategy and stick with it throughout the entire negotiation. B) be aware of their own culture, but minimize the other culture's norms. C) not try to predict or influence the other party's approach. D) understand the specific factors in the current relationship. E) Weiss states that negotiators should do all of the above when preparing for negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 469 55. Which of the following strategies should negotiators with a low familiarity with the other culture choose? A) employ agents or advisers B) adapt to the other party's approach C) coordinate adjustment D) embrace the other party's approach E) Negotiators with a low familiarity with the other culture should not choose any of the above strategies. Register to View AnswerPage: 470 56. Which of the following lists only joint strategies for cross-cultural negotiations? A) employ agents or advisors, bring in a mediator, adapt to the other party's approach, improvise an approach 210 Test Bank, Chapter 1 B) employ agents or advisors, adapt to the other party's approach, embrace the other party's approach, effect symphony C) bring in a mediator, coordinate adjustment, improvise an approach, effect symphony D) coordinate adjustment, improvise an approach, adapt to the other party's approach, embrace the other party's approach E) None of the above list only joint strategies for cross cultural negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 470, 471 57. "Adapting to the other party's approach" is best used by parties with A) no familiarity. B) low familiarity. C) moderate familiarity. D) high familiarity. E) Adapting to the other party's approach is equally effective for all parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 470 58. "Coordinating adjustment" involves A) adopting completely the approach of the other party. B) making conscious changes to your approach so that it is more appealing to the other party. C) both parties making mutual adjustments to find a common process for negotiation. D) crafting an approach that is specifically tailored to the negotiation situation. E) "Coordinating adjustment" involves all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 470 59. The "embrace the other party's approach" strategy involves A) adopting completely the approach of the other party. B) both parties making mutual adjustments to find a common process for negotiation. C) creating a new approach that may include aspects of either home culture or practices from a third culture. D) persuading the other party to use your approach. E) The "embrace the other party's approach" strategy involves all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 471 60. When working to create a new approach that may include aspects of either home culture or adopt practices from a third culture, negotiators are using what approach? A) effect symphony B) improvise an approach C) embrace the other party's approach D) employ agents or advisors E) Negotiators are using all of the above approaches. Register to View AnswerPage: 471 211 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Short Answer Essays 61. What is the most frequently studied aspect of international negotiations? Answer: The effect of culture be it national, regional, or organizational. Page: 443 62. According to Salacuse, what are the six factors that make global negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations? Answer: Political and legal pluralism, international economics, foreign governments and bureaucracies, instability, ideology, culture. Page: 445 63. How does the value of international currencies affect cross-cultural negotiation decisions? Answer: The risk is typically greater for the party who must pay in the other country's currency. The less stable the currency, the greater the risk for both parties. In addition, any change in the value of a currency (upward or downward) can significantly affect the value of the deal for both parties, changing a mutually valuable deal into a windfall profit for one and a large loss for the other. Page: 446 64. How does ideology contribute to making international negotiations difficult? Answer: Ideological clashes increase the communication challenges in international negotiations in the broadest sense because the parties may disagree at the most fundamental levels about what is being negotiated. Page: 447 65. Phatak and Habib define external stakeholders as: Answer: The various people and organizations that have an interest or stake in the outcome of the negotiations. Page: 447 66. What are Phatak and Habib's immediate context factors? Answer: Relative bargaining power, levels of conflict, relationship between negotiators, desired outcomes, and immediate stakeholders. Page: 448 67. What is the main challenge for every global negotiator? Answer: To understand the simultaneous, multiple influences of several factors on the negotiation process and outcome, and to update this understanding regularly as circumstances change. Page: 449 212 Test Bank, Chapter 1 68. The "culture-as-learned-behavior" approach to understanding the effects of culture concentrates on: Answer: Documenting the systematic negotiation behavior of people in different cultures. Page: 450 69. What is the "culture-in-context" approach to using culture to understand global negotiation? Answer: The "culture-in-context" approach recognizes that no human behavior is determined by a single cause. Rather, all behavior may be understood at many different levels simultaneously, and a social behavior as complex as negotiation is determined by many different factors, one of which is culture. Page: 455 70. Foster suggests that culture can influence negotiations across borders in what different ways? Answer: (1) Definition of negotiation, (2) selection of negotiators, (3) protocol, (4) communication, (5) time sensitivity, (6) risk propensity, (7) groups versus individuals, (8) nature of agreements. Page: 456 71. How does the nature of agreements vary between cultures? Answer: Culture has an important effect both on concluding agreements and on what form the negotiated agreement takes. In the United States, agreements are typically based on logic, are often formalized, and are enforced through the legal system if such standards are not honored. In other cultures, however, obtaining the deal may be based on who you are, rather than what you can do. In addition, agreements do not mean the same thing in all cultures. Page: 459, 460 72. What did researchers Adler, Brahm and Graham find about the differences in negotiation strategies and tactics in the cultures of the Chinese and Americans? Answer: They found that Chinese and American negotiators used similar negotiation strategies when they negotiated, their communication patterns were quite differentthe Chinese asked more questions, said no less frequently, and interrupted each other more frequently than did American negotiators. Page: 462 73. What is the danger in modifying the negotiator's approach to match the approach of the other negotiator? Answer: Even if negotiators can modify their approach effectively, it does not mean that this will translate automatically into a better negotiation outcome for their side. It is quite possible that the other side will modify their approach too. The results in this situation can be disaster, with each side trying to act like the other "should" be acting, and both sides not really understanding what the other party is doing. Page: 467 213 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 74. What factors indicate that negotiators should not make large modifications to their approach when they negotiate across borders? Answer: (1) Negotiators may not be able to modify their approach effectively; (2) Even if negotiators can modify their approach effectively, it does not mean that this will translate automatically into a better negotiation outcome for their side; (3) Research suggests that negotiators may naturally negotiate differently when they are with people from their own culture than when they are with people from other cultures; (4) Research by Francis suggests that moderate adaptation may be more effective than "acting as the Romans do." Page: 467 - 469 75. Weiss observes that a negotiator may be able to choose among which culturally responsive strategies when negotiating with someone from another culture? Answer: Employ agents or advisers, bring in a mediator, induce the other party to use your approach, adapt to the other party's approach, coordinate adjustment, embrace the other party's approach, improvise an approach, effect symphony. Page: 470, 471 76. What are the disadvantages to using the "induce the other party to use your approach" strategy? Answer: The other party may become irritated or insulted at having to make the extra effort to deal with you on your own cultural terms. The other party may also have a strategic advantage because he or she may now attempt more extreme tactics, and if you object, excuse them on the basis of "cultural ignorance." Page: 470 77. What is the challenge in using the "adapt to the other party's approach" strategy? Answer: The challenge in using this strategy is to know which behaviors to modify, eliminate, or adopt. Page: 470 78. The "embrace the other party's approach" strategy involves: Answer: adopting completely the approach of the other party. Page: 471 79. Which is the most flexible of Weiss' eight strategies for negotiating with someone from another culture? Answer: The "improvise an approach" strategy. Page: 471 80. What are the risks of using the "effect symphony" strategy? Answer: The risks of using this strategy include costs due to confusion, lost time, and the overall effort required to make it work. Page: 471 Chapter 17 Managing Negotiation Impasses 214 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Fill in the Blank Questions 1. Extreme cases of contentious negotiations often result in escalating ____________ and increasing levels of interpersonal ____________. Answer: conflict, relations Page: 475 2. ____________ the degree to which the conflict divides people, such that they are "backed into a corner" and can not escape without losing face. Answer: Divisiveness Page: 476 3. Babcock, Wang and Loewenstein found support for the hypothesis that negotiators choose ____________ to reflect a supportive, self-serving bias for their positions. Answer: comparison groups Page: 478 4. Pruitt, Parker and Mikolic propose that ____________ often occurs in response to persistent annoyance of one party by another. Answer: escalation Page: 480 5. Unproductive deliberations usually become highly ____________. Answer: emotional Page: 487 6. When a dispute becomes personalized, turning into a win-lose feud between individuals, negotiation loses all hope of ____________. Answer: productivity Page: 487 7. The "blindness of involvement" inhibits the development of ____________ and the ____________ process. Answer: trust, problem-solving Page: 489 8. In ____________, one party attempts to put himself or herself in the other's shoes, looking at the issue from the other's perspective. Answer: role reversal Page: 489 9. Like role reversal, ____________ is a method for gaining insight into the other party's perspective. 