Sociology 101807 deviance
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Sociology 101807 deviance

Course Number: SOC 101, Fall 2007

College/University: Rider

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Sociology 10/18/07 Social Functions of Deviance (positive) Defined: It helps a social system to function and change in a desired manner. It can help to clarify and define social norms. Can increase group solidarity (suggested by G.H. Mead): ie-inmates, criminal groups, terrorist groups, drug addicts group Can bring about needed change in a social system: ie-Civil Rights Movement Makes conformity seem more...

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10/18/07 Sociology Social Functions of Deviance (positive) Defined: It helps a social system to function and change in a desired manner. It can help to clarify and define social norms. Can increase group solidarity (suggested by G.H. Mead): ie-inmates, criminal groups, terrorist groups, drug addicts group Can bring about needed change in a social system: ie-Civil Rights Movement Makes conformity seem more desirable: ie-cheating on income tax report, you will get rewarded if you don't; therefore conforming to the norms/laws is desired Social Dysfunctions of Deviance (negative) *If deviance is long-term and wide-spread it can have significant effects on society.* May weaken people's motivation to conform.: ie-if someone who cheats/doesn't do work gets the same recognition as someone who does do work/not cheat... Makes life unpredictable and dangerous. Social disorganization- breakdown of social institutions. What causes deviance? Why do people break laws? ...Explanations (theories or perspectives on deviance and crimes) 1. Biological biological traits 2. Psychological personality problems 3. Sociological social environment BIOLOGICAL.... Criminals were biologically less evolved than law abiding citizens. Sugg. By Italian researcher Cesare Lombroso in 1918 By American physical anthropologist: Earnest Hooten in 1939 suggested that criminals had multiple genetic and physical defects. American criminals had multiple genetic and physical defects. Sugg. By William Sheldon, 1949. criminality is linked to people that had mesomorphic body build (muscular and heavy bones) ^^^ conclusion of these were widely incorrect, so further research continued. In late 1960s, Amir and Burman: violent criminals have an extra male chromosome (xyy). Most violent criminals don't have this abnormality. Sarbin and Miller: 1970, proved ^^. In 1980 medical convention of clinical specialists: they stated their view that certain violent criminals have brain defect. published in NY Times on Sept. 17, 1985. Medicalization of deviance: deviance is the result of certain medications. PSYCHOLOGICAL... British psychologist...Hans Eyesenck in 1977 suggested extrovert and introvert personalities. Personality type: extrovert Introvert Social psychologist: Albert Bendura in 1973: deviance is socially learned Frustration: aggression hypothesis (Berkowitz in 1962)--become aggressive when frustrated SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES Structural strain theory: suggested by Merton: RK is based on Durkheim's classic concept of Anomie (a social condition where norms and values are conflicting, weak, or absent).. when there is a conflict between society's culture and its social structure deviance is likely to occur. Cultural Transmission theory: deviance is learned from social environment Social control theory: types... 1) containment sugg by Walter Reckless criminals are people who generally lack positive self concept have difficulty controlling deviant temptations 2) Travis Hirschi correlation b/w criminality and social bonds. Weakening of social bonds leads to criminal behavior. 4 types of social bonds that tie ppl to society ... - Attachment to conformists - Commitment ... involvement of time and efforts working toward conventional goals (work, school, etc) - Involvement in conventional activities ... family, friendship, recreation, community - Belief ... acceptance of conventional moral issues Conflict theory: Robert Merton 2 types... 1) Marxian theory 2) Culture conflict theory Labeling theory ... based on process of becoming symbolic/social deviant Deviance is relative Edwin Lemert ... one of the first to develop this theory (1951) 2 types of deviance... 1) primary deviance occasional involvement in acts that violate social norms with no lasting effect on the individual's performance 2) secondary deviance violation of norms by the individual and acceptance by him or her 3 major steps in the process of becoming a career deviant... 1) observation of the act by others of the deviant 2) labeling the individual as deviant 3) joining a group or subculture Edwin Southerland's Theory of Differential Association: everybody is exposed to both deviance and conformity. These ideas travel in the mind of individuals. The stronger wins out. Theories 1-4 explain cause of deviance Theory 5 does not explain cause, just the process of becoming a deviant Merton suggested 5 ways to respond to their anomic dilemma... 1. Conformity work to achieve desired goals using the culturally approved means 2. Innovation accept the goal(s) but reject the approved means 3. Ritualism the blocked individual accepts the means but reject the goals 4. Retreativism reject both goals and means 5. Rebellion An act and the person who commit it becomes deviant only when labeled as such by others. Social stigma ... isolation, rejection, unacceptance by members of society 2 types of rejection: 1) physical 2) social

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