215 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: imaging Page: 491 216 Test Bank, Chapter 1 10. As conflict intensifies the size and number of the issues ____________. Answer: expand Page: 492 11. When there is an impasse, both parties seek to build ____________ for strength or to bring their constituencies into the negotiation. Answer: alliances Page: 492 12. Small conflicts can rapidly become intractable disputes when their resolution is not treated as an isolated event, but instead must be consistent with a broader ____________ or principle. Answer: policy Page: 493 13. Procedural ____________ are at stake when parties agree to follow a process they haven't followed before. Answer: precedents Page: 494 14. Parties in escalated conflict tend to magnify perceived ____________ and to minimize perceived ____________. Answer: differences, similarities Page: 495 15. Approaches used to de-escalate conflict might also be viewed as efforts to ____________ the conflict away from a focus on differences and toward a focus on commonalities areas. Answer: reframe Page: 495 16. To have a constructive, significant impact on negotiations, ____________ goals must be jointly desired by both sides and must not be seen as benefiting one side more than the other. Answer: superordinate Page: 495 17. A common ____________ is a negative form of superordinate goal. Answer: enemy Page: 496 18. Spector proposes that the metaphorical process of ____________ reasoning provides considerable power to reframe intractable conflict. Answer: analogical Page: 499 19. Analogical reasoning is defined as "the ____________ process by which a resemblance, 217 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e similarity, or correspondence, perceived between two or more things in some respect, suggests that they will probably agree in other ways as well." Answer: inferential Page: 499 218 Test Bank, Chapter 1 20. The desired outcomefresh ideas and new perspectivesbecomes possible by having parties use the analogy to develop a new or amended ____________ orientation to the problem. Answer: cognitive Page: 499 True/False Questions T F 21. In a negotiation that has become derailed, destructive conflict processes override the negotiation and the parties cannot proceed. Register to View AnswerPage: 474 T F 22. It is uncommon for negotiations to become contentious to the point of breakdown. Register to View AnswerPage: 475 T F 23. Genuine impasse occurs when parties deliberately refuse to proceed with negotiation as a way to gain leverage or put pressure on the other party to make concessions. Register to View AnswerPage: 475 T F 24. Many negotiations that do not reach impasse can be traced to fundamental value differences between the parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 477 T F 25. According to Babcock, Wang and Loewenstein, the smaller the perceived differences between comparison groups, the greater the likelihood of a breakdown. Register to View AnswerPage: 479 T F 26. It is in the nature of intergroup negotiations that some adjustment of each party's own identity, or the rigor with which it is adhered to, must be made in order for negotiations to proceed productively. Register to View AnswerPage: 480 T F 27. Replacing an aggressive member of the negotiating team with a quieter member, temporarily or permanently, can signal the other party that one is also willing to change the substance of the negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 481, 482 219 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 28. The purpose of cognitive resolution is to change how the parties view the situation. Register to View AnswerPage: 484 T F 29. The longer the parties debate, the more likely it is that emotions will overrule reason. Register to View AnswerPage: 487 220 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 30. Skilled negotiators know that by listening to the other person and allowing an expression of feelings, the catharsis will vent emotion and clear the air and may permit negotiations to return to a calmer pace. Register to View AnswerPage: 487 T F 31. In active listening, the respondent makes statements of agreement with the other party. Register to View AnswerPage: 488 T F 32. In the GRIT strategy for synchronized de-escalation, each party makes a concession only when he or she knows that the opposing party will reciprocate in kind. Register to View AnswerPage: 488 T F 33. Role reversal gives the negotiator an opportunity to explore how some planned action may affect the relationship. Register to View AnswerPage: 489 T F 34. When compatibilities exist between negotiators, role reversal sharpens the differences between actual positions. Register to View AnswerPage: 490 T F 35. The problem for negotiators in escalated disputes is to develop strategies to contain issue proliferation and reduce the dispute to manageable proportions. Register to View AnswerPage: 492 T F 36. Having fewer actors present, or even limiting the conflict to two individuals, will decrease the chances of reaching a favorable settlement. Register to View AnswerPage: 492 T F 37. Single-issue conflicts are easier to manage because they quickly lead to win-win situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 493 T F 38. The longer discussion remains at the level of policy or principle, the more likely it is that the dispute can be successfully resolved. Register to View AnswerPage: 493 221 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 39. Symbolic analogies are those in which a party puts himself or herself in the problem situation, attempting to identify with it or empathize with those in the situation. Register to View AnswerPage: 499 222 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 40. Making demands more specific is making them more rigid; specific demands cannot be reformulated to meet the other's needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 500 Multiple Choice Questions 41. Which of the following results can occur when a negotiation becomes derailed? A) The parties share interests and opinions. B) Perceptions become distorted and judgments are biased. C) Integrative negotiation is effectively used by both parties. D) The parties maintain open lines of communication. E) All of the above situations occur when negotiations become derailed. Register to View AnswerPage: 474 42. Intransigence can be defined as A) an unwillingness to move to any fall-back position through concession or compromise. B) the use of concession or compromise to deceive an opponent. C) a propensity to use distributive bargaining in all negotiation situations. D) the escalation of power in international negotiations. E) Intransigence can be defined as all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 475 43. Which of the following are dynamics of highly polarized, unproductive conflict? A) The atmosphere is charged with anger, frustration, and resentment. B) Channels of communication are closed or constrained. C) The original issues at stake have become blurred and ill-defined. D) The parties tend to perceive great differences in their respective positions. E) All of the above characterize a highly polarized, unproductive conflict. Register to View AnswerPage: 476 44. Which of the following makes a negotiation more intractable? A) The parties themselves are well organized B) The conflict frequently de-escalates C) The parties themselves are unorganized, loosely connected, and lacking structure D) The social system from which the parties come is clearly structured E) There is general consensus on underlying values, but a disagreement on how resources are to be allocated Register to View AnswerPage: 477 223 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 45. Babcock, Wang and Loewenstein found that A) negotiators compare themselves to others whose positions are similar in scope and position to their own. B) negotiation breakdown or impasses are negatively correlated with perceived differences between the disputants chosen comparison groups. C) the smaller the perceived differences between comparison groups, the greater the likelihood of a breakdown. D) negotiators choose comparison groups to reflect a supportive, self-serving bias for their positions. E) Babcock, Wang and Loewenstein found support for all of the above hypotheses. Register to View AnswerPage: 479 46. Smyth suggests that the most intractable situations occur A) when a change in the power balance is at stake, and for which there are firmly agreed-upon social institutions for dealing with the power change. B) when the power relationship does not change, and for which there are firmly agreedupon social institutions for dealing with the power change. C) the perceived need to negotiate simultaneously about change in power and the applicable, appropriate institutions for maintaining that power shift. D) when the power relationship does not change, and for which there are no agreed-upon social institutions for dealing with the power change. E) Smyth suggests that the most intractable situations occur in all of the above circumstances. Register to View AnswerPage: 479 47. Which is not a way parties avoid conflict per Mayer? A) Aggressive avoidance B) Passive aggressive avoidance C) Avoidance through premature problem solving D) Avoidance through surrogates E) All are ways parties avoid conflict Register to View AnswerPage: 480 48. Which is one of the five major conflict-reduction strategies that can be applied in contentious situations used to resolve impasses? A) reinforcing tension in order to escalate hostility to the "breaking point" B) enhancing the desirability of the options and alternatives that each party presents C) limiting communications to the minimum necessary for continued negotiations D) allowing an unlimited number of issues to become part of the negotiations E) All of the above are conflict reduction strategies that can be used to resolve disputes in difficult negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 485 224 Test Bank, Chapter 1 49. Which of the following techniques is the least effective in resolving impasses and defusing volatile emotion? A) separating the parties B) tension management C) active listening D) synchronized de-escalation E) all of the above techniques aid in resolving impasses Register to View AnswerPage: 487, 488 225 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 50. In the GRIT strategy for synchronized de-escalation, A) the party who desires to withdraw from the negotiation initiates the action. B) unilateral actions are required of both sides. C) a negotiator makes a concession and states that it is part of a deliberate strategic policy to reduce tension. D) each party makes a concession only when he or she knows that the opposing party will reciprocate in kind. E) All of the above are elements of the GRIT strategy. Register to View AnswerPage: 488 51. Role reversal A) is applicable and useful only in integrative bargaining situations. B) is only useful in sharpening the differences between actual positions. C) gives negotiators a chance to correct specific misperceptions. D) gives the negotiator inside information about the opposing negotiator's strategy. E) None of the above is true of role reversal. Register to View AnswerPage: 489 52. Schneider suggests what options for handling offensive behavior? A) ignoring it, confronting it, deflecting it, engaging it B) ignoring it, manipulating it, responding in kind, engaging it C) manipulating it, confronting it, responding in kind, engaging it D) confronting it, deflecting it, responding in kind, engaging it E) Schneider suggests none of the above options for handling offensive behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 491 53. In the imaging process, parties in conflict are asked to engage in the following activities in what order? A) describe how they see themselves, state how they think the other party would describe them, describe how the other party appears to them, state how they think the other party sees themselves B) describe how they see themselves, describe how the other party appears to them, state how they think the other party would describe them, state how they think the other party sees themselves C) describe how the other party appears to them, state how they think the other party sees themselves, describe how they see themselves, state how they think the other party would describe them D) state how they think the other party would describe them, state how they think the other party sees themselves, describe how they see themselves, describe how the other party appears to them E) In the imaging process, parties can engage in the above activities in any order they choose. Register to View AnswerPage: 491 226 Test Bank, Chapter 1 54. Which of the following is not one of Fisher's major approaches to fractionating conflict? A) reduce the number of parties on each side B) restrict the precedents involved, both procedural and substantive C) state issues in concrete terms rather than as principles D) role reversal and imaging processes E) All of the above encompass Fisher's approaches to fractionating conflict. Register to View AnswerPage: 489 - 491 55. Which of the following approaches can be used to de-escalate conflict by establishing commonalties or focusing on common objectives? A) responding in kind B) confronting offensive behavior C) imaging D) establishing superordinate goals E) None of the above can be used to de-escalate conflict by establishing commonalties or focusing on common objectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 495 56. Constructive bargaining relationships are typically marked by conditions of A) high trust B) high distrust C) high vigilance D) high monitoring behaviors E) Constructive bargaining relationships are typically not marked by any of the above conditions. Register to View AnswerPage: 498 57. The collaborative ideal of high trust/low distrust refers to A) each party's beliefs and expectations of a competitive motivational orientation from the other. B) patterns of predictable behavior from each other. C) minimal commitment to problem-solving behavior. D) a negotiation which is best suited to distributive bargaining. E) The collaborative ideal of high trust/low distrust refers to all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 499 58. Direct analogies are those in which A) the problem is placed or examined in a totally different field of information. B) the problem is restated in terms of a party's fantasized or wished-for state. C) a party puts himself or herself in the problem situation, attempting to identify with it 227 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e or empathize with those in the situation. D) a different, often graphic image is conjured up to focus attention and provide a starting point for more open discussion. E) None of the above describes direct analogies. Register to View AnswerPage: 499 59. What strategy does Fisher suggest to make options more desirable to the opponent? A) give them a "yes-able" proposal B) ask for a different decision C) sweeten the offer D) use legitimacy or objective criteria to evaluate solutions E) Fisher suggests all of the above strategies to make options more desirable. Register to View AnswerPage: 500, 501 60. Promises and offers can be made more attractive in what way? A) minimizing the attractive qualities of the offer B) showing how the offer meets your own needs C) increasing the disadvantages of accepting the offer D) setting deadlines on offers E) Promises and offers can be made more attractive in none of the above ways. Register to View AnswerPage: 501 Short Answer Essays 61. Why is intransigence a powerful but dangerous card for a negotiator to play in multilateral negotiations? Answer: Such toughness in negotiating may lead to short-term gain if agreement ensues, but toughness leading to toughness in response may well lead to no agreement whatsoever. Page: 476 62. Putnam and Wondolleck (2003) suggest that intractable conflicts vary along four dimensions. What are those dimensions? Answer: (1) Divisivenessthe degree to which the conflict divides people such that they are backed into a corner and cant escape without losing face; (2) I ntensitythe level of participant involvement, emotionality, and commitment in a conflict; (3) Pervasivenessthe degree to which the conflict invades the social and private lives of people; and (4) Complexitythe number and complexity of issues, the number of parties involved, the levels of social systems involved in the conflict, and the degree to which it is impossible to resolve one issue without resolving several others simultaneously. Page: 476 63. How does a value difference have a particular important influence on the impasse of 228 Test Bank, Chapter 1 negotiations? Answer: Value differences vary from minor differences in preferences to major differences in ideology, lifestyle, or what is considered to be sacred and critical. The critical question is how individuals or groups with distinct differences in values choose to deal with these differencesby attempting to force their views on others or by supporting efforts to accommodate and respect others. Page: 477 64. The renegotiation of existing agreements occur frequently and are in response to three situations: (1) postdeal negotiations; (2) intradeal negotiations; and (3) extradeal negotiations. Explain the different situations. Answer: Postdeal negotiations are negotiations that occur as an existing agreement is expiring. For instance, when a contract between a purchaser and supplier is coming to completion, both parties have the opportunity to negotiate a new agreement. Intradeal negotiations occur when an agreement states that negotiations should be reopened at specific intervals. For instance, two parties to a joint venture could agree to renegotiate certain contract provisions every 12 months to ensure that the agreement is working well. Extradeal negotiations occur when it appears that there is a violation of the contract, or in the absence of a contract reopening clause. For instance, negotiations that result from one party missing a payment to the other would be an extradeal negotiation. Page: 481 65. Ron Fortgang, David Lax and James Sebenius suggest that negotiators need to manage the social contract in addition to the economic issues under discussion or the negotiation may derail. What comprises a social contract? Answer: The social contract has two components. The underlying social contract determines what the negotiation is about. For instance, is the discussion to determine a series of contracts or a deep strategic relationship? The ongoing social contract is concerned with how we make decisions, handle unforeseen events, communicate, and resolve disputes. Page: 483 66. What are the six strategies that can be applied in contentious situations? Answer: (1) Reaching agreement on rules and procedures; (2) Reducing tension and managing the de-escalation of hostility; (2) Enhancing communication, particularly improving each party's understanding of the other's perspective; (3) Controlling the number and size of issues in the discussion; (4) Establishing a common ground on which the parties can find a basis for agreement; (5) Enhancing the desirability of the options and alternatives that each party presents to the other. Page: 485 67. What is the most common approach to de-escalating conflict? Answer: Stop meeting and break off face-to-face relations. Page: 487 68. What is the technique of "active listening?" 229 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Answer: Letting the other person know that you have heard and understood both the content and the emotional strength of the message. Rather than challenging and confronting the other negotiator's statements by bolstering your own statements (and position), you respond with statements that probe for confirmation and elaboration on the other's first statements. Page: 488 69. In Osgood's synchronized de-escalation, what does GRIT stand for? Answer: Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension reduction. Page: 488 70. What is "blindness of involvement?" Answer: In intense conflict, listening becomes so diminished that the parties are frequently unaware that their positions may have much in common. Rapoport terms this the "blindness of involvement" because it inhibits the development of trust and the problem-solving process. Page: 489 71. What is the purpose of role reversal? Answer: One purpose of role reversal is to highlight areas of commonality and overlap between positions. Page: 490 72. How can the successful use of role reversal or imaging techniques accomplish several things. Answer: First, they can clarify and correct misconceptions and misinterpretations. In addition, they bring to the surface both parties interests, goals, and priorities, as well as limitations, which can then be used in the negotiation process. One or both sides often gains an understanding of the other sides true needs. Finally, these processes set a positive tone for the negotiation. Page: 492 73. What are Fisher's major approaches to fractionating conflict? Answer: Reduce the number of parties on each side; control the number of substantive issues involved; state issues in concrete terms rather than as principles; restrict the precedents involved, both procedural and substantive; search for ways to "fractionate" the big issues; and depersonalize issues, separating them from the parties advocating them. Page: 492 - 495 74. How can parties expand the number of issues involved in a negotiation? Answer: Parties can expand the number of issues by defining the issue broadly enough so that resolution can benefit both sides or by coupling the issue with another issue so each party can receive a preferred settlement on al least one issue. Page: 493 230 Test Bank, Chapter 1 75. What are superordinate goals? Answer: Superordinate goals are common goals; both parties desire them, and both parties must cooperate to achieve them. Page: 495 76. How can a third party or a common enemy be used as a superordinate goal? Answer: The parties find new motivation to resolve their differences to avoid intervention by a third party, or to pool resources to defeat a common enemy. Page: 496 77. Why is increasing the number of dimensions an effective tactic in creating integrative frameworks out of polarized positions. Answer: Establish the need for creating shared expectations. Educate and inspire people to create a new covenant that all will agree to follow; begin by envisioning desired outcomes for the future and then develop common ground rules that will enable the group to reach that future. Promote full participation by giving everyone a voice in the process. Be accountable by honoring the agreements contained in the new covenant. Page: 497 78. What are personal analogies? Answer: Those in which a party puts himself or herself in the problem situation, attempting to identify with it or empathize with those in the situation. Page: 499 79. What is a "yesable" proposal? Answer: Rather than emphasizing his or her own position and letting the other party suggest alternatives that he or she can approve or overrule, a negotiator should direct his or her efforts to understanding the other side's needs and devising a proposal that will meet those needs. Fisher terms this a "yesable" proposal, one to which the only answer can be "Yes, it is acceptable." Page: 500 80. In carrot-and-stick tactics for motivating workers, how can the carrot be made more attractive rather than enlarging the stick Answer: Promises and offers can be made more attractive in several ways: maximizing the attractive qualities and minimizing the negative ones, showing how the offer meets the other partys needs, reducing the disadvantages of accepting the offer, making offers more credible (i.e., you will do what you promise to do), or setting deadlines on offers so they expire if not accepted quickly. Page: 501 Chapter 18 Managing Difficult Negotiations Fill in the Blank Questions 231 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 1. One goal of negotiators should be to ensure the ____________ application of integrative negotiating under appropriate circumstances in order to produce better agreements. Answer: broader Page: 504 2. The ____________ negotiation occurs in parallel with the substantive negotiation and is concerned with how the negotiation will proceed. Answer: shadow negotiation Page: 504 3. Kolb and Williams suggest that negotiators ignore shadow negotiations at their peril because the unaddressed shadow negotiation can lead to negotiations that are ____________ or ____________. Answer: blocked, stalled Page: 505 4. Too strict an adherence to a ____________ point may deprive a negotiator of creativity and flexibility, which are critical components to the design of an integrative arrangement. Answer: resistance Page: 509 5. An ____________ is an attempt to induce compliance or force concessions from a presumably recalcitrant opponent. Answer: ultimatum Page: 510 6. Conflicts involving ultimatums often fall prey to escalation through severe ____________ spirals. Answer: action-reaction Page: 511 7. Ury's "breakthrough approach" operates on the principle of acting ____________, requiring users to do the opposite of what they might naturally do in difficult situations. Answer: counterintuitively Page: 512 8. The challenge at the stage of framing the problem is to change the negotiation by proactively __________ his or her tactics. Answer: reframing Page: 514 9. Sometimes problems in negotiation can be traced to difficulties in the other partys ____________ style. Answer: behavioral Page: 515 232 Test Bank, Chapter 1 10. Weeks suggests that there are three important elements to the successful management of difficult conversations: clarity, tone and ____________ phrasing. Answer: temperate Page: 517 True/False Questions T F 11. One goal of negotiators should be to ensure the broader application of integrative negotiating under appropriate circumstances in order to produce better agreements Register to View AnswerPage: 504 T F 12. Pressure tactics lead the other party to realize that the status quo is acceptable, and they make explicit the costs of not negotiating. Register to View AnswerPage: 505 T F 13. Negotiators should not tell the other party that they are aware of what he or she is doing when they use hard tactics. Register to View AnswerPage: 507 T F 14. Sharing power will facilitate the integrative negotiation process and lead to a better agreement Register to View AnswerPage: 510 T F 15. The pervasive unhappiness resulting from the use of ultimatums will not taint future dealings between the parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 511 T F 16. The essence of Ury's "breakthrough approach" is direct action. Register to View AnswerPage: 513 T F 17. Confrontation and impending impasse typically elicit negative emotions for both sides. Register to View AnswerPage: 514 T F 18. Relating to difficult people in negotiation or other highly charged, results-oriented exchanges is a critically important skill. Register to View AnswerPage: 516 233 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 19. When emotions run wild, they can be detrimental to the process, distorting perceptions and diverting attention from the real issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 516 234 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 20. Temperate phrasing involves choosing language carefully to deliver a message that will provoke the other side. Register to View AnswerPage: 519 Multiple Choice Questions 21. Negotiators always run the risk of encountering other parties who, for any number of reasons, are difficult negotiators. That difficulty may be intentional or due to A) inexperience B) philosophical differences C) inadequate skill D) lack of sophistication E) a psychological imbalance Register to View AnswerPage: 504 22. It is important negotiators consider the shadow negotiation carefully before meeting with the other party so they A) understand where the boundaries of the current negotiations are and should be. B) are clear in their own minds about the scope of the negotiations. C) understand how they would ideally like to work with the other party. D) determine what ground the negotiation is going to cover and how the negotiators are going to work together. E) understand that all the above are important to the shadow negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 505 23. Strategic levers available to help people navigate the shadow negotiation include power moves, appreciative moves and one other of the following. A) collaborative moves B) process moves C) pressure moves D) social moves E) perspective moves Register to View AnswerPage: 505 24. As a party managing a negotiation mismatch, you can respond using which of the following ways? A) Ignore them. B) Respond in kind. C) Call them on it. D) Offer to change to more productive methods. E) Do all of the above. 235 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Register to View AnswerPage: 507 236 Test Bank, Chapter 1 25. A tactic that is ignored is essentially a tactic A) pressed. B) defeated. C) converted. D) exchanged. E) reserved. Register to View AnswerPage: 507 26. Responding when the other side has more power, negotiators can utilize all but one of the following alternatives. A) Correct the power imbalance. B) Introduce ultimatums. C) Cultivate their best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA). D) Formulate a trip wire alert system. E) Protect themselves. Register to View AnswerPage: 509 27. An ultimatum is an attempt to induce compliance or force concessions from a presumably recalcitrant A) group. B) arbitrator. C) opponent. D) team member. E) cooperator. Register to View AnswerPage: 510 28. In Urys strategy for managing difficult negotiations, he sees five challenges: 1) dont react, 2) disarm them, 3) change the game, 4) make it easy for them to say yes, and 5) A) strike back. B) reject the offer. C) give in. D) make it hard to say no. E) break off negotiations. Register to View AnswerPage: 513 29. The strategy of disarmament includes: A) providing some distance from the conflict and from ones own emotions. B) negotiating directly and openly the rules of the negotiation process. C) helping the other party think about the consequences of not reaching an agreement. D) expressing ones own views clearly and considerately. E) asking open-ended questions. Register to View AnswerPage: 514 237 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 238 Test Bank, Chapter 1 30. Some people are invariably difficult and their behavior follows predictable and one of the other following patterns. Which one? A) aggressive B) confusing C) contentious D) identifiable E) counter indicating Register to View AnswerPage: 515 Short Answer Essays 31. Define a shadow negotiation. Answer: The shadow negotiation occurs in parallel with the substantive negotiation and is concerned with how the negotiation will proceed. Page: 504 32. What are the three types of power moves? Answer: There are three kinds of power moves: incentives, pressure tactics, and the use of allies. Page: 505 33. How can a "pressured" party respond to distributive tactics? Answer: Ignore them; "call" them on it; respond in kind; offer to change to more productive methods. Page: 507 34. How can negotiators protect themselves when dealing with an opponent with more power? Answer: Negotiators can protect themselves by keeping in mind their real interests that negotiation may be the preferred approach to getting those interests met, and that excessive accommodation to the high-power party will not serve them well over the long term. Page: 509 35. What are the three components of ultimatums? Answer: (1) A demand; (2) an attempt to create a sense of urgency, such that compliance is required; and (3) a threat of punishment if compliance does not occur. Page: 510 36. What are the five steps of Ury's "breakthrough approach?" Answer: (1) Don't reactgo to the balcony; (2) disarm themstep to their side; (3) change the gamedon't reject, reframe; (4) make it easy to say yesbuild them a golden bridge; (5) make it hard to say nobring them to their senses, not their knees. Page: 513 - 515 239 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 37. What are the advantages of Ury's "go to the balcony" approach? Answer: This strategy gives you some distance from the dispute and from your emotions; creates "breathing space," allowing you to cool off so your eventual response can be more reasoned; and creates an opportunity for you to see the situation in context and to remind yourself why you were there in the first place. Page: 513 240 Test Bank, Chapter 1 38. The subject of how to deal with difficult people in the workplace has received increasing attention in recent years from several authors who have made several valid points in dealing with this type of person. First, everyone can exhibit difficult behaviors or be difficult to deal with at times; some people, however, are invariably difficult, and their behavior follows predictable and identifiable patterns. What are the other two points? Answer: Second, what is difficult behavior to one person may not be difficult for another. Third, difficult people behave the way they do because it achieves results for them. Page: 515, 516 39. Having conversations with difficult people is not easy. Describe three ways of preparation in anticipation of dealing with a difficult conversation. Answer: There are at least three things that people can do once they have an awareness of their likely response to an upcoming difficult conversation. First, they can visualize in their mind how the conversation will unfold. Second, the person can practice the upcoming difficult with a neutral party. Finally, the third thing that can be done during preparation is to construct a team that has a wide variety of strengths and weaknesses when dealing with difficult others. Page: 517 40. How does the concept of tone play in the successful management of conversations? Answer: Tone is the nonverbal aspect of the conversation and it includes intonation, facial expressions, conscious and unconscious body language (Weeks). It is important to strike a neutral tone when having a stressful conversation, especially if it is about bad news. Taking a gloating or an aggressive tone will not only interfere with the other persons comprehension during a difficult conversation, it will also likely lead to an escalated conversation that is even more difficult. In addition, people are very sensitive to tone and a negative tone along with bad news will likely increase their motivation for revenge in the future. Page: 519 Chapter 19 Third-Party Approaches to Managing Difficult Negotiations Fill in the Blank Questions 1. When negotiators have tried all other options and are not making progress, when mistrust and suspicion are high, or when the parties cannot take actions toward defusing conflict without those actions being misinterpreted and mistrusted by others, ____________ involvement may become necessary. Answer: third-party Page: 520 2. If intervention becomes advisable, it should be done in a ____________ and ____________ manner. Answer: timely, thoughtful Page: 521 241 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 3. As a rule of thumb, interventions that are not sanctioned by the partiesor reinforced by a third party's expertise, friendship, or authorityare ____________ and ____________. Answer: unwelcome, ineffective Page: 521 4. ____________ can be viewed as the result of negotiators' agreement to disagree, and a willingness to surrender control over the outcome of their dispute. Answer: Arbitration Page: 522 5. The goal of mediation and process consultation is to allow the parties to maintain control of the __________, while regulating the ____________ of their interaction. Answer: outcomes, process Page: 522 6. ____________ is the most common form of third-party intervention that is largely procedural in nature. Answer: Mediation Page: 524 7. ____________ is probably the most common and well-known form of third-party dispute resolution. Answer: Arbitration Page: 526 8. Under ____________ arbitration, the parties may submit their arguments to an arbitrator, but they are not required to comply with the arbitrator's decision. Answer: voluntary Page: 526 242 Test Bank, Chapter 1 9. In ____________ arbitration, in which the arbitrator must approve, without amendment, one of the positions presented by the two disputing parties. Answer: final-offer Page: 526 10. The ____________ effect states that when arbitration is anticipated as a result of the failure of parties to agree, negotiators may lose interest in the process of negotiating. Answer: narcotic Page: 528 11. Perceived ____________ of partiality toward one side may jeopardize the arbitrator's acceptability in future disputes. Answer: patterns Page: 528 12. As a method of third-party intervention, ____________ is likely to lead to situations in which disputants are less than fully committed to following through, especially if they feel dissatisfied with the arbitrator's decision. Answer: arbitration Page: 529 13. Cobb suggests that effective mediators ____________ bargainers by balancing power, controlling the process, and being neutral. Answer: empower Page: 534 14. The ____________ form of mediation strategy involves mediator application of rewards and inducements to entice the parties into making concessions and agreements. Answer: compensation Page: 535 15. The ____________ form of mediation strategy has a low concern for aspirations and a low perception of common ground. Answer: pressure Page: 535 16. Kressel and Pruitt report that mediation's greatest effectiveness occurred in situations marked by ____________ levels of conflict. Answer: moderate Page: 536 17. In mediation, indirect pressure typically comes through wearing the parties down over ____________ and increasing the cost of holding out. Answer: time Page: 538 243 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 18. ____________ is defined as "a set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client's environment." Answer: Process consultation Page: 539 244 Test Bank, Chapter 1 19. Process consultants assume that teaching the parties how to manage conflict more productively and effectively will lead them to produce better ____________. Answer: outcomes Page: 539 20. In ____________ intervention, managers exert high control over the decision, but not the process. Answer: adversarial Page: 542 21. ____________ ADR provides a third-party neutral that assists the parties in negotiating a resolution. Answer: Facilitated Page: 550 22. ____________ ADR systems are those in which the third party makes a binding decision that the negotiating parties must live with. Answer: Imposed Page: 551 23. In ADR, a ____________ is typically charged with being "a confidential and informed information resource, communication channel, complaint-handler, and a person who helps an organization work for change." Answer: ombudsmen Page: 552 24. Formal third-party intervention styles differ on the degree to which the disputants surrender ____________ to the third party over the disputant interaction process and/or the outcome. Answer: control Page: 553 25. ____________ typically involves a structured process in which disputing parties have relatively free rein to present their stories, while the arbitrators decide the outcome, often imposing a resolution on the disputants. Answer: Arbitration Page: 553 True/False Questions T F 26. Third-party intervention is always imposed "from without" by choice, custom, law, or regulation. Register to View AnswerPage: 521 245 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 27. Even if the relationship between the parties is so damaged that future exchanges would be highly problematic, third parties may enable the negotiating parties to reduce hostility levels and achieve some closure on the key issues. Register to View AnswerPage: 522 246 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 28. The involvement of third parties signals that the negotiation process has stalled. Register to View AnswerPage: 522 T F 29. Interventions may never be imposed on negotiatorsnegotiators themselves must request all forms of third-party intervention. Register to View AnswerPage: 522 T F 30. Mediation is less intrusive than arbitration in that negotiators surrender control over the processes and the outcomes. Register to View AnswerPage: 523 T F 31. Failure to use third-party intervention when appropriate is just as wasteful and damaging to the ultimate negotiation process as using the wrong intervention method. Register to View AnswerPage: 524 T F 32. Binding arbitration requires the parties to comply with the decision, either by law or by precedent within that sphere of arbitral practice. Register to View AnswerPage: 526 T F 33. If negotiators anticipate that the arbitrator will split the difference, then it is in their best interest to maintain an extreme, hard-line position because difference splitting is more likely to result in the hard-liner's favor. Register to View AnswerPage: 527 T F 34. The narcotic effect states that as the frequency of arbitration increases, disenchantment with the adequacy and fairness of the process develops and the parties may resort to other means to resolve their disputes. Register to View AnswerPage: 528 T F 35. Commitment to a given solution and willingness to implement it is significantly less when group members participate in developing that solution than when it is imposed by a single member. Register to View AnswerPage: 529 T F 36. Formal or contractual mediation is free from established or accepted rules and procedures. Register to View AnswerPage: 530 247 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 37. Research suggests that when parties are pressured or required to enter mediation, they generally come away finding it to be a fair and satisfactory process. Register to View AnswerPage: 531 248 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 38. As mediation progresses, mediators often become less active and allow the disputing parties to take on more aggressive roles. Register to View AnswerPage: 534 T F 39. As mediators involve the parties in more joint problem solving, disputant hostility, especially with regard to intangible issues, seems to increase. Register to View AnswerPage: 534 T F 40. The compensation form of mediation strategy involves trying to force the parties to reduce their levels of aspiration in the absence of perceived potential for an integrative resolution. Register to View AnswerPage: 535 T F 41. Disputants in low-hostility situations tend to respond better to a less active, more facilitative mediator approach. Register to View AnswerPage: 536 T F 42. In process consultation, the purpose of the third party's intervention is to encourage the parties to avoid their differences in reaching an acceptable solution. Register to View AnswerPage: 539 T F 43. Of all third-party interventions, mediation goes the farthest in putting the issues under dispute back in the hands of the disputing parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 539 T F 44. Process consultation has been used most commonly to improve long-standing relationships that the parties want to continue. Register to View AnswerPage: 540 T F 45. In adversarial intervention, a manager invents a solution that he or she thinks will meet both parties' needs, and usually enforces that solution on both parties. Register to View AnswerPage: 542 T F 46. Elangovan's studies show that preferences for third-party intervention vary as a function of cultural differences. Register to View AnswerPage: 546 249 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e T F 47. Managers and others in authority usually have the right to intervene in a dispute. Register to View AnswerPage: 546 250 Test Bank, Chapter 1 T F 48. Conlon and Fasolo suggest that quick interventions tend to produce disputant feelings of lack of control and loss of voice. Register to View AnswerPage: 547 T F 49. Advisory ADR uses the technical expertise of a third party to determine the facts in a specific situation and how the facts should be interpreted in the case. Register to View AnswerPage: 550 T F 50. What makes ADR effective is the commitment of the company to make it work as an alternative to litigation with employees, customers, suppliers, regulators, etc. Register to View AnswerPage: 551 Multiple Choice Questions 51. Third-party intervention should be avoided A) when passions are high. B) when the parties are at am impasse on the issues. C) when progress is occurring or is likely to occur. D) when the parties are unable to move the process beyond a particular sticking point. E) Third party intervention should be avoided in all of the above situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 521 52. Which of the following is not a benefit of third-party intervention? A) creating breathing space or a cooling off period B) refocusing on the substantive issues C) salvaging the sunk cost of stalled negotiations D) decreased levels of negotiator satisfaction with and commitment to the conflict resolution process and its outcomes E) All of the above are benefits of third-party intervention. Register to View AnswerPage: 522 53. Intervention by a third party may signal that A) the parties have built a successful relationship. B) the parties have failed to build a relationship or manage their interdependence positively. C) the parties have grown into negotiation partners. D) the parties have successfully resolved a dispute. E) Intervention by a third party signals all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 522 251 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 252 Test Bank, Chapter 1 54. The dominant purpose of mediation and process consultation is to A) enhance the parties dispute resolution skills. B) encourage the parties to "agree to disagree." C) encourage the parties to surrender control over the outcome of their dispute to the third party's best judgment. D) achieve a satisfactory dispute resolution at any cost. E) None of the above states the dominant purpose of mediation and process consultation. Register to View AnswerPage: 522 55. Under what conditions might negotiators seek third-party involvement? A) Intense emotions appear to preventing a settlement. B) Misperceptions or stereotypes hinder productive exchanges. C) There is disagreement as to the number or type of issues under dispute. D) There is an absence of a clear, agreed-to negotiation procedure or protocol. E) Negotiators might seek third-party involvement under all of the above conditions. Register to View AnswerPage: 523 56. Arbitration typically involves A) high levels of negotiator control over outcomes and high levels of negotiator control over procedure. B) low levels of negotiator control over outcomes and low levels of negotiator control over procedure. C) low levels of negotiator control over outcomes and high levels of negotiator control over procedure. D) high levels of negotiator control over outcomes and low levels of negotiator control over procedure. E) Arbitration typically involves none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 524 57. Formal intervention methods are A) third party roles and behaviors that are incidental to other primary roles. B) intentionally designed and generally follow a set of rules or standards. C) third party actions that follow a rigid, structured procedure and set of rules. D) third party actions implemented as part of an organizational hierarchy. E) None of the above defines formal intervention methods. Register to View AnswerPage: 525 253 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 58. The chilling effect states that A) if negotiators anticipate that their own failure to agree will lead to a binding arbitration, they lose their incentive to work seriously for a negotiated settlement. B) when arbitration is anticipated as a result of the failure of parties to agree, negotiators may lose interest in the process of negotiating. C) as the frequency of arbitration increases, disenchantment with the adequacy and fairness of the process develops, and the parties may resort to other means to resolve their disputes. D) perceived patterns of partiality toward one side may jeopardize the arbitrator's acceptability in future disputes. E) The chilling effect states all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 527 59. The decision-acceptance effect states that A) if negotiators anticipate that their own failure to agree will lead to a binding arbitrator's intervention, it may cool their incentive to work seriously for a negotiated settlement. B) when arbitration is anticipated as a result of the failure of parties to agree, negotiators may lose interest in the process of negotiating. C) as the frequency of arbitration increases, disenchantment with the adequacy and fairness of the process develops, and the parties may resort to other means to resolve their disputes. D) arbitrated disputes may engender less commitment to the settlement than alternative forms of dispute resolution. E) The decision-acceptance effect states all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 529 60. Brett, Barsness and Goldberg found that mediation, when compared to arbitration, A) was more costly. B) was more time-consuming. C) produced greater disputant satisfaction. D) was more complicated to implement. E) Brett, Barsness and Goldberg found that mediation was all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 529 61. Mediators A) have the same power as arbitrators. B) have no formal power over outcomes. C) have the authority to resolve the dispute on their own. D) have the power to impose a solution. E) Mediators have all of the above characteristics. Register to View AnswerPage: 530 254 Test Bank, Chapter 1 255 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 62. In Esser and Marriott's research study, which type of mediation was found to be the most effective? A) issue identification B) positive framing of the issues C) content mediation D) mediated arbitration E) Esser and Marriott found all of the above to be equally effective. Register to View AnswerPage: 532 63. Moore states that in the premediation stages, the mediator is attempting to A) define issues and set an agenda. B) establish relationships with the disputing parties. C) generate options for settlement. D) uncover hidden interests of the disputing parties. E) In the premediation stages, the mediator is attempting to accomplish all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 533 64. Research studies show that the problem-solving style of mediation A) is a more structured, active approach to resolving conflict. B) leads to more frequent and desirable outcomes. C) produces more positive attitudes toward mediation. D) decreases disputant hostility and the damaging effect of difficult conflicts based on intangible issues. E) Research shows that all of the above are results of the problem-solving style of mediation. Register to View AnswerPage: 534 65. The compensation form of mediation strategy involves A) a high concern for parties' aspirations and a high perception of common ground. B) a high concern for parties' aspirations and a low perception of common ground. C) a low concern for parties' aspirations and a high perception of common ground. D) a low concern for parties' aspirations and a low perception of common ground. E) The compensation form of mediation strategy involves none of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 535 66. The inaction mediation strategy involves A) mediator application of rewards and inducements to entice the parties into making concessions and agreements. B) trying to force the parties to reduce their levels of aspiration in the absence of perceived potential for an integrative resolution. C) assisting the parties to engage in integrative exchange, as they would in win-win negotiation in the mediator's absence. 256 Test Bank, Chapter 1 D) standing back from the dispute, leaving the parties to work things out on their own. E) The inaction mediation strategy involves all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 535 257 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 67. Parties who are in disputes that are marked by __________ tend to respond well to forceful, proactive mediation behaviors. A) high intensity and high levels of interparty hostility B) low intensity and high levels of interparty hostility C) high intensity and low levels of interparty hostility D) low intensity and low levels of interparty hostility E) Parties in disputes marked by all of the above respond well to proactive mediation behaviors. Register to View AnswerPage: 536 68. When may mediation be less than effective? A) when the conflict is intense B) when they have major differences in their expectations for a settlement. C) when many issues are at stake D) when the parties disagree on major priorities E) Mediation tactics may be insufficient in all of the above situations. Register to View AnswerPage: 536 69. Relating to the issues in aspects of mediation, effectiveness entails A) saving face when making concessions. B) resolving internal disagreements. C) uncovering the underlying interests and concerns. D) dealing with constituents. E) Mediation effectiveness relating to the issues entails all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 537 70. According to Zubek, Pruitt, Pierce, McGillicuddy and Syna, mediator behaviors positively related to successful mediation include: A) demonstrating empathy. B) providing reassurance. C) displaying expertise. D) keeping order. E) Effective mediation behaviors include all of the above. Register to View AnswerPage: 538 71. Which of the following is not a major part of the process consultant's agenda? A) changing the climate for conflict management B) promoting constructive dialogue around differences of opinion C) creating the capacity for other people to act as their own third parties D) determining the final resolution of the conflict E) All of the above are major parts of the process consultant's agenda. Register to View AnswerPage: 539, 540 258 Test Bank, Chapter 1 259 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 72. In inquisitorial intervention A) a manager exerts high control over both the process and the decision. B) a manager exerts high control over the decision, but not the process. C) a manager exerts low control over the decision, but high control over the process. D) a manager does not exert control over the decision, and only a small amount of control over the process. E) None of the above describes inquisitorial intervention. Register to View AnswerPage: 542 73. In providing impetus, the manager A) invents a solution that he or she thinks will meet both parties' needs, and usually enforces that solution on both parties. B) passively listens to what each side chooses to tell him or her, and then makes a decision (tells the parties how to solve the conflict) based exclusively on the presentations. C) tries to make a quick diagnosis of what the conflict is about and then tells the parties that if they don't find a solution, he or she will impose one on them. D) combines arbitration and mediation to arrive at a solution acceptable to all parties. E) None of the above describes providing impetus. Register to View AnswerPage: 542, 543 74. Preventive ADR systems A) are mechanisms for the parties to resolve their own disputes without the help of any third party. B) are systems that companies establish to prevent disputes. C) provide a third party neutral who assists the parties in negotiating a resolution. D) use the technical expertise of a third party to determine the facts in a specific situation and how the facts should be interpreted in the case. E) None of the above describes preventive ADR systems. Register to View AnswerPage: 549 75. Which of the following is heavily involved in helping to establish or enhance communication and dispute resolution skills that the parties can then apply to the immediate dispute and future communication? A) Process consultants B) Arbitrators C) ADR systems D) Mediators E) All of the above Register to View AnswerPage: 553 Short Answer Essays 260 Test Bank, Chapter 1 76. Third-party intervention should be avoided as long as: Answer: As long as progress is occurring or is likely to occur within reasonable limits of time and other resources. Page: 521 261 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 77. What are the benefits of third-party intervention? Answer: At a minimum, third parties can provide (or even enforce) the stability, civility and forward momentum the negotiators need on order to re-address the problems that remain on the tableespecially those problems that are central to their negotiation and that have stalled or derailed discussions. Further, third party interventions can provide a number of general benefits: creating breathing space or a cooling-off period; reestablishing or enhancing communications; refocusing on the substantive issues; remedying or repairing strained relationships; establishing or recommitting to time limits and deadlines; salvaging sunk costs; increasing levels of negotiator satisfaction with, and commitment to, the conflict resolution process and its outcomes. Page: 521, 522 78. When do negotiators initiate third-party interventions? Answer: When they believe they can no longer handle the dispute on their own. Page: 522 79. A corollary to the rule "No third-party involvement unless necessary," is: Answer: "If involvement is necessary, use a minimally intrusive intervention." Page: 524 80. What is the general process of arbitration? Answer: Parties in dispute, after having reached a deadlock or a time deadline without successful resolution of their differences, present their positions to a neutral third party. The third party listens to both sides and then rules on the outcome of the dispute. Page: 526 81. What is the biasing effect? Answer: Arbitrators must be careful that their decisions do not systematically favor one side or the other and that they maintain an image of fairness and impartiality. Page: 528 82. What is the major difference between mediation and arbitration? Answer: Mediation seeks to achieve the objective by having the parties themselves develop and endorse the agreement. Page: 529 83. Carnevale and Conlon suggest that mediator bias has what two forms? Answer: That of general alignment or affiliation with parties prior to mediation, and that of greater support for one side than the other during mediation. Page: 532 84. Define mediator flexibility. Answer: Decreased constraints, increased freedom of action, increased autonomy, and 262 Test Bank, Chapter 1 increased ability to entertain imaginative ideas. 263 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e Page: 535 85. Carnevale proposes that the mixture of high or low levels of two variablesconcern for the disputing parties' aspirations and perception of parties' common ground will produce what four basic mediation strategies? Answer: Problem solving, compensation, pressure, or inaction. Page: 535 86. What is the problem solving form of mediation strategy? Answer: Problem solving takes the form of assisting the parties to engage in integrative negotiation and search for solutions with integrative potential. Page: 535 87. The inaction mediation strategy has what level of concern for aspirations and what perception of common ground? Answer: The inaction form of mediation strategy has a low concern for aspirations and a high perception of common ground. Page: 535 88. What is meant by moderate conflict? Answer: By moderate conflict, we mean situations in which tension is apparent and tempers are beginning to fray, but in which negotiations have not deteriorated to the point of physical violence or other irrevocably damaging threats and actions. Page: 537 89. What is the role of a mediator in a situation where the resistance points of the two sides don't overlap? Answer: Mediators may have to exert greater direct and indirect pressure on the negotiators to create a "positive bargaining zone," or an overlap of resistance points. Page: 537 90. Relating to the parties aspect of effective mediation, mediation tends to be more effective if mediators assist them in one of more of what four ways? Answer: Helping them to save face when making concessions; helping them resolve internal disagreements; helping them deal with constituents; applying positive incentives for agreement or concession making, or negative sanctions for noncooperation. Page: 537 91. According to Zubek, Pruitt, Pierce, McGillicuddy and Syna, mediator behaviors negatively and unrelated to mediation success include: Answer: Displaying expertise, criticizing and asking embarrassing questions, providing reassurance, order keeping, and mediator experience. Page: 538 92. What is Gibson, Thompson and Bazerman's "symmetric prescriptive advice" for mediators? 264 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Answer: Push for agreement only when a positive bargaining zone exists. Search for "fully efficient" agreements. Help the parties think through the issue(s) of fairness. Page: 538 93. What is the objective of process consultation? Answer: To defuse the emotional aspect of conflict and improve communication between the parties, leaving them with renewed or enhanced abilities to manage future disputes. Page: 539 265 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 94. What is the difference between mediation and process consultation? Answer: Mediators are at least somewhat concerned with addressing the issues in the dispute, whereas process consultants focus only on improving communication and conflict management procedures. Page: 539 95. What attributes should a process consultant possess? Answer: First, they should be perceived as experts in the technique, knowledgeable about conflict and its dynamics, able to be emotionally supportive while confronting the parties, and able to diagnose the dispute. Second, they should be perceived as clearly neutral, without bias toward one side or the other. Third, they should be authoritative that is, able to establish power over the process that the conflicting parties are pursuing, thereby intervening in and controlling it. Page: 539 96. What occurs in adversarial intervention? Answer: The manager passively listens to what each side chooses to tell him or her, and then makes a decision (tells the parties how to solve the conflict) based exclusively on the presentations. Page: 542 97. Pinkley and her associates found evidence that judgments along what five key dimensions could account for a manager's choice of intervention? Answer: (1) The amount of attention the manager gives to the parties' statements of the issues in dispute rather than trying to deal with underlying problems; (2) the degree of voluntary (versus mandated) acceptance of the solution proposed by the third party; (3) third party versus disputant control over shaping the outcomes; (4) the third party's general approach to, or avoidance of, conflict, (5) whether the dispute is to be handled publicly or privately. Page: 546 98. Conflict costs for organizations include: Answer: Wasted time and money, emotional damage, drained energy, and lost opportunities; potentially (or likely) low levels of disputant satisfaction; potential damage to necessary relationships; and the likelihood of conflict spreading and/or reoccurring. Page: 549 99. What does the ADR stand for in ADR systems? Answer: Alternative Dispute Resolution systems. Page: 549 100. What are negotiated ADR systems? Answer: Negotiated ADR systems are mechanisms that allow the parties to resolve their own disputes without the help of any third party. Page: 550 Chapter 20 266 Test Bank, Chapter 1 Best Practices in Negotiations Fill in the Blank Questions 1. While some people may look like born negotiators, negotiation is fundamentally a skill involving ____________ and _____________ that everyone can learn. Answer: analysis, communication Page: 555 2. Negotiators who are better prepared have numerous _____________. Answer: advantages Page: 555, 556 3. While negotiations do follow broad stages, they also _____________ and _____________ at irregular rates. Answer: ebb, flow Page: 556 4. Excellent negotiators understand that negotiation embodies a set of _____________ seemingly contradictory elements that actually occur together. Answer: paradoxes Page: 558 5. The authors suggest that negotiators should remember that negotiation is an _____________ process. Answer: ongoing Page: 560 6. Negotiators also need to remember that _____________ factors influence their own behavior (and that it is not uncommon for us to not recognize what is making us angry, defensive, or zealously committed to some idea). Answer: intangible Page: 562 7. Negotiators can illuminate definitions of _____________ that the other partys holds and engage in a dialogue to reach consensus on which standards of _____________ apply in a given situation. Answer: fairness, fairness Page: 563 8. Negotiators who take the time to pause and reflect on their negotiations will find that they continue to refine their skills, and that they remain sharp and focused for their _____________ negotiations. Answer: future Page: 564 267 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e True/False Questions T F 9. Negotiation is an integral part of daily life and the opportunities to negotiate surround us. Register to View AnswerPage: 555 T F 10. Using integrative tactics in a distributive situation may lead to optimal outcomes. Register to View AnswerPage: 556 T F 11. Integrative skills are called for in the value claiming stage and distributive skills are useful in value creation. Register to View AnswerPage: 558 T F 12. On the other hand, negotiators who do not believe anything that the other party tells them will have a very difficult time reaching an agreement. Register to View AnswerPage: 560 T F 13. Negotiators do not have to be aware of the effect of intangible factors on their own aspirations and behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 561 T F 14. Negotiators need to work to prevent the other party from capturing a loose coalition for their purposes. Register to View AnswerPage: 562 T F 15. For negotiators to remain sharp, they need to continue to practice the art and science of negotiation regularly. Register to View AnswerPage: 563, 564 T F 16. The best negotiators do not take time to analyze each negotiation after it has concluded. Register to View AnswerPage: 564 Multiple Choice Questions 17. Negotiation is fundamentally a skill involving analysis and _____________ that everyone can learn. 268 Test Bank, Chapter 1 A) preparation B) cooperation C) communication D) process E) innovation Register to View AnswerPage: 555 269 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e 18. At the top of the best practice list for every negotiator is A) managing coalitions. B) diagnosing the structure of the negotiation. C) remembering the intangibles. D) preparation. E) protecting your reputation. Register to View AnswerPage: 555 19. Negotiators should make a conscious decision about whether they are facing a fundamentally distributive negotiation, an integrative negotiation, or a A) combative negotiation. B) group negotiation. C) cooperative negotiation. D) creative negotiation. E) a blend of both distributive and integrative negotiation. Register to View AnswerPage: 556 20. The goal of most negotiations is achieving which of the following? A) A final settlement B) A valued outcome C) An agreement per se D) A value claiming goal E) A value creating goal Register to View AnswerPage: 558 21. Excellent negotiators understand that negotiation embodies a set of A) values. B) alternatives. C) paradoxes. D) BATNAs. E) principles. Register to View AnswerPage: 558 22. Research suggests that too much knowledge about the other partys needs can lead to a A) quick and positive outcome. B) dilemma of honesty. C) negative effect on your reputation. D) groundwork for agreement. E) suboptimal negotiation outcome. Register to View AnswerPage: 560 270 Test Bank, Chapter 1 23. Negotiators need to be reminded that certain factors influence their own behavior. What are those factors? A) strengths B) tangibles C) weaknesses D) intangibles E) negotiables Register to View AnswerPage: 560 24. Getting the other party to reveal why he or she is sticking so strongly to a given point is an example of which of the following practices? A) Remember the intangibles B) Actively manage coalitions C) Savor and protect your reputation D) Remember that rationality and fairness is relative E) Master the key paradoxes Register to View AnswerPage: 562 Short Answer Essays 25. Why is preparation so important for negotiators? Answer: Negotiators who are better prepared have numerous advantages, including the ability to analyze the other partys offers more effectively and efficiently, to understand the nuances of the concession-making process, and to achieve their negotiation goals. Page: 555, 556 26. Why is the BATNA an important source of power in a negotiation? Answer: The best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) is especially important because this is the option that likely will be chosen should an agreement not be reached. Page: 557 27. What often happens to negotiators without a strong BATNA? Register to View Answernegotiator without a strong BATNA may find it difficult to achieve a good agreement because the other party may try to push them aggressively, and hence be forced to accept a settlement that is later seen as unsatisfying. Page: 557 28. Why do negotiators need to manage the paradox between sticking with their prepared strategy and pursuing a new opportunity that arises during the process? Answer: This is a challenging paradox for negotiators to manage because new opportunities may in fact be Trojan horses harboring unpleasant surprises. On the other 271 Lewicki/Barry/Saunders, Negotiation, 6/e hand, circumstances do change and legitimate one-time, seize-the-moment deals do occur. The challenge for negotiators is to distinguish phantom opportunities from real ones, and developing the capacity to recognize the distinction is another hallmark of the experienced negotiator. Page: 559 29. Why is communicating with a coalition critical? Answer: Because when negotiators are part of a coalition, communicating with the coalition is critical to ensuring that the power of the coalition is aligned with their goals. Page: 562 30. Why is it said that reputations are like eggs? Answer: Reputations are like eggsfragile, important to build, easy to break, and very hard to rebuild once broken. Page: 562 31. What are the three things that negotiators can do to manage the perceptions of fairness and rationality proactively? Answer: First, they can question their own perceptions of fairness and ground them in clear principles. Second, they can find external benchmarks and examples that suggest fair outcomes. Finally, negotiators can illuminate definitions of fairness that the other partys holds and engage in a dialogue to reach consensus on which standards of fairness apply in a given situation. Page: 563 32. Why is a negotiator like an athlete? Answer: Because even the best athletesin almost any sporthave one or more coaches on their staff, and stop to take a lesson. Negotiators are encouraged to do the same. Page: 564 272 Test Bank, Chapter 1 ... View Full Document

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